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Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Newboulda Laevis on Blood Glucose Levels of Diabetic Rats

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Abstract

Purpose: To investigate anti-diabetic effect of the ethanol leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis (P. Beauv) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Methods: Alloxan (150 mg/kg) was administered to wistar albino rats via the intraperitoneal route. The diabetic rats were then placed in 5 groups, following stabilization of hyperglycemia. The first group was untreated, the next three groups received, each day, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of the ethanol extract Newbouldia laevis and the fifth group received a reference standard, glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). Treatment was via the oral route for 14 days and fasting blood sugar level was monitored over this period. Acute toxicity (oral and intraperitoneal) studies on the extract was carried out, as well as phytochemical screening of the extract.Results: All doses of the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.0001, p <0.05, respectively) lowered fasting blood glucose level, notably at the 4th, 8th and 14th day. Glibenclamide (5 mg /kg) also significantly lowered fasting blood glucose (p < 0.0001). The results on acute toxicity revealed that for the oral and intraperitoneal route, mortality was at 8 and 1 g/kg, respectively while LD50 was 6 g/kg, indicating the high safety status of the plant. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids.Conclusion: This study supports the use of Newboulda laevis in traditional medicine as well as highlights the need to further explore the potentials of the plant extract as a antihyperglycemic agent.

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... It is used in folkloric medicine to treat a number of diseases. Some of which include the following: the leaves and roots are boiled and used to treat earaches, sore foot, chest pain, fever, convulsion and epilepsy in children [35,37] and diarrhea [38] . The roots are used to treat arthritis, malaria and general malady and worms [39] . ...
... Kolawole et al, [40] in their research reported that the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Newbouldia laevis possesses anti-diabetic properties and that it can prevent the complications of diabetes that result from glycation of hemoglobin and lipid peroxidation. The leaf extract of the N. laevis was also reported to lower blood glucose level in diabetic rats [38] . Therefore, this research study was carried out to investigate the effect of the ethanolic leaf extracts of C. papaya and N. laevis on the lipid profile of alloxan-induced Wistar rats since no work has been carried out on this. ...
... Studies have revealed that C. papaya leaf extract accelerates wound healing [24,25] , exhibits vasodilating and antioxidant effects, both being associated with cardiovascular risk reduction [22] and treatment of diabetes in Nigeria [26] , reduces glucose levels in alloxan induced diabetes [27] , exhibits hypoglycemic properties [25] , is being used to treat various diseases such as diarrhea, inflammation and diabetes [25,28] , exhibits antioxidant activity, immunomodulatory, hypoglycemia and hypolipidemic [29] and hepatoprotective properties [30,31] , may be beneficial to diabetic patients and helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications by dyslipidemia improvement [32] . Likewise N. laevis leaf has been shown to possess the ability to manage hyperglycemia, improves haematological and biochemical derrangements in alloxan induced-diabetic rats [43] , control muscle wasting and induces adipogenesis [43] , has anti-diabetic properties [44] , possesses hepatoprotective properties for curbing oxidative stress complication [45,31] possesses anti-diabetic properties and prevents complications of diabetes resulting from glycation of hemoglobin and lipid peroxidation [40] and lowers blood glucose level in diabetic rats [38] . ...
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Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of the ethanolic leaf extracts of Carica papaya (C. papaya) and Newbouldia laevis (N. laevis) on the lipid profile of alloxan-induced Wistar rats. Methodology: Forty (40) male wistar rats weighing 130-150g were procured and acclimatized for two weeks, after which they were divided into eight (8) groups of five (5) rats each, and were housed in cages. The groups were designated as groups A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H. Groups B - H were induced with diabetes using alloxan. Group A served as the control group and received only distilled water; group B diabetic received only distilled water only, while groups C – H diabetic received 400mg/kg of C. papaya, 600mg/kg of C. papaya, 400mg/kg of N. laevis, 600mg/kg of N. laevis, 200mg/kg of C. papaya + 200mg/kg of N. laevis and 300mg/kg of C. papaya + 300mg/kg of N. laevis respectively for 21 days through oral route with the aid of oral gastric tube. On the 22nd day, the animals were sacrificed by chloroform inhalation, and blood samples were obtained through cardiac puncture for lipid profile parameters’ assays. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 25 and (P<0.05) was considered significant. Result: There was significant increase in the plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL) with a decrease in plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) of the animals in group B when compared with the control group. These effects were ameliorated in Groups C - H that received the variable doses of the ethanolic leaf extracts C. papaya and N. laevis with more positive effects on the groups that received the combined ethanolic leaf extracts. Conclusion: The leaf extracts of C. papaya and N. laevis have ameliorative effects on the lipid profile alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats.
... Newbouldia laevis is used in folkloric medicine to treat a number of diseases. Some of which include the following: the leaves and roots are boiled and used to treat earaches, sore foot, chest pain, fever, convulsion and epilepsy in children[6,10], diarrhoea[11]. The roots are used to treat arthritis, malaria and general malady and worms[7]. ...
... The stem bark is used for toothache, febrifuge, stomach and skin infections[6,7]. Recently, the flowers and leaves have been used in the treatment of diabetes[10]and111213respectively. It is also used to stop vaginal bleeding in threatened abortion[7]and had shown strong antioxidant activity[8]. ...
... The time of maximum effect was at the 24th h which was 27.8, 55.3 and 60.2% respectively for the above doses compared to 51.5 % of the reference drug glibenclamide 2 mg/kg. Other workers10111213have reported the dose dependent reduction in FBS by NLE. Evidence abound to show that antidiabetic drugs bring about their effect on diabetes by lowering the blood glucose level of affected animals through various mechanisms272829. ...
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NLE (Newbouldia laevis (P.Beauv)) is used in folk medicine to treat diabetes. The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the active compound responsible for the antidiabetic activity.This was carried out using standard in vivo and in vitro models in rats. The antidiabetic activities were evaluated using alloxan-induced diabetes in male and female albino rats after an over night fast and various doses of NLE and glibenclamide, the reference drug 2.0 mg/kg. Bioassay-guided isolation/fractionation techniques were used to isolate the active compound. Characterization of the active compound was carried out including molecular and structural elucidation using NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and Gas-Chromatography Mass spectroscopy. The extract caused 60.2% reduction in the FBS (fasting blood sugar) of diabetic rats. Bioassay-guided fractionation of NLE yielded ten (10) fractions with F9 (fraction nine) as the active fraction, which caused 66.0% reduction of FBS in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Further purification using preparative TLC (thin layer chromatography), gave sub-fraction 9.2 as the active compound. Sub-fraction 9.2 reduced the FBS by 61.4%. The characterization of F9:2 using nuclear magnetic resonance and MS (mass spectroscopy) confirmed it to be a polyunsaturated fatty acid with a molecular weight of 358.56 g.
... It is native to tropical Africa and grows from Guinea Savannah to dense forests. Studies have shown that N. laevis leaf is used to manage hyperglycemia, improve haematological and biochemical derangements, control muscle wasting, induce adipogenesis [12] ; and has antidiabetic effect [13] . Hence this study was carried out to investigate the combined effect of ethanolic leaf extracts of C. papaya and N. laevis on the histology of the kidney of alloxan-induced diabetic rats, as no study has been carried out on this. ...
... however the histopathological analysis of wistar rat kidney of group D that received 400mg/kg C. papaya showed mild healing with moderate regeneration of glomeruli, moderate coagulative necrosis of the renal tubules and mild fatty changes ( figure 4). This could be due to the fact that C. Papaya leaf extract do not show any toxicity effect with the increasing dosage [12] . Thus, the increased in dosage of the leaf extract stimulated many more β-cells [18,19] and regeneration of more glomeruli leading to better ameliorating effect on the kidney. ...
... Meanwhile, the histopathological analysis of wistar rat kidney of group E that received 200mg/kg N. laevis showed moderate healing with well regenerated glomeruli, mild focal area of tubular necrosis and fatty change. This could be in accordance with the report suggesting that in diabetic rats, the administration of plant extracts can be effective in cell regeneration and restoration of islet size, even producing cell hyperplasia [18,12] and that the β-cells have shown remarkable potential for regeneration at the preclinical stage of diabetes which is a key question when addressing type 1 diabetes [18,19] . Thus the regenerating effect of the leaf extract brings about the healing/ameliorating effect witness in figure 5. ...
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Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of the ethanolic leaf extracts of Carica papaya (C. papaya) and Newbouldia laevis (N. laevis) on the histology of the kidney of alloxan-induced rats. Methodology: Forty male Wistar rats weighing between 160g-200g were randomly assigned to eight Groups A-H of 5 rats each. Group A served as the control group and was not induced with diabetes, while Groups B-H were induced. Groups A and B received distilled water only, while Groups C-H received 200mg/kg of C. papaya, 400mg/kg of C. papaya, 200mg/kg of N. laevis, 400mg/kg of N. laevis, 200mg/kg of C. papaya + 200mg/kg of N. laevis and 400mg/kg of C. papaya + 400mg/kg of N. laevis respectively for 28 days. On day 29 of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and kidney of each rat was harvested for histological study. Results: There were severely damaged renal tissue with severe tubular necrosis, glomerular atrophy and coagulative necrosis of glomeruli which leads to the closure of the malpighian layer of the animals in group B when compared with the control group. These effects were ameliorated in Groups C-H which received the variable doses of the ethanolic leaf extracts with more positive effects on the groups that received the combined ethanolic leaf extracts. Conclusion: The leaf extracts of C. papaya and N. laevis have ameliorative effect on the histology of kidney of alloxan-induced rats.
... Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder which is characterized by elevated blood glucose level as a result of the diminished production of insulin or resistance to its action (Kameswara et al., 2009). Traditional medicinal practice has existed in Africa for centuries since man came into being (Omonkhelin et al., 2011). The plant Newbouldia laevis is a fast growing evergreen shrub which belong to Biggnonialeae family. ...
... The plant leaves are widely used in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, fever, convulsion, epilepsy and to stop vaginal bleeding in threatened abortion. (Omonkhelin et al., 2011). This study was designed to test the hypoglycaemic effect of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Newbouldia laevis on alloxan induced diabetes in male albino rats, and to investigate if the leave can truly be used in the management of diabetes mellitus (Arbonnier, 2004). ...
... The rats were fasted overnight prior to injection with alloxan dissolved in normal saline at a dose of 120 mg/kg. After 48 hours, rats with blood glucose levels from 190 mg/dl and above were considered diabetic and were used for this research (Omonkhelin et al., 2011). ...
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Medicinal plants have great usefulness in the management of chronic diseases. The aqueous extract of Newbouldia. laevis was administered to male albino rats in which diabetes had been induced using alloxan (120mg/kg body weight). After oral administration at a dose of 200mg/kg body weight for two weeks, the result revealed reduction in the elevated blood glucose level by 30.40%. Treatment with known antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide (5mg/kg body weight) lowered the blood glucose by 28.70% indicating significant improvement in the activity of the extract.
... It is used in folkloric medicine to treat a number of diseases. Some of which include the following: the leaves and roots are boiled and used to treat earaches, sore foot, chest pain, fever, convulsion and epilepsy in children [38,39] , diarrhea [40] . The roots are used to treat arthritis, malaria and general malady and worms [41] . ...
... Kolawole et al, [42] in their research reported that the ethanolic extract of the leaves of N. laevis possesses anti-diabetic properties and that it can prevent the complications of diabetes that result from glycation of hemoglobin and lipid peroxidation. The leaf extract of the N. laevis has also been reported to lower blood glucose level in diabetic rats [40] . Therefore this study was carried out to investigate the effect of combined leaf extracts of C. papaya and N. laevis on the cerebellum of alloxan-induced diabetic male wistar rats since no work has been carried out on this. ...
... Kolawole et al, [42] in their research reported that the ethanolic extract of the leaves of N. laevis possesses anti-diabetic properties and that it can prevent the complications of diabetes that result from glycation of hemoglobin and lipid peroxidation. The leaf extract of the N. laevis has also been reported to lower blood glucose level in diabetic rats [40] and exhibit antioxidant protective properties against rise in oxidative stress and hepatocellular injury in diabetic rat's hepatic tissues at lower dose, indicating that the extract may possess antioxidant activities in diabetics [56] . ...
... Its leaf extract is employed in the treatment of coughs, diarrhoea and dysentery, whilst it is also given to children for treating epilepsy and convulsions [60] . Some other medical uses include folk treatment of fevers (including yellow fever), malaria, stomach ache, cough, sexually transmitted infections, skin infections, tooth ache, breast cancer, constipation, pain (pelvic pain in females, chest pain, ear ache), gonococcal orchitis, elephantiasis, sore-feet, ulcer, epilepsy, convulsion, migraine, sickle cell anaemia, as a febrifuge, as a vermifuge, in female reproductive healthcare (fibroids, infertility, hemorrhage), as aphrodisiacs, eye problems, snake bites, wound healing, diabetes, arthritis, rheumatism and other inflammatory conditions [61, 62. 63. 64, 65] Also N. laevis leaf is used to manage hyperglycemia, improve haematological and biochemical derangements, control muscle wasting, induce adipogenesis (66) and has antidiabetic effect [55] . Pharmacological studies on extracts of different parts of N. laevis have revealed the antioxidant and free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and anti-malarial [67] sedative and anticonvulsant [68] , analgesic, antinociceptive and an-tiinflamatory [69] , hepatoprotective [70, 76. 56] ), anticancer [72] , uterine contraction [73] , wound healing and antiulcer [74] , antisickling [75] , hypoglycemic [66] , ac-tivities among others. ...
... Some other medical uses include folk treatment of fevers (including yellow fever), malaria, stomach ache, cough, sexually transmitted infections, skin infections, tooth ache, breast cancer, constipation, pain (pelvic pain in females, chest pain, ear ache), gonococcal orchitis, elephantiasis, sore-feet, ulcer, epilepsy, convulsion, migraine, sickle cell anaemia, as a febrifuge, as a vermifuge, in female reproductive healthcare (fibroids, infertility, hemorrhage), as aphrodisiacs, eye problems, snake bites, wound healing, diabetes, arthritis, rheumatism and other inflammatory conditions [61, 62. 63. 64, 65] Also N. laevis leaf is used to manage hyperglycemia, improve haematological and biochemical derangements, control muscle wasting, induce adipogenesis (66) and has antidiabetic effect [55] . Pharmacological studies on extracts of different parts of N. laevis have revealed the antioxidant and free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and anti-malarial [67] sedative and anticonvulsant [68] , analgesic, antinociceptive and an-tiinflamatory [69] , hepatoprotective [70, 76. 56] ), anticancer [72] , uterine contraction [73] , wound healing and antiulcer [74] , antisickling [75] , hypoglycemic [66] , ac-tivities among others. Recently, the antihyperglycemic activity of the leaf extract and active fractions of the plant was reported [76] and apigenin was reported to be one of the active metabolites responsible for the antihyperglycemic activity [55] . ...
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Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of ethanolic leaf extracts of C. papaya and N. laevis on hematological parameters and sperm quality of alloxan-induced diabetic wistar rats. Methodology: Forty male rats weighing 130-180g were procured, acclimatized for two weeks, after which, were divided into eight groups of five rats each, and were housed in cages. The groups were designated as groups A-H. Group A served as the control group and received distilled water only. Groups B-H were induced with diabetes using alloxan. Group B did not receive any treatment, while the groups C-H received 400mg/kg of C. papaya leaf extract, 600mg/kg of C. papaya leaf extract, 400mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract, 600mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract, 200mg/kg of C. papaya + 200mg/kg of N. laevis, and 300mg/kg of C. papaya + 300mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract respectively for 21 days orally with oral gastric tube. On the 22 nd day, the animals were sacrificed via chloroform inhalation and blood samples were collected through ocular puncture for hematological analyses, and epididymis were collected for sperm quality study. All data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 25.0. Result: The levels of WBC, RBC, HGB, PCV, sperm motility and sperm count were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in group B (48..01) and (80.92 ± 0.26) (for sperm motility and count), groups D, F, G and H (for WBC, HGB, PCV) and groups DEFGH (for RBC) when compared to the control group A. However, there was no significant difference on the levels of WBC, RBC, HGB, and PCV, sperm motility and sperm count for groups C and E when compared with the control group A. Conclusion: C. papaya and N. laevis leaf extracts have ameliorating effects on diabetes and increased serum levels of hematological parameters and sperm quality. The ameliorating effects of the combined doses to the diabetic rats were better at lower dosages than when the individual leaf extracts were administered.
... Its leaf extract is employed in the treatment of coughs, diarrhoea and dysentery, whilst it is also given to children for treating epilepsy and convulsions [60] . Some other medical uses include folk treatment of fevers (including yellow fever), malaria, stomach ache, cough, sexually transmitted infections, skin infections, tooth ache, breast cancer, constipation, pain (pelvic pain in females, chest pain, ear ache), gonococcal orchitis, elephantiasis, sore-feet, ulcer, epilepsy, convulsion, migraine, sickle cell anaemia, as a febrifuge, as a vermifuge, in female reproductive healthcare (fibroids, infertility, hemorrhage), as aphrodisiacs, eye problems, snake bites, wound healing, diabetes, arthritis, rheumatism and other inflammatory conditions [61, 62. 63. 64, 65] Also N. laevis leaf is used to manage hyperglycemia, improve haematological and biochemical derangements, control muscle wasting, induce adipogenesis (66) and has antidiabetic effect [55] . Pharmacological studies on extracts of different parts of N. laevis have revealed the antioxidant and free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and anti-malarial [67] sedative and anticonvulsant [68] , analgesic, antinociceptive and an-tiinflamatory [69] , hepatoprotective [70, 76. 56] ), anticancer [72] , uterine contraction [73] , wound healing and antiulcer [74] , antisickling [75] , hypoglycemic [66] , ac-tivities among others. ...
... Some other medical uses include folk treatment of fevers (including yellow fever), malaria, stomach ache, cough, sexually transmitted infections, skin infections, tooth ache, breast cancer, constipation, pain (pelvic pain in females, chest pain, ear ache), gonococcal orchitis, elephantiasis, sore-feet, ulcer, epilepsy, convulsion, migraine, sickle cell anaemia, as a febrifuge, as a vermifuge, in female reproductive healthcare (fibroids, infertility, hemorrhage), as aphrodisiacs, eye problems, snake bites, wound healing, diabetes, arthritis, rheumatism and other inflammatory conditions [61, 62. 63. 64, 65] Also N. laevis leaf is used to manage hyperglycemia, improve haematological and biochemical derangements, control muscle wasting, induce adipogenesis (66) and has antidiabetic effect [55] . Pharmacological studies on extracts of different parts of N. laevis have revealed the antioxidant and free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and anti-malarial [67] sedative and anticonvulsant [68] , analgesic, antinociceptive and an-tiinflamatory [69] , hepatoprotective [70, 76. 56] ), anticancer [72] , uterine contraction [73] , wound healing and antiulcer [74] , antisickling [75] , hypoglycemic [66] , ac-tivities among others. Recently, the antihyperglycemic activity of the leaf extract and active fractions of the plant was reported [76] and apigenin was reported to be one of the active metabolites responsible for the antihyperglycemic activity [55] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of ethanolic leaf extracts of C. papaya and N. laevis on hematological parameters and sperm quality of alloxan-induced diabetic wistar rats. Methodology: Forty male rats weighing 130-180g were procured, acclimatized for two weeks, after which, were divided into eight groups of five rats each, and were housed in cages. The groups were designated as groups A – H. Group A served as the control group and received distilled water only. Groups B – H were induced with diabetes using alloxan. Group B did not receive any treatment, while the groups C – H received 400mg/kg of C. papaya leaf extract, 600mg/kg of C. papaya leaf extract, 400mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract, 600mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract, 200mg/kg of C. papaya + 200mg/kg of N. laevis, and 300mg/kg of C. papaya + 300mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract respectively for 21 days orally with oral gastric tube. On the 22nd day, the animals were sacrificed via chloroform inhalation and blood samples were collected through ocular puncture for hematological analyses, and epididymis were collected for sperm quality study. All data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 25.0. Result: The levels of WBC, RBC, HGB, PCV, sperm motility and sperm count were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in group B (48.0 ± 2.25) (28.0 ± 2.25) (24.0 ± 1.87) and (50.86 ± 3.18), and D (44.0 ± 3.39) (30.0 ± 2.92) (26.0 ± 2.0) and (42.44 ± 2.17) (for sperm motility and count) when compared to group A (71.0 ± 2.25) (15.0 ± 1.58) (14.0 ± 1.87) and (68.74 ± 2.30), and significantly (P<0.05) increased in groups F (89.0 ± 1.0) (6.0 ± 1.0) (5.0 ± 0.01) and (82.74 ± 3.19), G (91.0 ± 3.30) (5.0 ± 2.81) (4.0 ± 1.8) and (88.78 ± 2.50), and H (88.0 ± 1.60) (7.0 ± 0.80) (5.0 ± 0.01) and (80.92 ± 0.26) ( for sperm motility and count), groups D, F, G and H (for WBC, HGB, PCV) and groups DEFGH (for RBC) when compared to the control group A. However, there was no significant difference on the levels of WBC, RBC, HGB, and PCV, sperm motility and sperm count for groups C and E when compared with the control group A. Conclusion: C. papaya and N. laevis leaf extracts have ameliorating effects on diabetes and increased serum levels of hematological parameters and sperm quality. The ameliorating effects of the combined doses to the diabetic rats were better at lower dosages than when the individual leaf extracts were administered
... Glibenclamide was used as the standard drug in the present study. Glibenclamide belongs to the class of sulphonylureas (anti-diabetic drug) and it has been widely accepted as a standard drug in diabetic animal experiments associated with mild or moderate hyperglycaemia (Owolabi et al., 2011). It has been proposed that sulphonylureas produce anti-diabetic effects through secretion of insulin (Jackson and Bressler, 1981). ...
... Phytochemical studies carried out on A. vogelii ethanolic root bark extract showed that the extract contained alkaloid, saponin, tannin, steroid and cardiac glycosides (Anyanwu et al., 2013) while, the powdered leaves and stem bark revealed the presence of carbohydrates, saponins, flavonoids, terpenes, sterols and phenols (Jegede et al., 2011). Studies have shown that the presence of flavonoids in plants helps in the reduction of fasting blood glucose levels since flavonoids have been found to stimulate the secretion of insulin (Owolabi et al., 2011). The possible mechanism of action in relation to reduction of FBGL might be that it; stimulates the pancreatic beta cells to secrete insulin, improves insulin sensitivity (Bosenberg and van Zyl, 2008), slows down absorption of carbohydrate and hence slows down glucose production (Kruger and Gloster, 2004) or it slows down gastric emptying and increase satiety (VanDeKoppel et al., 2008). ...
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This study was carried out to evaluate the potential anti-diabetic effect of Anthocleista vogelii ethanolic root extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Albino rats of both sexes were randomly divided into five groups with five rats each. Group 1 (control; 10 mL kg-1 distilled water), group 2-4 (100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 A. vogelii ethanolic root extract) and group 5 (5 mg kg-1 glibenclamide). Diabetes was induced physiologically using 10 g kg-1 glucose p.o. and chemically using 150 mg kg-1 alloxan i.p. Fasting blood glucose levels of the diabetic rats were determined at intervals of 30, 60, 120 and 240 min in glucose loaded rats and on days 4, 7, 10 and 14 in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. After two weeks, the levels of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate amino transferase and creatinine of all the groups were analyzed. The LD50 of A. vogelii ethanolic root extract was≥5000 mg kg-1 (p.o.). The extract exerted a significant (p<0.05) reduction in Fasting blood glucose levels, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels and an increase in serum high density lipoprotein levels when compared to the control. The extract also elicited a significant decrease in body weight, food and water intake in diabetic treated rats. The results show that A. vogelii ethanolic root extract have anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipideamic effect when administered for 14 days in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
... The effect of the methanol extract showed a dose dependent reduction in the Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) concentration in the normoglycemic rats which was higher compared to the standard drug, glibenclamide which also has glucose lowering effect in normal animals. Glibenclamide, a known sulphonyurea, was used as the standard in the present study because it has been widely accepted as a standard drug in diabetic animal experiments associated with mild or moderate hyperglycaemia [14]. In the alloxan-induced diabetic category, the methanol and n-hexane extracts of stem bark of Anthocleista vogelii caused significant reductions in blood glucose concentrations. ...
... The presence of these active biological principles especially alakaloids , flavonoids and terpenoids in high concentration in the Anthocleista vogelli stem bark extracts might be responsible for the oral hypoglycaemic effects recorded in the present study. Previous studies have shown that the presence of flavonoids in plants helps in the reduction of fasting blood glucose concentration since flavonoids have been found to stimulate the secretion of insulin [14].The possible mechanism of action might be via the following mechanisms; stimulation of the pancreatic beta cells to secrete insulin, improvement of insulin sensitivity [16], slowing down absorption of carbohydrate and hence slows down glucose production [17]. Hence the higher percentage reduction by the 400 mg/kg of ME can be attributed to its high alkaloid and flavonoid contents compared to the n-hexane extract. ...
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The aim of the study was to evaluate comparatively the potential anti-diabetic activity of the methanol and n-hexane extracts of the stem bark of Anthocleista vogelii in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The alloxan-induced diabetic rats were treated orally with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the methanol extract (ME) and n-hexane extract (HE); 0.2 mg/kg of glibenclamide (positive control for both extracts), 2 mL/kg of normal saline and 2 mL/kg of olive oil (negative controls for ME and HE respectively).The normoglycemic rats received 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of ME, 0.2 mg/kg of glibenclamide and 2 mL/kg of normal saline. The FBGL were monitored at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 h for the two categories and the results were statistically analysed. The phytochemical analyses of ME and HE were also carried out by standard procedures. The extracts showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) anti-diabetic activity. The percentage reductions of blood glucose level after 12 h treatment with ME were 83.2% (400 mg/kg) and 79.5% (200 mg/kg) in alloxan-induced group and were higher compared to the n-hexane extract (HE); 56.5% (200 mg/kg), 43.6% (400 mg/kg) and the glibenclamide 75.9% (0.2 mg/kg). In the normal rats 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of ME gave 43.8% and 58.9% respectively compared to glibenclamide (37.7 %.) Their phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids. The methanol extract of the stem bark of A. vogelii has greater potential hypoglycemic effects compared to n-hexane extract Keywords: Anthocleista vogelii, phytochemical analysis, hypoglycemia, alloxan, anti-diabetic
... Glibenclamide, a sulphonylureas, which was used as the standard drug in this study has been proposed to produce anti-hyperglycaemic effects through secretion of insulin [24]) and has been widely accepted as a good model in diabetic animal experiments associated with mild or moderate hyperglycaemia [25]. It has been proposed that sulphonylureas produce antidiabetic effects through secretion of insulin [26,24]. ...
... The beneficial effects of A. vogelii root extract in diabetes may be due to its anti-oxidative potential [27]. Also, the presence of phenols and flavonoids in the extract may account for the observed hypoglycaemic effect since these bioactive compounds have been found to stimulate the secretion of insulin [28,25]. ...
... The effect of the methanol extract showed a dose dependent reduction in the Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) concentration in the normoglycemic rats which was higher compared to the standard drug, glibenclamide which also has glucose lowering effect in normal animals. Glibenclamide, a known sulphonyurea, was used as the standard in the present study because it has been widely accepted as a standard drug in diabetic animal experiments associated with mild or moderate hyperglycaemia [14]. In the alloxan-induced diabetic category, the methanol and n-hexane extracts of stem bark of Anthocleista vogelii caused significant reductions in blood glucose concentrations. ...
... The presence of these active biological principles especially alakaloids , flavonoids and terpenoids in high concentration in the Anthocleista vogelli stem bark extracts might be responsible for the oral hypoglycaemic effects recorded in the present study. Previous studies have shown that the presence of flavonoids in plants helps in the reduction of fasting blood glucose concentration since flavonoids have been found to stimulate the secretion of insulin [14].The possible mechanism of action might be via the following mechanisms; stimulation of the pancreatic beta cells to secrete insulin, improvement of insulin sensitivity [16], slowing down absorption of carbohydrate and hence slows down glucose production [17]. Hence the higher percentage reduction by the 400 mg/kg of ME can be attributed to its high alkaloid and flavonoid contents compared to the n-hexane extract. ...
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The aim of the study was to evaluate comparatively the potential anti-diabetic activity of the methanol and n-hexane extracts of the stem bark of Anthocleista vogelii in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The alloxan-induced diabetic rats were treated orally with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the methanol extract (ME) and n-hexane extract (HE); 0.2 mg/kg of glibenclamide (positive control for both extracts), 2 mL/kg of normal saline and 2 mL/kg of olive oil (negative controls for ME and HE respectively).The normoglycemic rats received 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of ME, 0.2 mg/kg of glibenclamide and 2 mL/kg of normal saline. The FBGL were monitored at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 h for the two categories and the results were statistically analysed. The phytochemical analyses of ME and HE were also carried out by standard procedures. The extracts showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) anti-diabetic activity. The percentage reductions of blood glucose level after 12 h treatment with ME were 83.2% (400 mg/kg) and 79.5% (200 mg/kg) in alloxan-induced group and were higher compared to the n-hexane extract (HE); 56.5% (200 mg/kg), 43.6% (400 mg/kg) and the glibenclamide 75.9% (0.2 mg/kg). In the normal rats 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of ME gave 43.8% and 58.9% respectively compared to glibenclamide (37.7 %.) Their phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids. The methanol extract of the stem bark of A. vogelii has greater potential hypoglycemic effects compared to n-hexane extract
... Reducing power data indicate that the aqueous extracts are capable of donating electrons that can react with free radicals to convert them into stable products that strongly inhibit radical chain reaction [8,19]. ...
... Previous studies indicate that antioxidant activity and reducing power are directly related [6,19]. The reducing power of fermented foxtail millet extracts increased with increasing concentrations and it was observed that boiling the extract lowered reducing power over a concentration range of 0.5 to 2 mg/ml. ...
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Purpose: To evaluate the effect of boiling on in vitro bioactivities potency of Balanites aegyptiaca L. Delile (desert date) aqueous extract, a juice used traditionally for cooking ready-to-eat millet flour paste.Methods: Desert date fruits (1.5 kg) were soaked in water (1:2, fruit: water) for 24 h and sieved. The extract was divided into two parts - fresh extract (Fext) and boiled extract (Bext) which was obtained by boiling a portion of Fext for 10 min. The extracts were tested against the stomach cancer cell line SGC7901 and for antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-icrylhydrazyl DPPH, hydroxyl radical and ferric reducing power methods.Results: Both fresh extract (Fext) and boiled extract (Bext) exhibited pronounced antioxidant activity with DPPH values of 88.2 and 97.0 %, respectively, at hydroxyl radical concentration of 5 mg/ml. The extract contained a significant amount of vitamin C (42.3 and 38.9 mg/100 g for Fext and Bext, respectively). Boiling had significant effect (p < 0.01) on its antioxidant activity and also on its cytotoxic effect (56 % and 44 % dead cells respectively for Bext and Fext at respectively, at a concentration of 200 μg/ml).Conclusion: It is concluded that B. aegyptiaca aqueous extracts have remarkable cytotoxic activity against stomach cancer cell SGC7901.
... Moreover, herbalists in Adamawa state, northeastern Nigeria administer Newbouldia laevis leaf extract to liver and kidney disease patients. However, the antimalarial [36], antidiabetic/anti-hyperglycemic [37][38][39][40], antioxidant [41] and hematological [42] activities of the plant have previously been reported. There is dearth of information on the curative potential of Newbouldia laevis on drug-induced tissue toxicity in the open scientific literature. ...
... The Fe (II) can be monitored by measuring the formation of Perl"s Prussian blue at 700 nm. Exactly 2 ml of various concentrations (20,40,60,80, 100 µg/ml) of the sample were mixed with 2 ml of phosphate buffer (0.2 M, pH 6.6) and 2 ml of potassium ferricyanide (10 mg/ml). The mixture was incubated at 50°C for 20 min followed by addition of 2 ml of trichloroacetic acid (100 mg/l). ...
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The in vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo hepatocurative and nephrocurative potential of Newbouldia laevis aqueous leaf extract (NLALE) was evaluated. The study used 30 male, albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) weighing 180 ± 20 g, of which 25 were intoxicated by oral administration of a single dose of diclofenac (100 mg/kg b. wt.). Animals were treated by oral administration of silymarin (200 mg/kg b. wt.), furosemide (1.5 mg/kg b. wt.) and NLALE (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b. wt.) for seven consecutive days before animals were sacrificed on the 8th day and serum/plasma was analyzed for biochemical markers of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Phytochemical screening of NLALE revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids and tannins. The extract scavenged DPPH radical, reduced Fe3+ and inhibited TBARs in comparable manner to ascorbic acid in vitro. NLALE also attenuated diclofenac-induced liver and kidney intoxication as indicated by the significantly (p<0.05) reduced levels of serum biomarkers of hepatotoxicity: ALT, AST, bilirubin, but increased total protein levels and nephrotoxicity: urea, creatinine, Na+ and K+. The observed effects are dose dependent as the 400 mg/kg b. wt. appeared to be more potent than the 200 mg/kg b. wt. dose. It may be concluded from this study that Newbouldia laevis leaf has ameliorative effect against diclofenac-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity probably through antioxidative mechanism and the curative claim and the folkloric use of the plant in the treatment of liver and kidney diseases have been scientifically validated
... Similar study was carried out by Saleem et al. [28] which showed that in vitro studies on antidiabetic and anti-ulcer potentials of J. gossypiifolia (Euphorbiaceae) was carried out. Also the reports of Owolabi et al. [38] showed blood glucose reducing cause of Newboudia laevis ethanol leaves extracts on days 4, 8 and 14 of treatment. Higher doses (50 and 100 mg/kg) of J. gossypiifolia leaves extract showed significant reduction in blood glucose on days 7 and more effective on prolong treatment at day 14 (p < 0.05). ...
... This report concurred to Castilla [52] and Odetola et al. [40] work respectively, showed the hypolipidaemic effect of Citrus paradisi juice and aqueous extract of fermented Parkia biglobosa in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Also, a study carried out by Owolabi et al. [38] on hypolipidaemic effects of Napoleona vogelis methanol leaf extract. An increase in HDL termed 'good cholesterol' and the decrease in LDL termed 'bad cholesterol' by these extract either individually or in combination enhances the dietary supplements role used to prevent cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes [40]. ...
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Abstract Background Jatropha gossypiifolia L. is a widespread plant in tropical and sub-tropical countries used in traditional medicine. This study investigated the anti-diuretic and anti-hyperglycemia activities of J. gossypiifolia leave extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods The leaves was shade dried, pulverized and prepared into extract. 30, 50 and 100 mg/kg of the leaves extracts of J. gossypiifolia was subject to diuretics and hyperglycemic properties using established protocol of diuretic and diabetes test on the rat bladders emptied via mild compression in the pelvic region and gently pulling of their tails. 0.5 ml/kg normal saline, reference drug and the tested were administered with a single dose of the various drugs, and Streptozotocin (STZ) was freshly prepared in 0.1 M citrate buffer with pH 4.5 prior to induction, animals were fasted 24 h and single dose of 45 mg STZ per kg body weight was administered intraperitoneally. Urine and blood samples were isolated from rats and centrifuged for the determination of renal function test. Diuretic and antidiabetic indexes where evaluated using adopted method. Results This study showed that, graded doses of the extract significantly increased diuretic effect, specifically at 100 mg/kg increased diuretic index at 4.29 and urine volume 5.06 and 10 mg/kg Hydrochlorothiazide with 6.23 ml when compared untreated group (1.18 ml) (p 0.05). Also, the extract maintained a normal body mass indexes, biochemical and anatomical structure. Conclusion The effect associated with J. gossypiifolia potentiated its anti-diuretic and anti-hyperglycemic properties as early stated in the ethnomedicinal reports.
... Similar findings have been reported by Chukwuma et al. [29] which showed the glucose lowering effect of Citrus paradisi in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Also, Owolabi et al. [30] reported blood glucose lowering effect of ethanol extract of Newboudia laevis leaves across days 4, 8 and 14 of their treatment. Administration of 50 and 100 mg/kg of ethanol extract of S. jamaicensis showed more significant (p < 0.05) reduction in blood glucose levels on days 7 and 14 indicating that the extract may display better effect on blood glucose levels at these higher doses compared to the lowest dose (30 mg/kg). ...
... Kidney being a major visceral organ is involved in waste products elimination with renal function tests seeking to confirm the presence or absence of dysfunction. Also, phytochemicals, such as flavonoids, tannins, and some pure compounds (phenolic acids, chlorogenic acid, catechin, sterols) reported to be present in the plant leaf might have contributed to the nephron-protective effect of the extract by acting as antioxidants to enhance insulin sensitivity thereby decrease gluconeogenesis and proteolysis [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36] Bioactive chemicals / compounds from extracts of S. jamaicensis leaf have been reported to possess antioxidative as well as anti-inflammatory properties. ...
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Introduction This study evaluates the anti-diabetic effect of ethanol extract of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis leaf on streptozotocin (STZ) - induced diabetic rats fed on high-fat diet (HFD). Methods Sets of male albino rats of the Wistar strain weighing between 180 and 250 g were exposed to high fat diet (margarine and oil from vegetable sources in a ratio of 2:1 w/v) for 3 weeks. Then the animals were fasted overnight; hyperglycemic state was induced using reduced dose of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg) and animals were randomly divided into five groups (n = 7); group A received the HFD + STZ (35 mg/kg i.p.); group B received HFD + STZ + gliberclamide (10 mg/kg; i.p); groups C, D and E were administered the HFD + streptozotocin with different doses of the ethanol extract (30, 35 and 100 mg/kg p.o., respectively). Results Results showed significant (p < 0.05) decrease in blood glucose concentration of the rats treated with different doses of S. jamaicensis extract and those treated with gliberclamide compared to the untreated diabetic rats (negative control). Significant (p < 0.05) reductions in activities of serum AST, ALP, total protein and bilirubin were noticed in the groups in contrast to the control. Levels of urea, creatinine, potassium and chloride were considerably (p < 0.05) low while sodium and bicarbonate levels were high in the groups except the control. Lipid profile revealed significant (p < 0.05) reduction in total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, LDL, VLDL while HDL levels were high in the groups compared to the control. The extract significantly (p < 0.05) ameliorated weight loss. Histopathology of the liver, kidney and pancreas showed ameliorative effect of the extract against the deleterious changes occasioned by the HFD and STZ induced diabetic state. Conclusion These findings have provided scientific basis for the use of S. jamaicensis in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in ethnomedicinal practices in Nigeria.
... Some of which include treatment of ear aches, sore foot, chest pain, fever, convulsion and epilepsy in children [22,23] , diarrhea. [24] Studies have shown that N. laevis leaf extracts is used to treat diabetes mellitus [25,26] , have hyperglycemic effect [27] possess hepatoprotective [28] and anti-diabetic properties [25] , and lower blood glucose level in diabetic rats. [24] Thus this study was carried out to investigate the combined effect of ethanolic leaf extracts of C. papaya and N. laevis on the serum levels of urea and creatinine in alloxan induced diabetic rats, as no study has been carried out on this. ...
... [24] Studies have shown that N. laevis leaf extracts is used to treat diabetes mellitus [25,26] , have hyperglycemic effect [27] possess hepatoprotective [28] and anti-diabetic properties [25] , and lower blood glucose level in diabetic rats. [24] Thus this study was carried out to investigate the combined effect of ethanolic leaf extracts of C. papaya and N. laevis on the serum levels of urea and creatinine in alloxan induced diabetic rats, as no study has been carried out on this. ...
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Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of the ethanolic lea f extracts of C. papaya and N. laevis on kidney enzymes of alloxan-induced Wistar rats. Methodology: Forty male Wistar rats weighing between 160g – 200g were randomly assigned to eight Groups A - H of 5 rats each. Group A served as the control group and was not induced with diabetes, while Groups B – H were induced. Groups A and B received distilled water only, while Groups C - H received 200mg/kg of C. papaya , 400mg/kg of C. papaya, 200mg/kg of N. laevis, 400mg/kg of N. laevis, 200mg/kg of C. papaya + 200mg/kg of N. laevis and 400mg/kg of C. papaya + 400mg/kg of N. laevis respectively for 28 days. On day 29 of the experiment, the final weights of the animals were determined and they were sacrificed; blood samples were collected from each of the animals for serum analysis. Results: There were significant (P˂0.05) increase in serum levels of urea and creatinine of the animals in group B when compared with the control group. These effects were ameliorated in Groups C - H which received the variable doses of the ethanolic leaf extracts with more positive effects on the Groups that received the combined ethanolic leaf extracts. Conclusion: This study has revealed that ethanolic leaf extracts of C. papaya and N. laevis have ameliorative effects on the body weight and serum levels of urea and creatinine on alloxan-induced Wistar rats.
... At 48h after the injection, the fasting blood glucose level was estimated using a glucometer (GB Accu-Chek, Roche, Mannhein, Germany). Animals with glucose levels above 250mg/dl were considered diabetic and used for the study (Owolabi et al., 2011). ...
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The study of natural products has played a major role in the development of novel therapeutic substance with high efficacy. Mucuna puriens, Newboldia laevis and Pteridium aquilinum are known medicinal plants used in the treatment of many diseases. In this study, the use Mucuna puriens, Neuboldia laevis and Pteridium aquilinum as combined graded doses in the treatment of diabetes were evaluated. Diabetes was induced in wistar albino rats using intraperitoneal injection of 140mg/kg of alloxan. Thirty (30) albino rats were randomly divided in 5 groups of 6 rats each (n=6). 5mg/kg of glabenclamide was used as the standard control while different graded doses of the formulation at 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg were administered to the other groups with one untreated group serving as the diabetic control. The study lasted for a period of 21 days. The formulation significantly (p<0.05) lowered the elevated blood glucose level. The % reduction of the 400mg/kg of the combined dose was 59.19% compared to the standard drug 56.45%. There was also significant (p<0.05) decrease in the lipid, hematology indices and markers of cellular toxicity compared to the diabetic control (untreated group). The combined extracts showed more efficacy the glabenclamide. This suggested that the polyherbal formulation enhances therapeutic action and is effective in the treatment diabetes.
... Pharmacological studies on extracts of different parts of N. laevis have revealed the antioxidant and free radical scavenging [8], antimicrobial and antimalarial [9], sedative and anticonvulsant [10], analgesic, antinociceptive and antiinflamatory [11], hepatoprotective [12], anticancer [13], uterine contraction [14], wound healing and antiulcer [15], antisickling [16], hypoglycemic [17] activities among others. ...
... Hyperglycemia is a widely known cause of enhanced free radical concentration, which can generate free radicals by autoxidation and glycation of proteins [3]. Elevated glucose concentration directly injures cells and induces lipid peroxidation, which is the main cause for diabetic complications [4]. Cumulative evidence showed that oxidative stress, induced by reactive oxygen derived from hyperglycemia, caused abnormal gene expression, altered signal transduction as well as the activation of pathways leading to programmed myocardial cell deaths [5]. ...
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Purpose: To evaluate the influence of Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) on oxidative stress in mice administrated with glucose, sucrose and high-sugar diet.Methods: 40 Kunming mice were divided into four groups of 10. After a fast of 12 h, mice were treated by oral infusion respectively with physiological saline, 20 % glucose, 20 % sucrose, and 20 % glucose + 0.002 % Sal B. Blood glucose and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 h after administration. Another 3 groups of 10 Kunming mice each were fed with normal diet, high-sugar diet (20 % sucrose, HSD) and HSD + 0.002 % Sal B. Four weeks later, thelevels of ROS as well as antioxidant enzyme activity were determined.Results: Blood ROS showed the first peak at 0.5 h and a higher peak at 1.5 h after high glucose administration. ROS were mainly produced in liver and pancreas with the utilization of glucose. Sal B administration prevented increase in blood glucose and significantly (p < 0.05) reduced ROS produced in the process of glucose absorption and utilization, especially the latter. Sal B decrease oxidative stress induced by HSD through scavenging ROS associated with increased activity of antioxidant enzymes.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that Sal B can decrease oxidative stress in glucose absorption and utilization in HSD mice. Thus, the findings provide a basis for a potential interventional strategy for protecting against oxidative damage induced by HSD.
... Recent phytochemical studies of the root, bark and stem revealed the presence of alkaloids, quinoid and phenylpropanoid among others [80] which could endow it with the blood-sugar lowering activity it is used for in the Ebira traditional medicine. The anti-diabetic activities of the ethanolic extract of the leaf [81] and flower [82] as well as the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory properties of the flower [83] have been reported. ...
... In South-Eastern and part of Mid-Western Nigeria, the plant is used for the treatment of septic wounds and eye problems (Akerele et al., 2011). Also, the anti-diabetic activity of the leaf extract has been reported by Owolabi et al., (2011) and Anaduaka et al., (2013a). Literature have also reported the phytochemicals constituents present in Newbouldia laevis (Akaneme,2008;Ogbe et al., 2009;Anaduaka et al., 2013b). ...
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The continuous use of plants in folklore for reproductive health has prompted the need to search for plants with fertility enhancement or anti-fertility potentials. Hence, the effect of oral administration of aqueous extract of Newbouldia laevis leaves for twenty one (21) days on reproductive hormones of albino male rats was investigated. Twelve male albino rats were grouped into three (A, B and C) of four (4) each. Group C (the control) received orally distilled water on daily basis for 21days. Groups A and B were treated like the control except that they received 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively. After administration of the extract for twenty one days, the results of serum concentrations of testosterone, follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormones showed no significant (p<0.05) differences in groups A and B when compared to the control. The result reveals that Newbouldia laevis extract could act as an adjunct that can inhibit or promote hormonal imbalances in males at certain dosages as exemplified in the experimental animal models.
... Antiinflammatory activity was displayed by many species viz., Pyrostegia venusta [1], Arrabidaea brachypoda [2], Tecoma stans [3], Kigelia pinnata [4] and K. africana [5]. While, many plants as Newbouldia laevis [6], K. pinnata [7], Oroxylum indicum [8] and Parmentiera edulis [9,10] demonstrated different degrees of antidiabetic activity. Moreover, gastroprotective effect was shown by O. indicumin [11] and Spathodea campanulata [12]. ...
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antihyperglycemic and gastroprotective of methanolic extracts (MEs) of different parts viz., [mixture of leaves & stems (1:3) (MLS13), flowers and stem barks] and different fractions of ME of MLS13 of Parmentiera cereifera Seem. Moreover, this study estimates LD50 of ME of MLS13. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out for nine months in 2012 in the Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, Minia, Egypt. Methodology: The different MEs of various parts such as MLS13, flowers and stem barks and the different fractions of ME of MLS13 of P. cereifera were used in the present study. The different pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic, gastroprotective and LD50 were determined using animal models as described in standard methods. Results: In yeast-induced paw edema method, ME of MLS13 had the highest anti-inflammatory activity (***P<0.001). While, in carrageenan-induced paw edema method, the highest antiinflammatory activity (***P<0.001) was exhibited by ME of stem barks. Moreover, both ME of flowers (***P<0.001) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction (***P<0.01) exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity in alloxan-induced diabetes method. Furthermore, in indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer method, the highest gastroprotective effect (***P<0.001) was demonstrated by the petroleum ether (pet. ether) fraction. Finally, there is no toxicity symptoms of ME of MLS13 of P. cereifera up to 5 gm/kg. Conclusion: The biological results revealed that P. cereifera may be used in the development of various pharmaceutical preparations viz., anti-infalammatory, anti-hypergycemic as well as gastroprotective drugs, due to its wide safety margin.
... Other medical uses include folk treatment of fevers (including yellow fever), malaria, stomach ache, cough, sexually transmitted infections, skin infections, tooth ache, breast cancer, constipation, pain (pelvic pain in females, chest pain, ear ache), gonococcal orchitis, elephantiasis, sorefeet, ulcer, epilepsy, convulsion, migraine, sickle cell anaemia, as a febrifuge, as a vermifuge, in female reproductive healthcare (fibroids, infertility, hemorrhage), as aphrodisiacs, eye problems, snake bites, wound healing, diabetes, arthritis, rheumatism and other inflammatory conditions [24, 25, 26 and 27] . Studies have shown that N. laevis leaf is used to manage hyperglycemia, improve haematological and biochemical derangements, control muscle wasting, induce adipogenesis [28] , has antidiabetic effect [29] , exhibits antioxidant and free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and anti-malarial [30] , sedative and anticonvulsant [31] , analgesic, antinociceptive and an-tiinflamatory [32] , hepatoprotective [33,34] , anticancer [35] , wound healing and antiulcer [36] , hypoglycemic [28] activities among others. ...
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Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of ethanolic leaf extracts of C. papaya and N. laevis on hormone profile of alloxan-induced diabetic male wistar rats. Methodology: Forty (40) male wistar rats weighing 150-180g were procured and acclimatized for two weeks, after which, they were divided into eight (8) groups of five (5) rats each, and were housed in cages. The groups were designated as groups A-H. Group A served as the control group, and received distilled water only. Animals in groups B-H were induced with diabetes using alloxan. The diabetic group B did not receive any treatment throughout the experiment, while the diabetic groups C-H received 400mg/kg of C. papaya leaf extract, 600mg/kg of C. papaya leaf extract, 400mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract, 600mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract, 200mg/kg of C. papaya + 200mg/kg of N. laevis, and 300mg/kg of C. papaya + 300mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract respectively for 21 days through oral route with the aid of oral gastric tube. On the 22 nd day, the animals were sacrificed via chloroform inhalation and blood samples were then collected through ocular puncture for hormonal assay. All data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 25.0. Result: Levels of FSH, LH and Testosterone were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in groups B and D when compared to the control group A; and significantly (P<0.05) increased in groups F, G, and H when compared to the control group A. However, there was no significant difference on the levels of FSH, LH and Testosterone in groups C and E when compared to the control group A. Conclusion: Combined leaf extracts of Carica papaya and Newbouldia laevis have ameliorating effect on the levels of FSH, LH and Testosterone of alloxan-induced male wistar rats.
... Several studies have reported similar elevation in the activities of serum AST, ALT and ALP during alloxan administration (Etuk and Muhammed, 2010;Owolabi et al., 2011). Administration of MET, GLI and REP reversed the higher levels of these enzymes caused by alloxan administration. ...
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Diabetes mellitus is one of the major global health burden affecting both developed and developing countries. This study examined the antidiabetic effects of metformin (MET), glibenclamide (GLI) and repaglinide (REP) on biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The study will assess the efficacy of these standard drugs in managing the complications arising from diabetes mellitus. Alloxan (130 mg/kg BW) was administered as a single dose to induce diabetes. Four (4) groups of rats (n=6) were used; group 1 served as diabetic control while groups 2, 3 and 4 were the diabetic test groups that received MET (25 mg/kg), GLI (2.5 mg/kg) and REP (0.5 mg/kg) respectively. The effects of these agents on blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) concentrations were determined. Also, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine phosphatase (ALP) activities were assayed. The results showed that the blood glucose concentration of diabetic rats treated with MET, GLI and REP were significantly (p<0.05) reduced compared with the diabetic control. Serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were significantly (p<0.05) reduced while high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the treated diabetic rats compared with the diabetic control. Also, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine phosphatase activities were markedly (p<0.05) reduced compared with the diabetic control group. Findings from this study suggest that the administration of MET, GLI and REP exhibited significant reductions in the blood glucose concentrations; hence, significant improvement in the biochemical parameters altered during diabetic associated manifestations.
... The leaves of plants provide both nutritional and medicinal benefits principally due to their nutrient composition and secondary bioactive metabolites which are known to possess antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-sickling, hypoglycaemic and immunomodulatory properties (Owolabi et al., 2011, Egba et al. (2012. Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, terponoids and cardiac glycosides were found in amounts of medicinal value. ...
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Phytochemical, micronutrient composition and anti-oxidative potential of ethanolic leaf extract of Sida acuta in albino wistar rats were investigated using standard analytical methods. The result (mg/100 g) for phytochemical composition were 91.46 ± 0.02 tannin, 1500.36 ± 0.36 alkaloid, 530.27 ± 0.03 saponin, 1163.86 ± 0.1 flavonoid, 1454.50 ± 0.85 steriod, 115.29 ± 0.05 terpeniods and 851.62 ± 0.01 cardiac glycosides. The vitamin composition (mg/100 g) were 0.36 ± 0.01 thiamin, 0.19 ± 0.02 niacin, 24.27 ± 0.25 ascorbic acid, 1.85 ± 0.32 tocopherol, 0.12 ± 0.05 riboflavin while mineral composition (mg/100 mg) was 14428 ± 0.02, 122.11 ± 0.01, 325.12 ± 0.02 for calcium, magnesium and zinc, respectively. To determine the antioxidative potential, twenty-four adult wistar albino rats were divided into four groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 received feed and water (control) while group 2, 3 and 4 in addition to feed and water were treated with ethanol leaf extract of S. acuta at 20, 40 and 60 mg/kg body weight, respectively. After 14 days of treatment; the rats were sacrificed and plasma obtained for oxidative stress indices assay. The result showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in mean values of plasma malondialdehyde concentration and a significant increase (P < 0.05) in reduced glutathione concentration at 40 and 60 mg/kg body weight compared to the control group. Plasma catalase and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly increased (P < 0.05) only in animals treated with 60 mg/kg body weight compared to the control group. The result showed that ethanolic leaf extract of S. acuta possesses an antioxidant property which, in a dose-dependent manner, reduces/ameliorates oxidative stress in rats.
... The acute toxicity (LD 50 ) (LD 50 ) test of the ethanol extracts of N. laevis leaf and stem shows that the plant extracts were not toxic up to 5000 mg/kg body weight. This indicates that the leaves and stem extracts are safe for human and animal consumption and compliments earlier studies (Owolabi et al., 2011). This observation is supported by the histopathological examination which showed clear restoration of diabetes induced pathological changes in tissue sections. ...
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The pytochemicals, nutritional and toxicological potentials of the ethanol extracts of the leaf and stem of Newbouldia laevis was investigated in this study. The percentage yields of N. laevis ethanol leaf and stem extracts were found to be 7.44 and 3.30% (w/w), respectively. The preliminary phytochemical screening showed that ethanol leaf and stem extracts contains alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins. The quantitative phytochemical analysis showed that the leaf and stem extracts contained respectively: alkaloids (14.74 ± 0.06 and 6.27 ± 0.0 mg/g), flavonoids (15.51 ± 0.04 and 5.18 ± 0.04 mg/g), cardiac glycosides (6.77 ± 0.02 mg/g), tannins (1.74 ± 0.11 mg/g), saponins (4.07 ± 0.06 mg/g), steroids (41.72 ± 0.02 mg/g) and terpenoids (8.67 ± 0.09 mg/g). The following amounts of vitamins and minerals were found in the leave and stem-bark extracts, respectively; vitamin A (5.19 ± 0.00 and 3.01 ± 0.00 mg/100 g), vitamin C (2.35 ± 0.55 and 1.05 ± 0.08 mg/100 g) and vitamin E (9.33 ± 0.02 and 4.08 ± 0.11 mg/100 g); minerals: Mg (76.12 ± 0.04 and 54.25 ± 0.04 mg/100 g), Fe (16.84 ± 0.06 and 1.19 ± 0.03 mg/100 g) and Se (3.08 ± 0.03 and 0.29 ± 0.07 mg/100 g). The acute toxicity test of the ethanol leaf and stem extracts showed no toxicity up to 5000 mg/kg body weight.
... It is widely used in traditional medicine in Nigeria and other West African countries to treat fever, ear aches, chest pain, convulsion and epilepsy in children (Keay, 1989;Burkil, 1994;Tanko et al., 2008). The stem bark is used for treating skin infections while the roots are used to treat arthritis, general body pain and diarrhoea (NNMDA, 2006;Owolabi et al., 2011). However, Tiv traditional medical practitioners in central Nigeria use the leaves of Newbouldia laevis to treat disease conditions that result in frequent urination and sweet urine (Bosha, 2015). ...
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The high prevalence rate of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the developing world and its attendant high cost on healthcare have necessitated search for cheaper, effective and readily available alternative therapies in plants. One of such plants used in Nigeria is Newbouldia laevis (P. Beauv) (NLE). Its effect on erythrocyte fragility, membrane stability and haematological parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 21 days showed that Newbouldia laevis at 250 mg/kg reduced erythrocyte haemolysis to 11.08±2.50 % while Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid 200 mg/kg) reduced the haemolysis by 10.87±2.16 %. Glibenclamide (2 mg/kg) a standard oral antidiabetic drug reduced the haemolysis to 22.52±3.50 % all at the NaCl concentration of 0.85 %. It also demonstrated its ability to protect the liver, kidney and the pancreas especially at the dose rate of 250 mg/kg against alloxan-induced diabetic membrane destruction. It dose-dependently decreased the packed cell volume (PCV) from 43.67±7.34 % at the dose of 62.5 m g/kg to 33.64±6.34 % at the dose of 125.0 mg/kg and 28.33±3.67 % at the dose of 250 mg/kg. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), reduced from 14.57±2.43 % at the dose of 62.5 mg/kg to 9.43±1.20 % at 250 mg/kg. But at the same time, it dose-dependently increased the white blood cell count (WBC) from 4.13±0.83 x 103 at the dose of 62.5 mg/kg to 6.26±1.3 x 103 at the dose of 250.0 mg/kg. In conclusion, Newbouldia laevis at 250 mg/kg has erythrocyte and membrane protection ability in alloxan-induced diabetic rats comparable to Vitamin C and glibenclamide, but has variable effects on haematological parameters that are within the normal ranges in diabetic rats. Keywords: Diabetes, Erythrocytes, Haematology, Membrane stability, Newbouldia laevis
... It is widely used in traditional medicine in Nigeria and other West African countries to treat fever, ear aches, chest pain, convulsion and epilepsy in children (Keay, 1989;Burkil, 1994;Tanko et al., 2008). The stem bark is used for treating skin infections while the roots are used to treat arthritis, general body pain and diarrhoea (NNMDA, 2006;Owolabi et al., 2011). However, Tiv traditional medical practitioners in central Nigeria use the leaves of Newbouldia laevis to treat disease conditions that result in frequent urination and sweet urine (Bosha, 2015). ...
... The conventional synthetic anti-diabetic drugs available to manage the disease are costly and not readily affordable to the majority of the patients Consequently, a good number of patients now resort to medicinal plants as alternative sources of diabetic therapy, and a good number of these plants have been reported to demonstrated potent anti-diabetic effect [2][3][4][5][6][7] Newbouldia laevis ( P. Beaux, Bignoniaceae) has a versatile application in traditional medicine and is used in more than 25 medical conditions throughout tropical Africa. [8][9][10][11][12][13] ...
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The leaves of Newbouldia laevis is traditionally used to treat diabetes mellitus in southeast Nigeria. The apigenin isolated from the methanol fraction of dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) extract of the leaves was evaluated for antidiabetic and antihyperglycemic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and on normal rats. Treatment of alloxan-diabetic rats with the compound (apigenin) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced blood glucose, and increased the liver and muscle glycogen content. The adrenaline-induced elevation of blood glucose of normal rats was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by the isolated compound. These results suggest that apigenin may be the anti-diabetic principle in the leaves of Newbouldia laevis.
... Other medical uses include folk treatment of fevers (including yellow fever), malaria, stomach ache, cough, sexually transmitted infections, skin infections, tooth ache, breast cancer, constipation, pain (pelvic pain in females, chest pain, ear ache), gonococcal orchitis, elephantiasis, sorefeet, ulcer, epilepsy, convulsion, migraine, sickle cell anaemia, as a febrifuge, as a vermifuge, in female reproductive healthcare (fibroids, infertility, hemorrhage), as aphrodisiacs, eye problems, snake bites, wound healing, diabetes, arthritis, rheumatism and other inflammatory conditions [24, 25, 26 and 27] . Studies have shown that N. laevis leaf is used to manage hyperglycemia, improve haematological and biochemical derangements, control muscle wasting, induce adipogenesis [28] , has antidiabetic effect [29] , exhibits antioxidant and free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and anti-malarial [30] , sedative and anticonvulsant [31] , analgesic, antinociceptive and an-tiinflamatory [32] , hepatoprotective [33,34] , anticancer [35] , wound healing and antiulcer [36] , hypoglycemic [28] activities among others. ...
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This study was carried out to investigate the effect of ethanolic leaf extracts of C. papaya and N. laevis on hormone profile of alloxan-induced diabetic male wistar rats. Methodology: Forty (40) male wistar rats weighing 150-180g were procured and acclimatized for two weeks, after which, they were divided into eight (8) groups of five (5) rats each, and were housed in cages. The groups were designated as groups A - H. Group A served as the control group, and received distilled water only. Animals in groups B – H were induced with diabetes using alloxan. The diabetic group B did not receive any treatment throughout the experiment, while the diabetic groups C - H received 400mg/kg of C. papaya leaf extract, 600mg/kg of C. papaya leaf extract, 400mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract, 600mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract, 200mg/kg of C. papaya + 200mg/kg of N. laevis, and 300mg/kg of C. papaya + 300mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract respectively for 21 days through oral route with the aid of oral gastric tube. On the 22nd day, the animals were sacrificed via chloroform inhalation and blood samples were then collected through ocular puncture for hormonal assay. All data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 25.0. Result: Levels of FSH, LH and Testosterone were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in groups B and D when compared to the control group A; and significantly (P<0.05) increased in groups F, G, and H when compared to the control group A. However, there was no significant difference on the levels of FSH, LH and Testosterone in groups C and E when compared to the control group A. Conclusion: Combined leaf extracts of Carica papaya and Newbouldia laevis have ameliorating effect on the levels of FSH, LH and Testosterone of alloxan-induced male wistar rats.
... Antiinflammatory activity was displayed by many species viz., Pyrostegia venusta [1], Arrabidaea brachypoda [2], Tecoma stans [3], Kigelia pinnata [4] and K. africana [5]. While, many plants as Newbouldia laevis [6], K. pinnata [7], Oroxylum indicum [8] and Parmentiera edulis [9,10] demonstrated different degrees of antidiabetic activity. Moreover, gastroprotective effect was shown by O. indicumin [11] and Spathodea campanulata [12]. ...
... There have been reports that A. vogelii contain pytochemicals such as alkaloid, saponin, tannin, steroid flavonoids and cardiac glycosides (Anyanwu et al., 2013;Jegede et al., 2011). Studies have shown that the presence of flavonoids in plants helps in the reduction of fasting blood glucose levels since flavonoids have been found to stimulate the secretion of insulin (Owolabi et al., 2011). ...
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Anthocleista vogelii is one of the major constituents of herbal preparations traditionally used in the management of diabetes mellitus in the South western part Nigeria. This study was carried out to evaluate the potential antidiabetic effect of Anthocleista vogelii aqueous root extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with a view of scientifically validating its ethno-medicinal properties. Albino rats of both sexes were randomly divided into five groups in glucose loaded (GL) rats (10 g/kg glucose p.o); Group 1 (control) diabetic untreated rats (10 ml/kg distilled water), group 2-4 diabetic treated rats (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg A. vogelii aqueous root extract [AVR]) and group 5 (5 mg/kg glibenclamide [GB]) while in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats (60 mg/kg; i.p.), Albino rats were randomly divided into three groups; Group 1 (control) diabetic untreated rats (10 ml/kg distilled water), group 2 diabetic treated rats (200 mg/kg AVR) and group 3 diabetic treated rats (5 mg/kg GB). Fasting blood glucose levels (FBGL) of the diabetic rats were determined at intervals of 30, 60, 120 and 240 minutes in GL rats and on days 4, 7, 10 and 14 in STZ-induced diabetic rats. After two weeks, the levels of serum cholesterol (CHOL), triglyceride (TRIG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatinine (CRT) of STZ-induced diabetic rats were analyzed. The LD of AVR was ≥ 5000 mg/kg in rats (p.o.). 200 mg/kg exerted a more 50 significant reduction in FBGL in GL rats when compared with the control; hence only 200 mg/kg of AVR was used in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The extract exerted a significant (P<0.05) reduction in FBGL, CHOL, TRIG, LDL, ALT, AST and CRT levels and an increase in serum HDL when compared to the control in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The photomicrograph of the pancreatic tissues of the control group showed general distortion of the pancreatic histoarchitecture while in the treatment group the photomicrograph showed interlobular connective tissue septa with normal serous acini and zymogen cells. The study concluded that AVR is safe when administered orally. It has anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipideamic effect when administered for fourteen days in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
... There was an observed increase in ALP activity in the diabetic control group suggesting hepatocellular damage after induction of diabetes in rats with alloxan. Several studies have reported similar elevation in the activities of serum AST, ALT and ALP during alloxan administration [36,37]. The study revealed that serum ALP activities were return back to near normal after 28days of treatment with the extract, acarbose as well as the administration of the extract alongside acarbose in alloxan diabetic rats which indicated Serum total protein concentration in diabetic control group was significantly decreased when compared with the diabetic treated groups and normal control. ...
... An increased AST, ALT and ALP in the serum are indication of hepatocellular damage since ALT is an enzyme that helps metabolize protein but when the liver is damaged, the enzymes are released into the bloodstream, and presence of ASP in the blood stream also signifies a damaged liver [28]. Therefore a decreased AST, ALT and ALP indicates that the breakfast products tend to prevent liver damage by maintaining the integrity of the plasma membrane, thereby suppressing leakage of the enzymes through the membrane, exhibiting hepato protective activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats. ...
... However, at p < 0.01, significant reductions were noted for the 400 mg/kg of ME (39.38 and 51.25% at day 1 and day 5 respectively compared to the standard drug, 5 mg/kg glibenclamide and negative control, 2 ml/kg of 30% Tween 80. Glibenclamide, a known sulphonyurea, was used as the standard in the present study because it has been widely accepted as a standard drug in diabetic animal experiments associated with mild or moderate hyperglycaemia. 8,24 The result of the effect of methanol extract (ME) of Psydrax horizontalis in the alloxan induced diabetic rats showed a dose-dependent reduction in blood glucose concentration after acute and sub-acute administration as depicted in Table 4. ...
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Introduction: Rubiacaeae is a large family of flowering plants of 630 genera with over 13000 species widely distributed in the tropical and warm regions of the world. The Psydrax genus has been reported to have various pharmacological activities. Based on ethno-pharmacological information, Psydrax horizontalis Schum. & Thonn. (Bridson) locally known as “Akata-ike” in Nsukka is used in the management of diabetes in South-eastern Nigeria. However as at the time of this research, no previous work has been done to investigate its phytochemical constituents and anti-diabetic activity. Methods: The methanol extract (ME) obtained by maceration was analysed for phytochemicals present using standard procedures. Alloxan monohydrate at 150 mg/Kg was used to induce diabetes. Acute toxicity test was done using the Lorke’s method. The normoglycemic and alloxan-induced groups of twenty animals each were treated orally with 100, 200 and 400 mg/Kg of ME; 5 mg/Kg of glibenclamide and 2 mL/kg of 3% Tween 80 as the controls. The fasting blood glucose concentrations were monitored at 0, 1, 3 and 6 h, as well as 1st, 3rd and 5th day. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of glycosides, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and terpenoids. Median lethal dose was greater than 5000 mg/kg. In the alloxan-induced diabetic rats, significant activity at p<0.01 on the 6th hour was recorded at doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/Kg ME on day 3. Conclusion: The ME of Psydrax horizontalis possesses significant anti-diabetic activity in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The results obtained validate its traditional use in management of diabetes. Key words: Diabetes, Alloxan monohydrate, Extraction, Flavonoids.
... The medicinal value of the plants useful for healing and cure of human diseases is attributed to presence of phytochemical constituents [4] . The leaves of plants according to Owolabi et al [31] and Egba et al. [32] provide both nutritional and medicinal benefits principally due to their nutrient composition and secondary bioactive metabolites which are known to possess antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-sickling, hypoglycaemic and immunomodulatory properties. ...
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This study aimed at carrying out a qualitative phytochemical screening, GC-MS studies and in-vitro antioxidant properties of aqueous leaf extract of Gnetum africanum. The qualitative phytochemical screening of the aqueous leaf extract of Gnetum africanum was done using standard procedures and revealed the presence of terpenoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glucosides and phenols. The GC-MS screening revealed the presence of 14 compounds, 6 out of the 14 compounds were most prominent. The compound with the highest percentage peak area was caffeine with peak area of 96.9%, followed by n-Hexadacanotic acid with peak area of 60.9%, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol with peak area of 55.9%, tetradacanoic acid with peak area of 50.3%, cyclopentaneundecanoic acid with peak area of 47.8% and 2-cyclo-penten-1-2-hydroxy with peak area of 43.6% respectively. In-vitro determination of antioxidant property of leaf extract of Gnetum africanum was done photometrically using 2,2-dyhenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The DPPH scavenging ability of the leaf extract (43.2, 60.5, 68.8, and 75.7) was statistically significant at p<0.05 when compared with the standard drug ascorbic acid (81.1, 82.6, 85.1, and 90.4) % at 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/l. In conclusion, the leaf extract of Gnetum africanum is loaded with a host of important phytochemicals and has antioxidant properties which increase in potency with increase dose. Keywords: Phytochemical Screening, GCMS Studies, Anti-Oxidant, Gnetum africanum
... Several studies have reported similar elevation in the activities of serum AST, ALP and ALT during alloxan administration. 22,36 There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in serum protein and total bilirubin levels as shown in Table 3 when compared to the normal control. This might be as a result of some proteins forming intrachains or interchains disulfide bridges between cysteine residues. ...
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Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by derangements in carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolisms, due to deficiency in insulin secretion and action. This research evaluates the ameliorative potentials of aqueous extracts of leaves and stem of Ipomoea involucorata on selected biochemicals in experimental diabetic rats.Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan and the animals were orally administered with gilanil (4 mg/kg) for positive control, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg bw aqueous extract of leaves (groups 4-6) and stem (groups 7-9) of Ipomoea involucrata once daily for 21 days. Biochemical parameters were analysed using standard methods.Results: The median lethal dose was established at 648 mg/kg (leaves) and 547 mg/kg (stem). The negative group (untreated) showed significant increase in glucose concentration compared to the other groups. After 2 to 3 weeks there was significant (p<0.05) decrease in glucose concentration of the extract and glibenclamide (positive group) treated groups when compared with the negative group. Diabetes control rats showed significant (p<0.05) high serum lipid profile (except for high density lipoprotein), liver enzymes/ indices and renal indices when compared with non-diabetic control rats. However, these alternations were reversed with the positive group and the groups treated with aqueous extracts of both samples. The differences observed in the electrolytes were not significant in all groups.Conclusions: The results suggest that aqueous extract of leaves and stem of I. involucrata is considerably safe and a potential therapy for management of complications associated with diabetes mellitus.
... [7] The pharmacological effects of N. laevis include antioxidant effect [8] , free radical scavengers [9] , antimicrobial [10] , hepatoprotective [8] , anticancer. [11] , hypoglycemic [12] and antihypertensive (13) . Studies have shown that N. laevis may be used to manage hepatotoxicity [14] , hyperglycemia [15] and to protect the liver membrane. ...
... The different secondary metabolites possessed by the plant have led to its increased pharmacological activities like anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, hypoglycaemic, antibacterial, immunomodulatory activities. [25]. Flavonoids are known for their antioxidative activity, tannins possess antibacterial, antiviral, and potent against most destructive diseases [21]. ...
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The leaves of Sida acuta Burm. f. (Malvaceae) has been reported to possess potent anti- inflammatory, anti- plasmodial and anti-microbial activities. The relationship of these bioactivities and immune responses lead to the evaluation of the immunomodulatory activity of Sida acuta Burm. f. leave extract and fractions. This our study was done to determine the immunomodulatory activity and chemical study of methanol leave extract and fractions of Sida acuta Burm. f. The immunomodulatory evaluation was done by invivo Delay Type Hypersensitivity reaction (DTHR) in the body and in vitro measurement of phagocytosis of killed Candida albicans by the phagocyte polymorphonuclear leucocytes using slide method. Acute toxicity, phytochemical and GC-MS analysis were also performed. The DTHR tested in the blood with T-cells in mice showed that the extract and its fractions caused a delayed hypersensitivity response in 24hrs which was very significant (P ? 0.05) in the n- hexane fraction of the extract when compared to the control group at the dose of 100mg/kg. The in vitro studies showed a very significant difference (P ? 0.05) in the positive control group (LEVA) at concentration of 50, 100 and 200µg/ml, in crude extract (SrE) at concentrations of 50, 100 and 200µg/ml, n- hexane fraction 50, 100 and 200µg/ml, Ethyl acetate fraction at 200µg/ml and Absolute methanol fraction at 100µg/ml and also have high percentage phagocytic stimulation (PPS). The acute toxicity test did not cause clinical signs or death within 24hours post treatment in all doses tested and highest dose of 5000mg/kg. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, triterpenoids, tannins, steroids and cardiac glycosides. GC-MS analysis of fraction with highest activity was carried out on n-hexane fraction which showed the presence of some compounds like hexadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1 (hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester, 3,4-seco-5alpha-cholestan-3-oic acid,4-hydroxy-4-methyl epsilon-lacto
... [7] The pharmacological effects of N. laevis include antioxidant effect [8] , free radical scavengers [9] , antimicrobial [10] , hepatoprotective [8] , anticancer. [11] , hypoglycemic [12] and antihypertensive (13) . Studies have shown that N. laevis may be used to manage hepatotoxicity [14] , hyperglycemia [15] and to protect the liver membrane. ...
... At 48h after the injection, the fasting blood glucose level was estimated using a glucometer (GB Accu-Chek, Roche, Mannhein, Germany). Animals with glucose levels above 250mg/dl were considered diabetic and used for the study (Owolabi et al., 2011). ...
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Diabetes is one of the major health problems around the world and the incidence of this metabolic disorder is on the increase. Current therapeutic interventions have not done much in preventing complications of diabetes. Therefore this study investigated the effect of ethanolic extract of Newbouldia laevis leaves (NLet) on lipid peroxidation and glycosylation of hemoglobin, which are pathological indicators of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (60 mg kg-1). Diabetic rats were then treated orally with NLet for 28 days. After the treatment, the concentration of Malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver, kidney and pancreas of the rats was estimated. Fasting blood glucose was determined and oral glucose tolerance test was also carried out. Other groups of STZ-diabetic rats were treated for 8 weeks and percentage glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured. Fasting blood glucose of treated diabetic rats significantly (p<0.05) decreased in a dose-dependent manner when compared with untreated diabetic control rats. After oral glucose load, blood glucose level reached a peak at 60 min. In both non-diabetic and diabetic rats, treatment with the extract significantly (p<0.01) reduced the blood glucose level at 120 and 180 min. The percentage total hemoglobin glycated in diabetic rats significantly reduced (p<0.05) after the 8-week treatment with NLet. MDA concentration in the liver, kidney and pancreas of diabetic rats was also dose-dependently reduced by the extract. At 300 and 500 mg kg-1, the reduction was significant (p<0.05) compared with the diabetic control. The effects of NLet were comparable to those observed with glibenclamide. The results of this study suggest that NLet can prevent the complications of diabetes that result from glycation of hemoglobin and lipid peroxidation.
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Kigelia Africana has a rich history of ethnobotanical usage in the treatment of a wide range of illnesses andcomplications like hypertension, cancer and microbial infections in south western Nigeria. The present work sought to investigate the effects of methanolic leaf extract of Kigelia Africana on the blood pressure and biochemical indices of normotensive albino rats. Twenty five male albino Wistar rats, weighing between 180-200g, and divided into five groups (I-V) of five animals each were used for the experiment. GroupsII – V were administered 1mg/kg b.w ramipril, 25-, 50- and 100mg/kg b.wKigelia Africana respectively by oral gavage for 14 consecutive days. Group I received vehicle (1 mg/kg distilled water) only throughout the duration of the experiment and served as control. Twenty-four hours after the last administration, the blood pressure was determined before sacrificing the animals following anesthesia. The activities of serum biomarkers (aspartate aminotransferase AST, total protein TP, alanine aminotransferase ALT, alkaline phosphatase ALP), serum lipid profile; (cholesterol TC, low/very low density lipoprotein LDL-c/VLDL-c, high density lipoprotein HDL and triglyceride TG) and cardiac antioxidant indices (catalase CAT, superoxide dismutase SOD and glutathione GSH) were determined. Administration of ramipril (1mg/kg b.w) and all dosages of Kigelia africana (25, 50 and 100mg/kg b.w) caused significant (P<0.05) decrease in the blood pressure of the animals when compared to the control. The values obtained further showed that ramipril and the extract (at all dosages) caused significant reduction in TC, TG, LDL-c and VLDL-c and coronary risk index, CRI while there was significant increase in the level of HDL when compared to the control. All dosages of Kigelia africana extract resulted in significant (P<0.05) decrease in serum activities of AST, ALT and ALP when compared with the control. The significant (P<0.05) increases in cardiac catalase activity and GSH concentration recorded in rats treated with Kigelia africana (25, 50 and 100mg/kg b.w.) were comparable with those administered the reference drug, ramipril (1 mg/kg). Cardiac SOD activity was however decreased in rats administered extract (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg b.wt) and ramipril (1mg/kg bw). The results suggest the hypolipidemic, hypotensive and antioxidant properties and of methanolic extract of Kigelia africana leaf and lend support to the ethnobotanical usage of the leaf in the treatment of hypertension.
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Diabetes mellitus has become a global health problem and its prevalence is increasing at an alarming rate. Management of diabetes and its complications with drugs that are easily accessible and have minimal side effects remains a serious challenge among medical scientists. In this study, we investigated the effects of ethanol extract of the leaves of Newbouldia laevis on dyslipidemia and hepatorenal dysfunction in diabetic rats. Experimental diabetes was induced in rats by intravenous injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were then treated with graded doses of Newbouldia laevis extract for 28 days. Serum analysis showed that there was significant reduction in the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea in extract-treated rats. Serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly reduced while serum level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol was raised. The results of this study suggest that extract of the leaves of Newbouldia laevis could protect diabetic rats against dyslipidemia and hepatorenal dysfunction.
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Newbouldia laevis (P. Beauv.) Seem. (Family, Bignoniaceae), commonly known as tree of life, is a purple-flowering plant that is widely distributed in many parts of Africa. Different parts of the plant, including the leaves, flower, stems and roots are prevalently used in African traditional medicine for the management of many diseases and conditions like diabetes, hypertension, skin diseases, ulcer, tumors, pains, infectious diseases, inflammation, dysentery, sickle cell disease and impotency. This review discusses the trado-medical uses, chemical constituents, and biological activities of N. laevis. Based on information generated from scientific investigations deposited in PubMed and SCOPUS, the chemical constituents of the plant include glycosides, anthraquinolones, volatile oils, tannins, steroids, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids and sterols. Extracts prepared from different parts of the plant of the plant and compounds isolated from them have been reported to have several health-promoting potentials such as antioxidant, antimalarial, trypanocidal, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anti-arthritic, anti-thrombotic, cytoprotective, anti-hypertensive, central nervous system modulatory, male reproduction enhancing and oxytocic properties. These scientific investigations have led credence to the ethnobotanical uses of the plant in folkloric practice. In addition, the presence of phytochemical constituents in the plant might be responsible for the wide biological potentials.
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Les fièvres typhoïdes et paratyphoïdes sont des maladies infectieuses causées par des entérobactéries du genre Salmonella. La contamination résulte le plus souvent de l'ingestion d'eau ou d'aliments contaminés. En l'absence de traitement, l'infection peut s'avérer mortelle. Les herboristes de marché constituent l’un des principaux recours en soins de santé primaires pour les populations des pays en voie de développement. Ils contribuent à la conservation des plantes et du savoir endogène. La présente étude vise à établir les potentialités de la flore béninoise pour le traitement de la fièvre typhoïde. Elle a été réalisée grâce à une étude ethnopharmacologique auprès de 90 herboristes localisés dans 30 marchés du Sud-Bénin. La méthode utilisée est l’Achat en Triplet de Recettes Médicinales (ATRM) qui consiste à rendre visite au même herboriste, trois fois de suite, suivant un intervalle hebdomadaire. Ces visites permettent d’acheter des plantes indiquées dans le traitement de la fièvre typhoïde. A chaque visite, il est précisé à l’herboriste que son traitement est efficace mais très difficile pour le patient. La technique permet alors de vérifier la concordance dans les recettes proposées par ces herboristes au fil des trois visites et à identifier les plantes qui reviennent le plus dans ces recettes. Au cours de cette étude, 57 espèces de plantes vendues par les herboristes ont été recensées et parmi elles, les plus vendues sont : Senna siamea (8,3%), Phyllantus amarus (4,2%), Uvaria chamae (3,6%), Vachellia sieberiana (3%), Heterotis rotundifolia (3%), Crateva adansonii (2,8%), Citrus aurantiifolia (2,8%), Acanthospermum hispidum (2,6%), Corchorus olitorius (2,6%). Ces résultats constituent la base d’études ultérieures visant à évaluer expérimentalement les potentialités de ces plantes. Sous réserve d’explorations biologiques de leurs activités, les extraits de ces plantes pourraient constituer une source de Médicaments Traditionnels Améliorés (MTA) pour le traitement de la fièvre typhoide.
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Les fièvres typhoïdes et paratyphoïdes sont des maladies infectieuses causées par des entérobactéries du genre Salmonella. La contamination résulte le plus souvent de l'ingestion d'eau ou d'aliments contaminés. En l'absence de traitement, l'infection peut s'avérer mortelle. Les herboristes de marché constituent l’un des principaux recours en soins de santé primaires pour les populations des pays en voie de développement. Ils contribuent à la conservation des plantes et du savoir endogène. La présente étude vise à établir les potentialités de la flore béninoise pour le traitement de la fièvre typhoïde. Elle a été réalisée grâce à une étude ethnopharmacologique auprès de 90 herboristes localisés dans 30 marchés du Sud-Bénin. La méthode utilisée est l’Achat en Triplet de Recettes Médicinales (ATRM) qui consiste à rendre visite au même herboriste, trois fois de suite, suivant un intervalle hebdomadaire. Ces visites permettent d’acheter des plantes indiquées dans le traitement de la fièvre typhoïde. A chaque visite, il est précisé à l’herboriste que son traitement est efficace mais très difficile pour le patient. La technique permet alors de vérifier la concordance dans les recettes proposées par ces herboristes au fil des trois visites et à identifier les plantes qui reviennent le plus dans ces recettes. Au cours de cette étude, 57 espèces de plantes vendues par les herboristes ont été recensées et parmi elles, les plus vendues sont : Senna siamea (8,3%), Phyllantus amarus (4,2%), Uvaria chamae (3,6%), Vachellia sieberiana (3%), Heterotis rotundifolia (3%), Crateva adansonii (2,8%), Citrus aurantiifolia (2,8%), Acanthospermum hispidum (2,6%), Corchorus olitorius (2,6%). Ces résultats constituent la base d’études ultérieures visant à évaluer expérimentalement les potentialités de ces plantes. Sous réserve d’explorations biologiques de leurs activités, les extraits de ces plantes pourraient constituer une source de Médicaments Traditionnels Améliorés (MTA) pour le traitement de la fièvre typhoide.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, contributing to pancreatic dysfunction and insulin resistance. Ameliorating ER stress may be a viable therapeutic approach in the proper management of diabetes mellitus. Cymbopogon citratus (C.citratus) has been used in traditional medicine in the management of diabetes mellitus. Although well known for its anti-diabetic effect, the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. Aim of the study This study was designed to investigate the effect of C. citratus methanolic leaves extract on ER stress induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in wistar rats. Materials and methods STZ (60mg/kg) was used to induce ER stress in the pancreas of rats. The rats were administered C. citratus methanolic leaves extract via gastric gavage at doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for two weeks while metformin (100 mg/kg) was used as positive control. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), expression of ER-stress related genes (GRP78, CHOP, ATF4, TRB3, PERK, IRE1), antioxidant (Nrf2 and AhR) and pro-inflammatory (TNF-α) genes were determined. Possible compounds responsible for this effect were also predicted through molecular docking. Results Induction of ER stress using STZ significantly increased FBG while administration of C. citratus methanolic extract restored it to normal control level (p<0.05). Significant down-regulation of ER stress genes was observed upon treatment of ER stress induced rats with C. citratus methanolic extract when compared to ER-stress untreated rats. Significant up-regulation (p<0.05) of genes coding for Nrf2 and AhR was also noticed upon treatment of ER stress induced rats with C. citratus methanolic extract. Molecular docking suggests that apigenin targets GRP78 with binding affinity of -9.3 kcal/mol while kaempferol and quercetin target Keap1 with binding affinity of -9.5 kcal/mol and may be responsible for this ameliorative effect on ER stress. Conclusion These observations suggest that C. citratus mitigate ER stress induced by STZ via its down-regulative effect on GRP78 and up-regulative effect on NRF2 signaling.
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