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Understanding individual resilience in the workplace: The international collaboration of workforce resilience model

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When not managed effectively, high levels of workplace stress can lead to several negative personal and performance outcomes. Some professional groups work in highly stressful settings and are therefore particularly at risk of conditions such as anxiety, depression, secondary traumatic stress, and burnout. However, some individuals are less affected by workplace stress and the associated negative outcomes. Such individuals have been described as "resilient." A number of studies have found relationships between levels of individual resilience and specific negative outcomes such as burnout and compassion fatigue. However, because psychological resilience is a multi-dimensional construct it is necessary to more clearly delineate it from other related and overlapping constructs. The creation of a testable theoretical model of individual workforce resilience, which includes both stable traits (e.g., neuroticism) as well as more malleable intrapersonal factors (e.g., coping style), enables information to be derived that can eventually inform interventions aimed at enhancing individual resilience in the workplace. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new theoretical model of individual workforce resilience that includes several intrapersonal constructs known to be central in the appraisal of and response to stressors and that also overlap with the construct of psychological resilience. We propose a model in which psychological resilience is hypothesized to mediate the relationship between neuroticism, mindfulness, self-efficacy, coping, and psychological adjustment.
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... Although the full scale of the COVID-19 pandemic impact on the health and well-being of healthcare providers is yet unknown, the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on front-line workers has long surpassed that of the SARS and MERS epidemics due to its' unprecedented global spread and high death rate (Hall, 2020). The consequences of poor psychological health of healthcare workers are known to greatly increase absenteeism (Barello et al., 2020;Brborović et al., 2017;Dyrbye et al., 2019) and can lead to healthcare worker burnout and compassion fatigue (Kelker et al., 2021;Rees et al., 2015;Zhang et al., 2018). ...
... Of the healthcare personnel that have tested positive, nurses have significantly higher odds of mortality compared with other healthcare personnel (Jackson et al., 2020 Increased resilience has been hypothesized to act as a protective factor against the negative impacts of occupational stress especially in healthcare workers in outbreak environments (Lancee et al., 2008). Resilience is defined by Windle et al. (2011, p.2) as the 'process of negotiating, managing and adapting to significant sources of stress or trauma', or the ability to 'bounce back' from adverse events (Rees et al., 2015). Resilience is also largely understood to be a dynamic process where individuals use resources to cope with and learn from adversity (Grafton et al., 2010). ...
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Aim To evaluate the impact of the COVID‐19 pandemic on the emotional and spiritual well‐being and resilience of a global sample of Advanced Practice Nurses. Design A web‐based cross‐sectional mixed methods study. Survey data were collected from Advanced Practice Nurses globally over a 2‐month period ending on 31 August 2020. Methods The Warwick‐Edinburgh Mental Well‐being Scale, FACIT‐12 Spiritual Well‐being Scale and Connor‐Davidson Resilience Scale 10 were used to quantify emotional and spiritual well‐being and resilience of Advanced Practice Nurses' globally. The survey was distributed internationally using snowball sampling via a secure platform (Qualtrics). Results were analysed using various bivariate tests for associations and group differences. Results Nine hundred and twenty‐eight Advanced Practice Nurses from 53 countries participated in the study. Study participants reported meaningfully lower scores in resilience and emotional well‐being compared with non‐pandemic scores. Participants from countries with well‐developed Advanced Practice Nurses roles reported lower resilience and well‐being scores compared with those from countries where Advanced Practice Nurses roles are still being developed. Each scale revealed significant positive associations with the other scales. Conclusions Emotional and spiritual well‐being and resilience of Advance Practice Nurses has been significantly impacted during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Regardless of their work location, work hours, credential or demographics, the APNs in our study reported lower levels of resilience and mental well‐being compared with typical scores on the instruments.
... Assessment of resiliency in SC is also highlighted in the literature. Rees et al. (2015) presented a resilience supply chain model based on reviewed literature. They found that it is better to assess supply chain resilience by two dimensions: vulnerabilities and capabilities. ...
... There are so many studies that describe the relationship between levels of resilience and supply chain activities. However, since resilience is a multidimensional concept, it is completely necessary to determine the difference between that and other concepts which may have overlapping with it, so testable theoretical models of resilience have been constructed by some researchers (Rees et al., 2015). We can count on a variety of resilient practices in supply chain management, but we seek to improve visibility, collaboration, coordination, and understanding of suppliers. ...
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This article utilizes balanced score card (BSC) and resilience engineering factors for organizational performance. The methodology involves two stages: in the first stage, we tried to find the efficiency of organization based on previous projects of the organization applying data envelopment analysis (DEA). In order to apply DEA model for organizational assessment, some questionnaires have been spread among managers of the organization. Principal component analysis (PCA) is introduced in the second stage to highlight the shaping factors that influence overall efficiency. Furthermore, a comparison will be made with sensitivity analysis of DEA and PCA results. The results of the comparison highlight the importance of the three categories (BSC, RE, and sustainability) on organizational performance. After identifying the shaping factors and assessing the organization’s situation, artificial neural network (ANN) is applied to help us find the success factor (utility) of future projects and a mathematical formulation is presented which helps the decision makers select the best projects considering organizational situation and values. According to results, resilience engineering factors, including flexibility, management commitment, reporting culture, learning, awareness, preparedness, teamwork, redundancy, self-organization, and fault tolerance, are the most shaping and decisive factors in organization efficiency. The importance of RE over environmental factors and the coverage of data made by RE factors indicate that this construction environment devoted a great deal of attention to RE factors.
... Individual resilience was assessed using Campbell-Sills and Stein (2007) 10-item CD-RISC scale which has reasonably good psychometric properties. This scale was used because it is a shortened version of the most widely used assessment of resilience worldwide (Rees et al., 2015). ...
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Mindfulness has come to be considered an important approach to help individuals cultivate transformative capacity to free themselves from stress and suffering. However, the transformative potential of mindfulness extends beyond individual stress management. This study contributes to a broadening of the scope of contemplative science by integrating the prominent, individually focused mindfulness meditation literature with collective mindfulness scholarship. In so doing, it aims to illuminate an important context in which mindfulness interventions are increasingly prevalent: workplaces. Typically, the intended effect of workplace mindfulness training is to help workers manage stress better. Since mindfulness in organizations impacts individual and collective processes, the study blends the above literatures to create a cross-level “next-generation” Team Mindfulness Training (TMT) pilot. Its potential in helping individuals and teams to manage work stress better is investigated via a two-phase mixed-methods research study in high-stress military work populations, and compared to a conventional (“first-generation”) 8-week mindfulness meditation program based on mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Results suggest that compared to the “first-generation” mindfulness program, TMT seems no less effective in raising individual stress management skills, and may hold more promise in generating collective capacity to manage stress and unexpected difficulty, linked to an apparent interdependence between collective and individual mindfulness capacity development. Based on these empirical results, the study contributes to theory in three important ways: first, it outlines how individual and collective mindfulness in workplaces may be interdependent. Second, it explains why “next-generation” workplace training interventions should apply a cross-level approach. And third, it illustrates how its transformative potential for people at work, individually as well as collectively, can be extended by moving beyond an inward-looking meditation focus in mindfulness training. The study contributes to practice by providing a detailed outline of the pilot TMT program, and offers a series of follow-up research opportunities to inspire further scientific innovation in workplace mindfulness training, especially for high-stress work populations. The study’s ultimate aim is to prompt a shift away from adapting clinically oriented, self-focused “first-generation” mindfulness training protocols, and towards mindfulness as team sport: a more prosocially oriented mindfulness science intent on generating wisdom and compassion, for one and all.
... It is well known that nursing is recognized as a high-stress and high-risk profession, and the tremendous occupational stress and tense doctorpatient relationship not only bring physical and psychological burnout to nurses, but also further deepen the turnover intention of individual nurses (Foster et al., 2020). Research shows that psychological resilience can effectively protect nurses' psychological boundaries, enabling them to overcome various stresses at work and actively cope with workplace adversities, and that nurses with high psychological resilience have stronger adaptive and regulatory abilities, and will actively seek coping methods in the face of adversity to effectively relieve individual stress and thus achieve their own growth and career development (Rees et al., 2015;Mcdonald et al., 2016). ...
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Nurses’ career success is an important factor affecting the quality of nursing services and the stability of the nursing workforce, and enhancing nurses’ career success level is of key significance to the development of the nursing discipline. As psychological resilience and craftsmanship are important spiritual traits in the process of nurses’ career development, it is important to understand the mechanism of their effects on nurses’ career success level. To explore the current situation of craftsmanship, psychological resilience and career success levels of female nurses in central China, and to verify the mediating role of craftsmanship between psychological resilience and female career success using structural equation model. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2359 female nurses from three hospitals in central China through an online questionnaire, including craftsmanship, psychological resilience and career success scale. The data were analyzed by Z-test and Spearman rank correlation with SPSS 23.0 statistical software, and the mechanism of the effect of craftsmanship and psychological resilience on career success was completed by AMOS 23.0 statistical software. The scores of career success, psychological resilience, and craftsmanship of female nurses in central China were 68.00 (61.00, 75.00), 74.00 (64.00, 84.00), and 83.00 (79.00, 95.25). Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that Chinese female nurses’ career success was positively correlated with craftsmanship (r = 0.511, P < 0.01) and psychological resilience (r = 0.595, P < 0.01). Craftsmanship played a mediating role between psychological resilience and career success, accounting for 39.3% of the total effect ratio. The scores of career success and psychological resilience of female nurses in central China are at a moderate level, and craftsmanship plays a mediating role between psychological resilience and career success. It is suggested that nursing managers should pay attention to the importance of career success to nurses’ self-development and nursing team stability, and improve their sense of career success by effectively improving nurses’ psychological resilience and craftsmanship.
... Individual resilience is the psychological capacity that allows individuals to withstand stress, to cope with adverse situations, and even grow in the face of crisis (Masten, 2007;Ong, Bergeman, & Boker, 2009). Factors normally connected to individual resilience can be grouped into four JOURNALMODERNPM.COM RESILIENT PROJECT MANAGEMENT categories: personality traits (or characteristics), problem solving skills, social competences, and emotions (Cooper, Flint-Taylor, & Pearn, 2013;Rees, Breen, Cusack, & Hegney, 2015). While older research treated resilience as personal trait, recent literature highlights that individual resilience is highly dependent on the context. ...
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For some time, the term resilience has been used in project management research to address the ability to organize under a variety of scenarios of uncertainty and sudden change, including disruptions in the form of shocks or stressors. This paper examines the prerequisites in projects, organizations, and teams as well as individuals for resilient management of projects based on two complementary empirical sources First, the results of eight case vignettes based on semi-structured online interviews with project management practitioners are presented. Subsequently, results were reviewed and enriched with the experiences of experienced project managers in a group discussion. Findings highlight the importance of preparation and awareness, diversity and equality in the team and information relationships. On the other hand, resilient organizations are characterized more formalization, centralized and individualistic decision-making. Above all project managers acting prudently and flexibly along the time axis from incubation to coping and recovery.
... Furthermore, the individual and the environment are distinct but synergistically related (i.e., transactionally dynamic process of person-environment exchanges) producing diverse resilience (Greene, 2002;Morse et al., 2021;Polk, 1997). Consequently, different settings and times demand different types of resilience (e.g., professional, personal/individual, psychological) (Eley et al., 2018;Jackson et al., 2007;Martin & McDowall, 2021;Rees et al., 2015). It is indubitable that resilience among nurses is a much-needed value. ...
Article
Aim: To examine the role of demographic factors, mindfulness, and perceived stress on resilience among nurses. Background: Resilience is an important attribute in the nursing profession although factors affecting it are very diverse. Knowing these factors may help in enhancing nurses' resilience and their subsequent quality healthcare delivery. Method: Utilizing a cross-sectional descriptive survey, a convenience sample was recruited to answer questions assessing resilience, perceived stress, and mindfulness in Taiwan between October and November 2021. Independent t-tests, one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs), and hierarchical regression were used to analyse the data. Results: A total of 816 nurses participated in the study. Postgraduate degree nurses had lower perceived stress (p=0.006) and higher resilience (p=0.003) compared to their college and undergraduate counterparts. Nurses working in internal medicine had significantly higher levels of perceived stress (p=0.006) and lower levels of mindfulness (p=0.005) compared to those in other departments. Single nurses had significantly higher levels of mindfulness (p=0.04) but lower levels of resilience (p=0.049) than those who were married. Educational level, perceived stress, and mindfulness were all factors that influenced nurses' resilience. Conclusion: Higher educational levels, perceived stress, and mindfulness appear to influence nurses' resilience. Nurses should therefore be encouraged to upgrade themselves academically, attend refresher courses, and learn adaptive coping strategies. Implications for nursing management: Hospital authorities should help nurses deal with stressful issues, and offer career development opportunities to update, upgrade and enhance their skillsets in the profession.
... In addition, self-efficacy plays a significant role in fostering resilience (Kumfer, 1999;Cody, 2013;Rees et al., 2015), which has been confirmed as the strongest predictor of professional identity (Bhattarai et al., 2020;Zhang et al., 2021). However, no empirical study has examined the mediating role of resilience in the relationship between self-efficacy and professional identity (Hayat et al., 2021;Ma et al., 2021). ...
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This study was designed to estimate the associations between self-efficacy and professional identity. A total of 1,051 freshmen nursing students (FNSs) from the Be Resilient to Nursing Career (BRNC) program were recruited from four universities between September and November 2020. A latent profile and moderated meditation analysis were performed. Four profiles of self-efficacy were identified and named as Lowest (15.6%), Med-low (45.0%), Med-high (32.7%), and Highest (6.7%). The mediating role of resilience and the moderating effect of role models were also identified. Therefore, self-efficacy, resilience, and role models may be three important factors to professional identity in FNSs and these relationships should be further validated in longitudinal or interventional studies.
... As such, we developed a 2-year cohort program -Be Resilient to Nursing Career (BRNC; ChiCTR2000038693) -to estimate changes in mental health, psychological resilience, professional identity, burnout, and retention from the beginning of internship to the first year of employment. This study focuses on this prospective cohort and is based Rees's resilience model in the workplace, 13 which is illustrated in Figure 1. It was designed to identify latent subgroups in NGNSs with different mental health profiles using latent profile analysis (LPA), examine demographics associated with mental health profiles, and estimate the potential nonlinear association between psychological resilience and mental health with generalized additive model (GAM) analysis. ...
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Background: Psychological resilience is important to mental health and professional development in newly graduated nursing students (NGNSs). However, the association between psychological resilience and mental health in NGNSs is less explored. Purpose: The current study was designed to determine mental health profiles measured by the Kessler 10 scale (K10) and evaluate the non-linear association between psychological resilience and mental health in NGNSs. Methods: A total of 472 NGNSs from the Be Resilient to Nursing Career program were assessed using the K10 and ten-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10). Latent profile analysis and generalized additive model analysis were performed. Results: A four-class model based on the K10 was identified: lowest (28.0%), lower-middle (36.4%), upper-middle (26.1%), and highest (9.5%) subgroups. Academic degree and psychological resilience were significant indicators of mental health profiles. Psychological resilience was negatively and nonlinearly correlated with mental health when the CD-RISC 10 score was >17. Conclusion: There exists heterogeneity in NGNSs' mental health. The negative and nonlinear association between psychological resilience and mental health can only be confirmed in NGNSs with moderate and high resilience levels.
... They also report that these factors led to an inability to meet the urgent needs posed by pandemics. Similarly, Rees et al. (2015) identified that reduced emotional well-being of health care workers greatly increases absenteeism and can lead to burnout and compassion fatigue. This impacts on patient care and patient safety (Cheng et al., 2020). ...
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Aim: To investigate the emotional and spiritual wellbeing and resilience of Advanced Clinical Practitioners during COVID. Background: Resilience is a protective factor for emotional and spiritual wellbeing. The pandemic has taken a toll on health professionals due to significant physical and psychological pressures. The impact of COVID-19 on well-being and resilience of Advanced Clinical Practitioners is not known. Evaluation: Three validated scales assessed resilience, emotional and spiritual wellbeing. Seven hundred and thirty-four responses were analysed. Key issues: Participants have low levels of emotional and spiritual wellbeing. Participants with higher levels of spirituality reported greater resilience and those with higher levels of resilience reported greater wellbeing. Conclusion: Advanced Clinical Practitioners' emotional and spiritual wellbeing and resilience has been impacted significantly during the pandemic. Interventions are needed at team, service and systems levels to enhance well-being and resilience. Implications for nursing management: Worryingly low levels of wellbeing and resilience in Advanced Clinical Practitioners have been found, support to increase wellbeing and resilience is needed. Our findings can inform policies, resources and interventions aimed at enabling positive adaptation and enhanced resilience. Understanding and responding to the scale and impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers has become a key government recommendation following the pandemic.
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