Article

Confronting the challenges of agricultural mechanization in Nigeria in the next decade: some notes, some options

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Abstract

"The man with the hoe" still remains an apt description of the Nigerian farmer today. In spite of decades of immense expenditures and investments into agriculture, in terms of money men and materials, by national and international governments and agencies, the average Nigerian farmer remains an indigent serf, regarded by today's youths as a dreadful anachronism. The Nigerian agricultural industry, populated as it is by aged and ageing peasants, has progressively developed into a world of drudgery for losers, shunned and despised by Nigerian youths. To change this ugly/unsavoury image of Nigerian agriculture, it has now become imperative to adopt an appropriate level of engine-power agricultural mechanization technology (EPAMT), necessary and sufficient to modernize, energize and revitalize the industry. This paper opines that the most viable option to achieve the objective is a mechanization strategy which can create the conducive environment for the emergence of small-to-medium-scale (SMS) market-orientated, youthful farmers, who will voluntarily choose to go into agriculture as a respectable and profitable business. This canvassed SMS farmer-oriented mechanization strategy is justified in this paper with objective analyses of information and data collected through surveys, interviews and a requisite review of relevant literature.

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... The resulting low productivities were due to poverty, lack of knowledge of the implements, lack of incentive to use machinery in agricultural practices, and traditional tools being cheap and readily available to the rural farmer. Nigerian farmer have often been described as "The man with the hoe", (Odigboh, 2000). This is as a result of farmers' use of crude implements for farming despite the huge revolution that the agricultural industry have undergone in the past decade as countries such as USA, Japan, Thailand, Switzerland, Canada among others have taken mechanization as a technique for improving productivity. ...
... Lamidi and Akande (2013) noted that land tenure system and access to capital have a major setback to the use of mechanization by farmers in Nigeria. Onyema (2010) and Odigboh (2000) reported that despite the heavy benefits in mechanization techniques, Nigeria farmers has access to only less than one percent of this conventional power, thereby attributing it to land tenure system, scarcity of machinery, illiteracy of the farmers, lack of maintenance technicians, inconsistent government policies, poor infrastructure, poverty and inaccessibility to credit, shortage of spare parts, prevailing agronomic practice, lack of trained machinery operators among others. In the study area the practice of land tenure system is a big obstacle in farming. ...
Article
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The study examined rural farmers' perception on the use of Agricultural Mechanization in agricultural production in Rivers State. The study employed a descriptive survey design to seek the opinions of the respondents. The population of the study consists of all rural farmers in the 23 local government areas in Rivers State. 102 rural farmers were randomly selected from 6 local government areas, giving the total sample size as 612 respondents. The data gathered was analyzed using mean and standard deviation with acceptance mean value of ≥3.00. The study revealed that agricultural mechanization can be used to carry out different farm operation in the farming process. It also revealed that there are lots of benefits in the use of agricultural mechanization in farming, this include; increase in productivity, reduction in time of operation, increase in income generation opportunities, increase in stable development of food system among others. The study also revealed that Scarcity of machinery, Shortage of spare parts, Illiteracy of the farmers, Fragmentation, Lack of capital are some challenges bedeviling the use of agricultural mechanization in the rural areas. However, the study recommended that government should make Agricultural Mechanization available and accessible to farmers as to boost and motivate farmers in using them to maximize production; large area of land should be made available to willing farmers who want to go into large scale production.
... It has been stated that much of the defects and failures of agricultural mechanization in Nigeria may be traced to the near total dependence on imported machinery and equipment, which are generally unsuitable to the local soil, climate and farming systems due to their complexity, sophistication and very high cost (Odigboh, 1997). ...
... Furthermore, because the machines were not designed based on our local soil and climatic conditions, there results frequent damage, ineffectiveness, difficulty and high cost of maintenance and obtaining spare parts, and general under-utilization of their capacities. It has therefore been deduced that for successful mechanization of Nigerian agriculture, innovative development of indigenous machinery and equipment for performing the various field operations ranging from primary tillage to harvesting, post-harvest handling, processing and storage must be performed (Ijioma, 2000; Odigboh, 1997; Onwualu, 2001; Ademosun,1997; Achukwu, 1987; Agbetoye, 2003). This will prevent frequent damage and ensure low cost of procuring machinery (due to local sourcing of materials. ...
Conference Paper
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The Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria was established in 1981. In line with the motto of the University, " Technology for self reliance " the University had developed indigenous machines and equipment. The University also has a mandate to accelerate agricultural production and to have impact in the immediate community and the country at large. A below floor level outdoor soil bin facility for the evaluation of full-scale tillage and other soil engaging machines is being developed for soil tillage research at the University. It consist of the soil bin itself, the soil processing unit and the instrumentation system for the measurement of soil forces and soil disturbance, soil and machine test equipment and a control unit. The facility will also enhance studies in the areas of precision farming, design and manufacturing of machines, waste engineering and compaction studies. The University will also extend knowledge to other establishments via training, workshops and extension services. The paper therefore presents the construction details of a below floor level soil bin for the evaluation of full scale tillage implements at the University. The facility will enhance the generation of data for the design of indigenous soil engaging implements for local soil conditions.
... Olaoye and Rotimi [14] also reported that appropriate and proper use of agricultural machines would significantly impact land and labor productivity, improve profitability, farm sustainability, and improve the standard of living of the people engaged in farming. In contrast, Odigboh [46] reported that agricultural mechanization improved living standards in rural areas and improved their economy. The use of agricultural machinery has been reported to increase the efficiency of production, and thereby improves the economy of the farmer [47]. ...
Article
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Agricultural mechanization is an essential factor influencing agricultural output and the profitability of farming activities. The influence of agricultural mechanization on agricultural production in Lagos State, where the majority of the farmers use modern technologies for their farming operations, was investigated. The investigative research approach method was employed to retrieve information from farmers through a structured questionnaire. A five rating scale questionnaire was utilized for the respondents to show their level of agreement or disagreement. The percentage was used to analyze the respondents' bio-data. At the same time, the mean was employed to answer the research questions. The null hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistics at 0.05 significant levels. The results revealed that agricultural mechanization increased the cultivated land, crop yields, and farmers’ income with cumulative means of 2.34, 1.07, and 1.44, respectively. Socioeconomic characteristics, available technology, and government policies influenced agricultural mechanization with cumulative means of 1.93, 1.24, and 1.79, respectively. The entire six hypotheses were rejected based on the results of the Chi-square statistics with the calculated X2 values of 8,989.09, 473.59, 3,977.42, 2,192.63, 226.07 and, 1,878.05; and critical X2 values of 46.19, 46.19, 36.42, 31.41, 21.03, and 31.41, for the significant effect on the size of land cultivated, crop yield, farmer’s income, socioeconomic characteristics, available technology, and government policies respectively. The study showed that agricultural mechanization had a significant influence on crop production and farmers’ income. Therefore, there is a need to improve the available technologies and formulate and implement policies to make agricultural mechanization accessible and sustainable.
... Since each of these factors differs within and between countries, it is difficult to specify a blueprint of technological change, for all African countries to follow [6]. Other scholars have also recommended the promotion of (i) the use of locally available materials as substitution to high-carbon steel in the manufacture of agricultural machines and equipment and (ii) village level manufacturing of affordable agricultural machines and equipment by blacksmiths, tinsmiths and carpenters [4,[7][8][9][10]. ...
Chapter
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Modern agriculture depends heavily on technology. Land clearing, irrigation, drainage, crop storage and processing all require technological input. By modernising her agriculture, through wise application of science and technology, Africa can make significant headway in economic growth. However, an agricultural technology that is too sophisticated for a particular country/region is beyond its absorptive capacity. Hence, to achieve the objectives of agricultural mechanisation in Africa, it is imperative to take into account prevailing socio-economic conditions and the level of mechanisation necessary for optimal productivity. One major constraint to agricultural mechanisation in sub-Saharan Africa is the relatively high cost of imported metallic machine and equipment fabrication materials. Taking full advantage of substitute non-metallic materials may lower the cost of production and concomitantly empower rural fabricators with limited access to electricity and welding facilities to engage in local manufacturing of sundry agricultural machines and equipment. This Chapter presents illustrative examples of full and partial substitution of metallic with non-metallic materials in the fabrication of affordable machines and equipment for agricultural production, agro-processing, irrigation and drainage, crop drying and storage. Ways of addressing identified critical challenges of technology diffusion are also discussed.
... Lamidi and Akande (2013) noted that land tenure system and access to capital have a major setback to the use of mechanization by farmers in Nigeria. Onyema (2010) and Odigboh (2000) reported that despite the heavy benefits in mechanization techniques, Nigeria farmers has access to only less than 1% of this conventional power, due to land tenure system, scarcity of machinery, illiteracy of the farmers, lack of maintenance technicians, inconsistent government policies, poor infrastructure, poverty and inaccessibility to credit, shortage of spare parts, prevailing agronomic practices and lack of trained machinery operators. (2013), Chidambaram (2013) and Rijk (2016) who affirmed that, lack of maintenance and repairs, fragmentation, high capital requirement, land tenure system, lack of agricultural machinery, higher cost of machinery and illiteracy of the farmers among other factors are some of the challenges bedevilling agricultural mechanization in rural areas. ...
Article
Te current study assessed the mechanization challenges and scenario prevailing in rural area of district Peshawar of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan. Tis study employed a multi stage sampling technique to gather data on the socio-economic features of the farmers and available machinery. A total of 240 rural farmers were randomly selected from two local union councils of provincial government Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Peshawar. Te accumulated data were analysed using mean and standard deviation with an acceptance mean value of ≥3.00 and estimating logit model. Socio demographic features revealed that majority (52%) were in middle age group of 41-50 years, 64% were literate, while 68% respondents had farming as their income source and land owners were 64% with small landholding (46%). Te study exposed that illiteracy of the respondents (4.10), et al system (3.98), lack of trained machinery operators (4.27), access of roads to the farm (4.45), adequate capital (4.00) and costly inputs (3.80) were some of the challenges plaguing the use of agricultural mechanization in the rural area. It was established that agricultural mechanization has signifcant role in boosting farm productivity, improving farmers’ livelihood, ensuring economic growth, availability of off-seasonal farm produce, increasing income generating opportunities and reduction in time of operation among others. Logistic Regression indicated a highly signifcant (p<0.01) positive effect of key determinants including; income source (0.008), farm size (0.001), farming experience (0.004), extension visits (0.009), access to credit (0.002) and access to agricultural machines (0.006) on farm mechanization adoption. Te study emphasized that government may make agricultural mechanization and farming resources available and reachable to the farmers in order to persuade farmers in using them to maximize production, arrange awareness trainings and subsidize costly agricultural inputs.
... Lamidi and Akande (2013) noted that land tenure system and access to capital have a major setback to the use of mechanization by farmers in Nigeria. Onyema (2010) and Odigboh (2000) reported that despite the heavy benefits in mechanization techniques, Nigeria farmers has access to only less than 1% of this conventional power, due to land tenure system, scarcity of machinery, illiteracy of the farmers, lack of maintenance technicians, inconsistent government policies, poor infrastructure, poverty and inaccessibility to credit, shortage of spare parts, prevailing agronomic practices and lack of trained machinery operators. (2013), Chidambaram (2013) and Rijk (2016) who affirmed that, lack of maintenance and repairs, fragmentation, high capital requirement, land tenure system, lack of agricultural machinery, higher cost of machinery and illiteracy of the farmers among other factors are some of the challenges bedevilling agricultural mechanization in rural areas. ...
... Lamidi and Akande (2013) noted that land tenure system and access to capital have a major setback to the use of mechanization by farmers in Nigeria. Onyema (2010) and Odigboh (2000) reported that despite the heavy benefits in mechanization techniques, Nigeria farmers has access to only less than 1% of this conventional power, due to land tenure system, scarcity of machinery, illiteracy of the farmers, lack of maintenance technicians, inconsistent government policies, poor infrastructure, poverty and inaccessibility to credit, shortage of spare parts, prevailing agronomic practices and lack of trained machinery operators. (2013), Chidambaram (2013) and Rijk (2016) who affirmed that, lack of maintenance and repairs, fragmentation, high capital requirement, land tenure system, lack of agricultural machinery, higher cost of machinery and illiteracy of the farmers among other factors are some of the challenges bedevilling agricultural mechanization in rural areas. ...
Article
Full-text available
The current study assessed the mechanization challenges and scenario prevailing in rural area of district Peshawar of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan. This study employed a multi stage sampling technique to gather data on the socio-economic features of the farmers and available machinery. A total of 240 rural farmers were randomly selected from two local union councils of provincial government Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Peshawar. The accumulated data were analysed using mean and standard deviation with an acceptance mean value of ≥3.00 and estimating logit model. Socio demographic features revealed that majority (52%) were in middle age group of 41-50 years, 64% were literate, while 68% respondents had farming as their income source and land owners were 64% with small landholding (46%). The study exposed that illiteracy of the respondents (4.10), et al system (3.98), lack of trained machinery operators (4.27), access of roads to the farm (4.45), adequate capital (4.00) and costly inputs (3.80) were some of the challenges plaguing the use of agricultural mechanization in the rural area. It was established that agricultural mechanization has significant role in boosting farm productivity, improving farmers’ livelihood, ensuring economic growth, availability of off-seasonal farm produce, increasing income generating opportunities and reduction in time of operation among others. Logistic Regression indicated a highly significant (p<0.01) positive effect of key determinants including; income source (0.008), farm size (0.001), farming experience (0.004), extension visits (0.009), access to credit (0.002) and access to agricultural machines (0.006) on farm mechanization adoption. The study emphasized that government may make agricultural mechanization and farming resources available and reachable to the farmers in order to persuade farmers in using them to maximize production, arrange awareness trainings and subsidize costly agricultural inputs.
... Lamidi and Akande (2013) noted that land tenure system and access to capital have a major setback to the use of mechanization by farmers in Nigeria. Onyema (2010) and Odigboh (2000) reported that despite the heavy benefits in mechanization techniques, Nigeria farmers has access to only less than 1% of this conventional power, due to land tenure system, scarcity of machinery, illiteracy of the farmers, lack of maintenance technicians, inconsistent government policies, poor infrastructure, poverty and inaccessibility to credit, shortage of spare parts, prevailing agronomic practices and lack of trained machinery operators. (2013), Chidambaram (2013) and Rijk (2016) who affirmed that, lack of maintenance and repairs, fragmentation, high capital requirement, land tenure system, lack of agricultural machinery, higher cost of machinery and illiteracy of the farmers among other factors are some of the challenges bedevilling agricultural mechanization in rural areas. ...
... The Nigerian agricultural industry, populated as it is by aged and ageing peasants, has progressively developed into a world of drudgery for losers, shunned and despised by Nigerian youths. In spite of decades of immense expenditures and investments into agriculture, in terms of money, men and materials, by national and international governments and agencies, the average Nigerian farmer remains an indigent serf, regarded by today's youths as a dreadful anachronism (Odigboh, 2000). A major instrument for agricultural growth remains the transfer and adoption of technology and the knowledge systems that underpin it, which will, itself contributes to the transformation of rural society. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Agricultural production is the mainstay of most African States. Even in a mono economy like Nigeria, which depends heavily on crude oil, at the family level, the economy of over 65% of the populace is driven directly or in directly by agriculture. However, agricultural environment, particularly climate, is unpredictable; the occurrence of drought is more or less inevitable. Instead of hoping for adequate rains, farmers’ concept is to adopt a cropping strategy so flexible that it can be changed even at short notice to suit the pattern of rainfall available; a system that may cushion the effects of inadequate rains. Farmers found this cushion in multiple cropping systems - incidentally this system does not lend itself easily to mechanization. Failure of mechanization has had negative multiplier effects on farmers’ economy. This article attempts a review of the role of agriculture in poverty eradication/reduction, failure of mechanization and reasons for this failure with respect farmers’ cropping systems.
... The use of sort handle hoe is effective and it is the most widely used weed control method. It is reported that manual weeding is labour-intensive, accounting for about 80% of the total labour required for producing food in Nigeria [4]. Nganilwa et al. [5] observed that a farmer using only hand hoe for weeding would find it difficult to escape poverty, since this level of technology tends to perpetuate human drudgery, risk and mystery. ...
Article
Full-text available
A rotary power weeder was developed and evaluated. The weeder is to reduce drudgery and ensure a comfortable posture of the farmer or operator during weeding and increase production. The weeder's component parts are: frame, rotary hoe (disk), tines, power and transmission unit. The results of field performance evaluation showed that the field capacity and weeding efficiency of the rotary power weeder were 0.0712 ha/hr and 73%. The cost of operation with this weeder was estimated to be N 2,700.00 as against N 12,000.00 by manual.
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