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Electrolyzed Water Applications in Aquaculture and the Seafood Industry

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... Apart from these physical methods, the efficacy of chemical sanitizers, such as chlorine and chlorine-based sanitizers (Kim, Huang, Marshall, & Wei, 1999) and acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) (Mccarthy & Burkhardt, 2012;Ozer & Demirci, 2006a;Rahman, Khan, & Oh, 2016) have been also assessed for disinfection of raw fish during processing. Interestingly, AEW is broadly applied in Japan as a washing step for raw fish in sushi industry (Rahman et al., 2016), and advised as sanitizer in aquatic foods for shelf-life extension (Rasco & Ovissipour, 2015). Furthermore, the concept of biopreservation, which involves the addition of antagonistic, bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria has been also introduced to control the growth of Listeria spp. on smoked salmon (Vescovo, Scolari, & Zacconi, 2006). ...
... Moreover, low bacterial reduction might be explained by insufficiently short time (1 min, in this study) of treatment and that raw fish tissue is a difficult food matrix for decontamination, which strongly attach bacterial cells, compared to skin surface (Mahmoud et al., 2004). Hence, to overcome this drawback, combining effect of two or more discontamination methods in lower quantities could be applied (Rahman et al., 2016;Rasco & Ovissipour, 2015). ...
... Likewise, Ozer and Demirci (2006a) reported higher inactivation of L. monocytogenes Scott A (1.12 log CFU/g) at 35 C compared to 22 C (0.4 log CFU/g). However, increased temperatures of AEW treatment were not recommended for application in seafood industry due to possible quality change of seafood (Rasco & Ovissipour, 2015). ...
Article
The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of various decontamination treatments of raw salmon fillets, namely acidic electrolyzed water (AEW), ultraviolet light (UV), ultrasound (US), and their combinations against Listeria monocytogenes and natural microbiota including total viable count (TVC), total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and yeasts and molds. The changes in quality and sensory parameters of treated salmon samples were also evaluated. The combined treatments: UV+US and UV+US+AEW showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher reduction in L. monocytogenes of 0.79 and 0.75 log CFU/g, respectively, compared to control (0.17 log CFU/g) washed with sterile distilled water (dH2O). TVC was reduced by 0.59 and 0.64 log CFU/g after UV+US and UV+US+AEW treatments, respectively. The color and odor of salmon were significantly affected after combined treatments, but the texture and firmness of tissue were not significantly (P> 0.05) changed. These results indicate that UV+US and UV+US+AEW were the most effective at reducing the populations of L. monocytogenes and natural microbiota on raw salmon fillets. The AEW treatment by itself was found to be ineffective for raw salmon sanitation. However, these combined treatments should be improved by optimizing other factors such as treatment temperature, time and the distance between UV and food sample to enhance their anti-listerial or antimicrobial effects.
... The technology is based on electrolysis of water containing sodium chloride or 1 potassium chloride in an electrolysis chamber, where anode and cathode electrodes are separated by an ionpermeable diaphragm. 1 Positive charge forms at the anode surface through an oxidation process, whereas a reduction process takes place at the cathode surface. Herewith, two new products form in the cathode and anode zone, known as catholyte and anolyte, respectively. ...
Article
Electrolyzed water (EW) is a widely used disinfectant agent with high oxidation–reduction potential (ORP). Although EW has been used in many areas, such as food hygiene, agriculture, and animal husbandry, the studies presented in the literature are not enough to clarify the toxic effects of EW. The aim of this study is, therefore, to produce EWs at different pH, ORP, and chlorine concentrations and to assess their safety in terms of toxicology. At the beginning of the study, the antimicrobial activity of the EW types with respect to bacteria and fungus was investigated. EWs below pH 7 were all effective in inactivating Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans completely. In vitro studies of cell cultures revealed that different concentrations of EWs were not cytotoxic for the L929 cells under 10- to 80-fold dilutions. In addition, it has been determined that produced EWs did not have irritation potential, according to the in vitro EpiDerm ™ , reconstituted skin irritation test in the frames of biocompatibility tests. For the mucous membrane irritation test, the hen’s egg test-chorioallantoic membrane experiment was performed, and EWs were found to have no eye irritation. In conclusion, it has been shown that produced EWs with antimicrobial efficacy were found to be safe for skin and eye according to in vitro biocompatibility study studies. Thus, the establishment of a technological infrastructure for the EW production and the use of produced EW as an effective disinfectant in the food, medical, and agricultural areas should be encouraged.
... Recently, the hurdle enhancement of EW with sodium chloride (2%) was able to maintain the quality of fresh-cut 'Nanglae' pineapples and could be used to extend the shelf life of pineapples (Lasomboon et al. 2016). In another study, EW in combination with carbon monoxide gas treatment improved the quality and freshness of tuna steaks, extending the shelf life under refrigeration storage Rasco and Ovissipour 2015). Recently, Zhang and Yang (2017) studied the effect of EW with H 2 O 2 on fresh-cut lettuce and reported that the combination of EW with 1% H 2 O 2 achieved 1.69 and 0.96 log CFU/g reductions in aerobic mesophilic counts and yeasts and molds, respectively. ...
Chapter
Foods of animal origin, such as red meat and poultry products, are primary sources of superior protein for humans. With the production and consumption of these products increasing rapidly in recent decades, microbial safety and food quality are vital issues. Electrolyzed water (EW) as a sanitizer has awakened high interest in the food industry of many countries. The use of EW to decontaminate fresh red meat, ready-to-eat meat, poultry and shell eggs has been effective in reducing pathogenic microorganisms. Moreover, EW presents many advantages over traditional decontaminants; it provides effective antimicrobial activity and is environmentally friendly, simple to handle and relatively inexpensive. However, no complete elimination of pathogens on red meat and chicken meat was obtained after treatment of the meats with EW. This result probably occurs because organic matter and blood residue were present. This chapter provides a brief overview of how EW treatment affects foods of animal origin, especially the microbial safety and the physicochemical and sensory qualities of the food.
... Recently, the hurdle enhancement of EW with sodium chloride (2%) was able to maintain the quality of fresh-cut 'Nanglae' pineapples and could be used to extend the shelf life of pineapples (Lasomboon et al. 2016). In another study, EW in combination with carbon monoxide gas treatment improved the quality and freshness of tuna steaks, extending the shelf life under refrigeration storage (Huang et al. 2006;Rasco and Ovissipour 2015). Recently, Zhang and Yang (2017) studied the effect of EW with H 2 O 2 on fresh-cut lettuce and reported that the combination of EW with 1% H 2 O 2 achieved 1.69 and 0.96 log CFU/g reductions in aerobic mesophilic counts and yeasts and molds, respectively. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Improving the quality and safety aspects of fresh produce is one of the key issues in the food industry. EW is one of the most widely used sanitizers and is considered as an alternative technology to sodium chlorite treatment in the fresh produce industry. EW is well known to have a potential of microbial reduction of approximately 2 log CFU. The potential of this enhancement requires the application of combinations of EW with appropriate technologies susceptible to promoting standards in both microbial quality and safety and the sensory properties of fresh produce. In recent years, an increasing number of publications have shown that EW hurdle technology is considered as a potential food decontamination process, which can improve the microbial quality and safety and extend the shelf life of fresh produce. This chapter presents a complete picture of recent developments in EW hurdle technology applied to fresh produce, with a particular emphasis on microbial quality and safety. Several studies have been conducted to develop effective combined treatments of EW and thermal, chemical (especially organic), physical nonthermal, and various biological technologies. More specifically, the common use of chemical and biological treatments in simultaneous combination and the use of physical treatments in subsequent combination with different types of EW, including alkaline, acidic, and slightly acidic, are highlighted. The principles, mechanism of microbial and enzymatic inactivation, and microbial decontamination issues that can be overcome using a combination of EW with other treatments are also discussed. There are indications that the hurdle technology of EW can be used in the fresh produce industry; however, a better understanding of practical knowledge and the optimization of parameters of different treatments associated with EW would also contribute to reinforcing the future application of EW hurdle technologies in the fresh produce industry.
Article
The oxygen evolution reaction is a key step in controlling the efficiency and stability of water electrolysis. The development of high-efficiency, energy-saving catalysts that can be used at an industrial scale is currently a major challenge. In this paper, the complex reaction of oxalic acid, ferrous chloride, and cobalt chloride in N,N-dimethylacetamide solution is used to generate an oxalic acid complex, which is then glued with polyvinylpyrrolidone and sintered to generate a bimetallic alloy catalyst. According to electrochemical tests, the obtained FeCo-2K30 has excellent activity and stability in alkaline electrolytes. Specifically, FeCo-2K30 has an overpotential of 313 mV at 10 mA cm−2 and a Tafel slope of 58 mV dec−1. Its catalytic performance is comparable to that of noble metal electrocatalysts.
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