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Abstract

Declaring and thinking about heroes are common human preoccupations but surprisingly aspects of heroism that reinforce these behaviors are not well-understood. In four thematically consistent studies, we attempt to identify lay perspectives about the psychological functions served by heroes. In Study 1, participants (n = 189) freely generated open-ended descriptions of hero functions, which were then sorted by independent coders into 14 categories (e.g., instill hope, guide others). In Study 2, in an attempt to identify the most important functions associated with heroes, participants (n = 249) rated how each function corresponded with their personal views about heroes. Results from a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that a three-factor model of hero functions fit the data well: participants thought that heroes enhanced the lives of others, promoted morals, and protected individuals from threats. In Study 3 (n = 242), participants rated heroes as more likely to fulfill a protecting function than either leaders or role models. In Studies 4A (n = 38) and 4B (n = 102), participants indicated that thinking about a hero (relative to a leader or an acquaintance) during psychological threat fulfilled personal enhancement, moral modeling, and protection needs. In all, these findings provide an empirical basis to spur additional research about the social and psychological functions that heroes offer.

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... Articles from "One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest", authored by Ken Kesey (1962). Nurse Ratched's character created an icon of the nurse who displayed no compassion for the patients over which she had charge. ...
... As noted in the definition of hero above, a hero is constructed differently and according to one's beliefs and value systems. Kinsella, Ritchie, and Igou (2015) carried out a series of studies in which lay participants defined heroism, described traits of heroes, and the impact a hero might have on persons during difficult times. In general, heroes were seen, often symbolically, as protectors and as those who upheld good morals and values. ...
... We recognize that many examples of nurses as heroes are fairly well-known and that those small everyday actions often go unrecognized. Kinsella, et al. (2015) wrote that the moral modeling function of heroes should include reminding people about the good possibilities of society; illustrating morals and values; and demonstrating how to elevate the world or human position. We suggest the examples of everyday nursing heroes should give us much to consider for all of the aspects of our lives and professions. ...
... For example, since heroes provide protection, the psyche expects heroes to save, help and protect. Additionally, heroes serve a psychological function to give people hope (Kinsella et al., 2015b;Kinsella et al., 2015a) and courage during difficult times and while experiencing dread (Kierkegaard, 2017). Heroes also provide hope of improving the current situation, which is achieved by many attributes of heroes, such as standing their ground for values and ideologies, facilitating connectedness and promoting positive emotions. ...
... As such, heroes matter most during times of uncertainty, such as in times of doubt regarding one's abilities or when seeking inspiration. It is for this reason that Kinsella et al. (2015a) regarded heroes as "builders of self-esteem." Therefore, the existence of heroes is linked to the psychological need for a hero to fulfill one or more functions associated with heroes. ...
... Heroes and meaning presence Heroes can be fictitious or based on real-world figures. In both forms, heroes are important because they enhance the lives of others, promote morals and protect individuals from threats (Franco et al., 2016;Kinsella et al., 2015a). While fulfilling their psychological functions, they also inspire individuals to improve their actions. ...
Article
Purpose Employee boredom is of concern to organizations because of its impact on employees’ quality of work life and productivity. This study aims to test the regulation of workplace boredom through meaning in life by workplace heroes to contribute to theory by examining the relationships between the variables and to practice by uncovering the potential of workplace heroes in alleviating state boredom. Design/methodology/approach Using online surveys and structured interviews for a mixed-method study, data were collected for state boredom, meaning in life and hero affirmation at work for a quantitative study, and data from the open-ended questions provided further insights regarding hero affirmation at work for a qualitative study. Findings Spearman rank-order correlations concluded correlations between state boredom and meaning in life. However, unlike personal heroes that influence meaning in life, workplace heroes were found not to. The qualitative analysis revealed three prime differences between workplace and personal heroes: proximity, symbolic representation of ideologies and qualities admired in the heroes. These reasons entailed that state boredom was not regulated by workplace heroes. Originality/value The model of Coughlan et al. (2019) explored trait boredom regulation through meaning in life by personal heroes. This study tested for the regulation of state boredom through meaning in life by workplace heroes; thus, contributing to theory through a nuanced model with enhanced usefulness in practice. The study also further dissects the concept of heroes by uncovering differences between workplace and personal heroes that perpetrated the differences in the findings.
... Antiheroes are neither outright heroes nor villains, and yet, the popularity of these unconventional characters appears to be rising. Research on the concept of the hero has existed since Greek mythology (e.g., the figure of Homer in The Odyssey; Homer, 1921) and has recently received great attention (e.g., Allison & Goethals, 2011, 2015, 2016Allison, Goethals, & Kramer, 2016;Dryden, Doherty, & Nicolson, 2010;Franco, Blau, & Zimbardo, 2011;Kinsella, Igou, & Ritchie, 2017;Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015a, 2015b. However, there is a dearth of research on antiheroes. ...
... Our approach to conceptualizing the effect of priming with an antihero builds on LHT (Figueredo et al., 2005(Figueredo et al., , 2006 and goes beyond the previous research on LHT by examining the role of priming with an antihero on people's sensation seeking. Extending previous research that showed the effect of influential peoplesuch as heroes, leaders, and role modelson behaviour (Kinsella et al., 2015a(Kinsella et al., , 2015b, we argue that it is plausible that antiheroes also influence their audience in meaningful ways. ...
... sincere or control). We predicted that people primed with an antihero would more frequently choose an exciting brand, as opposed to a sincere brand, which is more in line with the heroes' character (Kinsella et al., 2015b) or a control brand. Choosing a brand that is positioned as exciting, thus, would serve as a proxy for sensation seeking. ...
Article
Antiheroes are characters that share features with both heroes and villains, typified as selfish and rule-breakers, but who end up doing something good for society. In this research, we examined how priming people with antiheroes (vs. heroes) affected their sensation seeking. We reason that antiheroes (vs. heroes) are more associated with temporally close (vs. past and future) events. Given that sensation seeking is related to being focused on the present (vs. past or future), we hypothesised that if people are primed with antiheroes (vs. heroes) they are more likely to seek sensation. Findings from a series of five experimental studies provide insights into the effect of priming with an antihero on people’s sensation seeking, providing directions for future research in psychology and practical applications in the areas of marketing strategy and consumer behaviour.
... Conceptions of heroes have evolved and expanded over timethe meaning of the term hero has changed over time. Over the past ten years, researchers have successfully unpacked implicit conceptions of hero features and functions held by adult samples in Europe and the USA (Franco, Blau & Zimbardo, 2011;Allison & Goethals, 2011;Allison & Goethals, 2013;Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015a;Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015b). Empirical studies have demonstrated that heroes are viewed as social categories that are distinct from role models and leaders (Kinsella et al., 2015a;Kinsella et al., 2015b). ...
... Over the past ten years, researchers have successfully unpacked implicit conceptions of hero features and functions held by adult samples in Europe and the USA (Franco, Blau & Zimbardo, 2011;Allison & Goethals, 2011;Allison & Goethals, 2013;Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015a;Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015b). Empirical studies have demonstrated that heroes are viewed as social categories that are distinct from role models and leaders (Kinsella et al., 2015a;Kinsella et al., 2015b). Recent research in psychology has noted approximately two-thirds of adults have a personal hero , and most importantly, that heroes provide a number of positive psychological and social functions (Kinsella et al, 2015a). ...
... A adolescence. The present study may strengthen existing work regarding the characteristics (Kinsella et al., 2015a) and functions of heroes (Kinsella et al., 2015b), as well as bolster mainstream developmental theories, where the new data supports and further validates existing frameworks. Alternatively, this new data may highlight limitations of previous studies relating to heroes in terms of its generalisability to young people highlighting areas where adolescents differ to adults in terms of how they think about and use heroes in their everyday lives. ...
... Third, the finding that thinking about heroes can increase perceptions of personal power and that this is evident when consumers experience psychological threats makes a further novel contribution to the literature. This study supports previous research showing that heroes influence others psychologically, particularly during times of threat (e.g., Allison & Goethals, 2011;Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015b;Sullivan & Venter, 2005); however, this finding also adds to existing scholarship on heroes and psychological threat (Green, Van Tongeren, Cairo, & Hagiwara, 2017;McCabe, Carpenter, & Arndt, 2016) by specifying a specific mediating variable: personal power. ...
... enhancing (e.g., providing motivation, hope, inspiration, and morale), moral modeling (e.g., reminding people about the concept of good, values, and making the world better), and protecting (e.g., from danger, threats, and evil) (Kinsella et al., 2015b). Importantly, heroes provide psychological resources to individuals, particularly during times of threat (e.g., Coughlan, Igou, van Tilburg, Kinsella, & Ritchie, 2019;Kinsella et al., 2015b;Sullivan & Venter, 2005). ...
... enhancing (e.g., providing motivation, hope, inspiration, and morale), moral modeling (e.g., reminding people about the concept of good, values, and making the world better), and protecting (e.g., from danger, threats, and evil) (Kinsella et al., 2015b). Importantly, heroes provide psychological resources to individuals, particularly during times of threat (e.g., Coughlan, Igou, van Tilburg, Kinsella, & Ritchie, 2019;Kinsella et al., 2015b;Sullivan & Venter, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Mortality threats are among the strongest psychological threats that an individual can encounter. Previous research shows that mortality threats lead people to engage in unhealthy compensatory consumption (i.e., overeating), as a maladaptive coping response to threat. In this paper, we propose that reminders of heroes when experiencing mortality threat increases perceptions of personal power, which in turn buffers the need to engage in unhealthy compensatory consumption. We test and find support for our predictions in a series of four studies that include real-world Twitter data after a series of terrorist attacks in 2016-2017, and three experimental studies conducted online and in the field with behavioral measures after Day of the Dead and during COVID-19 pandemic. These findings advance the literature on compensatory consumption, mortality threats, and the psychological functions of heroes.
... Conceptions of heroes have evolved and expanded over timethe meaning of the term hero has changed over time. Over the past ten years, researchers have successfully unpacked implicit conceptions of hero features and functions held by adult samples in Europe and the USA (Franco, Blau & Zimbardo, 2011;Allison & Goethals, 2011;Allison & Goethals, 2013;Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015a;Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015b). Empirical studies have demonstrated that heroes are viewed as social categories that are distinct from role models and leaders (Kinsella et al., 2015a;Kinsella et al., 2015b). ...
... Over the past ten years, researchers have successfully unpacked implicit conceptions of hero features and functions held by adult samples in Europe and the USA (Franco, Blau & Zimbardo, 2011;Allison & Goethals, 2011;Allison & Goethals, 2013;Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015a;Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015b). Empirical studies have demonstrated that heroes are viewed as social categories that are distinct from role models and leaders (Kinsella et al., 2015a;Kinsella et al., 2015b). Recent research in psychology has noted approximately two-thirds of adults have a personal hero , and most importantly, that heroes provide a number of positive psychological and social functions (Kinsella et al, 2015a). ...
... A adolescence. The present study may strengthen existing work regarding the characteristics (Kinsella et al., 2015a) and functions of heroes (Kinsella et al., 2015b), as well as bolster mainstream developmental theories, where the new data supports and further validates existing frameworks. Alternatively, this new data may highlight limitations of previous studies relating to heroes in terms of its generalisability to young people highlighting areas where adolescents differ to adults in terms of how they think about and use heroes in their everyday lives. ...
... Mother's Day memories also include accounts of mothers protecting and defending their children from danger. These four types of Mother's Day nostalgic remembrances -wisdom, moral modeling, enhancing, and Frontiers in Psychology | www.frontiersin.org 2 December 2020 | Volume 11 | Article 577862 protection -correspond to the primary functions of heroism (Kinsella et al., 2015b;Allison, 2019). To our knowledge, there is no scholarship illuminating the relationship between the psychology of nostalgia and that of heroism. ...
... Generalized motivational benefits include the finding that nostalgia increases one's sense of youthfulness, with people experiencing lower subjective age, more alertness, and increased energy. Allison and Goethals (2014) proposed an "energizing" function of heroism, and there are self-report data supporting this assertion (Allison and Goethals, 2011;Kinsella et al., 2015b). Sedikides and Wildschut found that nostalgia also promotes inspiration, engendering a sense of new possibilities, and it encourages financial risktaking. ...
... These findings are consistent with hero research showing that heroism implicates these same prosocial categories. A heroic act is a social activity promoting the galvanization of relationships (Allison, 2019), an attachmentoriented activity involving the protection of loved ones (Kinsella et al., 2015b), an activity of potency and agency (Hoyt et al., 2020), and an activity implicating feelings of warmth, nurturance, and care (Kinsella et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article seeks to develop theoretical convergences between the science of nostalgia and the science of heroism. We take four approaches in forging a conceptual relationship between these two phenomena. First, we examine the definitions of nostalgia and heroism from scholars, laypeople, and across cultures, noting how the history of defining the two phenomena has shaped current conceptualizations. Second, we demonstrate how nostalgic experiences consist of reminiscences about our own personal heroism and about cultural role models and heroes. A review of heroism research, moreover, shows also that our recall of our heroes and of heroism is tinged with nostalgia. Third, we make linkages between heroism and nostalgia research focusing on functions, inspiration, sociality, and motivation. Nostalgia researchers have illuminated the functions of nostalgia implicating the self, existential concerns, goal pursuit, and sociality. Our review shows that heroism researchers invoke similar categories of hero functionality. Finally, we propose three areas of future research that can profit from the merging of nostalgia and heroism science, involving the mechanisms by which (a) heroism can fuel nostalgia, (b) nostalgia can promote heroic action, and (c) wisdom results from nostalgic reverie.
... In his writings, which formed the basis of terror management theory (TMT; Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1986), Ernest Becker (1973 suggested that death concerns motivate admiration of heroes. In fact, heroes are generally believed to be important in people's lives because they provide meaning, orientation, and protection (e.g., Campbell, 1949;Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015a). The present work utilizes terror management theory to investigate the psychological function of heroes. ...
... Based on lay perception investigations (Kinsella et al., 2015a;Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2017) heroes may serve as a resource for dealing with threats. However, as Kinsella et al. (2015a) noted, heroes also function as comparison objects for the values and standards of society. ...
... Based on lay perception investigations (Kinsella et al., 2015a;Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2017) heroes may serve as a resource for dealing with threats. However, as Kinsella et al. (2015a) noted, heroes also function as comparison objects for the values and standards of society. This proposition can be linked to social comparison theory (Festinger, 1954), which proposed an innate drive to engage in social comparison, in part to evaluate the self. ...
Article
Full-text available
According to terror management theory, in a first study (N = 80), we tested the hypothesis that heroic perceptions of historic heroes would become more positive under mortality salience. Results, however, showed the opposite effect – heroic perceptions were less positive. To explain this unexpected finding, we referred to a social comparison perspective, assuming comparisons with a hero are likely to be unfavorable for one’s self-esteem. Two further (pre-registered) studies were conducted to test this idea. Mortality salience effects in Study 2 (N = 615) were not significant. However, using an improved experimental procedure in Study 3 (N = 600), heroic perceptions were indeed significantly less positive under MS, especially for participants with low trait self-esteem and low social comparison orientation.
... A person -or in this case an animal -who shows the prototypical hero features of bravery, sacrifice, conviction, risk-taking, and moral integrity for an honorable purpose is likely to provide psychological and social functions for individuals who encounter (or cogitate) about them (Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015). Matapacos fulfills both psychological and social functions to people towards an honorable socio-political purpose: the state reforms. ...
... Both leaders and heroes are described as offering guidance and leadership through the complexity of daily life. This is interesting given that many heroes do not occupy formal leadership positions (Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015). A hero can become a leader in times of threat or unfulfilled needs, especially in situations when the individuals perceive social isolation, uncertainty or simply low self-esteem (Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015). ...
... This is interesting given that many heroes do not occupy formal leadership positions (Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015). A hero can become a leader in times of threat or unfulfilled needs, especially in situations when the individuals perceive social isolation, uncertainty or simply low self-esteem (Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015). The atmosphere of the neoliberal country was already characterized by unfulfilled needs and feelings of instability. ...
... In a pre COVID-19 pandemic era, the term hero was applied and used on daily basis (1), and since the onset of the COVID-19 global pandemic, the search term of 'hero' has almost doubled in popularity 2 . This is not surprising given our psychological need to have heroes (2)(3)(4)(5). Heroes inspire, model morals, and protect others from psychological or physical harm (3), and our psychological need for heroes is greater in times of threat (6) so it seems natural that it would rise during a global pandemic when threats are omnipresent. ...
... This is not surprising given our psychological need to have heroes (2)(3)(4)(5). Heroes inspire, model morals, and protect others from psychological or physical harm (3), and our psychological need for heroes is greater in times of threat (6) so it seems natural that it would rise during a global pandemic when threats are omnipresent. ...
... Dictionary definitions of heroes are often overly simplistic, so it is more useful to conceptualise heroes as individuals who demonstrate many of the prototypical features of heroism including bravery, showing moral integrity, self-sacrificing, protecting others, and showing conviction and courage (3). Heroism can take place momentarily or sustained action over time. ...
Article
The purpose of this article is to offer an alternative, more nuanced analysis of the labelling of frontline workers as heroes than originally proposed. Here, we argue that the hero narrative in itself need not be problematic, but highlight a number of wider factors that have led to the initial rise (and subsequent fall) in support for labelling frontline workers as heroes. Through our related work, we have gathered similar stories from frontline workers where they feel betrayed, let down or otherwise short-changed by the hero label, and we have sought to make sense of this through understanding more about how the hero label is used rather than what it means. In this article, we propose a way forward where there is greater discussion around the hero label in this context where individuals can be heroes but still struggle, still fail and still feel vulnerable, and where heroism is viewed as a state of interdependence between heroic actor and the wider group. It is true that heroes can inspire, lead, guide and build morale and camaraderie, but collective responsibility is held with us all. We can draw hope and energy from our heroes, but we must dig deep and be proactive, particularly in the face of adversity. In doing so, we support the heroes to lead from the front and ensure that even though we cannot physically help; we are not making their situation worse.
... However, the systematic reading of the hero's journey as something deeply embedded in our makeup and evolution has been curiously neglected. Contemporary research efforts have instead focused more on things like implicit theories of heroism and understanding the social ascription of heroic status (Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015). ...
... Collectively, this and other research (Kinsella et al., 2015) hints at the idea that heroic action may potentially have a protective or restorative effect, a counterpoint to the well-established genetic impact of trauma on the mind and body. In an evolutionary sense, the human journey is the hero's journey from sub-par or sub-optimal, to normal, to super-normal or super-human. ...
... The body acting as a human shield is one such obvious example (Kafashan et al., 2017). This protective property of heroism in high-risk environments carries biological benefits by promoting group survival and well-being (Kinsella et al., 2015;Kraft-Todd & Rand, 2017;Rusch et al., 2015). The biological impacts of heroic impulsivity could be key in crisis situations, suggests one expert, congruent with emerging literature (Franco, Hayes, Lancaster, & Kisaaack, 2012;Franco, Zumel, Blau, & Ayhens-Johnson, 2008;Gheytanchi et al., 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article is the author’s autoethnographic exploration of change in music education (Randles, 2013, 2015a) as illustrative of a hero collective, a term used here to represent a sociocultural explanation of Campbell’s hero’s journey as outlined in The Hero with a Thousand Faces (2008). The hero collective is a term that is inclusive of all individuals working in the field of music education who would like to see much more diversity in offerings and modes of musicianship represented in the curriculum of primary and secondary (K-12), as well as higher education music. Tensions involved in this pursuit are presented as part of the separation-initiation-return cycle of Campbell’s hero’s journey as expressed specifically by Vogler (2007). The hero collective is proposed to be a more realistic explanation of how to conceptualize the hero’s journey, given the current discourse in the creativity literature around sociocultural as opposed to purely individualized notions of creativity (Sawyer, 2012). The author makes the case, in line with previous work, that curriculum development is a creative process, and that the hero’s journey might be used as one way of conceptualizing what the change process might look like in the real world.
... However, the systematic reading of the hero's journey as something deeply embedded in our makeup and evolution has been curiously neglected. Contemporary research efforts have instead focused more on things like implicit theories of heroism and understanding the social ascription of heroic status (Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015). ...
... Collectively, this and other research (Kinsella et al., 2015) hints at the idea that heroic action may potentially have a protective or restorative effect, a counterpoint to the well-established genetic impact of trauma on the mind and body. In an evolutionary sense, the human journey is the hero's journey from sub-par or sub-optimal, to normal, to super-normal or super-human. ...
... The body acting as a human shield is one such obvious example (Kafashan et al., 2017). This protective property of heroism in high-risk environments carries biological benefits by promoting group survival and well-being (Kinsella et al., 2015;Kraft-Todd & Rand, 2017;Rusch et al., 2015). The biological impacts of heroic impulsivity could be key in crisis situations, suggests one expert, congruent with emerging literature (Franco, Hayes, Lancaster, & Kisaaack, 2012;Franco, Zumel, Blau, & Ayhens-Johnson, 2008;Gheytanchi et al., 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this article is to detail how Joseph Campbell’s monomyth, the hero’s journey, and Carol Pearson’s archetypical stages of human development have inspired an interpretive clinical assessment to construct meaning from songs created by adolescents who identify with Hip Hop Culture and who have experienced extreme trauma. The history and creative elements of Hip Hop Culture are rich with mythic narratives that reflect the lived social, cultural, and political experience of communities marginalized and underrepresented, and it especially connects with a global adolescent audience. Adolescence, as a developmental stage of human growth, can be viewed through the lens of a hero’s journey in which a child moves through a stage of liminality to enter into adulthood. This perspective can be particularly useful for music therapists when making meaning of songs created by adolescents who have experienced childhood trauma. Three songs, representing different stages and archetypes along each songwriter’s hero’s journey, will be presented to reveal the trials, clinical goals, fears, and rewards contained within the lyrical and musical components.
... Articles from "One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest", authored by Ken Kesey (1962). Nurse Ratched's character created an icon of the nurse who displayed no compassion for the patients over which she had charge. ...
... As noted in the definition of hero above, a hero is constructed differently and according to one's beliefs and value systems. Kinsella, Ritchie, and Igou (2015) carried out a series of studies in which lay participants defined heroism, described traits of heroes, and the impact a hero might have on persons during difficult times. In general, heroes were seen, often symbolically, as protectors and as those who upheld good morals and values. ...
... We recognize that many examples of nurses as heroes are fairly well-known and that those small everyday actions often go unrecognized. Kinsella, et al. (2015) wrote that the moral modeling function of heroes should include reminding people about the good possibilities of society; illustrating morals and values; and demonstrating how to elevate the world or human position. We suggest the examples of everyday nursing heroes should give us much to consider for all of the aspects of our lives and professions. ...
Article
Nursing is the one of the most trusted professions in the world, and for good reason. Nurses care for fellow human beings at their most vulnerable moments. It is a profession where compassion for others is foremost in the minds of most nurses. Thus nurses are willing to do what needs to be done to improve their patients' lives, even if it means going above and beyond that with which they are charged. A heroic deed may be as simple as skipping a break to hold a dying patient's hand so they are not alone in their final act of life; or it may be more global, such as pursuing social justice policy for vulnerable patients or changing care models to affect the lives of many. Nurses generally do not seek the label of heroism, but are willing to do what they think necessary to protect patients and change systems. This article begins with a discussion of heroism and its typical public perception. The notion of a quiet hero in the context of altruism is explored so as to introduce more fully the topic and provide a foundation for the exemplars of nursing heroes. Exemplars include the areas of civilian nursing, military nursing, and the
... Hero tales also offer energizing benefits, providing people with agency and efficacy. Narratives of heroism bring about moral elevation, repair psychic wounds, and promote psychological growth (Kinsella et al., 2015(Kinsella et al., , 2017Allison and Goethals, 2016). ...
... St. Francis of Assisi expressed it this way: "You must preach the Gospel at all times, and when necessary use words" (Rohr, 2014, p. 263). A mentor can be viewed as a type of hero who enhances the lives of others (Kinsella et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the phenomenon of heroic metamorphosis: what it is, how it unfolds, and why it is important. First, we describe six types of transformation of the hero: mental, moral, emotional, spiritual, physical, and motivational. We then argue that these metamorphoses serve five functions: they foster developmental growth, promote healing, cultivate social unity, advance society, and deepen cosmic understanding. Internal and external sources of transformation are discussed, with emphasis on the importance of mentorship in producing metamorphic growth. Next we describe the three arcs of heroic transformation: egocentricity to sociocentricity, dependence to autonomy, and stagnation to growth. We then discuss three activities that promote heroic metamorphosis as well as those that hinder it. Implications for research on human growth and development are discussed.
... As an explanation of leaders' behavior, the study of the role of heroism reveals that the individual basis for what is considered heroic encompasses a series of specific features (categories, prototypes, self-representations) [49][50][51]. Heroes have also been known to fulfill a series of functions that can be a powerful social influence for other individuals [52][53][54]-and, specifically, in the relationships between leader and followers [55,56]. Moreover, the function of heroism in leadership is consistent with contributions linked to the idea of heroism as a tool for providing guidelines that influence the way individuals may lead their own lives [57][58][59][60]. ...
... This contribution is further enhanced by the fact that this methodology has not often been seen in empirical research based on analytical psychology, and also, above all, because of the fact of instrumentalizing this perspective, thereby enabling it to dialogue with other more consolidated approaches to leadership research. In this sense, for example, the prototypicality of leaders [2,18,19]-which has a cognitive base, also characteristic of questionnaires such as the TST and the Personal Values survey-may display components of interinfluence between leader and followers that should be taken into account both in the spheres of heroism [49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56] and psychological typology [31]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In heroism, leadership research has a myth that provides the basis for a deeper exploration of the characteristics of the unconscious (collective, personal) and consciousness of leaders—characteristics that can mobilize their followers. This contribution goes on to show that heroism can provide a foundation that foments the creativity of women leaders—from a sustainable standpoint—with the purpose of jointly analyzing aspects of the collective unconscious (heroism), the personal unconscious (psychological typology), and consciousness (self-descriptions, values) in a sample of women emerging as leaders. The participants in the study were 34 students following a Master’s program oriented towards training future CEOs as leaders, aged between 22 and 38 years old (M = 27.22 years old; SD = 3.77). The instruments consisted of a story that each participant wrote about herself as the main heroine; the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI); the Twenty-Statement Test (TST); and a questionnaire on personal values. The main results show the common structure of the stories of personal heroism, as well as the characteristics (unconscious, conscious, personal, and collective) that can serve to foster the sustainable use of personal creativity. The research carried out provides knowledge that may be integrated into other perspectives of leadership analysis.
... Rhetorical classifications of whistleblowers as heroes may also motivate ethical or moral behaviors (cf., Allison & Goethals, 2016;Kinsella et al., 2015). If media outlets describe whistleblowing as an important social duty and only label it heroic when fulfilling the elements described by Richardson and McGlynn (2021), other potential whistleblowers may be encouraged while avoiding the pitfalls of stereotyping all whistleblowing as heroic (Brown, 2016). ...
... If media outlets describe whistleblowing as an important social duty and only label it heroic when fulfilling the elements described by Richardson and McGlynn (2021), other potential whistleblowers may be encouraged while avoiding the pitfalls of stereotyping all whistleblowing as heroic (Brown, 2016). The impact of heroes on one's values is prevalent in lay perceptions of heroes and the narratives in which they are often encountered in (Allison & Goethals, 2016;Kinsella et al., 2015). Due to the moral motivations behind their actions and the often-severe consequences they face for their behaviors, whistleblowers can also be considered as moral exemplars or those who live a life of moral excellence (Walker, 1999). ...
Article
Whistleblowers are individuals who witness a moral infraction committed within their organization and report this infraction publicly to hold the group accountable. Whistleblowers often face ridicule, vilification, and exclusion both within their group and sometimes within broader society. Thus, whistleblowers put themselves at personal risk to adhere to their moral code and protect others; these criteria commonly classify someone as a hero. We argue diverse reactions to whistleblowers are influenced by numerous situational factors that influence perceptions of a whistleblower's intentions as well as the expected consequences of their whistleblowing. Whether a whistleblower is viewed as a virtuous reformer (i.e., hero) or a harmful dissident may depend partly on the degree to which individuals believe that there is a discrepancy between an organization's lived values and their stated values. While whistleblowers ostensibly provide evidence that this discrepancy exists, cognitive dissonance processes may forestall acceptance of this evidence in many cases. Believing that one is affiliated with a corrupt organization-while one also believes that they are a good, moral and adequate person-may lead to uncomfortable experiences of dissonance. It may be easier for many to reduce this dissonance by disparaging or discounting whistleblowers, rather than altering their own actions (which may involve becoming a whistleblower themselves) to reflect their personal values.
... E. Franco et al., 2018), we could not consider that social media users heroised someone simply because they attributed a predefined trait to them. Kinsella et al. (2015b) argue that heroes can be identified by the social roles they play, which can be operationalised in three categories: uplifting the lives of others, moral modelling, and protecting. Relying on these authors' work, we assumed that social media users implicitly heroised: ...
... The collected comments were hand-coded. Though automated processes could have analysed explicit heroisation, hand-coding allowed us to also explore implicit heroisation, the standpoint taken on heroes and the social dynamics at play in the heroisation process, which could not be fully studied through automated key word analysis alone (Kinsella et al., 2015b) because these aspects were addressed in qualitatively varying ways. While we considered the frequency of occurrence of themes to evaluate their quantitative importance, our research remained mostly qualitative. ...
Article
The perception of epidemic risk has been associated with the production of narratives in which figures such as villains and heroes emerge. This article critically analyzes social media users’ construction of heroic figures during the 2013–2016 Ebola epidemic. We used international Twitter and Facebook comments as our raw material, collected by key word extraction. A thematic analysis resulted in a descriptive typology of three heroic figures: the martyr, the warrior, and the saviour. Our analysis showed that heroic status (highly associated with willingness to take high risks on behalf of others) was mostly conferred on common individuals and ‘insiders’ living in the Ebola-afflicted communities – often deemed ‘unsung’ – rather than the foreigners frequently heroised in previous crises. We deconstruct this heroisation dynamic, showing that it is a socially strategic move because it is embedded in a potential instrumentalization of heroes. First, this production of ‘everyday heroes’ may encourage the involvement of lay people in the epidemic response, by conveying that anyone can become a health hero. Second, we show that this heroisation process maintains the status quo by encouraging adherence to biomedical discourses, and by individualising the narrative and neglecting the structural changes needed to address the epidemic. Finally, we caution against discourses that seem socially ‘progressive’ but may be used as a smokescreen to hide discriminatory dynamics, and we recommend changes in communication strategies.
... Campbell's work has been influential in the fields of counselling and psychotherapy (Rebillot, 1989;Rubin, 2009), education (Brown & Moffett, 1999), film (Moyers and Company, 2017), self-help (Moore & Gillette, 1991), and writing (Vogler, 1998). The nascent field of heroism science has also emerged in recent years (Franco & Zimbardo, 2006;Franco et al., 2011;Zimbardo, 2011;Goethals & Allison, 2012;Allison & Goethals, 2015;Kinsella et al., 2015aKinsella et al., , 2015bEfthimiou & Allison, 2016;Efthimiou & Franco, 2017;Efthimiou et al., 2018;Franco et I CAN BE A HERO 19 al., 2018;Allison, 2019;Allison et al., 2019;Kohen & Solo, 2019;Martinet al., 2019;Condren, 2020;Kinsellaet al., 2020). Researchers in heroism science have sought to define and understand heroism. ...
... These were interpreted by each participant in a unique way according to their own personality. The link between belief, morality, values, and heroes has been well-documented throughout the history of anthropology, philosophy, and psychology (Malinowski, 1948;May, 1991;Goethals & Allison, 2012;Kinsella et al., 2015a;Kinsella et al., 2020). The postconventional morality (Rest et al., 2000) embodied by heroes and symbolized in hero stories is naturally attractive to adolescents, as it displays a more efficient solution to common problems (Duska & Whelan, 1975). ...
Thesis
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Hero stories are inspiring, ubiquitous, and magnetic to children and adolescents. Psychologists and scholars postulate their ability to facilitate psychological development (Campbell, 1949; Jung, 1954, 1959, 1968; May, 1991; Von Franz, 1990, 1996; Le Grice, 2013; Allison & Goethals, 2015; Efthimiou & Franco, 2017). This retrospective study was the first to empirically investigate the relationship between engaging with fictional hero stories and personality development among adolescent males. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to illuminate the shared experience of the male participants (n=3, age = 19-25). All participants had a relationship with their hero, learned lessons from them, and were inspired by them. The Heroic Leadership Dynamic (Allison & Goethals, 2015) and models of cognitive, moral, and identity development were used to interpret this data. Engaging with fictional hero stories during adolescence had a number of meaningful effects on the participants’ personality development. The following propositions summarize the effects: Hero stories (a) support emotional intelligence development; (b) evoke elevation and expression of heroic traits; (c) help overcome hardship and limitations through sharing experiences with the hero; (d) facilitate cognitive and moral development; (e) facilitate identity and narrative identity development; (f) produce the therapeutic factors of group therapy even in the absence of group storytelling; and (g) together, these effects influence personality development towards well-being. Many of these findings are novel and unique. Future research is needed to determine their veracity. Adolescence is a critical period of personality development and hero stories are an accessible, attractive, and effective means of supporting adolescents’ well-being.
... Although climate heroes' behavior cannot normally be imitated in daily life, realistic heroes often take action that people could do as part of their professional lives [142]. Even when dissimilar from the player, empirical research on heroes suggests that they can still inspire and motivate to uphold the values that they represent [89]. In the area of climate action, familiarity with Greta Thunberg has been shown to predict efcacy and intention to engage in activism [135], which has been dubbed "the Greta Thunberg Efect. ...
Conference Paper
Games are considered promising for engaging people with climate change. In virtual worlds, players can adopt empowering roles to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and/or adapt to climate impacts. However, the lack of a comprehensive exploration of existing climate-related identities and actions prevents understanding their potential. Here, we analyze 80 video games and classify avatar identities, or expected player roles, into six types. Climate selves encourage direct life changes; climate citizens are easy to identify with and imitate; climate heroes are inspirational figures upholding environmental values; empowered individuals deliberate to avoid a tragedy of the commons; authorities should consider stakeholders and the environment; and faction leaders engage in bi- or multilateral relations. Adaptation is often for decision-making profiles, while empowered individuals, authorities, and faction leaders usually face conflicting objectives. We discuss our results in relation to avatar research and provide suggestions for researchers, designers, and educators.
... This finding resonates with similar findings within the TMT literature, wherein people will often embrace risky or even deadly heroic behaviors as a means of accessing the reassuring social and psychological functions such risky demonstrations of bravery, moral integrity, and/or sacrifice can provide (Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015a). The anxiety-buffering utility of performing these kinds of heroic actions may flow in part from the moral transcendence they are able to convey through what Kinsella, Ritchie, and Igou (2015b) describe as increased "positive feelings about humanity," along with greater "confidence that there is good in the world." Research in this area appears to indicate certain forms of death transcendence may favor the symbolic over the physical self. ...
Article
Existential anxiety is a primary and powerful force driving human behavior. Terror management theory (TMT), an overarching framework for understanding the role existential anxiety plays in human motivation, can be used to explain and predict many of the cognitive, affective, and conative aspects of human action. This chapter begins with a general overview of TMT, presenting the essential assumptions of the theory, along with a brief review of some of the key empirical findings demonstrating its broad utility. Next, we present a discussion of TMT's use as a theory for understanding and predicting certain basic and fundamental aspects of interpersonal, intergroup, interethnic, and intercultural interaction, along with its relevance for research applications within health, risk, crisis, and political communication, as well as social and interpersonal influence processes. The chapter concludes with suggestions for how the theory may be applied by communication researchers in the future.
... Although the concept of heroism is not new, few research studies existed on the topic 15 years ago. New research has illuminated the primary and secondary traits of heroes (Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015a) and the functions of heroes (Allison & Goethals, 2014;Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015b). Over these years, research has increased and added to our knowledge about the internal and external factors that influence heroic behavior (Kohen, Langdon, & Riches, 2017), lay conceptions of heroes and their associated psychological functions , and the potential for heroic figures in promoting positive outcomes in themselves and others (Efthimiou, Allison, & Franco, 2018). ...
... From the earliest beginnings of Mankind our relationships with heroes, and their diverse and storied lives (Campbell, 1949), have had a profound evolutionary influence on the imagination and development of human societies that endures today (Zimbardo, 2007; Allison and Goethals, 2011;Franco, Blau, & Zimbardo, 2011;Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015;Efthimiou, 2016;Efthimiou & Franco, 2017;Efthimiou, Allison, & Franco, 2018). Joseph Campbell's comparative work on the hero myth and the narrative pattern of the hero's journey popularised the field and offered humanistic and transpersonal psychologies, and now heroism science, a plausible blueprint to go alongside their own for mapping and understanding humanity's evolutionary potential. ...
... Sullivan ve Venter (2010), farklı kahramanlık tanımlarından da hareketle, kahramanlık tanımı bileşenlerini; eylemin değerli ve soylu olması, bir rol model olarak algılanması, ideal bir kişisel imaj temsili şeklinde belirtmişlerdir. Yapılan araştırmalar, kahramanların üç önemli psikolojik, sosyal ve fiziksel işleve olanak sağladıklarını, hizmet ettiklerini göstermektedir; başkalarını canlandırmak ve geliştirmek, ahlak, etik ve değerleri modellemek ve başkalarının fiziksel ve psikolojik iyi oluşlarını korumak (Kinsella, Ritchie & Igou, 2015). Franco, Blau, Zimbardo (2011: 101) Goethals ve Allison (2012)'ın) belirttiği gibi "kahramanlık, ona bakanın gözlerindedir". ...
Article
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... People who attend war zones are usually considered to be heroes. Heroes usually have significant roles in boosting others' morale, promoting ethical practice, and protecting people against threats [40]. Similarly, nurses who attend war zones to save victims' lives are considered to be heroes, and become role models for others [41]. ...
Article
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As a professional value, the love of the profession can significantly affect nurses’ professional practice, behaviors and commitment. Many different factors can affect the love of the profession. The exploration of nurses’ experiences of these factors can provide valuable data for development of the love of the profession. The aim of this study was to explore nurses’ perceptions of the factors contributing to the development of the love of the profession. This qualitative study was conducted in 2020–2021 using the conventional content analysis approach. The participants were thirteen nurses with different organizational positions purposively recruited from different settings in Iran. The data were collected via semi-structured interviews, and were analyzed via the conventional content analysis approach proposed by Graneheim and Lundman. The factors contributing to the development of the love of the profession were categorized into four main categories, namely the public perception of the profession (with three subcategories), educational variables (with two subcategories), the characteristics of the profession (with four subcategories), and nurses’ self-evaluation (with three subcategories). The love of the profession is affected by a wide range of personal, educational, professional and social factors. The manipulation of these factors would help to develop nurses’ and nursing students’ love of the profession, and encourage people to choose nursing as a career.
... The concept refers to individuals who face their own mortality, take serious personal and social risks and overcome adversity in service of personal principles, purposes or beliefs (Franco et al., 2011). Three hero functions related to social responsibility are enhancement, moral modelling and protection, all for the benefit of society at large (Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2016). Research into the multi-faceted concept of heroism revealed certain characteristics, identified as the 'Great Eight' most associated with heroes: inspiring, selfless, smart, strong, charismatic, reliable, caring, and resilient (Allison & Goethals, 2011;Keczer et al., 2016). ...
Chapter
On the 3rd December 1967, Professor Christiaan Neethling Barnard performed the first human heart transplant at the Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town. His extraordinary career as physician and cardiac surgeon included many exceptional achievements that culminated in the first human heart transplant and contributed to his international reputation as medical pioneer. Barnard was born after the end of World War I and grew up in rural South Africa. He adjusted well to school and early in his career demonstrated ability to work hard. Apart from his initial medical training, it took Barnard 21 years to prepare for the operation that revolutionised the treatment of heart diseases. Ultimately, the preparation for the first heart transplant included intensive studies, methodical goal-setting, demanding laboratory experiments and operations, the acquisition of a repertoire of surgical skills, as well as training a team to support his work, investigations into organ rejection and networking with international experts. Although it is based on an academic psychobiography (Master’s dissertation), this chapter is an attempt to formulate a non-academic psychobiography of Barnard’s career. In the academic psychobiography, the career development framework of Greenhaus, Callanan, and Godshalk was employed. Instead of formulating a theoretical interpretation of Barnard’s general career development, this chapter aims to illuminate the specific events and experiences that culminated in the first human heart transplant.
... The topic of heroism has been generally viewed in positive ways by the general public (Kinsella et al., 2015a;Kinsella et al., 2015b), however, here we see an interesting twist where the label is applied strategically (or at least viewed as such) with some negative consequences. This has perhaps been most specifically apparent in the UK, where the rhetoric of heroism frequently used by the government in reference to its healthcare workers in particular has seemed to be at odds with political decision-making even after the first surge of the pandemic. ...
Article
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Objective: Frontline workers have shown extraordinary resilience and sustained efforts since the outbreak of COVID-19. The present study used semi-structured interviews with 38 frontline workers in the UK and Ireland to explore the psychological impact of working through COVID-19. Design: The qualitative data were analysed systematically using thematic analysis. Results: Four themes were interpreted: 1)) “I’ve stopped turning the telly on. I’ve had to because the news was making me ill”: An ecosystem of influence; 2) “Dead, dead, dead”: The emotional and psychological toll: 3) “It's shone a light on what we're failing on as well”: Injustices, hierarchies and heroes: and 4) “I definitely think COVID happened for a reason to stop us in our tracks and to slow us down”: Unexpected positives. Conclusion: This research offers insights into how frontline workers make sense of their experiences during periods of enormous societal and occupational stress. The learnings generated have relevance for government and organisational policy-makers who have opportunities to shape future conditions for frontline workers.
... Due to the lack of a common theoretical framework for courage (Howard and Fox, 2020), researchers often use it to identify relationships that can develop more sophisticated theoretical integrations (Howard and Fox, 2020;Kapp and Scheele, 1996). The lay theory of courage tends to include all positive virtue with attribution of courage, and Mediating role of workplace social courage courageous people have three important functions, which are enhancing, moral modeling and protecting (Detert and Bruno, 2017;Kinsella et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Workplace social courage is a courageous behavior that can damage the actor’s social relationships, social image, and accrue face-loss costs. Sometimes it is difficult to differentiate courageous behavior from incivility that predicts higher levels of psychological distress. While workplace social courage is widely discussed in the management literature, less is known about the conditions under which individuals are more or less likely to exhibit courageous behaviors. Given the theoretical considerations, in the present study, we consider two indicators of quality of life which are life satisfaction and happiness; and set the aim of the study as to investigate, the relationships between organizational justice and two dimensions of quality of life—life satisfaction and happiness—with particular attention to the mediation function performed by courage. Cross-sectional survey data (n=408) were obtained from employees working in Turkey Fortune companies and analyzed with variance-based structural equation modeling (VB-SEM) technique. The results showed that perceived organizational justice is a strong antecedent for workplace social courage. Workplace social courage emerges as a facilitator for subjective happiness and life satisfaction. Workplace social courage mediated the association between perceived organizational justice and subjective happiness, and between perceived organizational justice and life satisfaction. Prescriptions for theory development and practitioners are highlighted, research limitations and future directions are acknowledged. So far, most of the work done in this subject is mainly in Western countries, and it is considered as a virtue, feature, emotion, and behavior in the studies of social scientists, and, mainly focused on how employees need the courage to perform the desired behaviors that affect organizational outcomes positively such as organizational citizenship behavior, job performance, job satisfaction, life satisfaction, psychological well-being. Also, were studied how social courage positively relates to beneficial voice and silence as well as negatively relates to detrimental voice and silence, how courage is correlated with psychological empowerment, coaching, and how courage mediates on quality of life. As can be seen, there is little empirical work when comes to the antecedents of courage in business life. Therefore, this study, which has been done with different variables in a different culture and country, aims to support and bring a new breath to the subject. Besides, the mediating effect of courage on the organizational variables is also among the trendiest subjects.
... The consequences of labelling frontline workers as heroes may also have inadvertently led to a shift in group behaviour where the responsibility for taking action to suppress the virus moved away from the larger collective (the public) to smaller subgroups (frontline heroes). A shift in this sense of responsibility (in light of those more, or uniquely, qualified to take the lead) may also have reduced compliance with public health measures due to the heightened sense of psychological safety and protection that heroes provide to others, reducing the sense of threat (Kinsella et al., 2015a). The failure of the collective efforts to minimise or drive down transmission potentially prolongs the pandemic, and the absence of adequate social support through prolonging the separation of frontline workers from their loved ones, feeding into the burnout concepts of workload and control (Maslach and Leiter, 2008). ...
Article
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The context of Covid-19 has offered an unusual cultural landscape for examining how workers view their own position relative to others, and how individuals respond to prolonged exposure to workplace stress across different sectors and cultures. Through our recent work tracking the well-being of frontline workers in the UK and Ireland (the CV19 Heroes project), we have uncovered additional psychological factors that have not been accounted for in previous models of occupational stress or burnout. In recent months, frontline workers have worked to protect the community from the threat of SARS-CoV-2 and, simultaneously, have evaluated their perceptions of collective efforts of others as either congruent or incongruent with collective goals (e.g., lowered mortality and morbidity): we call this novel aspect solidarity appraisal. These frontline workers have been hailed as heroes, which we argue has led to the creation of an implicit psychological contract (the hero contract) between frontline workers and the public. Here, the heroes are willing to "go above and beyond" for the greater good, with the expectation that we (the public) do our part by adhering to public health guidelines. Where frontline workers perceive incongruence between the words and actions of others in working toward collective goals this drives negative affect and subsequent burnout. In this perspective article, we evaluate the cultural context of the pandemic in the UK and Ireland and suggest important socio-cultural factors that contribute to perceptions of solidarity, and how this may relate to burnout and worker welfare during and beyond the pandemic context.
... Burnes and By (2012), for instance, observe that there is an almost "cult-like belief" in leaders, who can be seen as heroic and charismatic figures. Indeed, people were shown to view leaders' characteristics-levels of conviction, strength, inspiration, proactivity, and courage-as equal to those they attribute to their personal heroes (Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015). This tendency also underpins the classic "romance of leadership" phenomenon, which describes people's tendencies to consider leaders uniquely powerful in determining whether an organization will succeed or fail (Meindl, Ehrlich, & Dukerich, 1985). ...
Article
Impostorism, a phenomenon whereby a person perceives that the role they occupy is beyond their capabilities and puts them at risk of exposure as a “fake,” has attracted plentiful attention in the empirical literature and popular media. However, despite evidence that impostorism is frequently experienced by people in leadership positions, there has been little consideration of why this happens. In this theoretical article, we explain why formal leadership roles—roles that are characterized by elevated expectations, high visibility, and high levels of responsibility—are fertile ground for impostorism experiences. We also discuss how the associated self-conscious emotions of shame and fear, can increase leaders’ risk-aversion and enhance leader role performance, yet at the same time drive emotional exhaustion, and reduce their motivation to lead. This can ultimately inhibit leaders from seeking, claiming, and thriving in leadership roles. We offer individual-, dyadic-, and organization-level contextual characteristics that can either enhance or reduce this phenomenon. We also discuss how supportive organizations can mitigate leadership impostorism. Furthermore, we highlight how women and minority-status leaders may be more vulnerable to this experience and conclude by suggesting the practical implications of the leader impostorism phenomenon for individuals and organizations.
... The consequences of labelling frontline workers as heroes may also have inadvertently led to a shift in group behaviour where the responsibility for taking action to suppress the virus moved away from the larger collective (the general public) to smaller subgroups (frontline heroes). A shift in this sense of responsibility (in light of those more, or uniquely, qualified to take the lead) may also have reduced compliance with public health measures due to the heightened sense of psychological safety and protection that heroes provide to others, reducing the sense of overall threat (Kinsella et al., 2015a). The failure of the collective efforts to minimise or drive down transmission potentially prolongs the pandemic, and the absence of adequate social support through prolonging the separation of frontline workers from their loved ones. ...
Chapter
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Continuous development of psychobiographical methodology has culminated in the establishment of best practice guidelines aimed at the production of sound studies that meet the requirements for credibility, transferability, confirmability and dependability. This chapter aims to address the objectivity challenges arising from possible researcher bias during subject selection. The authors propose employing a suitability indicators approach to eugraphic subject selection by considering contextual factors and utilizing the psychosocial concept of generativity in its broadest sense. This would enable the objective selection of subjects from a greater pool of eminent lives than only those well known and potentially idealized. The chapter concludes with the application of these guidelines to the study of two South Africans who, despite several striking differences, had a shared socio-historical context and generative focus, namely their opposition to the apartheid system. Examples from psychobiographical works on Beyers Naudé (1915–2004) and Helen Suzman (1917–2009) illustrate the proposed approach.
Research
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Stolen valor, or falsely claiming to have performed military service or claiming to have served in a different capacity than actually occurred, seems to be a growing problem in society. With the five branches (Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, and Air Force), and large amount of awards, the United States has created a large amount of confusion when it comes to military service. Even so, very little is known about the people who commit stolen valor and the financial crimes they commit. The current study is meant to lay a foundation for future research on the topic. The current study created a database from publically available online data on stolen valor offenders. The website used for analysis contained the cases of 68 people who have been outed for having falsified their military history. To analyze their stories content analysis was used. The current study’s findings suggest, although the results are not generalizable, that many people who have served in the military may falsify their military history. Furthermore, many of the offenders have a criminal record detailing their generalist criminal tendencies. There are many more characteristics which were found to be relevant to these offenders. As this is the first scholarly study on the topic, not including legal papers pertaining to the Stolen Valor Act of 2005, many more questions need answering. Better and more data can allow for better policy to be created. Even so, there are some recommendations based on the current sample. First, more information needs to be available to the general public concerning military awards and regulations. Also, a database containing basic data of people who have served should be available to the public so if a person makes a claim of military service, it can be checked in a decent time frame. Likewise, certain disorders seem to be used more often than other disorders to gain financial benefits. Better recognition of these disorders and research into them may be necessary to decrease the amount of fraud committed.
Article
Purpose: To conduct a mixed methods, pre-post, retrospective study on the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of the LoveYourBrain Yoga program. Materials and Methods: People were eligible if they were a traumatic brain injury survivor or caregiver, age 15–70, ambulatory, and capable of gentle exercise and group discussion. We analyzed attendance, satisfaction, and mean differences in scores on Quality of Life After Brain Injury Overall scale (QOLIBRI-OS) and four TBI-QOL/Neuro-QOL scales. Content analysis explored perceptions of benefits and areas of improvement. Results: 1563 people (82.0%) participated ≥1 class in 156 programs across 18 states and 3 Canadian provinces. Mean satisfaction was 9.3 out of 10 (SD 1.0). Mixed effects linear regression found significant improvements in QOLIBRI-OS (B 9.70, 95% CI: 8.51, 10.90), Resilience (B 1.30, 95% CI: 0.60, 2.06), Positive Affect and Well-being (B 1.49, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.84), and Cognition (B 1.48, 95% CI: 0.78, 2.18) among traumatic brain injury survivors (n = 705). No improvement was found in Emotional and Behavioral Dysregulation, however, content analysis revealed better ability to regulate anxiety, anger, stress, and impulsivity. Caregivers perceived improvements in physical and psychological health. Conclusions: LoveYourBrain Yoga is feasible and acceptable and may be an effective mode of community-based rehabilitation. • IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION • People with traumatic brain injury and their caregivers often experience poor quality of life and difficulty accessing community-based rehabilitation services. • Yoga is a holistic, mind-body therapy with many benefits to quality of life, yet is largely inaccessible to people affected by traumatic brain injury in community settings. • Participants in LoveYourBrain Yoga, a six-session, community-based yoga with psychoeducation program in 18 states and 3 Canadian provinces, experienced significant improvements in quality of life, resilience, cognition, and positive affect. • LoveYourBrain Yoga is feasible and acceptable when implemented on a large scale and may be an effective mode of, or adjunct to, community-based rehabilitation.
Article
We examined the impact of viewing exemplars on people's behaviour in risky decision-making environments. Specifically, we tested if people disproportionally choose to view and then imitate the behaviour of successful (vs. unsuccessful) others, which in the case of risky decision-making increases risk-taking and can hamper performance. In doing so, our research tested how a fundamental social psychological process (social influence) interacts with a fundamental statistical phenomenon (regression to the mean) to produce biases in decision-making. Experiment 1 (N = 96) showed that people indeed model their own behaviour after that of a successful exemplar, resulting in more risky behaviour and poorer outcomes. Experiment 2 (N = 208) indicated that people disproportionately choose to examine and then imitate most successful versus least successful exemplars. Experiment 3 (N = 381) replicated Experiment 2 in a context where participants were offered the freedom to examine any possible exemplar, or no exemplar whatsoever, and across different incentive conditions. The results have implications for decision-making in a broad range of social contexts, such as education, health, and finances where risk-taking can have detrimental outcomes, and they may be particularly helpful to understand the role of social influence in gambling behaviour.
Chapter
With characteristic pugnaciousness, Martin Luther, embroiled in debate, succinctly and confidently defined the Christian church: “thank God, a seven-year-old child knows what the church is, namely, holy believers and sheep who hear the voice of their Shepherd.”
Chapter
The 6-11 Framework (Dillon R., On the way to fun: An emotion-based approach to successful game design, 2010) explains game playing experience using emotion and motivation. Specifically, game playing experience induces six emotions, including anger, fear, joy/happiness, pride, sadness, and excitement, and 11 core instinctual behavioral responses, including survival, self-identification, collecting, greed, protection/care/nurture, aggressiveness, revenge, competition, communication, exploration/curiosity, and color appreciation. The 6-11 Framework depicts game playing experience in a systematic way, useful for academicians and industry professionals. Nonetheless, it originated from simple empirical observations and lacked a proper means to measure the 11 motivations proposed in the model. Therefore, the first step to testing the model is to construct a questionnaire to quantify the 11 motivations. In this study, we constructed the Gaming Instinctual Motivation Scale and conducted a pilot test with a sample of 20 participants. The data showed that the scale had high internal consistency regardless of the game genres, indicating that the scale items were measuring the same construct even when applied in various game genres. The questionnaire could be used in future studies that intend to apply the components proposed in the 6-11 Framework and to test gaming motivations in general. Also, the questionnaire may be useful for industry professionals in predicting the possible motivations of game play.
Article
Objective To explore the experience of living with an Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) in individuals who report higher or lower posttraumatic growth (PTG). Method A multi-method design was employed. Participant scores on the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) were used to identify groups for qualitative comparative analysis. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with fourteen individuals with ABI. Data were analysed thematically. Results Four themes emerged. The first two themes: “In my mind I was fine” surviving in aftermath of acquiring a brain injury and The everyday as “derailing” capture the transition process from an initial rehabilitation state characterised by neuropsychological and avoidance coping, towards active rebuilding for PTG. Internal building blocks for PTG and Growing in the social world: “you need to have that social connection” elaborate on the internal (e.g., acceptance, integration of the pre and post-injury self) and external (e.g., social relationships) factors seen to facilitate or obstruct PTG. Conclusions Under certain conditions, individuals living with ABI may construe positive growth from their experiences. Practitioners can support PTG development by providing individual and family-based supports aimed at increasing acceptance, the integration of self, and social connection throughout all stages of ABI rehabilitation. • IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION • Internal factors such as having a flexible and positive mindset and external factors such as one’s social environment can affect how individuals living with an ABI construe positive growth. • Individuals with ABI and their families require access to individualised longitudinal support for neuropsychological and social challenges that can result in increased distress and obstruct the development of PTG. • Efforts to facilitate acceptance and support the integration of the pre and post-injury self through recognition of continuity of self and processing of new schematic beliefs can benefit PTG development. • Rehabilitation providers should support individuals with ABI to develop or maintain a positive social identity within new or existing social groups.
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Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic the use of the term “hero” has been widespread. This is especially common in the context of healthcare workers and it is now unremarkable to see large banners on hospital exteriors that say “heroes work here”. There is more to be gleaned from the rhetoric of heroism than just awareness of public appreciation, however. Calling physicians and nurses heroes for treating sick people indicates something about the concept of medicine and medical professionals. In this essay, I will examine three aspects of the social role of medicine exposed by the language of heroism. One, if a hero is someone who goes above and the call of duty, then does that mean exposing oneself to risk of infection is no longer a duty of physicians (as it used to be)? If so, does that mean the “profession” of medicine is much like any other business? Two, physicians and nurses are not the only “heroes” this go-around. Anyone deemed essential to the US “infrastructure” is designated by the US government as having “special responsibilities” to remain at their posts for the public good, which explicitly puts physicians in the same category as sewage workers and grocery store cashiers. Three, what does it mean to belong to a profession that does (or does not) have self-sacrifice and risk-taking as part of its mission—especially a profession that rarely gets called upon to practice these obligations?
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Since the implementation of preventive and compulsory social isolation, every night at 9:00 p.m. thousands of Argentines applaud the health system personnel from their patios, balconies and windows in support of their daily tasks.The purpose of this article is to present a critical analysis of the applause that the Argentine population offers as an emotional support for workers in the health sector in times of Covid-19. To achieve this objective, the following argumentative strategy is followed: a) the relationship between heroes and spectators in a spectacularized society is described; b) second, a series of videos of different cities with structural diversity (social class, scale) from the virtual ethnography will be analysed; c) third, applause as an emotion is analysed according to the contexts of its production from the perspective of the sociology of bodies/emotions. Finally, the paper concludes with some questions about the relationship between public health and sensibilities in the post-Covid-19 era.
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Predicting positive psychosocial outcomes following an Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) remains a challenge. Considerable research demonstrates that social group memberships can have positive effects on psychological well-being, particularly during life transitions. Social group memberships are argued to help people derive a sense of self. This prospective study examined if social group memberships (number of groups and connectedness with groups) could predict posttraumatic growth (PTG) in those affected by ABI. Thirty-six participants (10 females, Mage= 46.56, SD = 11.46) engaged in community rehabilitation services completed measures at two time-points. Mediation analyses demonstrated that the number of new group memberships (groups formed post-injury) predicted greater PTG at time 2, via stronger connectedness with these new group memberships (controlling for initial PTG). The observed results suggest that a focus on developing and strengthening connections with new group memberships may promote positive adjustment after brain injury.
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Objectives: Posttraumatic growth (PTG) is of increased theoretical and clinical interest. However, less is known about PTG in older adults specifically. This systematic review aimed to identify domains where PTG is studied for older adults; investigate factors associated with PTG in older adults; consider how these might differ between historical and later life traumas. Methods: Online databases were searched for quantitative studies examining PTG outcomes in adults aged ≥ 60 years. Results: 15 studies were subject to a narrative synthesis. Conclusions: Older adults can experience substantial levels of PTG, from traumas during later life or across the lifespan, and historical wartime traumas. Traumas can be diverse, some studies found equivalent levels of PTG from different traumas across the lifespan. Social processes may be a key variable for older adults. Additional psychosocial factors are found; however, diverse findings reflect no overall model, and this may be consistent with variations found in other PTG literature. Clinical implications: Clinical considerations are discussed. As diverse studies, findings may not be widely generalizable and directions for further research are highlighted. PROSPERO: CRD42020169318.
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How can authoritarian regimes effectively control information to maintain regime legitimacy in times of crisis? We argue that media framing constitutes a subtle and sophisticated information control strategy in authoritarian regimes and plays a critical role in steering public opinion and cultivating an image of competent government during a tremendous crisis. Using structural topic models (STM), we conduct a textual analysis of more than 4,600 news reports produced by seven Chinese media outlets during the COVID-19 pandemic. We find that Chinese media, instructed by the propaganda authorities, used a heroism frame to feature frontline medics’ sacrifices when saving others in need and resorted to a contrast frame to highlight the poor performance of the United States in the fight against COVID-19. We also show that both state and commercial media outlets used these two frames, though the tone of commercial media coverage was generally more moderate than the state media version.
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This paper draws on Judith Butler’s (2009, 1997) writing on precarity and the interpellatory power of naming, read through her recent writing on the dynamics of recognition, vulnerability, and resistance, to develop a critique of the discourse of heroism used to position health and social care professionals, and other key workers, during the COVID pandemic. It does so in order to reflect on the insights into workplace inequalities that this example provides, in particular into what, to borrow from Butler, we might think of as the conditions necessary for a “workable life”. It argues that, although it might seem paradoxical, the heroic discourses and symbolism used to recognize health and social care workers throughout the pandemic can be understood as a form of “injurious speech” in Butler's terms, one that served to other key workers by subjecting them to a reified, rhetorical form of recognition. The analysis argues that this had the effect of accentuating health and care workers' precarity and of undermining their capacity to challenge and resist this positioning.
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Charlotte Brontë and Edith Wharton held happiness at the tips of their fingers and had to let it slip away because of the means necessary to fully grasp it. Sacrificing beliefs and principles was the price to pay for being with the men they loved, and as difficult as the decision was, neither of them could bear to pay that price. There are few cases in which it is perfectly justifiable to falter in this way, but love is definitely one of them. Neither woman had someone to hold her to any standards, both were given interpretations of the situation that made it seem okay to go against their beliefs in this case. Both of them had every reason to stay, but both of them chose to leave.
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This textbook offers an excellent introduction to the variety of research methods used within the fields of clinical and health psychology. The book provides a detailed, yet concise, explanation of both qualitative and quantitative approaches and draws upon case-study examples to illustrate how these can be used in a variety of health-care settings, with special relevance to clinical disorders, disease prevention and health promotion. Research Methods for Clinical and Health Psychology fulfils the demand for a textbook explaining how qualitative and quantitative methods can be used explicitly in a health psychology context. It will be invaluable reading for clinical and health psychology students, trainees and practitioners, as well as those in nursing, medical and other healthcare departments taking an advanced psychology option.
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People use the term hero frequently in our culture, and most people can easily name several heroes. Our research explores how people think about heroes as well as the determinants of heroic behavior. People’s heroes may be real-world figures or fictional characters. They are thought to be competent enough to achieve at a high level, moral enough to do the right thing in difficult situations, or both. People’s conceptions of heroes reflect both schemas about what heroes are like and narrative structures about how they act. We consider the possibility that images of heroes and common hero narratives reflect evolutionarily-based archetypes. Given that typical conceptions of heroes include high levels of competence and morality, we consider aspects of self, including self-efficacy, self-affirmation, self-theories of intelligence, self-guides, and self-control that enable people to achieve at high levels and to act morally, even when doing so is difficult. We discuss research showing that people’s needs for heroes prepare them to perceive struggle and to root for underdogs. Work on a death-positivity bias and admiration for martyrs illustrates the centrality of self-sacrifice in hero schemas and the perceptions of heroes. Finally we propose a taxonomy of heroes based on various dimensions of influence such as strength, duration, direction, exposure, and origins. The subtypes of heroes in our taxonomy are Transforming, Transfigured, Traditional, Transparent, Transposed, Tragic, Transitional, Transitory and Trending. In addition, we consider a Transcendent Hero category, referring to heroes who affect their admirers in ways that combine the influences of other types.
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Do liberals and conservatives have qualitatively different moral points of view? Specifically, do liberals and conservatives rely on the same or different sets of moral foundations-care, fairness, loyalty, authority, and purity (Haidt, 2012)-when making moral judgments about influential people? In Study 1, 100 experts evaluated the impact that 40 influential figures had on each moral foundation, yielding stimulus materials for the remaining studies. In Study 2, 177 American liberal and conservative professors rated the moral character of the same figures. Liberals and conservatives relied on the same 3 moral foundations: For both groups, promoting care, fairness, and purity-but not authority or loyalty-predicted moral judgments of the targets. For liberals, promoting authority negatively predicted moral judgments. Political ideology moderated the purity-moral and especially authority-moral relationships, implying that purity and authority are grounds for political disagreement. Study 3 replicated these results with 222 folk raters. Folk liberals and conservatives disagreed even less about the moral standing of the targets than did experts. Together, these findings imply that moral foundation theory may have exaggerated differences between liberals and conservatives. The moral codes of liberals and conservatives do differ systematically; however, their similarities outweigh their differences. Liberals and conservatives alike rely on care, fairness, and purity when making moral judgments about influential people. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Factor analysis, path analysis, structural equation modeling, and related multivariate statistical methods are based on maximum likelihood or generalized least squares estimation developed for covariance structure models (CSMs). Large-sample theory provides a chi-square goodness-of-fit test for comparing a model (M) against a general alternative M based on correlated variables. It is suggested that this comparison is insufficient for M evaluation. A general null M based on modified independence among variables is proposed as an additional reference point for the statistical and scientific evaluation of CSMs. Use of the null M in the context of a procedure that sequentially evaluates the statistical necessity of various sets of parameters places statistical methods in covariance structure analysis into a more complete framework. The concepts of ideal Ms and pseudo chi-square tests are introduced, and their roles in hypothesis testing are developed. The importance of supplementing statistical evaluation with incremental fit indices associated with the comparison of hierarchical Ms is also emphasized. Normed and nonnormed fit indices are developed and illustrated. (43 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reviews evidence which suggests that there may be little or no direct introspective access to higher order cognitive processes. Ss are sometimes (a) unaware of the existence of a stimulus that importantly influenced a response, (b) unaware of the existence of the response, and (c) unaware that the stimulus has affected the response. It is proposed that when people attempt to report on their cognitive processes, that is, on the processes mediating the effects of a stimulus on a response, they do not do so on the basis of any true introspection. Instead, their reports are based on a priori, implicit causal theories, or judgments about the extent to which a particular stimulus is a plausible cause of a given response. This suggests that though people may not be able to observe directly their cognitive processes, they will sometimes be able to report accurately about them. Accurate reports will occur when influential stimuli are salient and are plausible causes of the responses they produce, and will not occur when stimuli are not salient or are not plausible causes. (86 ref)
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We sought to examine the concept of authentic leadership and discuss the influences of authenticity and authentic leadership on leader and follower eudaemonic well-being, as well as examine the processes through which these influences are realized. This was accomplished in four ways. First, we provide an ontological definition of authentic leadership, rooted in two distinct yet related philosophical approaches to human well-being: hedonism and eudaemonia. Second, we develop a multi-component model of authentic leadership based on recent theoretical developments in the area of authenticity. The resulting model consists of self-awareness, unbiased processing, authentic behavior/acting and authentic relational orientation. Third, we discuss the personal antecedents (leader characteristics) of authentic leadership as well as the outcomes of authentic leadership for both leaders and followers and examine the processes linking authentic leadership to its antecedents and outcomes. Fourth, we discuss the implications of this work for authentic leadership theory and then provide some practical implications for developing authentic leaders.
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The now-classic Metaphors We Live By changed our understanding of metaphor and its role in language and the mind. Metaphor, the authors explain, is a fundamental mechanism of mind, one that allows us to use what we know about our physical and social experience to provide understanding of countless other subjects. Because such metaphors structure our most basic understandings of our experience, they are "metaphors we live by"--metaphors that can shape our perceptions and actions without our ever noticing them. In this updated edition of Lakoff and Johnson's influential book, the authors supply an afterword surveying how their theory of metaphor has developed within the cognitive sciences to become central to the contemporary understanding of how we think and how we express our thoughts in language.
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Based on a series of lectures delivered in 1840, Thomas Carlyle's On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in History considers the creation of heroes and the ways they exert heroic leadership. From the divine and prophetic (Odin and Muhammad) to the poetic (Dante and Shakespeare) to the religious (Luther and Knox) to the political (Cromwell and Napoleon), Carlyle investigates the mysterious qualities that elevate humans to cultural significance. By situating the text in the context of six essays by distinguished scholars that reevaluate both Carlyle's work and his ideas, David Sorensen and Brent Kinser argue that Carlyle's concept of heroism stresses the hero's spiritual dimension. In Carlyle's engagement with various heroic personalities, he dislodges religiosity from religion, myth from history, and truth from "quackery" as he describes the wondrous ways in which these "flowing light-fountains" unlock the heroic potential of ordinary human beings.
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Heroic Leadership is a celebration of our greatest heroes, from legends such as Mahatma Gandhi to the legions of unsung heroes who transform our world quietly behind the scenes. The authors argue that all great heroes are also great leaders. The term 'heroic leadership' is coined to describe how heroism and leadership are intertwined, and how our most cherished heroes are also our most transforming leaders. This book offers a new conceptual framework for understanding heroism and heroic leadership, drawing from theories of great leadership and heroic action. Ten categories of heroism are described: Trending Heroes, Transitory Heroes, Transparent Heroes, Transitional Heroes, Tragic Heroes, Transposed Heroes, Transitional Heroes, Traditional Heroes, Transforming Heroes, and Transcendent Heroes. The authors describe the lives of 100 exceptional individuals whose accomplishments place them into one of these ten hero categories. These 100 hero profiles offer supporting evidence for a new integration of theories of leadership and theories of heroism.
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Heroes are ubiquitous in literature and popular discourse, yet little is known about cognitive representations of heroes. We examined lay conceptions of heroes using a prototype approach, compared heroes with other persons of influence, and studied how individuals use hero features to identify heroes. In Study 1, participants (N = 189) generated open-ended descriptions of heroes, which were sorted by independent coders into 26 meaningful categories. In Study 2, participants (N = 365) rated the centrality of these features, and subsequently classified each feature as either central (e.g., brave, moral integrity) or peripheral (e.g., humble, proactive). In a reaction time (RT) paradigm, participants in Study 3 (N = 33) identified central features of heroes faster than peripheral features. In Study 4, participants (N = 25) remembered more central hero features than peripheral features in a surprise recall task. In Study 5 (N = 89), participants most strongly identified a hero when the target was described with central features (vs. peripheral or neutral features). In Studies 6 (N = 212) and 7 (N = 307), participants’ ratings evidenced that the prototypical features of heroes did not fit conceptually as well for role models and leaders. In all, these studies contribute new ideas to existing knowledge about heroes, and contribute to a shared understanding of what a hero means to people. Our research is thus an important step in refining heroism into a scientific concept. The notion of the prototypical features of heroes provides a basis for future hero research and intervention.
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Theorists have suggested that generativity combines tendencies toward both agency and communion in adult lives. The highly generative adult is able to generate products that extend the self in a powerful way (agency) and to offer those products to others with the purpose of assisting the next generation (communion). This study examined differences between two groups of subjects, more and less generative adults, in their autobiographical expressions of agency and communion. Employing a new coding system for analyzing themes of agency and communion in significant life-story scenes, the study revealed that highly generative adults express greater levels of communion in their autobiographical scenes than do less generative adults, especially with respect to the communal themes of dialogue and care/help. Highly generative adults also show greater levels of agency/communion integration. However; in the agency themes alone, no significant differences between the two groups emerged.
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This article is concerned with measures of fit of a model. Two types of error involved in fitting a model are considered. The first is error of approximation which involves the fit of the model, with optimally chosen but unknown parameter values, to the population covariance matrix. The second is overall error which involves the fit of the model, with parameter values estimated from the sample, to the population covariance matrix. Measures of the two types of error are proposed and point and interval estimates of the measures are suggested. These measures take the number of parameters in the model into account in order to avoid penalizing parsimonious models. Practical difficulties associated with the usual tests of exact fit or a model are discussed and a test of “close fit” of a model is suggested.
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• As the title suggests, this book examines the psychology of interpersonal relations. In the context of this book, the term "interpersonal relations" denotes relations between a few, usually between two, people. How one person thinks and feels about another person, how he perceives him and what he does to him, what he expects him to do or think, how he reacts to the actions of the other--these are some of the phenomena that will be treated. Our concern will be with "surface" matters, the events that occur in everyday life on a conscious level, rather than with the unconscious processes studied by psychoanalysis in "depth" psychology. These intuitively understood and "obvious" human relations can, as we shall see, be just as challenging and psychologically significant as the deeper and stranger phenomena. The discussion will center on the person as the basic unit to be investigated. That is to say, the two-person group and its properties as a superindividual unit will not be the focus of attention. Of course, in dealing with the person as a member of a dyad, he cannot be described as a lone subject in an impersonal environment, but must be represented as standing in relation to and interacting with another person. The chapter topics included in this book include: Perceiving the Other Person; The Other Person as Perceiver; The Naive Analysis of Action; Desire and Pleasure; Environmental Effects; Sentiment; Ought and Value; Request and Command; Benefit and Harm; and Reaction to the Lot of the Other Person. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) • As the title suggests, this book examines the psychology of interpersonal relations. In the context of this book, the term "interpersonal relations" denotes relations between a few, usually between two, people. How one person thinks and feels about another person, how he perceives him and what he does to him, what he expects him to do or think, how he reacts to the actions of the other--these are some of the phenomena that will be treated. Our concern will be with "surface" matters, the events that occur in everyday life on a conscious level, rather than with the unconscious processes studied by psychoanalysis in "depth" psychology. These intuitively understood and "obvious" human relations can, as we shall see, be just as challenging and psychologically significant as the deeper and stranger phenomena. The discussion will center on the person as the basic unit to be investigated. That is to say, the two-person group and its properties as a superindividual unit will not be the focus of attention. Of course, in dealing with the person as a member of a dyad, he cannot be described as a lone subject in an impersonal environment, but must be represented as standing in relation to and interacting with another person. The chapter topics included in this book include: Perceiving the Other Person; The Other Person as Perceiver; The Naive Analysis of Action; Desire and Pleasure; Environmental Effects; Sentiment; Ought and Value; Request and Command; Benefit and Harm; and Reaction to the Lot of the Other Person. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
This fully updated edition of a best-selling textbook continues to provide the most comprehensive European introduction to issues in work and organisational psychology for those with no prior knowledge of the field.Presents a solid foundation on a range of core topics including working with technology, human performance, and the virtual organization. Updated throughout to include recently emerging themes and current views in the field Improved instructor and student support includes key studies, research close-ups, discussion points and three extensive case studies
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Despite the commonly accepted belief that people are influenced by their heroes, researchers have yet to examine the process by which this occurs. The current study examined whether the process of inclusion-of-other-in-self (IOS; Aron & Aron, 19862. Aron A Aron EN 1986 Love and the expansion of self: Understanding attraction and satisfaction New York, NY: Hemisphere View all references), previously used to describe how significant others and social groups influence individuals' self-concepts, can explain individuals' connections to cultural heroes.A Stroop-like self-description test used previously to test IOS was presented to 63 participants. As expected, information about people's heroes affected their ability to complete self-descriptions whereas information about comparable non-heroes did not.Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of self-concept research.
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Past work has documented and described major patterns of adaptive and maladaptive behavior: the mastery-oriented and the helpless patterns. In this article, we present a research-based model that accounts for these patterns in terms of underlying psychological processes. The model specifies how individuals' implicit theories orient them toward particular goals and how these goals set up the different patterns. Indeed, we show how each feature (cognitive, affective, and behavioral) of the adaptive and maladaptive patterns can be seen to follow directly from different goals. We then examine the generality of the model and use it to illuminate phenomena in a wide variety of domains. Finally, we place the model in its broadest context and examine its implications for our understanding of motivational and personality processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes a theoretical framework whereby the action's endogenous attribution is linked with the inferences of intrinsic motivation, subjective freedom, and the action's underlying intention. The endogenous-exogenous distinction is proposed to replace the frequently invoked partition between the action's internal and external causes. Both conceptual and empirical considerations are put forth in favor of such a replacement. Classical attribution topics to which the internal-external partition has been applied are reinterpreted in terms of the endogenous-exogenous distinction, and novel data are reported that support the latter framework. Finally, several categories of conditions for endogenous (or exogenous) attributions are identified, and possible directions of further research within the endogenous-exogenous framework are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The authors propose that superstars are most likely to affect self-views when they are considered relevant. Relevant superstars provoke self-enhancement and inspiration when their success seems attainable but self-deflation when it seems unattainable. Participants' self-views were affected only when the star's domain of excellence was self-relevant. Relevant stars provoked self-enhancement and inspiration when their success seemed attainable in that participants either still had enough time to achieve comparable success or believed their own abilities could improve over time. Open-ended responses provided rich evidence of inspiration in these circumstances. Relevant stars provoked, if anything, self-deflation when their success seemed unattainable in that participants either had already missed the chance to achieve comparable success or viewed their abilities as fixed and so unlikely to improve. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Upward social comparison is generally regarded as ego deflating, yet people often compare themselves with those whose abilities and attributes are better than their own. Upward comparison provides useful information, which may partially account for this behavior. Furthermore, it is proposed that upward comparison only sometimes results in more negative self-evaluations; it can also be self-enhancing. A review of studies testing upward comparison effects on self-evaluations, self esteem, and affect is consistent with this conclusion. Thus, people may make upward comparisons in hopes of enhancing their self-assessment. It is concluded that upward comparison is not in conflict with the desire for positive self-regard and indeed serves it indirectly (through self-improvement) and sometimes directly (by enhancing the self). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reviews, analyzes, and compares the lives of Charles A. Lindbergh and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin to demonstrate the continuing existence of the American hero in contemporary society. The concept of pioneer hero can be maintained by expanding the frontier from the notion of land to limitless outer space. It is concluded that the basis of modern hero worship is the representation of the human aspect of technology; only the hero's style and manner are changed, not his personal intervening power. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In a prestudy, a questionnaire was sent to 97 professors in the fields of art, business, philosophy, and physics; it was also given to 17 laypersons. Ss were asked to list behaviors characteristic of an ideally intelligent, creative, or wise person in one's field of endeavor, or in general (for laypersons). In Exp I, 285 professors in the same fields and 30 laypersons rated the extent to which each of the behaviors listed at least twice in the prestudy was characteristic of an ideally intelligent, creative, or wise individual. In Exp II, a subset of the behaviors from the prestudy was sorted by 40 undergraduates to yield a multidimensional space characterizing the Ss' implicit theories for intelligence, creativity, and wisdom. In Exp III, 30 adults rated themselves on a subset of the behaviors from the prestudy, and these ratings were correlated with "ideal prototype" ratings to yield a measure of resemblance to the prototype. Resemblance scores were then correlated with scores on standardized ability tests. In Exp IV, 30 adults rated hypothetical individuals described in simulated letters of recommendation in terms of their intelligence, creativity, and wisdom. Results reveal that people have systematic implicit theories of intelligence, creativity, and wisdom, which are used accurately both in evaluating themselves and in evaluating hypothetical others. Moreover, the implicit theories for each of the constructs show at least some convergent–discriminant validity with respect to each other. (47 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Various studies have investigated the precision with which individuals forecast the duration of their affective states that result from events. It is hypothesized that these forecasts rely on lay theories about the progression of affect over time such that lay theories of decreasing affect lead to shorter estimates of the duration of affect than do lay theories of continuing affect. Two studies subtly primed lay theories of progression—one priming theories of affect progression specifically, and the other priming theories of progression more generally—and demonstrated that the accessibility of these lay theories influenced affective forecasts as hypothesized. Study 2 demonstrated that the impact of these lay theories was less pronounced under high elaboration conditions. Results and implications for the inaccuracy of affective forecasts are discussed.
Article
The authors propose that individuals transitioning to a novel environment will prefer upward comparisons, particularly those made with individuals who have experienced a similar transition. Such comparisons help to reduce uncertainty and demonstrate that future success is possible. Study 1 found that individuals facing transitions to unfamiliar situations seek upward comparisons as a result of their uncertainty. Study 2 demonstrated that individuals who perceive themselves to be making a significant life transition are especially motivated by upward comparisons. Study 3 provided evidence that upward comparisons are especially inspiring to individuals making a transition to a novel cultural environment. Study 4 provided experimental evidence that individuals in a novel cultural environment are particularly inspired by upward comparisons with other newcomers. These studies suggest that upward comparisons with individuals who have experienced a similar transition enhance individuals' sense of control over future outcomes and play a key role during adjustment to novel environments.
Article
Laypersons’conceptions of a good heterosexual relationship were examined in four studies. In study 1, a total of 120 German college students listed all aspects of a good intimate relationship. The resulting 1,010 items represented 352 distinct features, of which the 64 most frequently mentioned were selected for further analyses. In study 2, a total of 107 German college students rated the degree of centrality of the 64 items and reliably distinguished central from peripheral features. These data are consistent with a prototype analysis of the concept “good relationship.” In study 3, central features were round to be more salient in memory than were peripheral features, and in study 4, central features were associated with shorter response latencies than were peripheral ones. The specific features identified by laypersons as central to a good relationship were compared to those identified by experts, and the similarities and differences between the lay concepts of love and good relationships were also examined.
Article
It is a basic and an undeniable fact of social life that one form impressions of other people whom they encounter in the day-to-day lives. As a direct result of generations of theory and research on impression formation and person perception, investigators have learned a great deal about the way individuals process information to form beliefs and impressions of other people. Accordingly, there exists considerable knowledge about the antecedents of social beliefs. The practical implications of these reality-constructing consequences of social beliefs are considerable, both at the level of individual lives and at the level of society. This chapter highlights that the processes of social thought are intimately woven into the fabric of social interaction and interpersonal relationships. The events of the lives are very much a reflection of one's beliefs about other people in the social worlds. Finally, it is in this sense that beliefs can and do create reality.