Article

International environmental justice: A north-south dimension

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  • INSEEC, Lyon
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Abstract

This study examines the question: Is the theory of environmental justice, as has been used at the national US level, a useful theoretical tool to analyze and inform the North-South schism in global environmental politics? I hypothesize that the case for environmental justice can be replicated at the international level where countries of the South have to bear disproportionate environmental burdens. I use three international environmental case studies, namely the export of hazardous waste, the ozone regime and climate change to investigate this hypothesis. This study highlights that although issues of justice and fairness arise in all international negotiations, they are usually not the most crucial considerations. At the international level, individual countries with different power potentials and national interests characterize the playing field where each country seeks to maximize its power and benefits from negotiation while simultaneously minimizing costs and the question of how to divide costs and benefits. This then becomes the heart of treaty-negotiation and acceptance, and the foundation for how to define justice. Justice, defined in terms of the distribution of costs and benefits is also the greatest cause of discord, disagreement and failure of an international treaty. From discussions that ensued from the three case studies, I found an interesting relationship between three factors: responsibility, vulnerability and capacity. I also found that vulnerability of the North plays a crucial role in determining how readily the North would agree to the needs of the South in order to foster international cooperation. This in turn gets framed as justice.

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... This article adopts a four-part definition of climate injustice. Climate change is a paradigmatic example of distributive injustice because the global North is responsible for the vast majority of historic greenhouse gas emissions and has reaped the corresponding economic benefits, while those who are disproportionately harmed by climate change are the states and peoples who have contributed least to the problem (Anand 2004, Mickelson 2005. Climate change raises issues of procedural injustice because the North dominates the institutions of global economic and environmental governance and frequently ignores Southern perspectives and priorities (Anand 2004, Hossay 2006, Peet 2009). ...
... Climate change is a paradigmatic example of distributive injustice because the global North is responsible for the vast majority of historic greenhouse gas emissions and has reaped the corresponding economic benefits, while those who are disproportionately harmed by climate change are the states and peoples who have contributed least to the problem (Anand 2004, Mickelson 2005. Climate change raises issues of procedural injustice because the North dominates the institutions of global economic and environmental governance and frequently ignores Southern perspectives and priorities (Anand 2004, Hossay 2006, Peet 2009). Climate change is a manifestation of corrective injustice, because those who bear the greatest climate change-induced harms (including indigenous peoples and small island states) have been unable to obtain compensation or redress for their injuries (Tsosie 2007, Burkett 2009). ...
... Fourth, those most susceptible to climate-related disasters and slow-onset events are overwhelmingly persons classified as non-white (Haas Institute 2017, Pulido 2018. They reside in locations such as low-lying coastal zones, small island states, and agriculturedependent nations disproportionately exposed to hurricanes, floods, drought, desertification and rising sea levels (Anand 2004). In addition, they have been rendered socially and economically vulnerable to climate change by the North's economic and military interventions. ...
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... Fourth, those most susceptible to climate-related disasters and slow-onset events are overwhelmingly persons classified as non-white (Haas Institute 2017;Pulido 2018). They reside in geographic locations (such as low-lying coastal zones, small island states, and agriculture-dependent nations) disproportionately exposed to hurricanes, floods, drought, desertification, and rising sea levels (Anand 2004). In addition, they have been rendered socially and economically vulnerable to climate change by the North's economic and military interventions. ...
... Although China is now the world's top carbon dioxide emitter, the per capita emissions of the Northern states continue to dwarf those of their Southern counterparts (Union of Concerned Scientists 2020; World Bank 2014). While the North reaped the economic benefits of a consumption-driven, fossil fuel-based economic development model, the consequences are being borne disproportionately by Southern states and poor and racialized communities in both the North and the South who reside in vulnerable geographic locations and lack the resources for climate change adaptation, disaster risk reduction, and disaster response (Anand 2004;UN Secretary General GSP 2012). ...
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This article examines the relationship among climate change, racial subordination, and the capitalist world economy through the framework of racial capitalism. It argues that climate change is a logical consequence of an economic system based on extraction, accumulation through dispossession, and white supremacy. Climate change imposes disproportionate burdens on racialized communities all over the world, many of whom will be expelled from their homes in record numbers as the climate emergency intensifies. International law has been deeply complicit in the project of racial capitalism, and is now being deployed to address climate change-induced displacement. This article evaluates the emerging legal and policy responses to climate displacement, and proposes alternative approaches based on the perspectives of states and peoples facing imminent displacement, including their demand for self-determination. Climate change is not an isolated crisis, but a symptom of an economic (dis)order that jeopardizes the future of life on this planet. Through a race-conscious analysis of climate change grounded in political economy, this article seeks to engage scholars in a variety of disciplines in order to develop more robust critiques of the laws, institutions, and ideologies that maintain racial capitalism and pose an existential threat to humanity.
... In this case, the facts were presented in a manner that it would appear inauguration of mills has resulted into extensive river pollution (Richard, 2012). The importance of EIA arises when it is not possible to evaluate the actual environmental impact caused by certain operations (Ruchi, 2017). There was no such evidence presented in Argentina v. Uruguay case to highlight that the later had not acted with due diligence or the mill's discharged effluents have disrupted ecological balance or water quality since incorporation of operations in 2007 (Ole, David, & Wang, 2011). ...
... The implications of the case law can be best evaluated in terms of the jurisprudence which had been created (Martin, Robert, & Sarah, 2011). It can be stated that while exploring environmental legal principles, it becomes necessary to investigate human rights encompassed within legal disputes (Ruchi, 2017). ...
... Developing countries are politically weak due to their economic dependence vis-à-vis richer nations. More often than not, developing countries are unable to have meaningful participation and constructive input in global policy dialogs (Adger et al. 2006; Roberts and Parks 2007a), let alone influence outcomes (Anand 2004). The result is that many of their concerns tend to be marginalized in final decisions (Adger et al. 2006). ...
... Devel- oping countries are politically weak due to their economic dependence vis-à-vis richer nations. More often than not, developing countries are unable to have meaningful participation and constructive input in global policy dialogs (Adger et al. 2006; Roberts and Parks 2007a), let alone influence outcomes (Anand 2004). The result is that many of their concerns tend to be marginalized in final decisions ( Adger et al. 2006). ...
... As a theoretical framework I consider environmental justice to encompass distributive and procedural dimensions (see Anand, 2004;Ikeme, 2003;Paavola, 2005, Paavola andAdger, 2006) as well as three justice relations or specific issues of justice (see Lehtinen, 2003;Sajama 2003;Sachs and Santarius, 2007). The distributive dimension refers to the distribution of environmental benefits and burdens (see Anand, 2004;Ikeme, 2003) or to the beneficial and adverse effects of environmental decisions or action (Paavola 2005: 312). ...
... As a theoretical framework I consider environmental justice to encompass distributive and procedural dimensions (see Anand, 2004;Ikeme, 2003;Paavola, 2005, Paavola andAdger, 2006) as well as three justice relations or specific issues of justice (see Lehtinen, 2003;Sajama 2003;Sachs and Santarius, 2007). The distributive dimension refers to the distribution of environmental benefits and burdens (see Anand, 2004;Ikeme, 2003) or to the beneficial and adverse effects of environmental decisions or action (Paavola 2005: 312). The procedural dimension, on the other hand, refers to participation, being able to influence the decision-making process (Ikeme, 2003: 197-200), and recognition (see Schlosberg, 2004). ...
... Climate change raises issues of distributive justice because the global North is responsible for the vast majority of historic greenhouse gas emissions, maintains an average per capita carbon footprint far above that of Southern nations, and reaps the benefits of a consumption-driven, fossil fuel-based development model while externalizing the social and environmental costs (Mickelson 2005). By contrast, Southern states and marginalized communities in both the North and the South bear a disproportionate share of the consequences of climate change due to their vulnerable geographic locations and limited resources for adaptation and disaster response (Anand 2004;United Nations 2012). Climate change raises issues of procedural justice because the North dominates the institutions of global economic and environmental governance, including the IMF, the World Bank, the WTO, and multilateral environmental treaty negotiations. ...
... Climate change raises issues of procedural justice because the North dominates the institutions of global economic and environmental governance, including the IMF, the World Bank, the WTO, and multilateral environmental treaty negotiations. Southern perspectives and priorities are frequently marginalized (Anand 2004;Hossay 2006;Peet 2009-). Climate change also raises issues of corrective justice. ...
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Nearly three billion people in Asia, Africa, and Latin America (the Energy Poor) face daily hardships due to lack of modern energy for cooking, heating, sanitation, lighting, transportation, and basic mechanical power. Despite their minimal greenhouse gas emissions, the Energy Poor will be disproportionately burdened by the floods, droughts, rising sea levels, and other disturbances caused by climate change. Although climate change has been framed as an issue of climate debt and climate justice, the plight of the Energy Poor has received short shrift in the climate change negotiations. Will efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions consign the Energy Poor to perpetual deprivation? This chapter argues that the climate change negotiations represent a unique opportunity for affluent countries to mitigate climate change, repay the climate debt, and foster climate justice and energy justice by financing the provision of clean renewable energy to the Energy Poor. The black carbon emitted in the burning of biomass by the Energy Poor results in millions of deaths per year due to indoor air pollution (primarily among women and children), and constitutes the second most significant contributor to climate change after carbon dioxide. Dependence on biomass for energy also ravages local ecosystems and accelerates deforestation. The cost of reducing black carbon emissions is minimal relative to other greenhouse gases, and the benefits are enormous because black carbon is a highly potent greenhouse gas that dissipates in as little as one week if emissions cease. Financing the provision of clean, renewable energy to the world’s Energy Poor will enhance their well-being, fulfill their human rights, produce an immediate decline in black carbon, and promote low-emission alternatives to the dominant fossil-fuel based development paradigm. A justice-centered approach to climate change and energy poverty should recognize the right to energy as an emerging human right and prioritize the provision of appropriate sustainable energy technologies (ASETs) to the Energy Poor, including decentralized electricity generating systems based on solar, wind, and local biodiesel; efficient cookstoves; and solar thermal heating. Decentralized renewable energy will enable the Energy Poor to bypass existing fossil fuel-based energy systems that are cumbersome, expensive, polluting, and vulnerable to capture by national elites. Financing the provision of ASETs to the Energy Poor can therefore foster democratic local control of energy production in addition to mitigating climate change, protecting local ecosystems, fulfilling human rights, and hastening the transition to sustainable energy.
... In both subject-areas however, the ways in which various conceptions of justice feature and/or underwrite regime policies have only begun to receive attention following mainly the incidence of the global climate change problem (cf. Paterson, 1996a;Anand, 2004). This situation is curious given the commonplace assertion that justice is essential in the operation of regimes (Young, 1989b, p. 368;Rowlands, 1991, p. 267;Shue, 1992, p. 373;Wiegandt, 2001, p. 127) and given the prevalence of diverse theories of justice in moral political philosophy. ...
... Although philosophers have traditionally assumed that distributional justice was applicable only within states, each of these conceptions have been adapted and "applied" in contemporary times to interstate relations (see Beitz, 1979Beitz, , 1999Pogge, 1988Pogge, , 1998Brown, 1992Brown, , 1997Thompson, 1992;O'Neill, 2000). At the same time, a majority of those engaging in the ethical dimensions of sustainability and international environmental management take their cue from these traditional conceptions (Grubb et al., 1992;Grubb, 1995;Paterson, 1996a, Beckerman andPasek, 2001;Anand, 2004). ...
Article
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This book is an ethical critique of existing approaches to sustainable development and international environmental cooperation, providing a detailed and structured account of the tensions, normative shifts and contradictions that currently characterize it. With specific focus on three environmental regimes, the volume explores the way various notions of justice feature both implicitly and explicitly in the design of global environmental policies. In so doing, the dominant conceptions of justice that underpin key global environmental policies are identified and criticised on the basis of their compatibility with the normative essence of global sustainable development. Global Justice and Neoliberal Environmental Governance demonstrates that whilst moral norms inflict far greater impact in regime development than is currently acknowledged by orthodox approaches to regime analysis, the core polices remain rooted in two neo-liberal interpretations of justice which undermine the ability to achieve sustainable development and international justice. It will appeal to students and scholars of politics, philosophy, international relations, geography and law.
... Distributive justice can also put a spotlight on how certain communities are targeted by flows of capital that exploit the most cost-effective path for exploiting natural resources and that dispose of pollution in ways that offer the path of least political resistance (Faber, 2017). This process does not just occur within countries but drives resource extraction and the flow of waste and pollution from the Global North to the Global South, leading to disproportionate environmental burdens in less-developed countries as compared to developed ones (Anand, 2017). ...
... During the fi rst wave of EJ scholarship, anthropologists were largely absent for at least three reasons: the discipline was reinventing itself following its internal inquisition around the politics of representation; anthropologists had been rightly "kicked off " American Indian reservations, following cogent critiques by Vine Deloria, Jr. (1969), among others; and anthropology was still, by and large, following the colonial, disciplinary division of labor that set its gaze on "non-Western" societies. Yet, by the fi rst few years of the new millennium, pathbreaking ethnographic contributions began to demonstrate how long-term participant observation, attunement to everyday life, refl exivity, and a certain mode of descriptive and theoretical writing might transform the wider fi eld of EJ. 4 In the decades since, calls for EJ have circulated beyond their original sites of enunciation, taking shape across diverse geopolitical and cultural contexts and in a wide range of academic scholarship (Agyeman 2014;Anand 2004;Carruthers 2008;Martinez-Alier et al. 2016;Taylor 2011). However, an articulation of what ethnography-as a sensibility, mode of relationality, and textual practice-meant for EJ scholarship has remained underexplored. ...
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This article reviews ethnographic literature of environmental justice (EJ). Both a social movement and scholarship, EJ is a crucial domain for examining the intersections of environment, well-being, and social power, and yet has largely been dominated by quantitative and legal analyses. A minority literature in comparison, ethnography attends to other valences of injustice and modes of inequality. Through this review, we argue that ethnographies of EJ forward our understanding of how environmental vulnerability is lived, as communities experience and confront toxic environments. Following a genealogy of EJ, we explore three prominent ethnographic thematics of EJ: the production of vulnerability through embodied toxicity; the ways that injustice becomes embedded in landscapes; and how processes like research collaborations and legal interventions become places of thinking and doing the work of justice. Finally, we identify emergent trends and challenges, suggesting future research directions for ethnographic consideration.
... The increasing costs of legal disposal have triggered new illegal markets in transnational waste dumping (Lambrechts and Hector 2016;Sonak et al. 2008). These new markets have been found in developing nations with weaker environmental regulations and little or no environmental oversight or enforcement of violations (Anand 2004;Bisschop 2016). The increasing expansion of waste dumping from the affluent Global North to developing nations of the Global South has, in recent years, been identified as a form of "toxic capitalism" (Lundgren 2012: 6). ...
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The production of global solid waste has reached an all-time high with over two billion tons discarded each year—much of it burned, illegally dumped at sea, or buried in unregulated landfills (The World Bank 2019). The United Nations Environment Assembly has declared the current waste problem a “global crisis” (Parker 2019), with estimates predicting that the present rate will worsen threefold by 2050 based on existing consumption and disposal rates (Ellis 2018). The international community has responded with expanding laws and regulations that seek to ensure that waste is disposed of in safe, sustainable and renewable ways. Such measures, however, have increased the costs of disposal and have inadvertently enlarged illegal markets in dumping and transference (European Commission 2019). This article examines the ways in which transnational corporations have avoided the rising costs of lawful disposal by shipping their waste to poor countries in the Global South—often with devastating social and environmental impacts. This article draws on world systems theory (Wallerstein 2004) and political ecology (Bedford et al. 2019; Forsyth 2008) in order to embellish discourses in green criminology and southern criminology (Brisman et al. 2018; Carrington et al. 2018; Goyes 2019) and to examine critically the contemporary social and environmental harms generated by the illegal transference of solid and hazardous waste.
... Inequality can have negative impacts on the sense of community and common purpose and make successful management of common pool resources less likely (Ostrom 1990). A consistent theme that has hindered progress in negotiations under the U.N. Convention on Climate Change has been the "northsouth" debate among countries over who should bear more of the burden of the costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions (Anand 2017). These debates involve ethical judgements about differentiated responsibilities related to differential past contributions to atmospheric greenhouse gases, current economic and social circumstances, and likely future growth. ...
... Inequality can have negative impacts on the sense of community and common purpose and make successful management of common pool resources less likely (Ostrom 1990). A consistent theme that has hindered progress in negotiations under the U.N. Convention on Climate Change has been the "northsouth" debate among countries over who should bear more of the burden of the costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions (Anand 2017). These debates involve ethical judgements about differentiated responsibilities related to differential past contributions to atmospheric greenhouse gases, current economic and social circumstances, and likely future growth. ...
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The corona pandemic has exposed the interconnected, tightly coupled and vulnerable globalised world. This White Paper sets the scientific stage for understanding and responding to such crises for global sustainability and resilient societies. We provide a systemic overview of the current situation; where people and nature are dynamically intertwined and embedded in the biosphere, placing shocks and extreme events as part of this dynamic; where humanity has become the major force in shaping the future of the Earth system as a whole; and where the rapid expansion of the human dimension has caused climate change, simplification of life on earth, growing inequalities, and loss of resilience to deal with uncertainty and surprise. Taken together, human actions are challenging the biosphere foundation for a prosperous development of civilisations. The Anthropocene reality, of rising turbulence, calls for transformative change towards sustainable futures. Emerging technologies, social innovations, broader shifts in cultural repertoires, as well as a diverse portfolio of active stewardship of human actions in support of a resilient biosphere are highlighted as essential parts of such transformations.
... La montée en puissance du mouvement pour la justice environnementale au cours des trois dernières décennies a donné une visibilité aux inégalités d'exposition aux polluants et aux risques, et aux inégales capacités de défense des populations. Bien que les questions soulevées relèvent aussi bien d'une justice distributive que procédurale (Anand, 2004), elles ont conduit les politiques publiques états-uniennes à faire évoluer les procédures (droit à l'information environnementale, études d'impact renforcées), plutôt que les situations à risques et les ségrégations socio-environnementales. ...
... Participants also received a short introduction paper, highlighting the concept of social justice to them as well. The questionnaire was developed based on three equity principles generally distinguished in the environmental-philosophical literature (Shue 1999, Low and Gleeson 1998, Paavola & Adger 2002, Ikeme 2003, Anand 2004: (1) the egalitarian principle is based on Mill's and Benthams' utilitarian "greatest happiness principle". Distributions aim to maximize the positive effects and minimize the negative effects for society as a ...
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As Europe is faced with increasing droughts and extreme precipitation, countries are taking measures to adapt to these changes. It is challenging, however, to navigate through the wide range of possible measures, taking into account the efficacy, economic impact and social justice aspects of these measures, as well as the governance requirements for implementing them. This article describes and evaluates an approach to selecting and analysing climate change adaptation measures that was applied at six research sites across Europe. It describes the steps that were taken in collecting, selecting and analysing adaptation measures, in a process with local stakeholders, with concrete examples from the case studies. The governance analysis focuses on the requirements associated with the measures and the extent to which these requirements are met at the research sites. The socio-economic impact focuses on the efficacy of the measures in reducing the risks and the broad range of tools available to compare the measures on their societal impact. Finally, the social justice analysis focuses on the distributive impacts of the adaptation measures. In the discussion, we identify some key findings with regard to the different kind of measures. In the conclusion we briefly assess the main pros and cons of the different analyses that were conducted. The main conclusion is that although the research sites were very different in both the challenges and the institutional context, the approach presented here yielded decision relevant outcomes.
... In Bodansky's words (2001, p. 34), the UNFCCC reflected "a carefully bal anced compromise" on controversial issues "through formulations that preserved the po sitions of all sides, that were deliberately ambiguous, or that deferred issues until the first meeting of the conference of the parties." The nature and extent of differentiation in the convention would, however, become a major source of political contention (Anand, 2004;Linnér & Jacob, 2005;Najam, Hug, & Sokona, 2003). ...
Article
The signing of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) by 154 nations at the Rio “Earth Summit” in 1992 marked the beginning of multilateral climate negotiations. Aiming for the “stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system,” the Convention divided parties according to different commitments (developed countries with heavier mitigation and financing responsibilities on one side, and developing nations with fewer commitments on the other) and established the Common But Differentiated Responsibilities (CBDR) principle. In 1997, parties to the Convention adopted the Kyoto Protocol, which entered into force in 2005; the Protocol set internationally binding emission reduction targets based on a rigid interpretation of the CBDR principle. Different perceptions on a fair distribution of climate change mitigation costs hindered multilateral efforts to tackle the problem; climate change proved a “super wicked” challenge (intricately linked to security, development, trade, water, energy, food, land use, transportation, etc.) and this fact led to a lack of consensus on the distribution of rights and responsibilities among countries. Indeed, since 1992, carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere have increased every year, and the Kyoto Protocol did not reverse the trend. In 2009, a new political framework, the Copenhagen Accord, was signed; although parties recognized the need to limit global warming to < 2 °C to prevent dangerous climate change, they did not agree on a clear path toward a legally binding treaty to succeed the Kyoto Protocol, whose first commitment period would end in 2012. A consensus would only be reached in 2015, when a new, legally binding treaty—the Paris Climate Agreement—committing all parties to limit global warming to “well below 2 °C,” was finally signed; it came into force in November 2016. Described in many political, public, and academic contexts as a diplomatic success, the agreement suffers, however, from several limitations to its effectiveness: the voluntary nature of the commitments on curbing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (the Nationally Determined Contributions [NDC]), the weakness of the system established for monitoring the implementation of NDCs, the absence of established dates by which parties must achieve their GHG emissions peaks, the very small size of the Green Climate Fund to support developing countries in their mitigation and adaptation efforts, and the fact that many developing countries have made their NDCs dependent on international financial and technological support. NDCs presented thus far have a > 50% chance of exceeding 3 °C by 2100, placing the Earth at a potentially catastrophic level of climate change. The recent carbon dioxide emissions trajectory and foreseeable future emissions of major climate powers demonstrate the low level of climate commitment in the international system; forces that resist the profound transformations necessary to stabilize the Earth’s climate dominate climate change governance. Climate multilateralism under the UNFCCC has failed thus far—throughout 25 years of international negotiations, global carbon emissions have increased substantially and at a rapid pace, and climate change has worsened significantly.
... Third, the effects of such economic urbanization patterns have already reached critical levels in terms of pollution and climate change. Moreover, because of their location and economic subalternity (Barca, 2012a,b;Cristiano, 2018), not all countries and populations undergo the same environmental and climate risks (Brulle and Pellow, 2006;Martinez-Alier et al., 2016;Anand, 2017;Pulido and De Lara, 2018). All that said, it is enough to acknowledge that current global strategies to attain sustainability (Sachs, 2012;Griggs et al., 2013;United Nations, 2015) are far from reaching their objectives, and several of the Sustainable Development Goals seem threatened, in particular, no poverty (#1), good health and well-being (#3), clean water and sanitation (#6), affordable and clean energy (#7), reduced inequalities (#10), climate action (#13), and peace, justice, and strong institutions (#16). ...
Article
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Urbanization is widely recognized as a relentless trend at the global level. Nevertheless, a comprehensive assessment of urban systems able to address the future growth and decline of cities is still lacking. Urban systems today rely on abundant resources, flowing in from other regions, and their future availability and accessibility should be taken into consideration to ensure urban well-being and resilience in likely post-growth scenarios. A logical framework to address the challenge of urban planning and management to promote long-term urban system sustainability is proposed. Systems thinking and diagramming are applied, while comprehensively tracking the key material flows upon which cities depend back to their sources. First, the nexus among resources and urban activities is identified, and then its circularity is framed within a wider discourse on urban sustainability and resilience. Discussion is carried out within a twofold perspective of both existing and newly built environments, while related economies are analyzed in order to find possible game-changing scenarios.
... It has been noted that provisions strengthening the procedural rights of citizens to access information and participate in environmental decision-making and legal justice systems "are being increasingly granted by a number of global regulatory bodies dealing with sustainable use of natural resources" (Spagnuolo 2011a(Spagnuolo : 1875. Access to these rights is often crucial to ensure access to resources, because it allows potentially affected groups to, inter alia, contribute to standard-setting procedures and be consulted in the management of scarce resources, such as land, fish stocks or fresh water (Biermann et al. 2012;Anand 2004). Trade and investment systems, however, can often impose a "double burden" on access of vulnerable populations (including indigenous groups) and other low-income stakeholders. ...
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Ensuring sustainability of earth systems is intrinsically dependent on the incorporation of equity and fairness in the regimes and institutions that govern the global economy. Accordingly, to design effective and just earth system governance (ESG), it is crucial to understand how the global economic system affects access to and allocation of environmental benefits and burdens among people and countries around the world and what are the relevant causal mechanisms. By focusing on trade and investment as two predominant elements of today’s global economic system, this paper reviews the literature developed within the ESG project in 2008–2017 to explore the relationships between the global economic system and access to and allocation of environmental benefits and burdens. Our review shows that ESG scholarship has begun to highlight the dynamics of unfair access and allocation deriving from the global economic system, ranging from the direct impacts of trade and investment on environmental inequality and socioeconomic opportunities to the indirect equity implications of certification schemes, environmental decision-making processes and environmentally motivated restrictions in international trade and investment regimes. However, it also notes that critical questions about the identity of vulnerable groups and the potential pathways for more equitable sharing of benefits and burdens remain understudied by ESG scholars. Hence, we call for more critical analysis of the role of the global economic system in perpetuating unsustainable patterns of access and allocation in ESG, as well as research about the local impacts of the global economic system on environmental access and allocation.
... Activism and scholarly debate over the costs and consequences of economic globalization incorporate important elements of the environmental justice discourse writ large (Anand 2004). Environmental injustices are not "relegated to local failures in wealthy nations" but are instead "symptomatic of systemic tendencies of globalization" (Byrne, Martinez, and Glover 2002, p. 8). ...
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This book focuses on popular environmental practices and social justice in Latin America. Latin American leaders and citizens are able to create awareness about environmental issues and social justice by emphasising race, class, and unequal distribution of environmental hazards between developed and developing countries. Extensive debates and efforts related to addressing environmental issues in the continent have resulted in an analytical framework for analysing unequal environmental hazards extensively. The book also discusses an effort in Latin America and the Caribbean that examines the potential and drawbacks of environmental justice, and considers the effort of environmental justice as a popular social movement and the fundamental concept required for analysis, interpretation, and policy formulation.
... Some of the regulatory developments have been able to increase responsiveness to the overwhelming outcomes from harmful waste export and increase few important principles associated with the threats to the sustainability of the fragile global system (Ruchi 2004). Shawkat et al. (2014) synthesized existing legal regulations regarding ship breaking industry in Bangladesh along with some challenges. ...
Chapter
Ship breaking is comparatively a sustainable business, particularly in the developing world, but the conditions where it is practiced is non-sustainable. Ship breaking is the process of dismantling ships and selling their parts - primarily the steel - for scrap. The main impetus for breaking a ship down is that maintenance costs go up as a ship ages. Shipping companies also have to pay port charges, crew salaries and oil fees for their ships, so when they are no longer economically viable they are sold to ship recyclers who strip the old ships down, salvaging anything of value. Bangladesh is one of the top ship recycling countries in the world. Ship breaking is becoming increasingly important economically in the country. In the developing world, ship breaking not only employs thousands of people in breaking down a ship, but the materials produced are also important to other industries, such as re-rolling steel plants. However, it is deadly too. Despite having huge employment opportunities and material supplies, it costs high in terms of environmental degradation and human health. It is reported that most of the ship recyclers avoid ‘polluters pay’ and other principles. Ship breaking activities are being practiced in the coastal areas of Bangladesh and have gained importance in the macro and microeconomy of poverty stricken Bangladesh. If this sector take some eco-friendly steps in compliance with the principles of blue economy and overcome challenges it will be a big and sustainable industry in future. This chapter explored the background of this migrant industry along with existing realities, practices, legal regulations, problems and prospects, and suggests some voluntary guidelines connecting ‘blue economy’ concept associated with this industry in Bangladesh.
... Some of the regulatory developments have been able to increase responsiveness to the overwhelming outcomes from harmful waste export and increase few important principles associated with the threats to the sustainability of the fragile global system (Ruchi 2004). Shawkat et al. (2014) synthesized existing legal regulations regarding ship breaking industry in Bangladesh along with some challenges. ...
Article
Ship breaking is comparatively a sustainable business, particularly in the developing world, but the conditions where it is practiced is non-sustainable. Ship breaking is the process of dismantling ships and selling their parts primarily the steel - for scrap. The main impetus for breaking a ship down is that maintenance costs go up as a ship ages. Shipping companies also have to pay port charges, crew salaries and oil fees for their ships, so when they are no longer economically viable they are sold to ship recyclers who strip the old ships down, salvaging anything of value. Bangladesh is one of the top ship recycling countries in the world. Ship breaking is becoming increasingly important economically in the country. In the developing world, ship breaking not only employs thousands of people in breaking down a ship, but the materials produced are also important to other industries, such as re-rolling steel plants. However, it is deadly too. Despite having huge employment opportunities and material supplies, it costs high in terms of environmental degradation and human health. It is reported that most of the ship recyclers avoid ‘polluters pay’ and other principles. Ship breaking activities are being practiced in the coastal areas of Bangladesh and have gained importance in the macro and microeconomy of poverty stricken Bangladesh. If this sector take some eco-friendly steps in compliance with the principles of blue economy and overcome challenges it will be a big and sustainable industry in future. This chapter explored the background of this migrant industry along with existing realities, practices, legal regulations, problems and prospects, and suggests some voluntary guidelines connecting ‘blue economy’ concept associated with this industry in Bangladesh.
... Developed countries are both the main contributors to greenhouse gas emissions and the main beneficiaries of the profits generated by greenhouse gas emitting industries (Ruchi Anand, 2004). ...
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Achieving and sustaining stability for economic growth remain the greatest and most immediate development challenge for Ethiopia. For natural resource-based economies especially maintaining stability and growth depends fundamentally upon climate change adaptation and mitigation. The close links between climate and Ethiopia’s economy are reflected by the strong relationship between GDP growth rate and rainfall variability. A study by the World Bank projects that unless steps to build resilience are effective, climate change will reduce Ethiopia’s GDP growth by between 0.5 and 2.5% each year. Along with the challenges posed by climate change, a number of development opportunities are emerging in response to climate change which includes access to international climate finance. The international response to climate change in the form of external development finance plays a key role to support developing countries in their transition to a low-carbon, climate-resilient and sustainable development pathway. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the flow and the overall contribution of climate finance to sustainable development in Ethiopia. Specifically, focused on outlining how climate finance is currently reconciled in the existing Ethiopian climate change governance and its contribution to sustainable development. In order to achieve these objectives, data were collected from different sources. The Rio Marker methodology applied to review climate financial flow over the 5 year period. The result reveals that, climate change is central to development agendas despite its recent emergence in the mainstream, with various initiatives under way to combat or reduce its impacts in Ethiopia. In addition, the amount of climate finance from the developed countries to Ethiopia shows some fluctuation for the past five years. In general, the overall flow of climate finance mostly targeted climate adaptation actions which spur and enable the transition towards climate-resilient growth and sustainable development.
... Moreover, various equity and effort-or burden-sharing approaches to climate stabilization in the literature describe how to sketch national potentials for a 1.5°C warmer world (e.g., Anand, 2004;CSO Equity Review, 2015;Meinshausen et al., 2015;Okereke and Coventry, 2016;Bexell and Jönsson, 2017;Otto et al., 2017;Pan et al., 2017;Robiou du Pont et al., 2017;Winkler et al., 2018;Holz et al., 2018;Kartha et al., 2018). Many approaches build on the AR5 'responsibility -capacityneed' assessment , complement other proposed national-level metrics for capabilities, equity and fairness (Heyward and Roser, 2016;Klinsky et al., 2017a), or fall under the wider umbrella of fair share debates on responsibility, capability and the right to development in climate policy (Fuglestvedt and Kallbekken, 2016). ...
... Se entiende que, en función de la flexibilidad de los límites disciplinares en las ciencias sociales, 1. Se trata de una distinción analítica para señalar que en el presente trabajo el foco estará puesto en las discusiones teóricas. 2. Según Anand (2007), los términos Norte y Sur no solo son geográficos, sino que reflejan las experiencias comunes de gente en estos países como resultado de determinadas condiciones sociales, económicas, políticas y culturales. En este sentido, hay diferencias que no se pueden ignorar entre los países industrializados desarrollados del Norte y los países subdesarrollados del Sur. ...
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El artículo presenta algunas reflexiones sobre el abordaje de la cuestión ambiental en las ciencias sociales, cuya tematización cobró relevancia a partir de la década de 1960 a raíz de las consecuencias negativas de la actividad humana que comenzaban a evidenciarse. El objetivo de estudio es revisar algunas de las discusiones con perspectiva sociológica que piensan las interrelaciones entre sociedad y ambiente, planteando un diálogo entre sus enfoques. Se sostiene que es necesario pensar la cuestión ambiental en ―y desde― América Latina y, a la vez, se considera útil interpelar propuestas teóricas elaboradas en otras latitudes para contrastar las diferentes interpretaciones del problema ambiental, y vislumbrar los posicionamientos frente al orden económico establecido.Por un lado, se abordan los debates suscitados a partir de finales de la década de 1970 entre algunos autores de países centrales, que dieron lugar a propuestas teóricas como el nuevo paradigma ambiental y las funciones del ambiente, considerados unos de los primeros planteamientos en el Norte; la modernización ecológica, cuyo éxito se ve reflejado en el modo en el que se procesa la cuestión ambiental actualmente; y la espiral de producción, una visión más radical de las causas y las consecuencias de la degradación ambiental. Por otro lado, se presentan algunas propuestas elaboradas en años más recientes por autores con una perspectiva latinoamericana respecto al desarrollo, sus alternativas y el lugar del ambiente en dichas discusiones. El análisis crítico del lugar de América Latina como proveedora de recursos naturales y el rescate de experiencias autóctonas latinoamericanas para pensar una salida al modelo actual de desarrollo, son elementos comunes a los autores. Finalmente, se establece un diálogo y contrapuntos entre los enfoques para considerar que su objeto de estudio es centralmente el mismo, pero que existen diferencias en los lugares de enunciación y, por lo tanto, en los diagnósticos y posibles soluciones a los problemas ambientales.
... Environmental justice literature has predominantly focused explicitly on the restorative angle with regards to the environmental damage caused by heavy intensive industrial activities (Anand, 2016;Banerjee, 2018). Dorsey (2009) reveals that businesses in the 1970s left urban areas with a legacy of polluting industries containing hazardous waste in storage or on local soil and water to build on cheaper land in the suburban areas of the city. ...
Article
Just transition is a new framework of analysis that brings together climate, energy and environmental justice scholarships. It was originally coined as a term that was designed to link the promotion of clean technology with the assurance of green jobs. The Paris climate change agreement marks a global acceptance that a more rapid transition is needed to avert disastrous consequences. In response, climate, energy and environmental justice scholarships must unite in assessing where injustices will emerge and how they should be tackled. Just transition offers a new space for developing an interdisciplinary transition sensitive approach to exploring and promoting (1) distributional, (2) procedural and (3) restorative justice, termed here as a new triumvirate of tenets.
... Especially in the Global South, more systematic approaches to analysing environmental justice have turned up in the 2000s ( Peluso and Watts 2001;McDonald 2002;Anand 2003;Walker and Bulkeley 2006). According to Schroeder et al. (2008), this is particularly due to the increasing transnationalisation of environmental bads. ...
Book
Environmental justice research and activism predominantly focus on openly conflictive situations; claims making is central. However, situations of injustice can still occur even if there is no overt conflict. Environmental Justice and Soy Agribusiness fills this gap by applying an environmental justice incommensurabilities framework to reveal the mechanisms of why conflicts do not arise in particular situations, even though they fall within classic environmental justice schemes. Empirically, the case study focus is on the remote soy frontier in Northwest Argentina, particularly the town of Las Lajitas as the nucleus of soy production. This represents an excellent example of the recent expansion of the soy agribusiness industry in Latin America. First, a classic environmental justice analysis is carried out. Second, and drawing on the epistemological works of Ludwik Fleck, an alternative analytical framework is proposed, visualising locals’ thought styles on change, effects and potential conflict in relation to soy agribusiness. Here, visceral elements and the application of a jazz methodology are vital for a more holistic form of multisensory cognition. Third, incommensurabilities among the classic and alternative approach are uncovered, arguing for the importance of temporal and spatial contexts in environmental justice research.
... In the words of Anand (2017), the conflict between the countries of the Global North and that of the Global South has been the main hindrance preventing international environmental laws from achieving their purpose and objectives. He argues that environmental treaties and negotiations have failed to yield the intended results mainly because the Global North countries and the Global South Countries have different priorities and each of the parties will like to advance their priorities at the expense of the other hence it becomes difficult to reach a consensus. ...
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The North and South divide in the practice and application of international laws have been previously perceived to be evident in international environmental law where the Global developed North countries on the one hand advocate for a collective action to protect the environment while the Global developing Southern countries, on the other hand, argue for social and economic justice in practice. However, in recent times the North and South divide has permeated other aspects of international law such as International Human right and International Humanitarian law (IHL), hence the essence of this article. Thus, this article contributes to the existing literature by providing evidence to the existence of the North and South divide in the application of IHL and human right law.The article is divided into four main parts. The first part gives an introduction to the North and South divide in the application of international law. The second part reviews the literature on the existence of North and South divide in the application of international environmental laws. The third part gives a new dimension to the North and South divide in the application of international humanitarian and human right laws with the Syrian Crisis, Malaysian Airline flight MH17 and the 2007 draft resolution on the peace and security of Myanmar as the case studies. The last part concludes by giving an overview of how this phenomenon threatens world peace and consequently offers some recommendations.
... From the 1990s onwards, the environmental justice concept also found an echo in international environmental law and politics (Anand 2004). In 1992, the creation of the United Nations Framework Through a distributive focus, and in line with late---twentieth---century ...
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Justice concerns are at the core of struggles and conflicts brought about by the ineluctable trade-offs related to agrobiodiversity conservation. This work’s point of departure lies in trying to understand how these concerns find support in bottom-up conservation initiatives in Western Europe; and how this relates to conservation outcomes. It is argued that rights-based governance approaches to agrobiodiversity conservation are not only compatible with effective conservation and farming outcomes, but that they are a condition to their long-term success. This, however, requires looking at conservation not only as the management of a socio-ecological system, which may or may not be effective, but as a broader socio-political conflict, in which forces of cultural, economic and political domination are at play. Through the study of a series of bottom-up agrobiodiversity conservation cases in Western Europe, this work shows how agrobiodiversity conservation is not simply an environmental or agricultural matter. It is an instrument for a broader struggle; a struggle for justice.
... Much thought and development have occurred in this regard in respect of climate change. Localized environmental distributive justice principles such as ''polluter pays'' have been found insufficient in respect of the climate (Anand 2004). Historically issues of per capital emissions and total emissions of countries have raised issues of grandfathering developed countries' emission practices and preventing development of developing countries (Gupta et al. 1997Gupta et al. , 1998 Baer et al. 2008). ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to assess whether governance processes that are taking place in the Chinchiná River basin, a coffee culture region in the Andean region of Colombia, are adaptive to climate variability and climate extremes. Design/methodology/approach A mixed research method was used by reviewing secondary research sources surrounding the institutional governance system of water governance and disaster response and semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with producers and members of organizations within the institutional governance system. Findings This study found that there is a low response to extreme events. Hopefully, the growing national awareness and activity in relation to climate change and disaster will improve response and be downscaled into these communities in the future. Although, some learning has occurred at the national government level and by agricultural producers who are adapting practices, to date no government institution has facilitated social learning taking into account conflict, power and tactics of domination. Originality/value This paper improves the understanding of the vulnerability of rural agricultural communities to shifts in climate variability. It also points out the importance of governance institutions in enhancing agricultural producer adaptive capacity.
... Ein anderes, zurzeit intensiv diskutiertes Feld der Verteilungsgerechtigkeit ist die Umweltgerechtigkeit (Anand 2004;Bolte/Mielck 2004;Hornberg/Pauli 2009 (Schön et al . 2002: 4) . ...
Book
"Nachhaltigkeit" ist weltweit zu einem zentralen Leitbild in Politik, Wirtschaft und Wissenschaft geworden. Im Kern geht es um die Suche nach einem gerechten Zivilisations- und Wirtschaftsmodell, das der Verantwortung gegenüber allen heute und künftig lebenden Menschen gerecht wird. Armin Grunwald und Jürgen Kopfmüller geben einen umfassenden und systematischen Überblick über die Hintergründe des Leitbilds "Nachhaltigkeit" und über aktuelle Konzepte zu seiner Definition, Messung und Realisierung. Zusätzlich enthält die überarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage gänzlich neue Ausführungen zur Wachstumsdebatte und Bevölkerungsentwicklung, zur Klimapolitik und zu einer Kultur der Nachhaltigkeit.
... Sachs 1995;Hampson and Reppy 1996;Low and Gleeson 1998;Schrader-Frechette 2002;Schlosberg 2007), with the liber­ al tradition increasingly engaging the issue (Wapner 1997;Bell 2005). Attention to the eq­ uity implications of the international political economy is also growing, both in broad terms -such as the relations between North and South (Anand 2005), sustainability (Dob­ son 1999; Agyeman et al. 2003), or globalization (Paavola and Lowe 2005) -and in terms of specific issues such as climate change (Roberts and Parks 2007;Vanderheiden 2008) and toxics (Pellow 2007).The equity implications of environmental governance have also become the direct subject of research (ten Have 2006;Okereke 2006). The equity implica­ tions of environmental security remain rather unexplored, however, although there is rich ground for such explorations (e.g., Schrijver 1997). ...
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This chapter traces the study of global environmental politics by international relations (IR) scholars (hereafter referred to as IEP) since World War II (WWII).1 The overarching question is whether IEP is a cohesive subfield articulated around a core set of concepts and debates, as seems to be the case with the study of the environment in some other social sciences such as Economics or Sociology. A related second question is whether one or more IR perspectives dominate IEP. A third question, strongly related to the second one, asks whether IEP addresses questions of social and ecological purpose in addition to the architecture of global environmental politics. I have chosen to address these questions by offering a genealogy, rather than a simple chronology of IEP, across four periods since WWII. In order to do so I pay close attention to three dimensions. The first is that of the broader political dynamics that influenced IEP during each period. The second is the deployment of IR perspectives within IEP and, relatedly, whether IEP has addressed global inequalities and power asymmetries. Finally, I ask whether and how IEP has treated the relations between nature and people over time.
... Sachs 1995;Hampson and Reppy 1996;Low and Gleeson 1998;Schrader-Frechette 2002;Schlosberg 2007), with the liber­ al tradition increasingly engaging the issue (Wapner 1997;Bell 2005). Attention to the eq­ uity implications of the international political economy is also growing, both in broad terms -such as the relations between North and South (Anand 2005), sustainability (Dob­ son 1999; Agyeman et al. 2003), or globalization (Paavola and Lowe 2005) -and in terms of specific issues such as climate change (Roberts and Parks 2007;Vanderheiden 2008) and toxics (Pellow 2007).The equity implications of environmental governance have also become the direct subject of research (ten Have 2006;Okereke 2006). The equity implica­ tions of environmental security remain rather unexplored, however, although there is rich ground for such explorations (e.g., Schrijver 1997). ...
Chapter
Industrial manufacturing processes create hazardous chemicals not only as a finished product, but also as a hazardous waste. Disposing of these wastes occurs globally, resulting in human health and environmental impacts. Beginning with the Love Canal tragedy in the United States, this chapter describes the hazardous waste regime. As United States domestic laws restricted disposal techniques, producers sought disposal locations in other countries, creating a toxic trade in hazardous waste. Consequently, international environmental diplomats created the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste and Their Disposal that mandated importing countries’ consent before transportation of hazardous waste to a foreign shore. Additionally, the text provides a brief overview of the environmental justice movement that began when Dr. Robert Bullard realized minority communities were more highly exposed to toxic chemicals, resulting in higher levels of environmental disorganization in these communities. Further, this pattern replicated internationally along the lines of the North–South gap. The chapter concludes by providing a synopsis of Robert Putnam’s two-level game as an explanation for domestic sources of international treaties.KeywordsHazardous wasteDomestic policyBasel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their DisposalEnvironmental justiceLove CanalToxic trade
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As Europe is faced with increasing droughts and extreme precipitation, countries are taking measures to adapt to these changes. It is challenging, however, to navigate through the wide range of possible measures, taking into account the efficacy, economic impact and social justice aspects of these measures, as well as the governance requirements for implementing them. This article presents the approach of selecting and analysing adaptation measures to increasing extreme weather events caused by ongoing climate change that was developed and applied in the H2020 project BINGO (Bringing Innovation to Ongoing Water Management). The purpose of this project is (a) to develop an integrated participatory approach for selecting and evaluating adaptation measures, (b) to apply and evaluate the approach across six case-study river basins across Europe, and (c) to support decision-making towards adaptation capturing the diversity, the different circumstances and challenges river basins face across Europe. It combines three analyses: governance, socio-economic and social justice The governance analysis focuses on the requirements associated with the measures and the extent to which these requirements are met at the research sites. The socio-economic impact focuses on the efficacy of the measures in reducing the risks and the broad range of tools available to compare the measures on their societal impact. Finally, a tentative social justice analysis focuses on the distributive impacts of the adaptation measures. In the summary of results, we give an overview of the outcome of the different analyses. In the conclusion, we briefly assess the main pros and cons of the different analyses that were conducted. The main conclusion is that although the research sites were very different in both the challenges and the institutional context, the approach presented here yielded decision-relevant outcomes.
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The most successful environmental regime negotiation was on the depletion of the ozone layer. As a result, it is necessary to briefly review the background of the ozone negotiations in terms of ozone science, agenda formation, and actors. This article follows the progression of ozone diplomacy over the decades, beginning with the 1985 Vienna Convention and leading to the 1987 Montreal Protocol and beyond. It also touches briefly on the effects of power and knowledge factors on ozone negotiations. The study analyzes how the ozone regime has adopted new scientific knowledge and has been transformed by transnational epistemic communities and coalitions. This brief assessment of ozone negotiation processes explains a balanced account of science and policy and their interaction shaping the development of the ozone regime. Keywords:Ozone Depletion, Ozone Hole, Arctic, Environmental Regime Negotiations, Environmental Diplomacy. Özet En başarılı çevresel rejim görüşme örneği ozone tabakasının incelmesi ve delinmesi konusundadır. Sonuçta, ozon görüşmelerinin arka planında yer alan ozon bilimi, gündem oluşumu ve aktörlerin kısaca gözde geçirmekgerekmektedir. Bu makale 1985 Viyana Sözleşmesi ile başlayan ve 1987 Montreal Protokolü ve sonrası yaşanan gelişmelerle devam etmiş olan ozon diplomasisi takip etmektedir. Ayrıca kısaca güç ve bilgi faktörlerinin ozon görüşmeleri üzerindeki etkilerine değinilmiştir. Bu çalışma, yeni bilimsel bilgilerin nasıl benimsenerek ulus-ötesi epistemik topluluklar ve koalisyonlar tarafından ozon rejiminin nasıl dönüştürüldüğü analiz etmiştir. Ozon görüşme süreçlerinin kısa değerlendirilmesi yapılarak bilim ve politikanı dengeli çalışmasını açıklayarak ozon rejiminin gelişimini şekillendiren etkileşimleri açıklar. Anahtar Kelimeler:Ozon İncelmesi, Ozon Deliği, Arktik, Çevresel Rejim Görüşmeleri, Çevre Diplomasisi.
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This study investigates the effectiveness of international environmental agreements (IEAs) and how it might be affected by the development of pro-environmental behaviour among households and firms. We propose a new framework based on a two-nested-game approach composed by: (1) a one-shot game with two asymmetric countries that negotiate the international abatement target, and (2) an evolutionary game which describes the economic structure resulting from agents’ interactions. These two games are nested because the initial economic structure determines the welfare of each country, and thus the outcome of Game 1 which, in turn, is embedded in Game 2, modifies the agents’ pay-off and the economic structure thereof. Numerical simulation outcomes suggest three key messages. First, we find that global solutions do not automatically produce the expected effects irrespective of any free-riding assumption. Second, extreme climate risks might not lead to a high abatement target in the event of marked cross-country inequality. Third, adverse consumers’ environmental attitudes might hamper the success of an IEA. The above observations entail that governments should not simply impose environmental laws. Rather, top-down policies and bottom-up interventions should be coordinated; otherwise, they might fail if undertaken in isolation. Graphic abstract
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The so-called “migration hump” describes the inverted U-shaped relationship between development and migration. In relatively poor countries, development leads to increasing migration, as the budget constraint of potential migrants loosens. By contrast, in relatively rich countries, this relationship is reversed because the incentive to migrate is negligibly small. We discuss the implications of this empirical finding for development cooperation with African countries and conclude that further development would rather increase than reduce migration. As a consequence, the capture of development policy by a restrictive migration policy is not expedient, as they follow different normative rationales, and hampers the effectiveness of development policy.
Chapter
There is a gap in the international law-making forums in how north and south collaborate and contribute to the development of international laws and policies. In the field of environmental law and sustainable development, this affects the potential obligations and the commitments that the states make under international agreements. Therefore, in addition to the states, the non-state actors are increasingly becoming an important voice in balancing the scales of international politics and international law-making. The objective of this research is to bring out the need to incorporate the southern concerns through equality: which encompasses representation of southern concerns at the international law-making forums by the use of NGOs. The research involves qualitative analysis of data and international legal instruments. Third World Approaches to International Law (TWAIL) is used as a lens to analyze the north-south dimensions in international law. The research provides for justification and rationale for legitimizing the NGO participation in international environmental law and sustainable development in order to make it more participatory, equitable and just. The chapter argues that such an approach would reflect the move away from state-centric governance towards a more democratic and inclusive international governance and law-making regime. Therefore it would add to the existing legal literature on north and south dimensions in international environmental law and sustainable development law.
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Achieving a sustainable future will only be possible through the intersection of the best science and technology in combination with the societal, economic, policy, cultural, moral, and ethical ecosystem. Green chemistry and green engineering provide the scientific and technological foundation of the Elements of Sustainable Chemistry while the Humanitarian and Nobel Elements provide the imperative context. This alternative Periodic Table, strives to outline the range of aspects and tools that are available and needed to accomplish the daunting and necessary tasks of moving toward a sustainable tomorrow.
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The Routledge Companion to Rural Planning provides a critical account and state of the art review of rural planning in the early years of the twenty-first century. Looking across different international experiences-from Europe, North America and Australasia to the transition and emerging economies, including BRIC and former communist states-it aims to develop new conceptual propositions and theoretical insights, supported by detailed case studies and reviews of available data. The Companion gives coverage to emerging topics in the field and seeks to position rural planning in the broader context of global challenges: climate change, the loss of biodiversity, food and energy security, and low carbon futures. It also looks at old, established questions in new ways: at social and spatial justice, place shaping, economic development, and environmental and landscape management. Planning in the twenty-first century must grapple not only with the challenges presented by cities and urban concentration, but also grasp the opportunities-and understand the risks-arising from rural change and restructuring. Rural areas are diverse and dynamic. This Companion attempts to capture and analyse at least some of this diversity, fostering a dialogue on likely and possible rural futures between a global community of rural planning researchers. Primarily intended for scholars and graduate students across a range of disciplines, such as planning, rural geography, rural sociology, agricultural studies, development studies, environmental studies and countryside management, this book will prove to be an invaluable and up-to-date resource.
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Regional development theories draw on forces of economic convergence or divergence to explain uneven core‐periphery spatial processes of community formation. But there continues to be limited understanding of how different capitalism types shape this, such as in resource economies in advanced capitalist economies where global competitiveness depends on the productivity increases of technological innovation and a specialized flexible workforce. This paper unpacks contemporary understandings of regional development processes, arguing that theories often underestimate the scale of labor commuting, as well as the level to which it is structurally transforming resource economies. It draws on evidence from Western Australia, examining how resource production has shaped the spatiality of economic activities between the Perth metropolitan region and its peripheries. Outlining factor inputs of two broad resource economy types, it offers four dimensions influencing spatial relations of resource economies in advanced capitalist nations which need deeper consideration in regional development models. It concludes that understanding the unique processes driving spatial (dis)advantage within such economies is critical to efficient policy formation, and that not doing so may unwittingly exacerbate spatial inequality.
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The grand challenges that face humanity about living on Earth in the twenty-first century present ethical issues that will engage geoscientists personally, and collectively as a profession. Thus, there is strong reason to ensure that the geoscience workforce of the immediate future is cognizant of the need and is equipped to recognize, mitigate, and act upon geoethical issues as they arise. This will require geoethics instruction at the undergraduate and graduate levels across the curriculum. This chapter provides the rationale for, and summarizes key elements of, geoethics instruction. We emphasize that the domain of geoethics lies at the intersection of several human endeavors, involving understanding the Earth system, monitoring and addressing changing social and cultural value systems, responding to economic realities, communicating with the public, protecting human health, engaging responsible stewardship of the Earth, and philosophically assessing regrettable and unsustainable circumstances that lead to irreversible impacts on planet Earth and humanity. As such, the teaching of geoethics should be explicitly embedded into the geoscience curriculum; teaching faculty should accept this responsibility as a core component of all geoscience classes, at all instructional levels, for all students.
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In diesem abschlieβenden Kapitel kommen wir auf ein Thema zu sprechen, das bereits mehrfach anklang, jedoch absichtlich,nach hinten verschobenx218; wurde: Globalisierung. Das entspricht auch der Karriere, die dieses Konzept in den vergangenen zwanzig Jahren zurückgelegt hat. Schien es zu Beginn der 1990er Jahre, als der Vorläufer zum vorliegenden Buch konzipiert wurde1, noch innovativ, ist es inzwischen so sehr in aller Munde, dass selbst die Feststellung, alle redeten davon, obwohl keiner wisse, was es sei, schal geworden ist. Auch scheint das unzutreffend. Es lässt sich sehr wohl, die gehaltvollere Forschung zum Thema resümierend, ein sinnvoller Globalisierungsbegriff entfalten. Das soll hier geschehen. Sodann wird angesichts des erreichten Standes an Globalisierung nach den politischen Steuerungsmöglichkeiten gefragt, und zwar unter Anwendung der nunmehr vertrauten Perspektiven der vier Forschungsprogramme. Abschlieβend wird auf die Bedeutung des Themas Politik und Organisation in diesem Kontext eingegangen.
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Scientists believe the world has entered a new geological epoch in which human economic activity is the primary driver of global environmental change. Known as the Anthropocene, this epoch is characterized by human domination and disruption of Earth system processes essential to the planet’s self-regulating capacity. The environmental problems of the Anthropocene are inextricably intertwined with patterns of trade, finance, investment, and production that have created an enormous and growing economic gap between and within affluent and poor countries. These divisions have often paralyzed international law-making, resulting in deadlocks in environmental treaty negotiations and agreements characterized by ambiguity, lack of ambition, and inadequate compliance and enforcement mechanisms. International environmental law is a field in crisis because the problems it currently confronts are deeply embedded in the existing economic order and cannot be adequately addressed by simply tinkering on the margins. As the planet’s ecosystems approach irreversible tipping points, it is essential to frame the ecological and economic crises of our time in the language of justice and morality. This chapter deploys the discourse of environmental justice to describe the challenges of the Anthropocene and to propose pathways toward a more just and sustainable economic order.
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For all intents and purposes, climate change has resulted in a massive, accidental experiment involving the entire planet and requiring concerted action around the world. In February 2015, scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Mauna Loa Observatory recorded an atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide at 399 parts per million,1 the highest it has been in hundreds of millions of years. Concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could exceed 1,000 parts per million by volume by the year 2050 if trends continue.2
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One of the central dilemmas in politics, public policy, and economics is that markets “work” only at distributing certain types of goods. They tend to be efficient at distributing private goods such as bicycles or hamburgers — where property rights can be completely defined and protected, where owners can exclude others from access, and where property rights can be transferred or sold1 — but less effective at common pool resources such as fish in the high seas or grasslands for grazing, which require agreed-upon rules or sanctions. Unfettered economic markets are almost always completely ineffective at distributing these common pool resources. Designing workable, viable management of common pool resources is “tremendously difficult,” since in many cases success depends upon creating an “inverse commons” where material scarcity is not a concern and each additional user increases value rather than diminishes it.2
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Environmental studies professor David W. Orr once wrote about a remarkable experiment involving two different groups of kittens, raised in rooms that differed only in the color of their walls.1 One group was raised in a room painted with horizontal lines, the other with vertical lines. After several weeks, the kittens were moved from one room to the other. Despite the fact that both environments were identical with the exception of the lines on the walls, both groups suffered severe adjustment problems, including higher mortality rates. The implications of the study concerning perception and adaptability to the environment are interesting, but also telling in a human context. Orr’s research prompts us to ask: if we are forced to adapt to much more serious situations, will humans experience similar degrees of coping difficulties? More importantly, if the political economy aspects we identify in this book are correct, will some malevolent actors create disorientation by design, utilizing chaos and confusion to hide the underlying processes endowing them with wealth and power?
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