Article

Dismantling Melaspileaceae: a first phylogenetic study of Buelliella, Hemigrapha, Karschia, Labrocarpon and Melaspilea

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Abstract

Melaspileaceae is a heterogeneous group of Ascomycota including lichenized, lichenicolous and saprobic fungi. A first phylogenetic study of Melaspileaceae is presented and is based on mtSSU and nuLSU sequence data. We obtained 49 new sequences for 28 specimens representing 15 species. The genera Buelliella, Hemigrapha, Karschia, Labrocarpon and Melaspilea s. str. are included in a molecular phylogeny for the first time. Melaspileaceae is recovered as polyphyletic, with members placed in two main lineages of Dothideomycetes. Melaspilea s. str. is included in Eremithallales. Eremithallaceae is placed in synonymy with Melaspileaceae. The genus Encephalographa is placed in Melaspileaceae. The genera Buelliella, Karschia, Labrocarpon and several members of Melaspilea are demonstrated to belong to Asterinales, while Hemigrapha is confirmed in this order. The genera Melaspileella, Melaspileopsis, Stictographa are reinstated for former Melaspilea species now placed in Asterinales. Karschia cezannei is described as new, and the new combinations Melaspilea costaricensis, M. enteroleuca, M. urceolata, Melaspileella proximella and Melaspileopsis diplasiospora are made. Melaspileaceae as newly defined includes lichenized and saprobic species. The lichenicolous and saprobic life styles form different intermixed lineages in Asterinales that do not include lichenized taxa. The phylogenetic data provide a first framework for dismantling further the genus Melaspilea for which most of the species are expected to belong to Asterinales.

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... The genus has been variously connected with Arthoniales, Caliciales, and Ostropales (Wirth & Hale 1963;Poelt 1969;Eriksson 1982;Ryan & Nimis 2004;Sanderson et al. 2009;Lumbsch & Huhndorf 2010), but also with the Dothideomycetes (Von Arx & Mü ller 1975). In a recent molecular phylogenetic study, Ertz & Diederich (2015) showed that Melaspilea s. lat. consists of several unrelated lineages, all situated within Dothideomycetes: Melaspilea s. str. ...
... Melaspilea proximella [now referred to the reinstated genus Melaspileella (Ertz & Diederich 2015)] has minute discs [0?1-0?2(-0?3) mm diam.], and occurs in the British Isles (Sanderson et al. 2009) but is quite rare in USA collections [five of M. proximella were recorded from 64 institutions as posted on CNALH; US specimens examined by GBP were from Vermont and New Hampshire (one each)]. Four other North American species examined with arthonioid ascomata are M. amota, M. arthonioides, M. constrictella and M. maculosa. ...
... The descriptions for M. cinerascens and M. constrictella in Fink (1935) are nearly identical, except that the ascomata in M. constrictella are sometimes clustered in heaps. Melaspilea tribuloides [now referred to the genus Melanographa (Ertz & Diederich 2015)] is distinct among the lirellate Melaspilea in being lichenicolous and commonly found on the brilliant red crustose thalli of Pyrenula cruenta, as well as other Pyrenula species and Trypethelium. Two very rare species, M. cupularis and M. epigena, are also lichenicolous (on Pyrenula spp. ...
Article
Recently collected specimens of the crustose lichen Melaspilea demissa from southeastern USA have been compared with those of Melaspilea spp. previously determined from North America. A review of both the historical and contemporary treatments of this species is provided. A lectotype was selected from the type collection of M. demissa in FH and is here proposed as it best matches incomplete citations in the original treatment. We also discuss the nomenclatural and taxonomic status of the name Opegrapha cymbiformis var. deformis (considered a synonym of M. gibberulosa). North American specimens of M. gibberulosa were found to be misidentifications, as were specimens attributed to M. lentiginosula, M. mesophlebia and M. octomera. We therefore recommend that these species be removed from the North American lichen checklist. We also present a key to North American Melaspilea.
... Based on both phylogeny and morphology, Hongsanan et al. (2014) revised the order and accepted only a single family Asterinaceae. Subsequently, Ertz & Diederich (2015) sequenced several lichenicolous genera (Buelliella, Hemigrapha, Karschia, Labrocarpon and Stictographa), as well as two saprobic genera (Melaspileella and Melaspileopsis) and placed these genera in Asterinales genera incertae sedis on the basis of their phylogenic relationships close to taxa of Asterinales. Guatimosim et al. (2015) re-collected Parmularia styracis Lév., the type species of Parmulariaceae and designated it as an epitype. ...
... Phylogenetic analysis DNA sequence data (LSU and SSU) of relevant taxa determined in Hyde et al. (2013), Guatimosim et al. (2015), Ertz & Diederich (2015) and Liu et al. (2017) were download from GenBank. Selected taxa belonging to Asterinales, Botryosphaeriales, Capnodiales, Cladoriellales, Hysteriales, Jahnulales, Lichenoconiales, Lichenotheliales, Microthyriales, Myriangiales, Mytilinidiales, Natipusillales, Patellariales, Phaeotrichales, Tubeufiales, Valsariales and Venturiales were included in the phylogenetic analysis to show the relationships among Buelliella, Hemigrapha, Inocyclus, Karschia, Labrocarpon, Melaspileella, Melaspileopsis, Parmularia and Stictographa. ...
... Currently, Buelliella is not included in Stictographaceae, until sequences from the type species are available. The relationships among these genera are poorly supported, probably because of lack of protein genes, and this result is similar to that of Ertz & Diederich (2015). Other groups of Asterinales are Asterinaceae sensu stricto, Asterotexaceae, Hemigraphaceae and Melaspileellaceae, together with several genera incertae sedis. ...
Article
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The family Parmulariaceae comprises three polyphyletic genera, but with very little data in GenBank and is presently placed in the order Asterinales. In this study, we re-analyze the available sequence data for taxa of the family and re-examine the type species of Hemigrapha, Inocyclus and Parmularia. The phylogenetic tree generated from maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of combined LSU-SSU sequence data demonstrate the relationships among Hemigrapha, Inocyclus and Parmularia species, and the relations of Buelliella, Karschia, Labrocarpon, Lembosia, Melaspileella, Melaspileopsis and Stictographa. We introduce Parmulariales ord. nov. to accommodate Parmulariaceae and the order Asterinales accommodates Asterinaceae, Asterotexaceae, Hemigraphaceae fam. nov., Melaspileellaceae fam. nov. and Stictographaceae fam. nov. Notes for each new order and families are provided. We confirm that Asterinaceae sensu lato is distant from Asterinaceae sensu stricto in the phylogenic analysis. The classification presented here is provisional, as more species are needed to re-collected and sequenced. We expect further support for our ordinal and familial lineages, as well as further novel lineages.
... (Hawksworth 1977). Interestingly, the genus Lichenoconium has recently been found to be phylogenetically very close to Abrothallus (Ertz & Diederich 2015). Our observation of a co-occurrence of Abrothallus ramalinae and Lichenoconium cargillianum in the same specimen, and even on the same host apothecia, might lead to the hypothesis that both represent two stages of the same species, and consequently that both genera need to be considered as synonymous. ...
... Notes: This species belongs to Melaspilea Nyl. in the old sense. Ertz & Diederich (2015) and Ertz et al. (2016) have shown, using nuclear and mitochrondrial markers, that Melaspilea s. lat. is polyphyletic, and that Melaspilea s. str. comprises a small number of species in the Melaspileaceae (Eremithallales), whilst most other species need to be transferred to other genera in the Asterotexiales. ...
... comprises a small number of species in the Melaspileaceae (Eremithallales), whilst most other species need to be transferred to other genera in the Asterotexiales. Within the currently described genera, the type species of Labrocarpon Etayo & Pérez-Ortega (2010) and Stictographa Mudd (1861) are morphologically very similar to our new species, and Ertz & Diederich (2015) even wondered if both genera might be synonyms, although these species did not cluster in their phylogenetic trees. We therefore describe our new species in the older of these two genera, Stictographa. ...
... Previous ancestral state reconstructions are most consistent with multiple transitions to the lichen-forming habit (Gargas, DePriest, Grube, & Tehler, 1995;Gueidan et al., 2008;Lutzoni, Pagel, & Reeb, 2001;Schoch et al., 2009), and separate molecular-dating studies suggest a Paleozoic (541-252.2 Ma) to Mesozoic age for clades of LFF (Amo de Paz, Cubas, Divakar, Lumbsch, & Crespo, 2011;Beimforde et al., 2014;Ertz & Diederich, 2015;Gueidan, Ruibal, de Hoog, & Schneider, 2011;Lücking & Nelsen, 2018;Lumbsch & Rikkinen, 2017;Pérez-Ortega, Garrido-Benavent, Grube, Olmo, & de los Ríos, 2016). However, recent work has instead relied on a nonquantitative approach to disentangle where lichenization evolved in fungi, and asserted a single ascomycete origin of lichenization as early as the Ordovician-concurrently with or prior to tracheophytes (Lutzoni et al., 2018). ...
... Thus lichens could still have been responsible, in theory, for Ordovician environmental impacts that pre-dated tracheophytes. However, several clades of LFF (Ertz & Diederich, 2015;Lücking et al., 2008;Lumbsch, Zimmermann, & Schmitt, 2009;Nelsen et al., 2009;Printzen, Cezanne, Eichler, & Lumbsch, 2012;Reeb, Lutzoni, & Roux, 2004) not included in these studies (some of which are lacking from the alignment utilized (James et al., 2006) in recent work (Lutzoni et al., 2018)) have recently been shown to occupy isolated phylogenetic positions within Pezizomycotina (the largest ascomycete subphylum), or were recovered from larger clades of non-lichen-forming fungi (NLFF), thereby confounding the interpretation of previous studies lacking these important lineages. Consequently, the phylogenetic position and age of lichenization in fungi remains unclear. ...
Article
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The early‐successional status of lichens in modern terrestrial ecosystems, together with the role lichen‐mediated weathering plays in the carbon cycle, have contributed to the long and widely held assumption that lichens occupied early terrestrial ecosystems prior to the evolution of vascular plants and drove global change during this time. Their poor preservation potential and the classification of ambiguous fossils as lichens or other fungal–algal associations have further reinforced this view. As unambiguous fossil data are lacking to demonstrate the presence of lichens prior to vascular plants, we utilize an alternate approach to assess their historic presence in early terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we analyze new time‐calibrated phylogenies of ascomycete fungi and chlorophytan algae, that intensively sample lineages with lichen symbionts. Age estimates for several interacting clades show broad congruence and demonstrate that fungal origins of lichenization postdate the earliest tracheophytes. Coupled with the absence of unambiguous fossil data, our work finds no support for lichens having mediated global change during the Neoproterozoic‐early Paleozoic prior to vascular plants. We conclude by discussing our findings in the context of Neoproterozoic‐Paleozoic terrestrial ecosystem evolution and the paleoecological context in which vascular plants evolved.
... Many described species of Dacampiaceae are lichenicolous, but limited sequence data for lichenicolous species means they are not commonly included in cladograms based on molecular data sets (e.g., Lutzoni et al. 2004;Zhang et al. 2009). Despite some recent progress in placing lichenicolous species in Dothideomycetes (Lawrey et al. , 2012Ruibal et al. 2011;Ertz et al. 2013;Pérez-Ortega et al. 2013;Ertz and Diederich 2015), questions remains about whether the placement and content of Dacampiaceae, including lichenicolous species, are correct. ...
... Additional taxa were selected from Hyde et al. (2013) and Nelsen et al. (2014) to include a wide array of families belonging to Dothideomycetes and an exhaustive list of genera belonging to Trypetheliales. The original nuLSU matrix used in Ertz and Diederich (2015) was used as main template. The resulting nuLSU matrix consisted of 109 sequences, mainly from a wide variety of Dothideomycetes. ...
Article
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A phylogenetic analysis of nuLSU and ITS sequences representing genera previously included in Dacampiaceae indicates that the family is strongly polyphyletic and that the type species of Dacampia is placed in Pleosporales. The genus Munkovalsaria s. str. is placed in Didymosphaeriaceae (Pleosporales). Polycoccum s. str. and two species of Clypeococcum are shown to form a new lineage sister to the Trypetheliaceae in Trypetheliales and described here as Polycoccaceae. Other members of Polycoccum s. lat. are included in the Pleosporales and are closely related to lichenicolous Phoma-like species of the family Phaeosphaeriaceae. The genus Didymocyrtis is resurrected for these species and for lichenicolous species previously assigned to Diederichia, Diederichomyces, Leptosphaeria and Phoma. The genera Diederichia and Diederichomyces are synonymized with Didymocyrtis. The new combinations Didymocyrtis bryonthae, D. cladoniicola, D. foliaceiphila, D. infestans, D. kaernefeltii, D. melanelixiae, D. pseudeverniae, D. ramalinae, D. slaptoniensis and D. xanthomendozae are made, and the new name D. epiphyscia is introduced for Phoma physciicola. Some anamorph-teleomorph relationships are resolved, such as Didymocyrtis ramalinae–Phoma ficuzzae and Didymocyrtis consimilis–Phoma caloplacae, the phylogenetic results being supported by single ascospore cultures that lead to the asexual stage producing pycnidia and conidia in culture. Speciation by host switching is assumed to be important in the genus Didymocyrtis. An identification key to Didymocyrtis species is provided.
... Most known lichenicolous fungi are Ascomycetes. Their phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary histories are only known for sparsely sampled groups, mainly of lichenicolous basidiomycetes (Sikaroodi et al. 2001;Lawrey et al. 2007Lawrey et al. , 2016Millanes et al. 2011;Liu et al. 2016) or selected genera of Ascomycetes, including Abrothallales (Pérez-Ortega et al. 2014;Suija et al. 2015a), Asterinales (Ertz and Diederich 2015), Asterotexiales (Ertz et al. 2016), Arthoniales (Frisch et al. 2014), Capnodiales (Ruibal et al. 2011;Muggia et al. 2016), Chaetothyriales (Diederich et al. 2013;Muggia et al. 2015Muggia et al. , 2016, Helotiales (Etayo et al. 2015;Suija et al. 2015b), Lecanoromycetes , Lichenostigmatales , Pleosporales (Lawrey et al. 2012;Trakunyingcharoen et al. 2014;Ertz et al. 2015;Muggia et al. 2016), and Trypetheliales . This state of knowledge is mostly a consequence of the difficult access to fresh material from less-explored ecosystems and of rare lichenicolous species, as well as technical difficulties in obtaining axenic cultures, particularly when they grow biotrophically on their hosts. ...
... Most known lichenicolous fungi are Ascomycetes. Their phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary histories are only known for sparsely sampled groups, mainly of lichenicolous basidiomycetes (Sikaroodi et al. 2001;Lawrey et al. 2007Lawrey et al. , 2016Millanes et al. 2011;Liu et al. 2016) or selected genera of Ascomycetes, including Abrothallales (Pérez-Ortega et al. 2014;Suija et al. 2015a), Asterinales (Ertz and Diederich 2015), Asterotexiales (Ertz et al. 2016), Arthoniales (Frisch et al. 2014), Capnodiales (Ruibal et al. 2011;Muggia et al. 2016), Chaetothyriales (Diederich et al. 2013;Muggia et al. 2015Muggia et al. , 2016, Helotiales (Etayo et al. 2015;Suija et al. 2015b), Lecanoromycetes , Lichenostigmatales , Pleosporales (Lawrey et al. 2012;Trakunyingcharoen et al. 2014;Ertz et al. 2015;Muggia et al. 2016), and Trypetheliales . This state of knowledge is mostly a consequence of the difficult access to fresh material from less-explored ecosystems and of rare lichenicolous species, as well as technical difficulties in obtaining axenic cultures, particularly when they grow biotrophically on their hosts. ...
Article
Lichen-inhabiting fungi are highly specialized mycoparasites, commensals or rarely saprotrophs, that are common components of almost every ecosystem, where they develop obligate associations with lichens. Their relevance, however, contrasts with the relatively small number of these fungi described so far. Recent estimates and ongoing studies indicate that a significant fraction of their diversity remains undiscovered and may be expected in tropical regions, in particular in hyperdiverse fog-exposed montane forests. Here, we introduce the new genus Zhurbenkoa, from South America and Europe, for three lichenicolous fungi growing on thalli of the widespread lichen genus Cladonia (Lecanorales). Phylogenetic analyses based on combined sequence data of mt and nuc rDNA obtained from Andean populations (Bolivia) placed Zhurbenkoa as a member of Malmideaceae, a recently introduced family of lichen-forming fungi in the class Lecanoromycetes. Zhurbenkoa is closely related to the genera Savoronala and Sprucidea. The new genus is characterized by the development of grayish brown to almost black apothecia lacking an evident margin, an epihymenium interspersed with crystals (often seen as pruina), a strongly conglutinated hymenium made of noncapitate and sparsely branched paraphyses, a colorless exciple composed of radially arranged hyphae, a Lecanora/Micarea-like ascus type, and aseptate or 1-septate ellipsoidal colorless ascospores. Zhurbenkoa includes two Neotropical (Z. cladoniarum, Z. latispora) and one widespread (Z. epicladonia) species. The lichenicolous trophic mode is documented for the first time in the Malmideaceae, which until now included only lichen-forming associations between fungi and green algae.
... The ascomycete genus Melaspilea Nyl. (Melaspileaceae W. Watson) characterised by arthonioid or opegraphoid ascomata, carbonised exciple consisting of several cell layers and hyaline to pale brown, transversely 1-septate ascospores (Perlmutter et al. 2015) is represented by about 70 species (Flakus et al. 2014, Joseph and Sinha 2015, Kalb et al. 2012, Kirk et al. 2008, Zhurbenko and Zhdanov 2013 (Clauzade et al. 1989, Ertz and Diederich 2015, Flakus et al. 2014, Joseph and Sinha 2015, Kalb et al. 2012, Zhurbenko and Zhdanov 2013. ...
Article
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A new lichenicolous fungus Melaspilea nitidochapsae colonising on the thallus of Nitidochapsa leprieurii (Mont.) Parnmen, Lücking et Lumbsch is described from India. The new species differs from other known species colonising lichen family Graphidaceae by having completely carbonised exciple, hyaline to pale brown transversely 1-septate ascospores and a different host.
... Mudd -Loc. 2 on Cinnamomum, 53717 (on Phaeographis dendritica). -This species, formerly placed in Melaspilea is recorded from France, Ireland, Madeira and UK by Ertz and Diederich (2015). ...
Article
One hundred and seven taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are recorded from Estremadura (Portugal), six species are new records to Europe (mainland), Anisomeridium macro pycnidiatum, Bacidina brittoniana, Graphis striatula, Lichenopeltella physciae, Pyrenula complanata and Thelotrema laurisilvae. An alphabetical species list with collection localities, substrate and occasional further annotations is presented
... Since molecular data were only available for a small proportion of the species and often based on only partly overlapping sets of markers, we opted for a supertree approach, by constructing a cladogram resolved to genus level from published phylogenies (Andersen & Ekman, 2005;Aptroot, Ertz, et al., 2015;Arup et al., 2013;Baloch et al., 2010;Buaruang et al., 2015;Chen et al., 2015;Crespo et al., 2010;Dal Forno et al., 2013;Diederich et al., 2011;Divakar et al., 2017;Ertz & Diederich, 2015;Ertz & Tehler, 2001;Ertz et al., 2009Frisch et al. 2006Frisch et al. , 2014Grube et al., 2004;Gueidan et al., 2008Gueidan et al., , 2014Gueidan et al., , 2016Hyde et al., 2013;Kalb et al., 2011;Kantvilas & Lumbsch, 2012;Kauff et al., 2018;Kistenich et al., 2018;Kraichak et al., 2014Kraichak et al., , 2018Lücking, 2019;Lücking et al., , 2013Lücking et al., , 2014Lücking et al., , 2017Lücking, Johnston, et al., 2016, Lücking, Nelsen, et al., 2016Medeiros et al., 2017;Miadlikowska et al., 2014;Muggia et al, 2010;Nelsen et al., 2011Nelsen et al., , 2014Otálora et al., 2013;Rivas Plata et al., 2013;Singh, Aptroot, et al., 2018, Singh, Dal Grande, et al., 2018Schmitt et al., 2003Schmitt et al., , 2009Schultz & Büdel, 2003;Schultz et al., 2001;Sobreira et al., 2018;Weerakoon et al., 2012). ...
... Սկզբնաղբյուրներ/References Ertz & Diederich, 2015Gasparyan & Sipman, 2013Kopaczevskaia et al., 1977 ...
Book
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The literature review, field work and field collections of the specimens were implemented within this studies. More than 150 localities were explored throughout Armenia. Based on the results of the research, the conservation status of several epiphytic lichens was assessed. It has been made according to criteria of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and the Red Book of the Republic of Armenia. As a result, 7 species were assessed as a Critically Endangered (CR), 5 species as Endangered (EN), 2 species as Vulnerable (VU) and 4 as Data Deficient (DD). 18 epiphytic lichens considered in this book are suggested to be included in an upcoming edition of the Red Book of RA. This will give an opportunity to promote the conservation of epiphytic lichens, especially in forest ecosystems.
... The specimens are deposited in the Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem (B) and the private herbarium of Arsen Gasparyan. For the identification the following publications were used: Andreev et al. (2003Andreev et al. ( , 2008, Arup (2009), Brodo et al. (2001), Divakar et al. (2007), Ertz & Diederich (2015), Giralt (2001), Harris & Lendemer (2010), , Nash III et al. (2002, 2004, Printzen & Otte (2005), Saag et al. (2009Saag et al. ( ), Śliwa (2007, Smith et al. (2009Smith et al. ( ), Šoun et al. (2011, Steiner & Poelt (1982), Van den Boom & Khodosovtsev (2004), Valadbeigi et al. (2011), Vondrák (2016, Westberg (2007aWestberg ( , 2007b, Westberg & Sohrabi (2012), Wirth et al. (2013). ...
Article
A total of 230 taxa of lichenized fungi are reported from epiphytic habitats in Armenia based on field studies from 2011 to 2015 and evaluation of the available literature. For each species, notes on taxonomy, chemistry, ecology, and local, regional and world distribution are presented, as well as presence in the protected areas of the country. An identification key for all species is added. Of the total, 219 are specialized epiphytes, rarely found on other substrates, while 11 species occur only incidentally on bark and more usually on rock. The epiphytic lichenized fungi of Armenia belong to 13 orders, 34 families and 88 genera. The most species-rich higher taxa are Lecanorales (Parmeliaceae, Physciaceae, Teloschistaceae), Arthoniales, Peltigerales and Pertusariales. Lecanora, Usnea and Phaeophyscia are the most species-rich genera. The following 28 taxa are new records for Armenia: Arthonia atra, Bacidia biatorina, Bacidina adastra, Biatora longispora, Bryoria fuscescens, Bryostigma muscigenum, Buellia erubescens, Candelariella efflorescens, Flavoparmelia soredians, Hypocenomyce scalaris, Lecidella cf. pulveracea, Lepraria jackii, Lepraria leuckertiana, Leptogium cyanescens, Ochrolechia pallescens, Pertusaria slesvicensis, Phaeophyscia endophoenicea, Phlyctis agelaea, Phlyctis argena, Placynthiella icmalea, Pyrrhospora quernea, Ramalina panizzei, Rinodina griseosoralifera, Rinodina polysporoides, Strigula stigmatella, Varicellaria hemisphaerica. Four genera are for the first time reported for the country, Hypocenomyce, Phlyctis, Pyrrhospora and Strigula. 188 species (82% of the epiphytic lichen mycobiota) were found in the Specially Protected Nature Areas of Armenia. The conservation status of 74 species has been evaluated following the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species categories and criteria. Among them we assessed 9 taxa as Critically Endangered, 5 taxa as Endangered, 2 taxa as Vulnerable, 4 taxa as Data Deficient and 54 taxa as Least Concern. Epiphytic lichens reported from Armenia showed predominantly holarctic distributional patterns. 187 species were found in the temperate deciduous and mixed forests, which dominate in Northern and Central Armenia, and 56 species in the open arid woodlands of Southern Armenia.
... by Bachmann and Bachmann (1920) based on material from siliceous rock. According to Ertz and Diederich (2015) it is corticolous species, and the historical report likely instead refers to a Lecidella species. Melaspilea urceolata (Fr.) ...
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A total of 606 species and five subspecific taxa of lichens and allied fungi are documented from Belarus based on combined historical (pre-1980) and modern (post-1980) records. Of these, 50 (8.3%) are represented by only historical reports, 235 (38.8%) are represented by only modern vouchers, and 310 (51.2%) are represented by both historical and modern records. Eleven species are known only from generalized published reports that lacked specific location data. Eighty-eight species are excluded as erroneous reports, or considered as doubtful records.
... In addition, we noticed that the clade representing Arthoniomycetes clusters inside Dothideomycetes, and this is congruent to results reported by Ertz and Diederich (2015). Asterinales, Cladoriellales, Eremithallales, Jahnulales, Lichenoconiales, Microthyriales, Natipusillales, Phaeotrichales, Venturiales and Zeloasperisporiales are distinct from the major Dothideomycetes group in our phylogenetic analyses. ...
Article
Micropeltidaceae species are flyspeck fungi which have been subjected to few systematic studies. We re-examined 27 genera which were accepted in the Micropeltidaceae and re-described them based on herbaria materials and protologues. Based on morphology and phylogenetic investigations, we transfer Micropeltidaceae to a new order, Micropeltidales (Lecanoromycetes). Genera with bluish or greenish upper walls (Dictyopeltella, Dictyothyriella, Dictyothyrina, Dictyothyrium, Haplopeltheca, Micropeltis, Scolecopeltidium and Stomiopeltopsis) are accepted in the new taxonomic concept for Micropeltidaceae. A molecular clock approach estimated the divergence time of the Micropeltidaceae crown group at 130 (165–104) Mya, which also supports its rank as an order (diverging from 220–100 Mya). The evolutionary histories between Micropeltidaceae species and host plants are interpreted by cophylogenetic analyses calibrated by their divergence times. The result indicates that the diversification of Angiospermae (130–80 Mya) fosters the formation of genera of Micropeltidaceae mainly via cospeciation events, and this codivergent period would be an important reference when establishing generic boundaries of epifoliar fungi.
... Classification of a fungus into a taxonomic rank is largely based on convergent morphologies. Incorporation of molecular data has profoundly changed the systematics of fungal classes, subclasses, orders, families, genera, and species Hibbett et al. 2007;Gherbawy and Voigt 2010), e.g., recent revisions of the classes Arthoniomycetes, Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes (Ertz et al. 2013;Hyde et al. 2013a;Wijayawardene et al. 2014;Maharachchikumbura et al. 2015), the subclasses Lulworthiomycetidae and Xylariomycetidae (Senanayake et al. 2015) the orders Asterinales, Dothideales and Erysiphales (Braun and Cook 2012;Hongsanan et al. 2014;Thambugala et al. 2014;Ertz and Diederich 2015), and the genera Pestalotiopsis and Diaporthe (Maharachchikumbura et al. , 2012(Maharachchikumbura et al. , 2013bUdayanga et al. 2011Udayanga et al. , 2012a. Although the classification of Hibbett et al. (2007) has been amended at all levels since its publication (e.g., Binder et al. 2010;Jones et al. 2011;Bauer et al. 2015), its fundamental structure remains the same. ...
... Полярные бесцветные щетинки наблюдаются только у живых аскоспор, исчезая спустя некоторое время после гербаризации. Молекулярно-филогенетические данные свидетельствуют в пользу включения рода Melaspileella в порядок Asterinales, однако положение его внутри порядка остается неопределенным (Ertz, Diederich, 2015). ...
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The annotated list of macromycetes collected in 2007–2011 in the Pechory District of the Pskov Region during our investigation of the macrofungi of the grassland communities on calcareous soils is presented. It includes 55 species (7 — Ascomycota, 48 — Basidiomycota), among which 42 species and 1 variety are new to the Pskov Region, including 3 species new to Russia, i. e. Cono cybe pulchra, Entoloma glaucobasis, E. ochromicaceum (the descriptions and illustrations of these species are provided). The studied communities are dominated by Conocybe and Entoloma, but the members of typical «grassland» genera Camarophyllopsis, Dermoloma, Geoglossum, Hemimycena, Hygrocybe, Mycenella were also found there.
... Clade B species were recently classified in Asterinales (see Ertz and Diederich, 2015), but here, they group instead with Asterotexiales (Appendices S2 and S3). Clade B includes 14 species, most of which are apothecioid parasites of lichens, although two are corticolous, and one species, Morenoina calamicola, is thyriothecial and epiphyllous (Appendices S1d, S2, and S3). ...
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Fossils show that fly‐speck fungi have been reproducing with small, black thyriothecia on leaf surfaces for ~250 million years. We analyzed morphological characters of extant thyriothecial fungi to develop a phylogenetic framework for interpreting fossil taxa. We placed 59 extant fly‐speck fungi in a phylogeny of 320 Ascomycota using nuclear ribosomal large and small subunit sequences, including newly determined sequences from nine taxa. We reconstructed ancestral character states using BayesTraits and maximum likelihood after coding 11 morphological characters based on original observations and literature. We analyzed the relationships of three previously published Mesozoic fossils using parsimony and our morphological character matrix, constrained by the molecular phylogeny. Thyriothecia evolved convergently in multiple lineages of superficial, leaf‐inhabiting ascomycetes. The radiate and ostiolate scutellum organization is restricted to Dothideomycetes. Scutellum initiation by intercalary septation of a single hypha characterizes Asterinales and Asterotexiales, and initiation by coordinated growth of two or more adjacent hyphae characterizes Aulographaceae. Scutella in Microthyriales are initiated apically on a lateral hyphal branch. Patterns of hyphal branching in scutella contribute to distinguishing among orders. Parsimony resolves three fossil taxa as Dothideomycetes; one is further resolved as a member of a Microthyriales‐Zeloasperisporiales clade within Dothideomycetes. This is the most comprehensive systematic study of thyriothecial fungi and their relatives to date. Parsimony analysis of the matrix of character states of modern taxa provides an objective basis for interpreting fossils, leading to insights into morphological evolution and geological ages of Dothideomycetes clades.
... Classification of a fungus into a taxonomic rank is largely based on convergent morphologies. Incorporation of molecular data has profoundly changed the systematics of fungal classes, subclasses, orders, families, genera, and species Hibbett et al. 2007;Gherbawy and Voigt 2010), e.g., recent revisions of the classes Arthoniomycetes, Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes (Ertz et al. 2013;Hyde et al. 2013a;Wijayawardene et al. 2014;Maharachchikumbura et al. 2015), the subclasses Lulworthiomycetidae and Xylariomycetidae (Senanayake et al. 2015) the orders Asterinales, Dothideales and Erysiphales (Braun and Cook 2012;Hongsanan et al. 2014;Thambugala et al. 2014;Ertz and Diederich 2015), and the genera Pestalotiopsis and Diaporthe (Maharachchikumbura et al. , 2012(Maharachchikumbura et al. , 2013bUdayanga et al. 2011Udayanga et al. , 2012a. Although the classification of Hibbett et al. (2007) has been amended at all levels since its publication (e.g., Binder et al. 2010;Jones et al. 2011;Bauer et al. 2015), its fundamental structure remains the same. ...
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Abstract Taxonomic names are key links between various databases that store information on different organisms. Several global fungal nomenclural and taxonomic databases (notably Index Fungorum, Species Fungorum and MycoBank) can be sourced to find taxonomic details about fungi, while DNA sequence data can be sourced from NCBI, EBI and UNITE databases. Although the sequence data may be linked to a name, the quality of the metadata is variable and generally there is no corresponding link to images, descriptions or herbarium material. There is generally no way to establish the accuracy of the names in these genomic databases, other than whether the submission is from a reputable source. To tackle this problem, a new database (FacesofFungi), accessible at www.facesoffungi.org (FoF) has been established. This fungal database allows deposition of taxonomic data, phenotypic details and other useful data, which will enhance our current taxonomic understanding and ultimately enable mycologists to gain better and updated insights into the current fungal classification system. In addition, the database will also allow access to comprehensive metadata including descriptions of voucher and type specimens. This database is user-friendly, providing links and easy access between taxonomic ranks, with the classification system based primarily on molecular data (from the literature and via updated web-based phylogenetic trees), and to a lesser extent on morphological data when molecular data are unavailable. In FoF species are not only linked to the closest phylogenetic representatives, but also relevant data is provided, wherever available, on various applied aspects, such as ecological, industrial, quarantine and chemical uses. The data include the three main fungal groups (Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Basal fungi) and fungus-like organisms. The FoF webpage is an output funded by the Mushroom Research Foundation which is an NGO with seven directors with mycological expertise. The webpage has 76 curators, and with the help of these specialists, FoF will provide an updated natural classification of the fungi, with illustrated accounts of species linked to molecular data. The present paper introduces the FoF database to the scientific community and briefly reviews some of the problems associated with classification and identification of the main fungal groups. The structure and use of the database is then explained. We would like to invite all mycologists to contribute to these web pages. Keywords Classification . Database . FacesofFungi . Fungi . Phylogeny . Taxonomy
... The datasets of Eurotiomycetes and Dothideomycetes were prepared in summer 2014 whereas those of Leotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes in January 2015. For this reason recent sequence data published subsequently summer 2014 by Gueidan et al. (2014) and Ertz and Diederich (2015) are not included here. For each dataset, outgroup taxa were chosen from the most closely related classes. ...
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Fungi other than the lichen mycobiont frequently co-occur within lichen thalli and on the same rock in harsh environments. In these situations dark-pigmented mycelial structures are commonly observed on lichen thalli, where they persist under the same stressful conditions as their hosts. Here we used a comprehensive sampling of lichen-associated fungi from an alpine habitat to assess their phylogenetic relationships with fungi previously known from other niches. The multilocus phylogenetic analyses suggest that most of the 248 isolates belong to the Chaetothyriomycetes and Dothideomycetes, while a minor fraction represents Sordariomycetes and Leotiomycetes. As many lichens also were infected by phenotypically distinct lichenicolous fungi of diverse lineages, it remains difficult to assess whether the culture isolates represent these fungi or are from additional cryptic, extremotolerant fungi within the thalli. Some of these strains represent yet undescribed lineages within Chaethothyriomycetes and Dothideomycetes, whereas other strains belong to genera of fungi, that are known as lichen colonizers, plant and human pathogens, rock-inhabiting fungi, parasites and saprotrophs. The symbiotic structures of the lichen thalli appear to be a shared habitat of phylogenetically diverse stress-tolerant fungi, which potentially benefit from the lichen niche in otherwise hostile habitats. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13225-015-0343-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... The new species fits well with the concept of Buelliella Fink as presented in Hafellner (1979Hafellner ( , 2004, including diagnostic characters such as cleistohymenial ascomata, a hyaline, I−, K/I− hymenium, delicate, branched and anastomosed paraphysoids, bitunicate, I−, K/I− asci, and 1-septate ascospores, remaining hyaline for a long time. We did not see the short periphyses that occur in some Buelliella species (Ertz & Diederich 2015) but neither were these observed in the generic type B. minimula (Tuck.) Fink. ...
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... Since molecular data were only available for a small proportion of the species and often based on only partly overlapping sets of markers, we opted for a supertree approach, by constructing a cladogram resolved to genus level from published phylogenies (Andersen & Ekman, 2005;Aptroot, Ertz, et al., 2015;Arup et al., 2013;Baloch et al., 2010;Buaruang et al., 2015;Chen et al., 2015;Crespo et al., 2010;Dal Forno et al., 2013;Diederich et al., 2011;Divakar et al., 2017;Ertz & Diederich, 2015;Ertz & Tehler, 2001;Ertz et al., 2009Frisch et al. 2006Frisch et al. , 2014Grube et al., 2004;Gueidan et al., 2008Gueidan et al., , 2014Gueidan et al., , 2016Hyde et al., 2013;Kalb et al., 2011;Kantvilas & Lumbsch, 2012;Kauff et al., 2018;Kistenich et al., 2018;Kraichak et al., 2014Kraichak et al., , 2018Lücking, 2019;Lücking et al., , 2013Lücking et al., , 2014Lücking et al., , 2017Lücking, Johnston, et al., 2016, Lücking, Nelsen, et al., 2016Medeiros et al., 2017;Miadlikowska et al., 2014;Muggia et al, 2010;Nelsen et al., 2011Nelsen et al., , 2014Otálora et al., 2013;Rivas Plata et al., 2013;Singh, Aptroot, et al., 2018, Singh, Dal Grande, et al., 2018Schmitt et al., 2003Schmitt et al., , 2009Schultz & Büdel, 2003;Schultz et al., 2001;Sobreira et al., 2018;Weerakoon et al., 2012). ...
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Taeniolella is a genus of asexual ascomycetes with saprophytic, endophytic and lichenicolous life styles. A phylogeny of representative species of the genus is presented, with a focus on lichenicolous taxa. We obtained mtSSU and nuLSU sequence data from culture isolates of Taeniolella and from freshly collected specimens of other species. The genus Taeniolella is recovered as strongly polyphyletic with species distributed between the Dothideomycetes and the Sordariomycetes. The type species, Taeniolella exilis, is placed in the Kirschsteiniotheliaceae within Dothideomycetes. Other saprophytic/endophytic Taeniolella species previously assigned to the Sordariomycetes based on sequences were found to represent either contaminants or species that cannot be assigned to Taeniolella for morphological reasons. Lichenicolous species are restricted to the Asterotexiales (Dothideomycetes) where the sequenced species of Taeniolella do not form a monophyletic group, but are related to species of the genera Buelliella s. lat., Karschia, Labrocarpon, Melaspilea s. lat., and Stictographa. Molecular data are, however, not sufficient to reallocate the lichenicolous Taeniolella species to other genera so far. Anamorph-teleomorph relationships between these taxa and lichenicolous Taeniolella species are discussed but could not be demonstrated with the current data. Buelliella minimula, the type species of the genus Buelliella, is placed in the Asterotexiales, and the genus recovered as polyphyletic. Three new lichenicolous Taeniolella species are described, namely T. hawksworthiana, T. pyrenulae, and T. toruloides. Taeniolella rudis is transferred to Sterigmatobotrys, as S. rudis. In addition, the taxonomic part comprises detailed treatments of the generic type T. exilis and of T. punctata, which are both included in the phylogenetic trees.
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This is the sixth in a series of papers where we bring collaborating mycologists together to produce a set of notes of several taxa of fungi. In this study we introduce a new family Fuscostagonosporaceae in Dothideomycetes. We also introduce the new ascomycete genera Acericola, Castellaniomyces, Dictyosporina and Longitudinalis and new species Acericola italica, Alternariaster trigonosporus, Amarenomyces dactylidis, Angustimassarina coryli, Astrocystis bambusicola, Castellaniomyces rosae, Chaetothyrina artocarpi, Chlamydotubeufia krabiensis, Colletotrichum lauri, Collodiscula chiangraiensis, Curvularia palmicola, Cytospora mali-sylvestris, Dictyocheirospora cheirospora, Dictyosporina ferruginea, Dothiora coronillae, Dothiora spartii, Dyfrolomyces phetchaburiensis, Epicoccum cedri, Epicoccum pruni, Fasciatispora calami, Fuscostagonospora cytisi, Grandibotrys hyalinus, Hermatomyces nabanheensis, Hongkongmyces thailandica, Hysterium rhizophorae, Jahnula guttulaspora, Kirschsteiniothelia rostrata, Koorchalomella salmonispora, Longitudinalis nabanheensis, Lophium zalerioides, Magnibotryascoma mali, Meliola clerodendri-infortunati, Microthyrium chinense, Neodidymelliopsis moricola, Neophaeocryptopus spartii, Nigrograna thymi, Ophiocordyceps cossidarum, Ophiocordyceps issidarum, Ophiosimulans plantaginis, Otidea pruinosa, Otidea stipitata, Paucispora kunmingense, Phaeoisaria microspora, Pleurothecium floriforme, Poaceascoma halophila, Periconia aquatica, Periconia submersa, Phaeosphaeria acaciae, Phaeopoacea muriformis, Pseudopithomyces kunmingnensis, Ramgea ozimecii, Sardiniella celtidis, Seimatosporium italicum, Setoseptoria scirpi, Torula gaodangensis and Vamsapriya breviconidiophora. We also provide an amended account of Rhytidhysteron to include apothecial ascomata and a J+ hymenium. The type species of Ascotrichella hawksworthii (Xylariales genera incertae sedis), Biciliopsis leptogiicola (Sordariomycetes genera incertae sedis), Brooksia tropicalis (Micropeltidaceae), Bryochiton monascus (Teratosphaeriaceae), Bryomyces scapaniae (Pseudoperisporiaceae), Buelliella minimula (Dothideomycetes genera incertae sedis), Carinispora nypae (Pseudoastrosphaeriellaceae), Cocciscia hammeri (Verrucariaceae), Endoxylina astroidea (Diatrypaceae), Exserohilum turcicum (Pleosporaceae), Immotthia hypoxylon (Roussoellaceae), Licopolia franciscana (Vizellaceae), Murispora rubicunda (Amniculicolaceae) and Doratospora guianensis (synonymized under Rizalia guianensis, Trichosphaeriaceae) were re-examined and descriptions, illustrations and discussion on their familial placement are given based on phylogeny and morphological data. New host records or new country reports are provided for Chlamydotubeufia huaikangplaensis, Colletotrichum fioriniae, Diaporthe subclavata, Diatrypella vulgaris, Immersidiscosia eucalypti, Leptoxyphium glochidion, Stemphylium vesicarium, Tetraploa yakushimensis and Xepicula leucotricha. Diaporthe baccae is synonymized under Diaporthe rhusicola. A reference specimen is provided for Periconia minutissima. Updated phylogenetic trees are provided for most families and genera. We introduce the new basidiomycete species Agaricus purpurlesquameus, Agaricus rufusfibrillosus, Lactifluus holophyllus, Lactifluus luteolamellatus, Lactifluus pseudohygrophoroides, Russula benwooii, Russula hypofragilis, Russula obscurozelleri, Russula parapallens, Russula phoenicea, Russula pseudopelargonia, Russula pseudotsugarum, Russula rhodocephala, Russula salishensis, Steccherinum amapaense, Tephrocybella constrictospora, Tyromyces amazonicus and Tyromyces angulatus and provide updated trees to the genera. We also introduce Mortierella formicae in Mortierellales, Mucoromycota and provide an updated phylogenetic tree.
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A new checklist of 755 species of lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi occurring in Lithuania is presented. Of these, 620 species are lichenized, 115 lichenicolous and 20 are saprobic fungi that are usually treated in lichenological literature. Frequency of every species and infraspecific taxon in the country is indicated, except for the 12 species known from literature records only. List of synonyms is also presented.
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The former checklists of lichen-forming and allied fungi of Japan were compiled by Sato (1943, 1959-65), Kurokawa (2003), Harada et al. (2004), and Kurokawa & Kashiwadani (2006) that listed 1,639 accepted taxa. This current edition of checklist enumerates 1,906 accepted taxa of lichen-forming and allied fungi of Japan and their synonyms reported in the references (until 31 December 2017) related to Japanese mycobiota. Information of e.g. websites and private self-publications that were not taxonomically authorized are not considered into this checklist. Among the accepted taxa in the current list, the lichen-forming fungi are 1,801 taxa (389 genera 1,764 species 10 subspecies 49 varieties 11 forms) and the allied fungi including lichenicolous, saprophytic and plant pathogenic fungi are 64 genera 105 species. It should be noted that endemic taxa of lichen-forming fungi are 336 taxa (112 genera 335 species 1 subspecies 22 varieties 6 forms) and 307 for endemic species, 1 for endemic subspecies, 22 for endemic variety and 6 for endemic form among them. Those of allied fungi are 10 species (10 genera and 10 species). The number of endemic taxa introduced by Kurokawa (2006) was more than 350 taxa (c. 22%) among 1602 taxa of lichen-forming fungi, and the number is now slightly reduced into 335 taxa (c. 19%) among 1,801 taxa. As pointed out by Kurokawa (2006), a number of crustose species are not necessary endemic to Japan and may be found in the adjacent areas such as China, Korea and Russia in the future. Although 267 taxa were added to the current list after Kurokawa & Kashiwadani (2006), some of them are needed further taxonomic researches because they were newly described or reported based only on reference information and no comparison with reliable specimens.
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Lichenicolous fungi represent a highly specialized and successful group of organisms that live exclusively on lichens, most commonly as host-specific parasites, but also as broad-spectrum pathogens, saprotrophs or commensals. We present here the most recent update to the classification of lichenicolous fungi in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota to genus level, arranged phylogenetically according to published classifications. For each genus, all known lichenicolous taxa (obligately lichenicolous taxa, lichenicolous lichens, and facultatively lichenicolous taxa) are listed, along with information about types, synonyms, pertinent literature and whether or not molecular data are available for any of the listed species. The number of accepted lichenicolous fungi is now 2319, with 2000 obligately lichenicolous species, subspecies or varieties, 257 lichenicolous lichens and 62 facultatively lichenicolous taxa. These species are found in 10 different classes of Fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota), 55 orders, 115 families and 397 genera. The 2319 total taxa is an increase from the 1559 total species reported in the last published catalogue in 2003, and a larger number than the approximately 1800 reported in the most recent online checklist (www.lichenicolous.net) posted in January 2018. Of the total number of taxa, 2219 (96%) are ascomycetes and 100 (4%) are basidiomycetes. Of the 397 genera containing lichenicolous species, c. 50% (198) are entirely lichenicolous. In addition, six families (Abrothallaceae, Adelococcaceae, Cyphobasidiaceae, Obryzaceae, Polycoccaceae, Sarcopyreniaceae) and two orders (Abrothallales, Cyphobasidiales) are entirely lichenicolous. Sequence information is available for lichenicolous species in 128 (32%) of the 397 genera containing lichenicolous species, and in 56 (28%) of the 198 entirely lichenicolous genera. Many species are known from only one host lichen, but it is likely that broader host ecologies will be discovered as new sequence information is obtained from ongoing microbiome studies. Phaeopyxis Rambold & Triebel is considered as a new synonym of Bachmanniomyces D.Hawksw., resulting in five new combinations B. australis (Rambold & Triebel) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ P. australis), B. carniolicus (Arnold) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ Biatora carniolica), B. muscigenae (Alstrup & E.S.Hansen) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ P. muscigenae), B. punctum (A.Massal.) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ Nesolechia punctum) and B. varius (Coppins, Rambold & Triebel) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ P. varia). As a consequence of a phylogenetic analysis including new sequences, Dactylospora Körb. is regarded as a new synonym of Sclerococcum Fr.: Fr., resulting in one new name (S. acarosporicola Ertz & Diederich) and 46 new combinations. Sclerococcaceae Réblová, Unter. & W.Gams is considered as a new synonym of Dactylosporaceae Bellem. & Hafellner. The new Sclerococcum ophthalmizae Coppins is described. Sclerophyton occidentale Herre is lectotypified on the lichenicolous fungus present in the type specimen and becomes a younger synonym of Sclerococcum parasiticum. A replacement name is Arthonia polydactylonis Diederich & Ertz (≡ A. ceracea). Further new combinations are Abrothallus lobariae (Diederich & Etayo) Diederich & Ertz (≡ Phoma lobariae), A. psoromatis (Zhurb. & U. Braun) Diederich & Zhurb. (≡ P. psoromatis), Asteroglobulus pyramidalis (Etayo) Diederich (≡ Cornutispora pyramidalis), Didymocyrtis grumantiana (Zhurb. & Diederich) Zhurb. & Diederich (≡ Phoma grumantiana), Epithamnolia atrolazulina (Etayo) Diederich (≡ Hainesia atrolazulina), Gyalolechia epiplacynthium (Etayo) Diederich (≡ Fulgensia epiplacynthium), Nesolechia doerfeltii (Alstrup & P.Scholz) Diederich (≡ Phacopsis doerfeltii), N. falcispora (Triebel & Rambold) Diederich (≡ P. falcispora), N. oxyspora var. fusca (Triebel & Rambold) Diederich (≡ P. oxyspora var. fusca), Preussia peltigerae (Brackel) Diederich (≡ Sporormiella peltigerae), Scutula curvispora (D.Hawksw. & Miadl.) Diederich (≡ Libertiella curvispora), S. didymospora (D.Hawksw. & Miadl.) Diederich (≡ L. didymospora), Stigmidium haesitans (Nyl.) Diederich (≡ Verrucaria haesitans), and S. parvum (Henssen) Diederich (≡ Pharcidia parvum). © 2018 by The American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.
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Pseudopalawania siamensis gen. et sp. nov., from northern Thailand, is introduced based on multi-gene analyses and morphological comparison. An isolate was fermented in yeast malt culture broth and explored for its secondary metabolite production. Chromatographic purification of the crude ethyl acetate (broth) extract yielded four tetrahydroxanthones comprised of a new heterodimeric bistetrahydroxanthone, pseudopalawanone (1), two known dimeric derivatives, 4,4′-secalonic acid D (2) and penicillixanthone A (3), the corresponding monomeric tetrahydroxanthone paecilin B (4), and the known benzophenone, cephalanone F (5). Compounds 1-3 showed potent inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Compounds 2 and 3 were inhibitory against Bacillus subtilis with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 1.0 and 4.2 μg/mL, respectively. Only compound 2 showed activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis. In addition, the dimeric compounds 1-3 also showed moderate cytotoxic effects on HeLa and mouse fibroblast cell lines, which makes them less attractive as candidates for development of selectively acting antibiotics.
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We report on 659 epiphytic and epixylic species recorded from seven one-hectare plots established along an altitudinal gradient in a virgin forest of the Caucasus State Nature Biosphere Reserve. A total of 564 species are lichens, 61 are lichenicolous fungi and 34 are allied non- or facultatively lichenized fungi. one hundred forty – nine species (116 lichens, 17 lichenicolous and 16 saprophytic fungi) are new to the Northern Caucasus, including 133 species (104 lichens, 15 lichenicolous and 14 saprophytic fungi) that are new to the Caucasus Mountains. Fifty species are reported from Russia for the first time: 37 lichens (Andreiomyces obtusaticus, Bacidina mendax, Biatora aegrefaciens, B. bacidioides, B. chrysanthoides, Biatorella dryophila, Buellia iberica, Cliostomum haematommatis, Endohyalina ericina, Fellhanera christiansenii, Gyalidea minuta, Japewia aliphatica, Lecanora barkmaniana, L. subravida, Lecidea strasseri, Leptogium hibernicum, Lithothelium hyalosporum, L. phaeosporum, L. septemseptatum, Loxospora cristinae, Melanelixia epilosa, Micarea nowakii, M. perparvula, Opegrapha trochodes, Orcularia insperata, Parvoplaca servitiana, Phylloblastia inexpectata, Psoroglaena stigonemoides, Ptychographa xylographoides, Ramonia dictyospora, R. luteola, Rinodina polysporoides, Thelopsis flaveola, Topelia jasonhurii, Verrucaria hegetschweileri, Wadeana minuta, Waynea giraltiae), nine lichenicolous fungi (Arthonia vorsoeensis, Didymocyrtis melanelixiae, Epigloea urosperma, Muellerella polyspora, Phacographa zwackhii, Pronectria pilosa, Rhymbocarpus pubescens, Taeniolella friesii, Unguiculariopsis acrocordiae) and four nonlichenized saprophytic fungi (Cyrtidula major, Karschia cezannei, Kirschsteiniothelia recessa, Pseudotryblidium neesii). The ratio of macrolichens ranges between 26.5 – 40 % and rises with elevation. Lichens with a trentepohlioid photobiont are represented by 15 –51 species per plot and their species richness decreases with elevation. The species richness of cyanolichens is substantial in all plots (15 –28 species) reflecting a negligible effect of acidification/air pollution. Low species richness and low abundances of nitrophilous species indicate insignificant uptake of nitrogen emissions. Beech and fir are the most preferred phorophytes, but the vast majority of lichen species have low substrate specificity. Species richness per plots ranged between 236 and 379. The highest richness was found in a plot outside the Caucasian Reserve and we recommend its inclusion into the protected area.
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Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, Volume 1, Arthoniales: Arthoniaceae. Revisions of British and Irish Lichens is a free-to-access serial publication under the auspices of the British Lichen Society, that charts changes in our understanding of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Great Britain and Ireland. Each volume will be devoted to a particular family (or group of families), and will include descriptions, keys, habitat and distribution data for all the species included. https://doi.org/10.34885/173
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The annotated list of macromycetes collected in 2007–2011 in the Pechory District of the Pskov Region during our investigation of the macrofungi of the grassland communities on calcareous soils is presented. It includes 55 species (7 — Ascomycota, 48 — Basidiomycota), among which 42 species and 1 variety are new to the Pskov Region, including 3 species new to Russia, i. e. Conocybe pulchra, Entoloma glaucobasis, E. ochromicaceum (the descriptions and illustrations of these species are provided). The studied communities are dominated by Conocybe and Entoloma, but the members of typical «grassland» genera Camarophyllopsis, Dermoloma, Geoglossum, Hemimycena, Hygrocybe, Mycenella were also found there.
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Numerous new taxa and classifications of Dothideomycetes have been published following the last monograph of families of Dothideomycetes in 2013. A recent publication by Honsanan et al. in 2020 expanded information of families in Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae with modern classifications. In this paper, we provide a refined updated document on orders and families incertae sedis of Dothideomycetes. Each family is provided with an updated description, notes, including figures to represent the morphology, a list of accepted genera, and economic and ecological significances. We also provide phylogenetic trees for each order. In this study, 31 orders which consist 50 families are assigned as orders incertae sedis in Dothideomycetes, and 41 families are treated as families incertae sedis due to lack of molecular or morphological evidence. The new order, Catinellales, and four new families, Catinellaceae, Morenoinaceae Neobuelliellaceae and Thyrinulaceae are introduced. Seven genera (Neobuelliella, Pseudomicrothyrium, Flagellostrigula, Swinscowia, Macroconstrictolumina, Pseudobogoriella, and Schummia) are introduced. Seven new species (Acrospermum urticae, Bogoriella complexoluminata, Dothiorella ostryae, Dyfrolomyces distoseptatus, Macroconstrictolumina megalateralis, Patellaria microspora, and Pseudomicrothyrium thailandicum) are introduced base on morphology and phylogeny, together with two new records/reports and five new collections from different families. Ninety new combinations are also provided in this paper.
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Presentamos una actualización nomenclatural y taxonómica del Catálogo de Líquenes de Colombia. Como resultado, el número de nombres reportados se reduce de 1821 a 1793, el total de taxones aceptados de 1732 a 1675, y el número de especies de 1672 a 1634. El número de reportes dudosos o excluidos, que incluye nombres con estado nomenclatural o taxonómico no resuelto, se aumenta de 80 a 109. El número de géneros reportados para Colombia aumenta de 272 a 306; se excluyen 29 géneros anteriormente reportados y se incluyen 63 géneros hasta la fecha no reportados. La actualización reduce el total de familias de 73 a 69; resulta en la eliminación de 13 familias y la inclusión de 9 familias anteriormente no reportadas. Basado en la revisión de material antes reportado bajo nombres incorrectos, se reportan tres nuevos registros para Colombia: Caloplaca granularis (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Haematomma persoonii (Fée) A. Massal. y Ochrolechia subpallescens Verseghy. demás, confirmamos la presencia de las especies: Pseudocyphellaria xanthosticta (Pers.) Moncada & Lücking, Sticta sylvatica Physcia crispula Müll.Arg., Pseudocyphellaria citrina (Gyeln.) Lücking, Moncada & S. Stenroos, Pseudocyphellaria sandwicensis (Zahlbr.) Moncada & Lücking, (Huds.) Ach., Usnea crenulata Truong & P. Clerc y Usnea mexicana Vain. También se introducen 16 novedades nomenclaturales: Ancistrosporella gracilior (Nyl.) Lücking comb. nov. (basiónimo: Opegrapha gracilior Nyl.); Bacidia neofusconigrescens Lücking nom. nov. (sinónimo reemplazado: Lecidea millegrana var. fusconigrescens Nyl.) [non Bacidia fusconigrescens (Kremp.) Zahlbr.]; Diploschistes bartlettii (Lumbsch) Lücking comb. et stat. nov. (basiónimo: Diploschistes muscorum subsp. bartlettii Lumbsch); Gymnographopsis koreaiensis (Sipman) Lücking & Sipman comb. nov. (basiónimo: Graphis koreaiensis Sipman); Imshaugia angustior (Nyl.) Sipman (basiónimo: Parmelia angustior Nyl.); Kalbographa cabbalistica (Nyl.) Lücking comb. nov. (basiónimo: Graphis cabbalistica Nyl.; sinónimo nuevo: Graphina caracasana Müll.Arg.); Leptogium pseudolivaceum Lücking nom. nov. (sinónimo reemplazado: Collema olivaceum Hook.) [nom. illeg., non Leptogium olivaceum F. Wilson]; Malmidea demutans (Nyl.) Lücking comb. nov. (basiónimo: Lecidea demutans Nyl.); Ocellularia leucocarpoides (Nyl.) Lücking comb. nov. (basiónimo: Thelotrema leucocarpoides Nyl.; sinónimo nuevo: Ocellularia fuscospora Lücking & Pérez-Ort.); Phaeographis decolorascens (Nyl.) Lücking comb. nov. (basiónimo: Graphis decolorascens Nyl.); Phlyctis endecamera (Nyl.) Lücking & Sipman comb. nov. (basiónimo: Platygrapha endecamera Nyl.); Sprucidea fuscula (Nyl.) Lücking comb. nov. (basiónimo: Lecidea fuscula Nyl.); Sticta rudiuscula (Vain.) Moncada & Lücking comb. et stat. nov. (basiónimo: Sticta damicornis f. rudiuscula Vain.); Sticta subdenudata Moncada & Lücking nom. nov. (sinónimo reemplazado: Sticta laciniata var. denudata Nyl.) [non Sticta denudata Taylor]; Thalloloma scribillans (Nyl.) Lücking comb. nov. (basiónimo: Graphis scribillans Nyl.; sinónimo nuevo: Graphis anguiniformis Vain.); y Yoshimuriella denudata (Taylor) Moncada & Lücking comb. nov. (basiónimo: Sticta denudata Taylor).
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Knowledge of the relationships and thus the classification of fungi, has developed rapidly with increasingly widespread use of molecular techniques, over the past 10–15 years, and continues to accelerate. Several genera have been found to be polyphyletic, and their generic concepts have subsequently been emended. New names have thus been introduced for species which are phylogenetically distinct from the type species of particular genera. The ending of the separate naming of morphs of the same species in 2011, has also caused changes in fungal generic names. In order to facilitate access to all important changes, it was desirable to compile these in a single document. The present article provides a list of generic names of Ascomycota (approximately 6500 accepted names published to the end of 2016), including those which are lichen-forming. Notes and summaries of the changes since the last edition of ‘Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi’ in 2008 are provided. The notes include the number of accepted species, classification, type species (with location of the type material), culture availability, life-styles, distribution, and selected publications that have appeared since 2008. This work is intended to provide the foundation for updating the ascomycete component of the “Without prejudice list of generic names of Fungi” published in 2013, which will be developed into a list of protected generic names. This will be subjected to the XIXth International Botanical Congress in Shenzhen in July 2017 agreeing to a modification in the rules relating to protected lists, and scrutiny by procedures determined by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF). The previously invalidly published generic names Barriopsis, Collophora (as Collophorina), Cryomyces, Dematiopleospora, Heterospora (as Heterosporicola), Lithophila, Palmomyces (as Palmaria) and Saxomyces are validated, as are two previously invalid family names, Bartaliniaceae and Wiesneriomycetaceae. Four species of Lalaria, which were invalidly published are transferred to Taphrina and validated as new combinations. Catenomycopsis Tibell & Constant. is reduced under Chaenothecopsis Vain., while Dichomera Cooke is reduced under Botryosphaeria Ces. & De Not. (Art. 59).
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A list with data on localities, ecology and taxonomical notes of 32 species new for Crimea is proposed below. Among them, Aspicilia coronate (A. Massal.) B. de Lesd., Bacidia fraxinea Korber, Candelariella oleaginescens Rondon, Catapyrenium psoromoides (Borrer in Hook.) R. sant. in D. Hawksw., P. James & Coppins, Leptogium diffractum Kremp ex Korber, L. burnetiae Dodge, Lithothelium phaeosporum Aptroot, Collema fragile Taylor, Hymenelia prevostii (Duby) Krempelh., Melaspilea urceolata (Fr.) Almb., Protoparmelia ochrococca (Nyl.) P.M. Jorg., Rambold & Hertel, Mycomycrothelia confuse D. Hawksw., Solenopsora olivacea (Fr.) Kilias, Sphinctrina tubaeformis A. Massal., Verrucaria pinquicola A. Massal. are for the first time reported for Ukraine.
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1. The species of Karschia s. lat. are taxonomically treated. 2. In a general part technical problems, the history of the genus, the characters used for the delimitation of the genera are discussed, a new ascus-type characteristic for Dactylospora is described and annotations to biology and distribution patterns are given. Essential results seem to be that all the species of the lecanoralean genera treated live together or close to algae and that the lichenicolous and parasitic species of Karschia s. lat. are specific to at least groups of hosts. 3. Keys to the genera with apothecial or pseudothecial fruiting bodies as well as to all species and varieties of Karschia s. lat. are given. 4. Sixty-eight species and varieties belonging to 20 different genera and 3 species, the generic position of which is not clear at this time, are treated. Four genera, 1 subgenus and rnany infrageneric taxa are recognized as synonyms. Six genera, 9 species and 5 varieties are described as new and 30 new combinations are proposed. 5. The species of Karschia s. lat. belong to the following 19 genera: Buellia, Epilichen, Rhizocarpon, Rinodina, Dactylospora, Buelliella, Colensoniella, Cycloschizon, Dothidea, Eutryblidiella, Gibbera, Heterosphaeriopsis, Karschia s. str., Poetschia, Pseudodiscus, Rhizodiscina, Rhizogene, Schrakia, and Stratisporella. 6. Line drawings, all are originals of the author, are added to many descriptions of accepted taxa. 7. Twenty-five not seen, doubtful or to be exduded taxa are listed. 8. Both an index of the hosts and an index of the species as well as infraspecific taxa are given.
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The NSF-funded TICOLICHEN biodiversity inventory in Costa Rica revealed a new fungal lineage with a novel type of lichen symbiosis, here described as Eremothallales ordo novus and Eremothallaceae familia nova, with the single species Eremithallus costaricensis genus et species nova, the 'Costa Rican hermit crab lichen'. Instead of forming a proper thallus enclosing the photobiont, the Trentepohlia algal cells are located in groups within individual periderm cells of the tree bark, from where they connect to the superficial apothecia of the lichen fungus by hyaline fungal hyphae. Such a mode of lichenization is unknown in other lichenized fungi and raises the question about the mechanics of algal cell positioning during the development of the lichen. Although showing morphological and anatomical similarities with Ostropales, molecular analysis using a three gene approach (mtSSU, nuLSU, RPB1) places the new lichen fungus outside the Lecanoromycetes. Instead, the taxon forms a separate lineage presumably close to Lichinales in the Lichinomycetes. The novel lichen fungus was found in a small forest remnant on the campus of the University of Costa Rica (Leonelo Oviedo Ecological Reserve), founded by the renown Costa Rican ecologist and conservationist Dr Luis Fournier, inmidst the extensive deforested area of the Costa Rican central valley. This underlines the importance of such refugia for conserving biodiversity and, as in this case, even previously unknown evolutionary lineages.
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An annotated list of 70 taxa of lichenicolous fungi (56 Ascomycetes, 3 Basidiomycetes, 8 Coelomycetes and 3 Hyphomycetes) from North America is documented. Dactylospora pleiosperma, Endococcus oreinae, Plectocarpon nashii, and Stigmidium epixanthum are new to science. Whereas Dactylospora pleiosperma, Endococcus oreinae, Plectocarpon nashii are so far only known from restricted areas in North America, Stigmidium epixanthum is a widespread species. Each treated taxon represents a new record to either one of the states of the U.S.A. or one of the provinces of Canada or Mexico or Greenland. 25 of these are new records for entire or continental North America. Buelliella inops is a new combination. In addition the lichenized Leucocarpia biatorella, found as admixture in a specimen of Arthonia peltigerea, is reported for the first time from Colorado.
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Thirty species of lichenicolous fungi are reported, many being new to various regions of Russia. Melaspilea galligena sp. nov. growing on Pertusaria cf. cribellata is described from Russian Far East. A possibly new lichenicolous Toninia species (on Parmelina tiliacea) and a species of Arthonia (on Cladonia) with 1-2-septate ascospores resembling poorly known A. lepidophila are described, illustrated and discussed. Dactylospora suburceolata is reported new to Russia and Asia, growing on a new host species Mycobilimbia carneoalbida. Tremella cetrariicola is new to Siberia and Clypeococcum cetrariae is newly documented on Vulpicida.
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The order Asterinales comprises a single family, Asterinaceae. In this study, types or specimens of 41 genera of Asterinaceae are re-examined and re-described and illustrated by micrographs. Seventeen genera, namely Asterina (type genus), Asterinella, Asterotexis, Batistinula, Cirsosia, Echidnodella, Halbania, Lembosia, Meliolaster, Parasterinopsis, Platypeltella, Prillieuxina, Schenckiella (=Allothyrium), Trichasterina, Trichopeltospora, Uleothyrium and Vizellopsis, are maintained within Asterinaceae. Echidnodes, Lembosiella, Lembosina, Morenoina, and Thyriopsi s are transferred to Aulographaceae based on morphological and molecular characteristics. Anariste is transferred to Micropeltidaceae, while Lembosiopsis is transferred to Mycosphaerellaceae. Placoasterella and Placosoma are morphologically close to taxa in Parmulariaceae, where they are transferred. Aulographina is placed in Teratosphaeriaceae, while Asterodothis, Asterinema, Dothidasteromella, Leveillella, Petrakina and Stephanotheca are transferred to Dothideomycetes, genera incertae sedis. Eupelte, Macowaniella, Maheshwaramyces, Parasterinella, and Vishnumyces are treated as doubtful genera, because of lack of morphological and molecular data. Aphanopeltis, Asterolibertia, Neostomella, Placoasterina, and Symphaster are synonyms of Asterina based on morphology, while Trichamelia, Viegasia, and Yamamotoa are synonyms of Lembosia. The characteristics of each family are discussed and a phylogenetic tree is included.
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By re-examining the generic types of Dothideomycetes genera, incertae sedis we can propose higher level positions according to the morphology based on modern taxonomic concepts but, more importantly, we illustrate the taxa so that they are better understood. In this way the taxa can be recollected and molecular data can be used to place them in a natural taxonomic framework of the Ascomycota. The generic types of Cucurbidothis, Heterosphaeriopsis, Hyalosphaera, Navicella and Pleiostomellina were re-examined in this study. A synopsis of the history and descriptions and illustrations of these genera are provided. Cucurbidothis is placed in Cucurbitariaceae as a distinct genus, while Navicella and Pleiostomellina are referred to Melanommataceae and Parmulariaceae respectively based on the morphological similarities. Heterosphaeriopsis and Hyalosphaera are retained in Dothideomycetes genera incertae sedis as they are not typical of any existing families of Dothideomycetes. Fresh collections of these genera are needed for further studies, so that they can be epitypified and molecular data can be analyzed to stabilize their natural classification.
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Nineteen species are added to the known lichen mycota of Armenia. Three of these, Lecanora wetmorei, Lecanora percrenata and Lecanora flowersiana, are of particular interest because they are currently predominantly known from North America, and one, Gyalecta truncigena, because it represents a genus new for Armenia.
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Lichens are dual organisms formed from a symbiotic association of a fungus, the mycobiont, and an alga and/or cyanobacterium, the photobiont, in which numerous photosynthetic cells are intertwined in a matrix of fungal hyphae. Such definitions raise the question as to whether lichens are technically individual organisms. Many aspects of lichen biology are concerned with the interactions of these different organisms. The separation, isolation and culture of the symbionts offers the scientist a fascinating opportunity to study the components and contribute to the understanding of the nature of the symbiosis in lichens. The culture of mycobionts, photobionts and lichen thalli is central for the establishment of experimental systems for lichens, needed to solve questions associated with symbiosis biology. In addition, they are essential to solving the many fundamental problems of lichen physiology, morphogenesis and molecular biology.
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In this section we focus on the 28 accepted ascomycete families which could not be assigned to an order in the Outline for 1990, and also 203 accepted genera which were not placed in any family. The number of unplaced, but yet accepted, taxa in these categories is a salutary reminder of how much work is required before a fully synthetic system for even the already described ascomycetes on Earth can be produced.
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A catalogue of epiphytic lichens from La Gomera (Canary Islands) is presented, especially from Garajonay National Park. 207 species are treated, many of which are new records from the island. Gyalideopsis muscicola var. gomerae is proposed as new. Gyalideopsis calabrica and Porina isidiata are proposed as synonyms of G. muscicola and Porina guaranitica, respectively. Helocarpon corticolum is reported for the first time from North America. New for Macaronesia are Arthonia vinosa, Arthopyrenia cinereopruinosa, Bacidina egenula, B. phacodes, Gyalecta truncigena, Lauderlindsaya acroglypta, Lecidea botryosa, L. erythrophaea, Lecidella achristotera, Lichinodium ahlneri, Ochrolechia arborea, Opegrapha vermicellifera, Pertusaria amara var. slesvicensis, Pseudevernia furfuracea var. ceratea, Pseudosagedia obsoleta, Strigula smaragdula and S. taylorii. New for the Canary Islands are Arthonia anglica, Arthothelium norvegicum, Blarneya hibernica, Calicium lenticulare, Catinaria montana, Haematomma sorediatum, Hypotrachyna taylorensis, Lecanora argentata, L. strobilina, Melaspilea diplasiospora, Micarea melaena, Ochrolechia androgyna, Pertusaria ophthalmiza, Psoroglaena stigonemoides, Pyrenula dermatodes, Scoliciosporum pruinosum and Trapeliopsis granulosa.
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During a floristic survey of foliicolous lichens and their lichenicolous fungi in the Atlantic rainforest (Mata Atlantica) of Pernambuco state, Brazil, some new species were detected of which three are described herein. Coenogonium flavoviride Caceres and Lucking sp.n. is characterized by its vividly yellowish green thallus which is formed by a hitherto undetermined phycobiont related to Trentepohlia mortilia but deviating by its much smaller cells. The ascospores of Coenogonium flavoviride are unusually small and 1-septate. The lichenicolous Hemigrapha pilocarpacearum Caceres and Lucking sp.n. differs from related taxa by the combination of large, brown ascospores and polymorphous vegetative hyphae. It grows on Byssoloma minutissimum Kalb and Vezda and is the first member of the genus known to occur on foliicolous lichens with a Chlorococcacean phycobiont. The characteristic traits of Tapellaria leonorae Caceres and Lucking sp.n. are the 7-septate ascospores in combination with a greyish pruinose, irregular apothecial margin, by which it differs from the closely related T. nigrata (Mull. Arg.) R. Sant. with pure black, regularly rounded apothecia. Further, the new combination Bapalmuia nigrescens (Mull. Arg.) Caceres and Lucking comb.n. [Bas.: Patellaria nigrescens Mull. Arg.; Syn.: Bacidia nigrescens (Mull. Arg.) Vain.] is introduced.
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Eight lichenized ascomycetes and one lichenicolous non-lichenized fungus are described as new to science, namely Coniocarpon coralloideum from Venezuela and Ecuador, Crustospathula khaoyaiana from Thailand, Cryptolechia pittieriana from Venezuela, Cryptothecia napoensis from Ecuador, Malmidea incrassata from Brazil, Malmidea reunionis from Réunion, Malmidea tratiana from Thailand, Stirtonia rhizophorae from Thailand and the nonlichenized fungus Melaspilea lekae from Thailand. The following ten taxa are new additions to the lichen biota of the countries given in brackets: Agonimia pacifica (China), Bactrospora myriadea (Thailand), Brigantiaea phaeomma (China), Brigantiaea sorediata (Tanzania), Coenogonium pineti (Thailand), Cratiria vioxanthina (Brazil), Cryptothecia eungellae(Thailand), Eschatogonia dissecta (Brazil), Malmidea badimioides (Mexico) and Porpidia albocaerulescens var. polycarpiza (Thailand). Buellia vioxanthina is transferred to the genus Cratiria, and a new chemotype of Eschatogonia prolifera was found in Thailand.
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In order to clarify whether Encephalographa elisae A. Massal. is a lichen or a lichenicolous fungus growing on endolithic lichens, the anatomy of 74 specimens bearing the ascocarps of E. elisae were detailed studied by ordinary microscopical techniques. The results show that E. elisae is a lichenized fungus, which lives in symbiosis with a Trentepohlia-like phycobiont. It differs in several basic characters from the putative hosts, having an amyloid thallus, and forming clews of inflated hyphae up to 50-80 μm in diameter immediately below the photobiont layer. The species produces both macro- and microconidia, the latter being probably interpreted as spermatia. The study of the ontogenesis of the ascomata revealed that the hamathecium is composed of paraphysoids. Finally, the relationship between E. elisae and E. rubiformis A. Massal., a poorly-known taxon described from the south-eastern pre-Alps, has been clarified by studying the morphological variation of the former species in populations of north-eastern Italy and Istria, and by comparing the original collections of A. Massalongo. The morphology of the ascocarps of E. rubiformis lies within the range of variation of the highly polymorphic morphology of the ascocarps of E. elisae, being only an aberrant, rare modification. The two taxa are therefore conspecific, and E. rubiformis is consequently a synonym of E. elisae.
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— We studied sequence variation in 16S rDNA in 204 individuals from 37 populations of the land snail Candidula unifasciata (Poiret 1801) across the core species range in France, Switzerland, and Germany. Phylogeographic, nested clade, and coalescence analyses were used to elucidate the species evolutionary history. The study revealed the presence of two major evolutionary lineages that evolved in separate refuges in southeast France as result of previous fragmentation during the Pleistocene. Applying a recent extension of the nested clade analysis (Templeton 2001), we inferred that range expansions along river valleys in independent corridors to the north led eventually to a secondary contact zone of the major clades around the Geneva Basin. There is evidence supporting the idea that the formation of the secondary contact zone and the colonization of Germany might be postglacial events. The phylogeographic history inferred for C. unifasciata differs from general biogeographic patterns of postglacial colonization previously identified for other taxa, and it might represent a common model for species with restricted dispersal.
Article
The Arthoniales is the second-largest group of lichen-forming fungi. A new phylogeny of Arthoniales based on mtSSU, nLSU and RPB2 sequence data is presented, with a focus on crustose representatives. A total of 145 taxa are analyzed including 64 species of Arthoniaceae. We obtained 198 new sequences for 83 specimens representing 71 taxa of Arthoniales. Arthoniaceae is recovered as polyphyletic, demonstrating that previous classifications do not reflect evolutionary patterns. Three phylogenetic lineages are identified: the Arthoniaceae clade, the Bryostigma clade and the Felipes clade. The Bryostigma clade is related to Arthoniaceae, while the Felipes clade shows close affinities to Chrysotrichaceae. Cryptotheciaceae is included as a paraphyletic grouping in Arthoniaceae. Lecanographaceae and the genera Felipes and Melarthonis are described. Bryostigma and Pachnolepia are reinstated for former Arthonia species, and Myriostigma for the Cryptothecia candida complex. Fouragea is reinstated for foliicolous Opegrapha species. Arthonia eos is described and the new combination Alyxoria mougeotii is made. A lectotype is selected for Spiloma fallax. Melaspilea granitophila belongs in Arthoniaceae and Arthonia mediella in Chrysotrichaceae. According to the phylogenetic hypothesis, lichen secondary chemistry, such as pulvinic acid derivates or red pigments, does not characterize monophyletic groups above the genus level. The parasitic life style in Arthoniaceae has evolved more than once. Parasitic species are found in four lineages of the Arthoniaceae clade and in the Bryostigma clade. Arthoniomycetes with chlorococcoid photobionts are restricted to the Bryostigma clade and Chrysotrichaceae, while the only saprophytic Arthonia species in the phylogeny are related to Arthonia radiata and group with lichenized taxa. The phylogenetic data provide a coherent framework for delineating further monophyletic groups in Arthoniaceae in the future.
Article
Lichenicolous fungi belonging to the anamorph-typified genus Phaeosporobolus and to the teleomorph-typified genus Lichenostigma were isolated in pure culture or sequenced directly, with nuLSU and mtSSU sequences obtained. Phylogenetic analyses place the species of Phaeosporobolus in a strongly supported clade with the generic type of Lichenostigma (L. maureri), the genus Phaeococcomyces and several melanized rock-inhabiting isolates. This strongly supported nonlichenized lineage is sister to the primarily lichenized Arthoniales in the Arthoniomycetes and is here described as the Lichenostigmatales. The new order is characterized by cells multiplying by budding, either representing black yeasts, or species in which conidiomata and ascomata are entirely made of an organised agglomeration of spherical yeast-like cells. This way of life is not only very different from all other Arthoniomycetes that exist only in the mycelial stage, but ascomata and conidiomata representing a dense and organised agglomeration of yeast cells might be unique amongst fungi. A further difference with the Arthoniales is the absence of paraphysoids. Phylogenetic results suggest that Phaeosporobolus usneae is the asexual stage of Lichenostigma maureri. Most species of Phaeosporobolus are transferred to the genus Lichenostigma except P. trypethelii, for which the new genus Etayoa is described. The genus Diederimyces is reduced into synonymy with Lichenostigma. Several other members of Lichenostigma are placed in the Dothideomycetes and are intermixed with Lichenothelia species.