ArticlePDF Available

Educational Pathways in Implant Dentistry in the UK

Authors:
  • ICE Postgraduate Institute and Hospital, Salford Quays, Salford, Greater Manchester UK

Abstract

Over the last few years, the dental implant industry has been expanding steadily, despite the depth of the recession. It has been estimated that currently 200,000 dental implants are placed in the UK. Further expansion is predicted as the economic output improves in the UK, which could see the doubling of the demand. This increase in demand will bring a rapid growth in the number of dentists wanting to offer dental implant treatment. This will undoubtedly increase the postgraduate demand on education and training in this field of dentistry. Delivering treatment While complex dental implant therapy requires treatment by teams of highly experienced dentists and specialists working in hospitals or referral clinics, routine treatment is carried out by appropriately trained practitioners working in general dental practices. Unpublished research has shown that most dental practitioners place 20-50 implants per annum, while a small number of referral dentists place 200-400 yearly. Only a very small number of dentists, who limit their practices to implant dentistry, place more than 500 dental implants annually. These dentists possess different qualifications and experiences in implant dentistry. However, good quality postgraduate courses are being offered in the UK, including six to seven university-based courses and a highly structured diploma course offered by the Faculty of General Dental Practitioners UK (FGDP). The core training in implant dentistry requires the acquisition of oral surgical and prosthodontic knowledge, which is taught by a wide variety of courses currently offered in the UK, as several sources have shown (Sanz and Saphira, 2009; Donos et al, 2009; Mattheos et al, 2009; Koole et al, 2014; Ucer et al, 2014). The problem is that most of these courses differ substantially in duration, their aims and objectives, and the quality of education. Nor are they regulated or validated. There is, therefore, a distinct lack of standardisation in dental implant education in the UK and Europe in general.
Over the last few years, the dental implant
industry has been expanding steadily,
despite the depth of the recession. It has
been estimated that currently 200,000
dental implants are placed in the UK.
Further expansion is predicted as the
economic output improves in the UK, which
could see the doubling of the demand.
This increase in demand will bring a
rapid growth in the number of dentists
wanting to offer dental implant treatment.
This will undoubtedly increase the
postgraduate demand on education and
training in this field of dentistry.
Delivering treatment
While complex dental implant therapy
requires treatment by teams of highly
experienced dentists and specialists working
in hospitals or referral clinics, routine
treatment is carried out by appropriately
trained practitioners working in general
dental practices.
Unpublished research has shown that
most dental practitioners place 20-50
implants per annum, while a small number
of referral dentists place 200-400 yearly.
Only a very small number of dentists,
who limit their practices to implant
dentistry, place more than 500 dental
implants annually. These dentists possess
different qualifications and experiences in
implant dentistry.
However, good quality postgraduate
courses are being offered in the UK,
including six to seven university-based
courses and a highly structured diploma
course offered by the Faculty of General
Dental Practitioners UK (FGDP).
The core training in implant dentistry
requires the acquisition of oral surgical and
prosthodontic knowledge, which is taught
by a wide variety of courses currently offered
in the UK, as several sources have shown
(Sanz and Saphira, 2009; Donos et al, 2009;
Mattheos et al, 2009; Koole et al, 2014; Ucer
et al, 2014).
The problem is that most of these courses
differ substantially in duration, their aims
and objectives, and the quality of education.
Nor are they regulated or validated. There is,
therefore, a distinct lack of standardisation
in dental implant education in the UK and
Europe in general.
IMPLANT ESSENTIALS
Cemal Ucer BDS MSc PhD is the clinical lead of
the diploma/MSc in dental implantology at the
University of Salford and runs a referral practice at
Oaklands Hospital, also in Salford. He is the past
president of the ADI.
Education pathways
There are currently three different training
pathways available to dentists wishing to
practise implant dentistry in the UK:
• Follow CPD training courses, ranging in
duration from a few days to a year. These
courses are delivered by a wide variety of
providers, ranging from the universities to
so-called ‘expert’ clinicians. Unfortunately,
most of these courses are not educationally
structured and do not offer tangible
outcomes such as a recognised qualification
or transferrable credits
• Attending a university postgraduate degree
course dedicated to implant dentistry (such
as postgraduate certificates or diplomas, or
MSc and PhD courses)
• Completing specialist training in a related
field of dentistry (eg, periodontology, oral
surgery or prosthodontics) (Ucer et al,
2014).
Currently, it would appear that only a
very limited number of implant dentistry
courses offer accreditation of postgraduate
training by a national organisation or a
university, as sources have shown (Koole et
al, 2014; Ucer et al, 2014).
Sadly, the lack of regulation when it
comes to postgraduate training in the UK
affects the educational quality of the courses
available to dentists.
IDT
May 2014 33
Educational
pathways
What path should you follow?
Cemal Ucer
discusses the various postgraduate training choices in implant dentistry
The national standards
A few years ago, the General Dental Council
(GDC) issued a statement on implant
dentistry, declaring: ‘A UK-qualified dentist
would not be expected to be competent
to practise implant dentistry without
undertaking structured postgraduate
training and assessment of competence.’
It endorsed
Training Standards in Implant
Dentistry
(TSID) guidelines (FGDP, 2012).
Developed by the GDC, FGDP(UK) and
the Royal Colleges in 2005, the
TSID
sets
out the postgraduate training requirements
for UK dentists in implant dentistry.
Most importantly, the GDC has declared
that it refers to the standards when assessing
patient complaints against dentists who,
allegedly, practise implant dentistry beyond
the limits of their competence.
The
TSID
also prescribes the learning
outcomes and standards that such training
courses in the United Kingdom should
provide. These standards have been
developed to ensure patient safety and
protection. Dental teams and providers
of training should use these guidelines to
ensure consistency in the acquisition of
knowledge and clinical skills for implant
dentistry procedures, and to ensure good
practice.
The guidelines also serve as a reference
point for the GDC when considering patient
complaints against dentists who have
allegedly practised implant dentistry without
the necessary competence.
Dos and don’ts
It is recommended that all members of the
dental team keep a detailed portfolio of their
training, the courses they have attended, all
mentoring they have received, and all the
implants they have placed and/or restored,
together with the outcomes.
Records should be audited annually. Such
portfolios could be used in any dispute as to
a dentist’s competence in implant dentistry,
including those brought before the GDC.
All dentists need to be appropriately
indemnified against medico-legal disputes
involving implants. The prosthodontic
team should be competent in managing
the occlusal scheme, including changes to
the vertical dimension and the position of
teeth, and how these changes interact with
the existing dentition (if present) and the
relationships in the jaw.
The placement of implants with complex
bone augmentation demands a high level of
surgical experience and significant ability to
care for such patients.
Dentists undertaking such treatment
should have been trained and assessed
by a suitably competent and experienced
mentor within an appropriately structured
programme – one that has enabled the
dentist to achieve a standard in these specific
techniques equivalent to trainees sitting a
specialist examination in oral surgery.
The requirements of the
TSID
(2012)
and the Association for Dental Education in
Europe’s (ADEE) pan-European consensus
guidelines (2014) in postgraduate education
in implant dentistry highlight the urgent
need for wider availability of highly
structured and recognised part-time CPD
postgraduate programmes.
Mentoring and qualifications
Learning clinical skills under the supervision
of a mentor is a requirement for dentists
wanting to provide implant treatment in the
UK, according to the
TSID
(2012) and the
GDC policy statement on implant dentistry
(2013). To address this need, a number of
organisations, including the Association
of Dental Implantology (ADI), ITI UK and
Ireland, and the FGDP(UK), have set up
mentor training programmes.
However, there is still no agreed
definition of what a mentor is. Well-
structured programmes to train and calibrate
mentors in implant dentistry are also absent.
There is a general consensus in Europe
that implant dentistry should be taught at
a postgraduate level, according to Mattheos
et al (2009) – either as part of an accredited
CPD programme or as a formal university
degree course.
A model that could facilitate different
educational pathways for the practising
dentist ranges from a continuing education
certificate to a full specialist training course
(see the box opposite: Training pathways in
implant dentistry) (Donos et al, 2009; Ucer
IMPLANT ESSENTIALS
et al, 2014). At present, the spectrum of
implant dentistry education includes courses
extending from a few days to three years of
full-time attendance.
Increasingly, the preference of most
dentists is obtaining formal university
qualifications rather than undergoing
unaccredited CPD training (Koole et al,
2014; Ucer et al, 2014).
Given that most qualified dentists are
in full-time employment, there is a strong
demand for part-time, rather than full-time,
postgraduate university degree programmes,
typically leading to an award of postgraduate
diploma, a masters degree or equivalent.
Courses available
The number of postgraduate degree
programmes dedicated to implant dentistry
has increased rapidly since the ADEE pan-
European consensus conference in Prague
(2008). The follow-up survey of the second
European Consensus Workshop (ADEE,
2013) identified that programmes ranging
from one to three years offer transferrable
European credits (ECTS) of up to 180
credits in implant dentistry, as shown by
Koole et al (2014).
Unfortunately, there still remains a
big diversity among university masters
programmes with regards to duration and
learning objectives, as well as the desired
outcomes. On one hand, it is possible to
gain an MSc in an implant dentistry degree,
but a one-year part-time study does not
involve clinical practice. On the other
hand, there are three-year full-time masters
programmes that offer rigorous clinical
experience (Koole et al, 2014).
Typically, the part-time postgraduate
degree programmes in implant dentistry
(postgraduate diploma and MScs) in the
UK involve two-year part-time study
for postgraduate diploma, and one-year
part-time for MSc dissertation module
(eg, UCLAN, Warwick, Salford, Cardiff,
Manchester, Edinburgh, Eastman Dental
Institute, Kings College, Leeds, Sheffield,
Bristol and the Peninsula).
IDT
May 2014 35
It is recommended that all members
of the dental team keep a detailed
portfolio of all the implants they have
placed and/or restored
Introductory lectures
Certificate in implant dentistry (entry level)
Postgraduate diploma in implant dentistry
Masters
Doctoral degrees
Specialist level training in related fields (eg, oral
surgery, periodontology, prosthodontics)
TRAINING PATHWAYS
IN IMPLANT DENTISTRY
Some universities have set up flexible
blended learning postgraduate programmes
that can enrol both regional and remote/
overseas students. This is commonly made
possible by combining a modular blended
learning structure of theoretical courses,
with clinical training offered in collaboration
with regional training centres/clinics or
accredited mentors (Koole et al, 2014).
Training programme structures
At present, there is an urgent need for
improving the structure and content of CPD
programmes (both formal university courses
and non-degree CPD courses) in implant
dentistry, including strengthening the quality
assurance, encouraging standardisation and
making learning outcomes clearer (Ucer et
al, 2014).
The necessary skills and competencies
that should be targeted by undergraduate
and postgraduate education in implant
dentistry have already been determined
by the first ADEE workshop on university
education in implant dentistry (Donos et al,
2009).
Following this, the second pan-European
consensus meeting organised by ADEE
(2013) recommended the development of
a structured and accredited CPD system
in implant dentistry with clearly defined
educational objectives mapped against these
specific levels of competence (Ucer et al,
2014).
Training programmes in implant
dentistry, whether they lead to a university
qualification or result in non-degree CPD
training, should incorporate the following
quality assurance features (Ucer et al, 2014):
• They should enable clinicians to gain new
clinical skills, which they should be able to
readily apply to the treatment of patients in
their practices. Initially, this should be at a
straightforward complexity level of implant
treatment
• CPD in implant dentistry should enable
clinicians to employ evidence-based
decision-making processes, by enhancing
their skills and keeping their knowledge
current
• CPD in implant dentistry should
strengthen the clinician’s ability to critically
appraise and evaluate new products and
techniques before using them in their
clinical practice. This ensures safe and
patient-centred treatment outcomes (FGDP,
2012; Ucer et al, 2014)
• CPD in implant dentistry should be highly
structured and include quality assurance
features, such as predetermined learning
objectives and achievable learning outcomes
• CPD in implant dentistry should be
delivered by educators of adequate
qualifications and pedagogical experience
(Ucer et al, 2014). The learning outcomes
of CPD should be assessed as part of each
activity (Ucer et al, 2014; Mattheos et al,
2009) and, ideally, the courses should be
accredited by a national or international
organisation
• CPD in implant dentistry should include a
workplace-based clinical skills development
component with an emphasis on a needs-
driven reflective learning activity (Ucer
IDT
May 2014 37
et al, 2014; Mattheos et al, 2009). It is
recommended that such activities are
documented using structured portfolios
(PDPs), with an appropriate input through
formative assessment by the mentor
• It is desirable that CPD in implant
dentistry is available to all members of the
dental team engaged in the provision of
implant dentistry: dentists, dental nurses,
hygienists and dental technicians
• It is desirable that industrial partners focus
their CPD input to product training, which
may include basic science (Ucer et al, 2014).
Advice for the future
In the absence of recognised qualifications
or accredited formal training programmes
in implant dentistry, dentists who wish
to receive training in this field would be
advised to carry out thorough appraisal of
the structure and content of the available
CPD courses. This way, they are able to
select one that best suits their identified
learning needs.
In order to maximise the clinical benefits
to the patients, and to satisfy possible future
regulatory demands, the prospective learner
is strongly advised to enquire about the
following: the educational quality of the
course, calibre of the course providers, the
pedagogical background of the educators,
and whether or not the course is accredited
by a competent national or international
body (Swiss College of Dental Medicine,
2004; European Commission; Adam, 2007),
such as a university (European Commission,
2007).
IDT
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IMPLANT ESSENTIALS
... It is estimated that more that 200,000 dental implants are performed per year in the United Kingdom (UK) 1 . Dental implant surgeons often request cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in patients being considered for dental implants as part of their preoperative investigative work-up. ...
... This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved  Inappropriate: panel median of 1-3, without disagreement NB:"Disagreement" for a clinical scenario was classified as when at least 1 panellist ratingfell in the lowest 3-point region (1)(2)(3) and at least one falls in the highest (7-9), regardless of the median score 9 . ...
Article
Objectives Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging is commonly requested by dental implant surgeons, pre‐operatively, for patients being considered for dental implants. Incidental maxillary sinus findings often result in otolaryngology (ENT) referral for further assessment. CBCT findings include transient and benign mucosal changes that may not require any intervention and therefore unnecessarily delay implant surgery. We aim to define appropriateness criteria for ESS in the management of adult dental implant patients with incidental maxillary sinus findings on CBCT and provide guidance to both dental implant and ENT surgeons. Design The RAND/UCLA appropriateness methodology was used to develop and define the appropriateness criteria. Setting A virtual panel of 13 international experts in ESS. Participants The expert panel completed two rounds of a modified Delphi ranking processfor nine clinical scenarios, considering various factors affecting decision‐making processes. Main outcome measures To define appropriateness criteria for ESS in adult dental implant patients who have incidental maxillary sinus findings on CBCT. Results Patients with clinical symptoms and endoscopic findings of chronic rhinosinusitis together with an obstructed ostiomeatal complex (OMC) and concentric mucosal thickening of the ipsilateral maxillary sinus or pansinusitis were deemed appropriate candidates for ESS prior to their dental implant. ESS was not appropriate in asymptomatic patients with a patent OMC and mucosal thickening isolated to floor of the ipsilateral maxillary sinus. For uncertain scenarios, further discussion between dental implant and ENT surgeon should be considered. Conclusions This study has developed and reported a list of appropriateness criteria to offer ESS in adult dental implant patients with incidental maxillary sinus findings on CBCT.
... The qualified general dental practitioners in the UK are not expected to be competent in practicing implant dentistry without further training in the subject, and the GDC emphasises the importance of appropriate postgraduate training prior to practicing dental implants. Dental Implantology is not recognised as a specialty in the UK [6], and the current education pathways for the subject include: 1. Specialist training in a related specialty of dentistry such as periodontology and prosthodontics; 2. Academic qualification at a postgraduate level; 3. Continuing professional development (CPD) courses [7]. Development of Training Standards in Implant Dentistry (TSID) guidelines by Faculty of General Dental Practice (FGDP (UK)) [8] has led to a significant improvement in the quality of postgraduate education in Dental Implantology in the UK. ...
... The demand for dental implants from patients outside these priority groups had to be met by the private sector and this subsequently led to an increase in the number of dental practitioners practising Dental Implantology in the recent years. According to Ucer in his article 'Educational Pathways in Implant Dentistry in the UK' [7], an unpublished research had shown that most dental practitioners place 20-50 implants per annum, while a small number of referral dentists place 200 to 400 yearly. The number of specialists in periodontology and prosthodontics were 377 and 446, respectively, according to the statistics provided by the GDC. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The qualified dentists in the United Kingdom (UK) are not expected to be competent in practising implant dentistry without further training in the subject and there is now greater emphasis on postgraduate training in Dental Implantology. There are three main education pathways at present, yet their training standards vary significantly. This study aims to identify UK postgraduate academic qualifications and continuing professional development (CPD) courses available in the field of Dental Implantology and evaluates the current standard of the postgraduate training programmes against the Training Standards in Implant Dentistry (TSID) guidelines from Faculty of General Dental Practice (FGDP (UK)). Results: There were eight master level courses with varying types of qualification and study mode. The mean duration and tuition fee of the courses were 2.50 years and £23,635.50 per course, respectively. There were eight postgraduate diploma part-time courses with the mean duration of 2.00 years, and the mean tuition fee of £20,177.08 per course. The mean duration for two postgraduate certificate part-time courses was 1.00 year with the mean tuition fee of £9441.50. However, there were no full-time study options for these courses. All courses identified stated their compliance with TSID guidelines. The mean duration for 13 CPD courses identified was 0.94 years and all courses were delivered in a part-time mode. Eleven of these courses were verifiable CPD courses, and two courses were providing certificates only. Not all courses were fully compliant with TSID guidelines. Ten courses clearly stated that they provide mentoring for implant placements, and the number of supervised cases varied considerably between 1 and 50. Conclusion: Development of FGDP (UK) TSID guidelines has led to a significant improvement in the quality of postgraduate education in Dental Implantology in the UK. However, not all courses are fully compliant with these guidelines and the provision of mentoring for implant placements also needs to be standardised. Quality-assured training is directly related to patient safety, and therefore all UK postgraduate training pathways must ensure their compliance with the current guidelines.
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This paper constitutes a summary of the consensus documents agreed at the First European Workshop on Implant Dentistry University Education held in Prague on 19-22 June 2008. Implant dentistry is becoming increasingly important treatment alternative for the restoration of missing teeth, as patients expectations and demands increase. Furthermore, implant related complications such as peri-implantitis are presenting more frequently in the dental surgery. This consensus paper recommends that implant dentistry should be an integral part of the undergraduate curriculum. Whilst few schools will achieve student competence in the surgical placement of implants this should not preclude the inclusion of the fundamental principles of implant dentistry in the undergraduate curriculum such as the evidence base for their use, indications and contraindications and treatment of the complications that may arise. The consensus paper sets out the rationale for the introduction of implant dentistry in the dental curriculum and the knowledge base for an undergraduate programme in the subject. It lists the competencies that might be sought without expectations of surgical placement of implants at this stage and the assessment methods that might be employed. The paper also addresses the competencies and educational pathways for postgraduate education in implant dentistry.
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Previous surveys have shown that newly graduated dentists, in most European countries, do not obtain adequate theoretical knowledge and, especially, clinical skills in implant dentistry (ID) through their undergraduate education and must therefore acquire knowledge and develop competencies through further postgraduate study. Moreover, clinicians, in general, need to continue to maintain the currency of their competence by undertaking ongoing continuing professional development (CPD). This seems particularly important in ID as techniques, and materials develop rapidly due to advances in biomedical technology. Despite recent developments, CPD in ID remains poorly organised with little standardisation or harmonisation across Europe. The objective of this survey was to explore the current status and trends within CPD education in ID in Europe. Stakeholders and opinion leaders associated with ID education were invited by email to fill an online questionnaire (closing date: 30th April 2013). Two hundred and forty-seven questionnaires were distributed, and two separate reminders were sent to participants in 38 European countries. The survey contained 14 multiple-choice questions, and the data were collected using SurveyMonkey© software, exported in SPSS (Inc, Chicago, IL, USA) format and analysed using descriptive statistics. Two hundred respondents working in 24 countries replied to the survey (response rate of 81% of invitees and 63% of countries surveyed). The results demonstrated a wide divergence in the content and structure of CPD in ID in Europe. Dentists need CPD to develop their skills and to maintain their competence in ID. There is an urgent need for structured and accredited CPD, which should be readily available to all dentists practising ID. It should have pre-determined learning objectives, delivered by accredited CPD providers and educators, and have assessable outcome measures to ensure the best possible impact on clinical practice and patient safety.
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To promote consensus on implant dentistry university education in Europe, a workshop amongst university teachers and opinion leaders was organised in 2008. As a result, guidelines on both under- and postgraduate education were issued. This study aims to investigate the current status of university teaching of implant dentistry and the impact of the recommendations for teaching and assessment, 5 years after the first consensus. Finally, this report attempts to identify future directions in education within the discipline. An online survey was distributed amongst 105 academic leaders in implant education in Europe, and 52 questionnaires were returned (response rate 50%). The average amount of implant dentistry in undergraduate curricula has increased to 74 h, compared to 36 h in 2008, and the inclusion of pre-clinical and clinical education has increased. No change occurred with regard to the aimed competence levels. It was suggested that certain implant procedures including surgery should be provided by dentists after attending additional courses, whilst complex treatments will still require specialist training. The 2008 workshop guidelines have been implemented to a varying extent (25-100%) in under- and postgraduate education. Main reported implementation barriers included limited time availability in the curriculum and limited financial/material resources. Future discussions about implant dentistry in Europe should be focused towards integration in current dental curricula, approaches to overcome barriers and the relations with and role of industrial partners. Implant dentistry is increasingly integrating in undergraduate dental education. Development of the consensus guidelines in 2008 may have facilitated this process. Nevertheless, further progress is needed on all educational levels to align training of professionals to the growing treatment needs of the population.
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Training for dental practitioners in implant dentistry ranges from 1- or 2-day short Continuing Professional Development (CPD) courses to certificate/diploma programmes run by universities. In general, the teaching of implant dentistry in Europe lacks structure and standardisation. This paper aims to: (i) identify the current trends in CPD in implant dentistry in Europe; (ii) identify potential and limitations with regards to the design and implementation of CPD activities in implant dentistry; (iii) provide recommendations on the future structure and development of CPD activities in implant dentistry. A search of the literature was undertaken in PubMed for manuscripts published in English after 2000 reporting on CPD in dentistry and in implant dentistry in particular. In addition, an electronic survey was conducted, investigating the attitudes towards CPD among a wide group of stakeholders in implant dentistry education. There is a wide diversity of educational pathways towards achieving competences in implant dentistry through CPD. At present, there is a need for improving the CPD structures in implant dentistry, strengthening the quality assurance and encouraging standardisation and transparency of the learning outcomes. Development of a structured CPD system with clearly defined educational objectives mapped against specific levels of competence is recommended.
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The use of dental implants has become a widely accepted and well-documented treatment option offering to both patients and dentists an alternative to traditional treatment modalities and at the same time opening a brand new area in dental postgraduate education. As such, it is necessary to define the competencies that the graduate student/dentist will need at the different levels of clinical practice in Implant Dentistry and the educational pathways that are required to convey those competencies in a structured manner. The present position paper provides an initial suggestion for the knowledge, skills and behaviour necessary for a graduate student to practice implant dentistry at the different levels of clinical complexity. An outline of the necessary competencies and structure of various levels of postgraduate university courses is provided together with different educational approaches to support them. The present paper should be evaluated as a platform for discussion for future development of postgraduate curricula in implant dentistry rather than a manual on how to design and operate such curricula.
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Modern dental education should have in on one hand the necessary education and training to make modern dentists capable of implementing population and individual preventive strategies, and on the other make them competent to satisfy current public demands to most patients. Amongst the restorative procedures most demanded by patients implant therapy has reached a clear pre-dominance. Although specialists have traditionally rendered this therapeutic procedure, in simple cases there is seldom need for extensive surgical procedures and therefore there is a clear need to introduce these studies in modern dental curricula. To facilitate the harmonisation and convergence of dental education in Europe, the Association for Dental Education in Europe and DentEd have defined a set of competencies for the graduating dentist in the EU. Using the same framework, we herein define the agreed competencies in implant dentistry, within the different domains, for both the undergraduate and the postgraduate student. Within a context of a competence-based curriculum implant dentistry should be taught as part of the major and supportive competencies described with a strong emphasis on inter-disciplinarity and integration.
Policy statement on implant dentistry Available from <http://www. gdc-uk.org/Dentalprofessionals
General Dental Council (2013). Policy statement on implant dentistry. Available from <http://www. gdc-uk.org/Dentalprofessionals/Standards/Pages/ Implantology.aspx> [2 December 2013]
Implant dentistry education in Europe: 5 years after the ADEE consensus report Available from: <www. idataresearch.com
  • S Koole
  • S Vandeweghe
  • N Mattheos
  • De Bruyn
Koole S, Vandeweghe S, Mattheos N, De Bruyn H (2014) Implant dentistry education in Europe: 5 years after the ADEE consensus report. Eur J Dent Educ iData Research (2014) Available from: <www. idataresearch.com/> [2 December 2013]