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Description of male Tylorida sataraensis Kulkarni, 2014 (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) with notes on habits and conservation status

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The male sex of Tylorida sataraensis Kulkarni, 2014 is described based on specimens from the type locality. The distinguishing characters from its closest species Tylorida ventralis (Thorell, 1877) are detailed. An interesting behaviour of going underwater by T. sataraensis, on disturbance is recorded and tested for significance. The surveys have shown sighting of this species only to the perennial streams of the rocky outcrops in Satara region. The potential threats to this species and the possible conservation status based on known distribution are discussed.
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... Its male sex was described by Kulkarni and Lewis in 2015. Although we did not examine the type of T. sataraensis, the images of genitalia of this species are available in the literature to facilitate its identification (Kulkarni 2014;Kulkarni & Lewis 2015). Detailed comparison of the pedipalp and epigynum of T. marmorea comb. ...
... It is not confirmed whether this species is exclusively a colonial or solitary one, which needs further investigation. The species is also remarkable for its 'dive and thrive' behaviour to escape from danger (Gravely 1915Kulkarni 2014;Kulkarni & Lewis 2015;present data), which may correlate with the selection of sites (above streams and water-logging areas) for web construction. Intraspecific variation. ...
... Tylorida marmorea comb. nov. is found to live in both low and high altitude habitats (41-1885 m alt.) (Gravely 1915Kulkarni 2014;Kulkarni & Lewis 2015;present data). We have collected this species from both low (41 m alt.) and high altitude (920-1885 m alt.) habitats. ...
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The tetragnathid spider genus Tylorida Simon, 1894 is reviewed in India. The relationship of Tylorida with Orsinome Thorell, 1890 is discussed and illustrated. The taxonomic significance of male chelicerae of Tylorida spp. is discussed and an identification key based on the features of male chelicerae to separate Indian Tylorida spp. is provided. A new species, Tylorida flava sp. nov. is described and illustrated. Two new transfers and four new synonyms are proposed: Orsinome marmorea Pocock, 1901 and Tylorida culta (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869) are transferred to Tylorida and Mesida Kulczyn'ski, 1911 respectively, Tylorida cylindrata (Wang, 1991) and Tylorida sataraensis Kulkarni, 2014 are synonymised with Tylorida marmorea (Pocock, 1901) comb. nov., Tylorida nicobarensis (Tikader, 1977) is synonymised with Tylorida striata (Thorell, 1877) and Leucauge pondae Tikader, 1970 is synonymised with Tylorida ventralis (Thorell, 1877). The biology, natural history and intraspecific variations of T. marmorea comb. nov. are noted. The occurrence of intraspecific variations and colour polymorphism in T. ventralis is discussed and two colour morphs (Silver and Yellow morphs) and three varieties (varieties I, II & III) for the species are recognised. Additionally, the genus Atelidea Simon, 1895 is recorded for the first time from India and provided the description and illustration of Atelidea nona sp. nov.. The current distribution of Atelidea is mapped.
... The wide distribution of T. striata could be attributed to the dispersal and adaptive capacity of this species. On the other hand, Tylorida sataraensis Kulkarni, 2014 is restricted to a smaller part of Western Ghats in India (Kulkarni and Lewis 2015). These distributional variations of species belonging to same genus may suggest contrasting adaptive capacities, since T. striata undoubtedly sustains in anthropogenically exploited habitats whereas, T. sataraensis is a habitat specialist, currently under threat of habitat degradation (Kulkarni 2014, Kulkarni and Lewis 2015). ...
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DOI: 10.11609/ jott.o3372.3935-62 • World Spider Catalog (2014) World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Version 15.5. Release date
management. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5 (5): 3935-3962. DOI: 10.11609/ jott.o3372.3935-62 • World Spider Catalog (2014) World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Version 15.5. Release date: 2014 12 01. URL: http://wsc.nmbe.ch
Statistica (Data Analysis Software System)
  • StatSoft
World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern
  • Catalog