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New record of the spider Arachnura angura from Maharashtra with additional morphological description (Araneae: Araneidae)

Authors:
ISSN
0375-1511
Rec.
zool.
Surv. India:
112(Part-2)
:
113-115,
2012
NEW RECORD
OF
THE SPIDER
ARACHNURA
ANGURA
FROM
MAHARASHTRA
WITH
ADDITIONAL MORPHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(ARANEAE: ARANEIDAE)
SIDHARTH
KULKARNI
AND
V. Y.
DESHPANDE
Zoology Department, Yashwantrao
Chavan
Institute
of
Science
Satara
(Maharashtra,
India)
E-mail:
sskzoo@ymaiLcom
INTRODUCTON
Araneidae includes 29 genera
and
154 species
from
the
Indian
sub-continent
(Sebastian
et
al.,
2009)
The
genus
Arachnura
Vinson,
1863 is
represented by two species only; A.
angura
Tikader,
1970
from
Gazing,
Sikkim
(Lat 27°20' N &
Lon88°40')
and
A. melanura
(Simon,
1867).
During
recent surveys
in
some
parts
of Satara
(Maharashtra)
at
Lat 17°42' N &
Lon
74°021
E;
a
mature
female of
Arachnura
angura
was
sighted,
collected
and
preserved
in
70%
ethanol.
The
specimen is deposited
in
the National Zoological
Collections
vide
Ar
/424
at
Zoological Survey
Of
India, Pune. Observations
were
done
using
the
dissecting microscope; the genitalia
was
dissected
and
kept
in
clove oil for 24hrs. The genitalia
was
observed
and
drawn. The specimen
was
identified
referring to
the
morphological descriptions
and
illustrations given
by
Tikader 1970.
Arachnura angura Tikader
1970
:Arachnura
angura
Tikader,
Rec.
Zool.
SUrD.
India,
63
(1-4):
30
1982
:Arachnura
angura
Tiakder, Fauna Of India 2
(1):210
Material
examined:
2 from India, Maharashtra,
Satara,
Kurneshwar
Garden
found
in
the
web
constructed
on
aerial roots of Banyan tree
(Ficus
benghalensis)
Coll.-
Shripad
Manthen,
Sidharth
Kulkarni
on
28
Sept. 2011.
Closer
examinations
revealed
some
morphological variations
and
additions as follows:
Carapace:
4.20
mm
long
and
2.6 mm;
Abdomen: 5.90
mm
long
and
3
mm
wide.
Cephalothorax
:
The
mid-longitudinal
brown
patch extends
till
the anterior medians which differs
from A.
angura.
Brown
patch
present
along
the
lateral
margins
of
the
carapace
and
no
distinct
markings
elsewhere
as
given
in
angura
[ Fig 1].
Carapace widest
at
just anterior to fovea. Anterior
medians black; rest nocturnal. Sternum yellowish,
sparsely
clothed
with
spines
on
anterior
region
with
pea-shaped
brown
patch
at
the posterior
end
[Fig
2].
Leg formula: 4213.
Femur
of leg I stoutest
with
spines along
the
inner
margin. Meta-tarsus
and
tarsus
of
leg
I,
II, III
covered
with
strong
pubescence. Metatarsus
and
tarsus of leg III black.
During
observations the
right
leg III
appeared
to
be
folded from the dorsal side.
When
upturned,
it
was
found
entangled
in
its
own
silk;
and
on
removing the silk cover;
an
ant
(Formicidae)
was
discovered,
which
probably
detects act of food-
storage.
Abdomen: Lateral view of
abdomen
as
in
[Fig.
3].
Genitalia as given
in
[Fig
4]
DISCUSSIONS
AND
CONCLUSIONS
In
the present report, three points are intended
to
put
on
record:
1. Extension of distribution of A.
angura
further
westwards
(2303
kms)
2.
Close
variant
of
species
form
of
species
attributed
to
change
in
climatic,
microhabitat
conditions
and
food
composition;
and
3.
This is the first record of this genus
and
species
from Maharashtra state.
114
Similar
spider
of
the
genus
Arachnura
has
been
sighted
in
Amravati
(Maharashtra, India)
in
2007
f
Rec.
zool.
Suru.
India
but
has
been
proposed
to
as
new
genera
and
family
Gajbesa,
Gajbesidae respectively.
@ •
Kllmeshwar
G
ret
n,
(Diat: Samra)
Map
of
India
showing
the
study
area
2 3
Imm
Imm
4
Figs. 1-4 : Arachnura
angura
Tikader; 1. Cephalothorax (dorsal);
2.
Sternum
and
labium;
3.
Abdomen
lateral view;
4.
Internal genetalia.
KULKARNI
and
DESHP ANDE :
New
record of the Spider
Arachnura
Angura
from
...
Araneidae)
ACKNO~EDGEMENTS
Authors
thank
115
website of Spiders of Central
India
(Wankhede
G.N.) which has
not
yet received
an
official status
as a
new
family
and
genus,
and
till date the valid
classification of
the
spider
is
genus
Arachnura
belonging to family Araneidae. Dr.
D.B.
Bastawade, Ex-Scientist, ZSI,
Pune
for
his guidance
and
helpful discussions Mr. Shripad
Manthen,
Solapur
for
cooperation
during
the
collection work.
REFERENCES
(Sebastian P A
and
K V Peter,2009). Spiders of India; Universities Press Publications Pp. 1-606.
Simon E.,1867. Surtrois
araignees
nouvelles
Revue et
Magazine
de
Zoologie
Pure
et Applique 2
(19):
15-24
Tikader, B.K.,1970. Spider fauna of Sikkim.
Rec.
zool,
Surv.
India.
64:
1-
83
Tikader, B.K.,1982.
Fauna
Of
India- Araneae: Araneidae (Typical Orb-weavers),
Z.5.1.
Calcutta; Vol II
(1):
Pp.210.Vinson, A.,1863. Araneides
des
tles
de
la
Reunion,
Maurice
et
Madagascar.
Paris, i-cxx, 1-
337.
Wankhede G.N., 2011.
http:j
jwww.spidersofcentralindia.comj
Manuscript Received: 15 November, 2010; Accepted:
21
February, 2012
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT : Spiders belonging to order araneae are one of the biggest groups of predaceous organisms in the animal kingdom. Along with their diverse structure, they are popular for their tough silk and spider venom which is of pharmaceutical importance.Also they are playing a major role in lower food web in the ecosystem to maintain the ecological equilibrium and are one of the best bioindicators of natural ecosysytems.Now a days, due to the habitat destruction caused by natural calamities and anthropogenic activities ,the number of spiders species are found to be declined, as a result number of species of spiders are getting extinct before they are explored. One of the major hotspots of biodiversity of India is Western Ghats, known for their high species diversity. Taking into account the importance of spiders as bioindicators of environment, the present article was aimed to review on Araneae diversity from Satara Sangli and Kolhapur districts lying in the Northern Western Ghat regions of Maharashtra, India . This study shall help to record the number of species found in this regions. This review provides a checklist of total 27 families of 101 genera representing 178 species along with some new species recorded with special reference to their behaviour, habitat and variations among them. The review mainly provides a baseline information for the future study on diversity of spiders.From this review it is concluded that Northern Western Ghats being one of the biggest hotspots of diversity have a large number of spiders species, which are very less as compared to the spider diversity of India as suggested by the world catalogue of spiders, suggesting for an urgent need to explore further the areneae diversity in order to maintain the ecological equilibrium and the products obtained from them.
Article
Full-text available
This paper contains a systematic list of species and the literature references of the spiders precinctive in India. Spiders from 58 families, 340 genera and 1238 species are precinctive in India. However, there is an urgent need to revise all these species.
Spider fauna of Sikkim
  • B K Tikader
Tikader, B.K.,1970. Spider fauna of Sikkim. Rec. zool, Surv. India. 64: 1-83
Fauna Of India-Araneae: Araneidae (Typical Orb-weavers)
  • B K Tikader
Tikader, B.K.,1982. Fauna Of India-Araneae: Araneidae (Typical Orb-weavers), Z.5.1. Calcutta; Vol II (1): Pp.210.Vinson, A.,1863. Araneides des tles de la Reunion, Maurice et Madagascar. Paris, i-cxx, 1-337.
http://www.spidersokentralindia.com/ Manuscript Received: 15
  • G N Wankhede
Wankhede G.N., 2011. http://www.spidersokentralindia.com/ Manuscript Received: 15 November, 2010; Accepted: 21 February, 2012
Surtrois araignees nouvelles Revue et Magazine de
  • E Simon
Simon E.,1867. Surtrois araignees nouvelles Revue et Magazine de Zoologie Pure et Applique 2 (19): 15-24
Calcutta; VollI (1): Pp.210.Vinson, A.,1863. Araniides des iles de la Reunion
  • B K Tikader
Tikader, B.K.,1982. Fauna Of India-Araneae: Araneidae (Typical Orb-weavers), Z.S.I. Calcutta; VollI (1): Pp.210.Vinson, A.,1863. Araniides des iles de la Reunion, Maurice et Madagascar. Paris, i-cxx, 1-337.