Article

投球動作前の確率情報を伴う球種予測に顕在的・潜在的知覚トレーニングが及ぼす影響 (Effects of Explicit and Implicit Perceptual Training on Pitch-Type Anticipation with Probability Information Prior to Pitching Motion)

Authors:
Article

投球動作前の確率情報を伴う球種予測に顕在的・潜在的知覚トレーニングが及ぼす影響 (Effects of Explicit and Implicit Perceptual Training on Pitch-Type Anticipation with Probability Information Prior to Pitching Motion)

If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

Abstract

Effects of explicit and implicit perceptual training on pitch-type (fast or curved-ball) anticipation with probability information prior to pitching motion were investigated. Participants (n=30) were randomly assigned to an explicit or an implicit instruction group, or a control group. They were administered 30 pretest trials, 60 perceptual training trials and 30 immediate retention test trials on the first day, 30 delayed retention test trials, 120 perceptual training trials and 30 immediate retention test trials on the second day, and just 30 delayed retention test trials on the third day. The explicit instruction group was instructed that they would be presented with anticipatory cues, whereas the implicit instruction group was instructed to react intuitively. The control group performed only the pretest and delayed test trials. During the pretest and delayed retention test trials, information on the probability of pitch-type was presented as a percentage, either 50% (chance level), 60%, or 80%, for one second at the start of a movie depicting the pitcher's motion. Results indicated that the level of awareness of anticipatory cues in the explicit instruction group was higher than in the implicit instruction and control groups, indicating that the instruction to react intuitively inhibited the awareness of anticipatory cues. The level of awareness of preceding information about pitch-type probabilities in the 80% condition was higher than in the 60% condition, indicating that the experimental manipulation of preceding information was effective. Anticipatory skill of the explicit instruction group improved after 60 perceptual training trials, whereas improvement of the implicit instruction group was marginally significant after 180 trials. It is concluded that explicit instructions result in faster learning during the perceptual training of novice baseball players.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Article
The present study aimed to clarify the strategy of decision-making and visual search of baseball catchers in a situation that requires directions to teammates on a play. Collegiate baseball catchers, fielders, and non-ballgame players (n=10 in each group) watched a series of video images showing simulated sacrifice bunt situations recorded from the catcher’s point of view. The participants wore an eye movement tracker and made a decision about instructing the pitcher where to throw the ball (i.e., toward either the first or second base) by pressing a button at an appropriate time. After each trial, the participants answered a question about the objects to which attention was mainly directed. Results revealed that 1) catchers made better decisions based on higher signal detection sensitivity, compared with fielders and novices; 2) baseball players (catchers and fielders) had a strategy of decision-making to avoid the risk of losing scores due to erroneous decision; and 3) the catchers mainly directed attention to the ball at the time of bat-ball impact, and shifted attention to the pitcher and runner at the time of decision-making, while keeping their gaze on the ball from the time of impact to that of decision-making. These results suggest that catchers demonstrate higher signal detection sensitivity, a more specific judgment bias based on baseball experience, and a more efficient visual search strategy.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction . The efficient collection and analysis of information from both the central and the peripheral field of vision may affect human coordination motor abilities. An analysis of the literature on the subject suggests that coordination motor abilities interact with one another, and it is only their combined effect that allows athletes to achieve technical mastery. The main aim of the study was to assess specific coordination motor abilities and to determine how visual perception and reaction time correlate with time-movement anticipation in elite female basketball players. Material and methods . The study participants comprised 17 female basketball players from the Polish National Team aged 18.1 ± 0.8 years. The study involved three ability tests from the Vienna Test System: the Reaction Test (RT, S1), the Peripheral Perception test (PP), and the Time/Movement Anticipation test (ZBA, S2). Results . The analysis of the results obtained proves that the best-developed ability in participants is reaction time, while the other abilities show average development. Study participants were able to develop their response abilities to such high levels by means of practice. A correlation coefficient was found between motor time and tracking deviation (r=0.56), and between time anticipation and the number of correct responses to stimuli appearing in the left (r=0.92) and right (r=0.88) field of vision. Athletes who achieved better results in time anticipation omitted fewer visual stimuli (r=0.7) in the peripheral field of vision. Statistically significant correlations were observed between movement anticipation and reaction time to stimuli in the central field of vision (r=0.58). Conclusions . Perception abilities have a significant effect on time anticipation. The range of one's field of vision does not determine the reaction time to a visual stimulus. Perception efficiency and divided attention, in conjunction with time and movement anticipation, create a complex of specific psychomotor abilities that is indispensable for achieving success in team sports.
Article
Two processes are proposed to mediate skill learning. Through an explicit process, the performer develops a set of correspondences between his/her morphology and the environmental constraints leading to goal-attainment. The second, implicit learning process underlies the dynamics of force generation and determines efficiency of performance. These interdependent processes operate in parallel, change at different rates, and give rise to internal models regulating different motor control functions. To facilitate these two learning processes, therapy should differ. For explicit learning, therapists can tap into consciously available processes and directly instruct the performer about key environmental features, movement organization, and task-relevant feedback. These interventions are not useful to enhance force generation, as such processes are not consciously available. For implicit learning, therapists must creatively structure the environment to compel appropriate force generation as an indirect consequence of the functional activity.
Article
Failure of expert motor skill is common in cases where performers are highly motivated to succeed. One cause of this can be an inward focus of attention in which an attempt is made to perform the skill by consciously processing explicit knowledge of how it works. The resulting disruption of the automaticity of the skill leads to its failure. It follows from this that disruption of automatic processing will be avoided if performers have little or no explicit knowledge of their skill. Subjects in the reported experiment were required to acquire a golf-putting skill, either explicitly (with knowledge of rules) or implicitly (without knowledge of rules) and were then tested under conditions of stress, induced by a combination of evaluation apprehension and financial inducement. Evidence was found to support the hypothesis that the skill of performers with a small pool of explicit knowledge is less likely to fail under pressure than that of performers with a large pool of explicit knowledge.