The Argentinean pampas are natural flatlands that cover about 520 000 km2 being considered as the most characteristic landscape of Argentina. Even though the pampa is considered as a land without trees the driest southernmost distribution limit is covered by xerophyte woodlands mainly dominated by caldén (Prosopis caldenia Burkart, Fabaceae). In 1931, two agronomists, Krebs and Fischer, published ... [Show full abstract] one study of tree rings of caldén that can be considered as the first dendrochronological study in South America. Dendrochronological studies on this species restarted in the 90s in order to explain the woodland degradation and to propose management strategies. In the last three decades several studies have been made in order to address ecological, climatological and anthropological processes, as: recruitment rates and their association with growth dynamics of adult trees, anthropic disturbances linked with changes in the soil use, fire impact, growth dynamics and water table deep changes, etc. Considering that caldén is the most important woody species in the Argentinean pampas these studies reconfirm its dendroecological potential and new challenges are stated for the future in order to determine synergetic factors that would affect these ecosystems under the current ecological and social changes.