Article

New Beginnings and Monstrous Births: Notes towards an appreciation of ideational drawing

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

This chapter is focussed primarily on ideational drawing used in designing. Although much of what is written is exportable to other areas of creative practice the illustrations used and specific observations made emerge in a design context. The chapter begins by trying to ‘get at’ the quiddity of ideational drawing. In other words, initially, the writing sets out to try and outline what ideational drawing ‘is’; not in order to lock it down but rather to find loci for an appreciation of the drawing type. The writing sets out to describe the particular nature of the drawing type; at one and the same time, trying to determine what sets it apart from other types of drawing and then, also, setting out what may be common to all ideational drawings. Throughout, there is mention of those factors that contribute to a problematic that delimits the appreciation of this type of drawing and consequently sets particular conditions and limits to research, whether it is into, or, through, ideational drawing. Through the reading of a number of drawings, produced by a colleague (his proximity is important - as will be made clear in the chapter) the writing engages in the ‘problematic of appreciation’, and, rather tentatively, begin to frame approaches to researching and appreciating ideational drawing and also trying to understand how it may be used in a research agenda.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Leonardo da Vinci and modern painter Carlo Carra in their sketchbooks used lines, shadows, arrows, dots, maps, and handwriting, all crowded in the same page (Patherbridge, 2010). Ideational sketching, both as process and artefact, is a thinking space, where thinking is presented in the immediacy of the thinking-act (Rosenberg, 2008). Some of the sketches look just like gestures, and some are more elaborate drawings, however, as the artist decides to work on a larger project, the process continues, some other ideas are coming unexpectedly in the way and changes the direction or improves it (Patherbridge, 2010). ...
... The statements about elements of design in researcher's reflective notes are aligned with the theoretical framework of elements identity (Rosenberg, 2008) to represent forms and space (Samara, 2007). In this category were not observed differences between the two studies. ...
... So, the generation of cues is a constrained creativity process. Once, a mental image, was formed and the first line traced on paper, sketching becomes a structured thinking, this links back to sketching as a form of organizing thinking (Rosenberg, 2008;Tversky, 1999). ...
Research
Full-text available
The value of visual analogies in problem solving has been extensively researched, with most of the work focusing on their benefits (Goldschmidt & Smolkov, 2006; Smith & Blankenship, 1991; Dunbar, 1995). This chapter explores a much less investigated research question of how visual analogies as cues for problem solving are actually developed. More specifically, we focused on the creative process of generating two sets of visual analogies to support solving a classic insight problem of eight-coin. For this, we employed an experiential research method consisting of first-person accounts of artist’s reflections (also the first author) on his practice of generating the analogies. This study contributes to a deeper understanding of how visual cues can be developed and what tools, principles, and methods of reflective practices can be used in research. The contributions of this work are discussed in terms of a vocabulary for conversing within this research area, and a preliminary sketch of a theory for developing insight problem-solving cues.
... Leonardo da Vinci and modern painter Carlo Carra in their sketchbooks used lines, shadows, arrows, dots, maps, and handwriting, all crowded in the same page (Patherbridge, 2010). Ideational sketching, both as process and artefact, is a thinking space, where thinking is presented in the immediacy of the thinking-act (Rosenberg, 2008). Some of the sketches look just like gestures, and some are more elaborate drawings, however, as the artist decides to work on a larger project, the process continues, some other ideas are coming unexpectedly in the way and changes the direction or improves it (Patherbridge, 2010). ...
... The statements about elements of design in researcher's reflective notes are aligned with the theoretical framework of elements identity (Rosenberg, 2008) to represent forms and space (Samara, 2007). In this category were not observed differences between the two studies. ...
... So, the generation of cues is a constrained creativity process. Once, a mental image, was formed and the first line traced on paper, sketching becomes a structured thinking, this links back to sketching as a form of organizing thinking (Rosenberg, 2008;Tversky, 1999). ...
Research
Full-text available
Abstract: The value of visual analogies in problem solving has been extensively researched, with most of the work focusing on their benefits (Goldschmidt & Smolkov, 2006; Smith & Blankenship, 1991; Dunbar, 1995). This chapter explores a much less investigated research question of how visual analogies as cues for problem-solving are actually developed. More specifically, we focused on the creative process of generating two sets of visual analogies to support solving a classic insight problem of eight coin. For this, we employed an experiential research method consisting of first-person accounts of artist’s reflections (also the first author) on his practice of generating the analogies. This study contributes to a deeper understanding of how visual cues can be developed and what tools, principles, and methods of reflective practices can be used in research. The contributions of this work are discussed in terms of a vocabulary for conversing within this research area, and a preliminary sketch of a theory for developing insight problem-solving cues.
... At the same time, sketches are often seen as a form of visual improvisation, that allows designers to explore content and potential meaning (Jonson 2002: 246). In this sense, drawings can be of the 'recording' type (Farthing 2008) but can also be of the 'ideational' type (Rosenberg 2008) therefore understood as a mode of knowledge construction and, as such, validated as a tool in the process of construction and communication of academic knowledge. Very often an architectural sketch does not correspond to the form of a building, but to a form that describes how certain elements interact in light of the present knowledge and verifications. ...
... Perhaps to an architectural practitioner, a drawing that revealed the draughtsman's thought process would be more valuable than one that slavishly and uncritically depicted the work in question. Rosenberg calls such drawings 'ideational' (Rosenberg 2008). Ideational drawings have greater value, and greater meaning-potential in one research model than another. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper addresses a familiar situation from a novel point of view. The familiar situation has two aspects: (1) that writing about architecture and drawing architecture produces two different types of outcome that are difficult to reconcile; and (2) that drawing about architecture does not produce uniform results and those experts who are used to interpreting drawings can identify a number of different languages within the visual medium; for example, drawing as a record and drawing as a medium for thought. The problem underlying these situations concerns how to decide which aspects to value in a particular drawing, especially when comparing across media, i.e. comparing a drawing to a text about the same subject, or a drawing of one type to a drawing of another type. This paper proposes that one can say more about these variable interpretations than merely attributing them to variable levels of expertise, or different aesthetic preferences. The authors currently collaborate on an international research project that investigates non-traditional knowledge and communication in academic research. 1 This paper reports on some of the debates amongst the team concerning the values associated with certain non-traditional outputs, in this case architectural drawings, in academic research. The drawings were the outcome of a novel didactic exercise. The exercise has been undertaken annually with 5th semester architecture students over a 3-year period, and as a result approximately 1200 have taken part in the activity. In the exercise, students were introduced to a particular historical house typology -'The Bandeirista House' -that can be found throughout Latin America. This is a typology that dates from the colonial period, more precisely between the 1600s and 1800s, and presents elements of Palladian architectonic composition. However the building techniques that were employed -namely mud walls -are also determinant of its configuration. The debate amongst the team focused on the interpretation of the students' drawings and why each of us valued what we valued in them.
... The focus lies on the immediacy of the drawing as a "thinking-act." Whereas "thought" implies a concluded, settled, and in some way objectified act, ideational drawing remains an "ongoing creation, a continuing emergence of thinking meaning (Rosenberg 2008). ...
... The hand transcends grasping, catching, pushing and pulling. The hand forms an instrument of communication, connection, gesture, design and signs (Rosenberg 2008). In the use of smartphones, the hand seems to outweigh the eyes when it comes to shooting moving footage. ...
Article
Full-text available
For First Nations people living in the central desert of Australia, the performance of oral storytelling drawing in the sand drives new agency in the cultural metamorphosis of communication practices accelerated by the proliferation of portable digital devices. Drawing on the ground sustains the proxemic and kinesthetic aspects of performative storytelling as a sign gesture system. When rendering this drawing supra-language, the people negotiate and ride the ontological divide symbolized by traditional elders in First Nations communities and digital engineers who program and code. In particular, storytelling’s chronemic encounter offsets the estrangement of the recorded event and maintains every participants’ ability to shape identity and navigate space-time relationships. Drawing storytelling demonstrates a concomitant capacity to mediate changes in tradition and spiritual systems. While the digital portals of the global arena remain open and luring, the force enabled by the chiasmic entwinement of speech, gesture and sand continues to map the frontier of First Nations identity formation and reformation.
... Ao falar sobre o desenho envolvido no processo criativo, Rosenberg (2012), relaciona-o essencialmente à ação, ao dizer que o desenho "é um processo e sempre em-processo; pensando-em-ação e ação--como-pensamento" (ROSENBERG, 2012, p. 109, tradução nossa). Ou seja, o que a autora denomina como desenho ideacional é ao mesmo tempo desenho e também pensamento, ou melhor, um "espaço de pensamento -não um espaço no qual o pensamento é representado, mas sim um espaço no qual o pensamento está presente" 03 . ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Desde 1972 a área de Design está presente na Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. No entanto, o Departamento de Design [dDESIGN] foi criado apenas em 1997, sendo o seu grupo de professores oriundos dos departamentos de Desenho e de Teoria da Arte e Expressão Artística do Centro de Artes e Comunicação. Tais departamentos foram, no passado, responsáveis pelos cursos de Desenho Industrial e suas habilitações em Programação Visual e Projeto do Produto. Atendendo à imensa demanda e, enfim, reunindo condições de maturidade do corpo docente, produção acadêmica e infraestrutura, foi criado em 2004 o Programa de Pósgraduação em Design da UFPE [PPGDesign UFPE] com o curso de Mestrado Acadêmico em Design stricto sensu, o terceiro no Brasil. Junto às especializações lato sensu em Design da Informação e em Ergonomia, o Mestrado Acadêmico em Design da UFPE passou a formar pesquisadores capacitados à docência nas instituições de ensino superior que à época surgiam no Norte e Nordeste do país. Já o curso de Doutorado, foi criado em 2010 como decorrência natural da qualidade do curso de Mestrado e da expansão das atividades de pesquisa potencializadas pelo programa no dDesign.
... Ao falar sobre o desenho envolvido no processo criativo, Rosenberg (2012), relaciona-o essencialmente à ação, ao dizer que o desenho "é um processo e sempre em-processo; pensando-em-ação e ação--como-pensamento" (ROSENBERG, 2012, p. 109, tradução nossa). Ou seja, o que a autora denomina como desenho ideacional é ao mesmo tempo desenho e também pensamento, ou melhor, um "espaço de pensamento -não um espaço no qual o pensamento é representado, mas sim um espaço no qual o pensamento está presente" 03 . ...
Book
Desde 1972 a área de Design está presente na Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. No entanto, o Departamento de Design [dDESIGN] foi criado apenas em 1997, sendo o seu grupo de professores oriundos dos departamentos de Desenho e de Teoria da Arte e Expressão Artística do Centro de Artes e Comunicação. Tais departamentos foram, no passado, responsáveis pelos cursos de Desenho Industrial e suas habilitações em Programação Visual e Projeto do Produto. Atendendo à imensa demanda e, enfim, reunindo condições de maturidade do corpo docente, produção acadêmica e infraestrutura, foi criado em 2004 o Programa de Pósgraduação em Design da UFPE [PPGDesign UFPE] com o curso de Mestrado Acadêmico em Design stricto sensu, o terceiro no Brasil. Junto às especializações lato sensu em Design da Informação e em Ergonomia, o Mestrado Acadêmico em Design da UFPE passou a formar pesquisadores capacitados à docência nas instituições de ensino superior que à época surgiam no Norte e Nordeste do país. Já o curso de Doutorado, foi criado em 2010 como decorrência natural da qualidade do curso de Mestrado e da expansão das atividades de pesquisa potencializadas pelo programa no dDesign.
... As Terry Rosenberg describes in his writing on ideational drawing, the drawings became "a feature in a history of the process", the processes' history being one of time and attention. 9 Accompanying the accretion was video documentation of individual paper sheets inside the pseudofossil, cut alongside sequences of cellphone footage taken during the same drawing trips ( Figure 6). As Groys reminds us, "documentation is neither the making present of a past… nor the promise of a coming." ...
... Merleau-Ponty (2001 remarks that, for adults, drawings made by children are the objects of visual perception, which are construed from outside, whereas to children, drawing a picture is a holistic, multi-sensuous experience. As Egan (1992) and Rosenberg (2008) argue, while drawing, children's thoughts, bodies, and emotions unite. ...
Article
This paper explores the nature of young children’s aesthetic experience and the ways in which they narrate their life changes within spontaneous drawing stories. The drawing stories were generated during a period of close to 1 year in the home of a mother with two young children. The theoretical and methodological basis of this study is narrative research and the view of children is as competent participants, constructing the knowledge of their childhood. The study highlights the importance of taking young children’s holistic and embodied way of living into account. It also emphasizes that young children’s aesthetic experience, often arising in action, is a vital part of their construction of knowledge. Methodologically and theoretically, this study points out the importance of listening to children’s multimodal narrating as a tool for understanding young children’s processes of responding to life changes, and for enabling young children’s voices in supportive ways.
... This process enabled her to engage in an: … embodiment of knowing yet unknowing, where intentionality and technical and operational competencies … osmosed with tacit knowledge, intuition and free association, forming an engagement that enabled performance in the face of high risk, radical instability and failure." 52 As the research progressed sketched material was advanced using a process of iterative, photomontaged, assembly and testing. ...
Article
Este artigo considera o conceito de pesquisa artística como uma abordagem para a geração e compreensão de conhecimento. Começa com uma breve consideração do desenvolvimento histórico da investigação artística e sua relação com os processos e artefatos de pesquisa. Em seguida, discute um projeto específico de pesquisa de doutorado, “Realidades mágicas - Uma consideração criativa das potencialidades narrativas e ilustrativas do realismo maravilhoso”, como uma forma de “produção criativa”. O projeto de tese, que é formatado como um livro de histórias impresso, explora os potenciais da narração polifocal e da ilustração sincrética enquanto aspectos de uma narrativa que podem ser expandidos digitalmente. Ao atuar no desenvolvimento iterativo da pesquisa, utiliza-se de um referencial metodológico que integra a investigação heurística e a prática reflexiva por meio de três métodos inter-relacionados: os diários da designer, a montagem interativa, a visão geral e teste, e o uso estratégico do feedback.
... Drawing was an integral activity in this research. Mäkelä et al. (2014) propose that research is both creative and rationalising, where drawing can be a reflective process with a crucial role of moving the research inquiry forward, while Rosenberg (2008) considers drawing an epistemological tool that works in tension between the known and the unknown. Informed by toy design, literature on transitional objects, observations and autobiographical experiences, drawings worked as suggestions, allowing a playful exploration of ideas without pressures about how they would be made or indeed if they should be made. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Through experiments in design, this research explores the role of smartphones for mothers and young children. Forming part of the material paraphernalia surrounding mother and child, smartphones are used as connection with work or social realms, as entertainment, pacification and educational resource, thus blurring boundaries between the private and the public and between work and play. As a result, smartphones offer competing discourses that this research explores. Through the processes of drawing and making, a series of experimental designs were created to develop this research space. Evoking behaviours brought by the use of smartphones during childcare, these designs present mothers as complex users and explores the possibilities for design to reshape our relationship with technologies in family life. The development of these proposals formed a first exploratory stage in this research. A second stage took place in the encounters between people and the designs. Through narratives that were suggestive and open to multiple interpretations, the proposals encouraged conversations about motherhood and the implicated role of smartphones. As research objects, they allowed for discoveries both for me as
... Using the recent short film Munted (Ings, 2011) 2 and reflecting upon considerations of thought (Eliade, 1958;Heidegger, 1968;Rosenberg, 2008;and Polanyi, 1967) the article traces a trajectory of practice-led design research through the creation of the film's story and treatment. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses drawing and interior dwelling as enstasic methodological practices that reach potentials beyond those available to thinking prescribed by the written word. In discussing the means by which the short film Munted (Ings 2011) was drawn into being, it suggests that drawn approaches to the design of filmic narratives might enable the designer to reach in unique ways, into ideation and outwards into the communicative content and appearance of the text.
... Sometimes, drawers will want to make something happen as a result of their drawing -a plan to make something or to do something -drawing as action. Drawing is presented not as a set of discrete skills and techniques: rather it is seen as a way of prompting different kinds of thinking, emphasizing the importance of ideational thinking, as well as conclusive thought (Rosenberg 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Drawing, a fundamental tool in most art and design disciplines, has recently become a widely discussed topic within the context of artistic research. The variety of contemporary research into drawing has demonstrated that drawing is an activity that has almost boundless potential applications and roles within design and artistic practices. However, the relationship between these three modes, i.e. drawing, design and artistic practice, and research, also raises questions regarding the position of drawing in research per se. Examining these relations opens an interesting sphere of investigation into the ways that drawing may support research. In this editorial of the special issue on The Art of Research, we present fresh approaches towards the use of drawing and painting as a research tool for conducting artistic research. The editorial outlines the discursive context from which the journal papers originate from, followed by an overview of drawing research that is intended to support the reading of the papers. The emerging use of drawing within artistic research demonstrates communicable knowledge relevant to the authors’ own fields, both as practitioners and researchers.
Article
This article discusses the challenges that dyslexic acting degree students can experience when engaging with classical text, offering a pedagogical strategy that facilitates the reading and acting of Shakespeare. Calling attention to restrictions that dyslexic acting students can experience, the author considers how these difficulties might be overcome. It is reiterated throughout the literature that those with dyslexia have problems with decoding, word recognition, working-memory and automatisation of skills. Shakespeare’s writing contributes additional challenges with idiosyncrasies of word use. Describing action-research trials with dyslexic acting students, the study recounts the development of a teaching method, which supports identification of meaning and hierarchy within the text, interlinked with an appropriation of physical practice drawn from Brecht and Stanislavski. The final action-research cycle drew from Kintsch and Rawson’s Text-base to enable a comprehension and memory of the text, underpinned by the Lexical Retrieval hypothesis. The strategy was trialled in a performance of Shakespeare’s Venus and Adonis with dyslexic acting students. The participants’ modes of processing the text were encouraged as components of performance. Feedback supported the view that this method is effective in assisting dyslexic individuals in realisation of words, self-efficacy and enriched performance.
Article
This article considers a non-written form of screenplay. In so doing, it illustrates a trajectory of thinking where drawing methods were employed in the development of a cinematic narrative. These visual approaches replaced creative processing normally associated with writing. In discussing the author’s short film Sparrow , the exposition examines three processes. The first method, gestational drawing, was employed as a ‘story finding’ device. The second, immersive drawing, was used to refine thematic intensity in the work. Finally, directorial drawing was employed as a catalyst for discussion when collaborating with actors and production crew. In discussing these drawing methods, the article proposes the concept of ‘screenplay’ as a verb and an active space where a developer of cinematic narratives might work beyond the parameters of writing, to ideate, refine and artistically compose image-led, cinematic narratives.
Thesis
Full-text available
Social Dream-Drawing is a socioanalytic praxis conceived, developed and researched by myself as a psycho-social action researcher. Although it is built upon related praxes, such as Social Dreaming, Organisational Role Analysis and the Social Photo-Matrix, its unique contribution is the work with drawings of dreams done by participants, relating to an identified theme. The theory underlying all of these praxes is that thoughts from the unconscious can be made available to consciousness by the processes of free association and amplification. They can be further reflected upon and then used as the basis for individual professional insight and/or for intervention in organisations. The theme that I used for four of the five different groups that I worked with is "What do I risk in my work?" and my research goal was to "to evaluate the benefits of this type of developmental methodology for the work of organisational role holders". The emphasis here is to help them gain greater insight into what they risk in their capacity as role holders and to enhance individual learning and transition in relation to working life. I have worked with twenty-two participants in five different groups in four different countries. This study is among the first to actually use psycho-social research to demonstrate the value of a socioanalytic praxis. My three major findings are as follows: 1. SDD is a very valuable individual transformative professional learning experience. 2. SDD can contain and support individuals going through major transitions in relation to working and personal life. 3. SDD can help groups identify and explore underlying systemic dynamics. The dissertation itself is divided into two sections. The first is devoted to the praxis itself, its underlying theory and development. The second focuses on the philosophy, methodology, methods, findings and ethics relating to the action research I undertook. I use the metaphor of the helix to capture my dual consultant/action researcher and psycho-social researcher roles. The dissertation ends with my reflections on being an older researcher, recommendations for the use of SDD as a professional development tool for professional cohorts and training programs, concerns and cautions about the use of this praxis, and thoughts for possible next steps in using this praxis for organisational development interventions.
Article
Entrepreneurship is a generative and transformative process of altering convention where personal/social history, assets, technologies, and trading activity are gathered in organizational form. How entrepreneurs frame this process, and are, in turn, organised by this process, constitutes the entrepreneurial experience. Typically this framing has been researched using narrative methods: how entrepreneurs tell their stories. In this paper we develop an emerging branch of inquiry challenging a sole focus on linguistic narrative in favour of accessing the experience of entrepreneurs by asking them to draw an image of their venture using pencils and paper. Drawing has long been recognised in other social science disciplines as an empirical method for eliciting in-depth and latent information about complex or difficult experiences. In this paper we show some indicative drawings created by entrepreneurs, accompanied by their verbal explanations of what these drawings represent for them, and we highlight how the process was a generative exercise for the entrepreneurs. We focus on two aspects of drawing, which we refer to as “beginnings”, and “traces”, that we feel are particularly relevant to why this medium is valuable for exploring the experience of entrepreneurs.
Article
This article reports on the findings of a research project into the impact of psychophysical actor training methods on neurodiverse students. It illustrates how the application of a Social Theory of Learning Difference reveals the mechanisms whereby these training methods dysconsciously discriminate against those students who are dyslexic and/or dyspraxic learners. The research findings recognise the inherent value of psychophysical methods in the training of actors but suggests that there is a need to move away from a singular Psycho-Medical Theory of Learning Difference and to adopt a framework of learning difference based on the social model of (dis)ability, which requires institutions to adapt their provision to better meet a diverse range of needs. A revision of psychophysical approaches is proposed, which draws on a neuroscientific theory of experiential practice and a psychological framework of actor engagement. This new approach seeks to enhance the effective communication of embodied knowledge and skills in diverse actor training contexts and to allow students who are dyslexic and/or dyspraxic learners equal access to that learning.
Article
"Provides an extremely valuable introduction to the work of Michel Serres for an English-speaking audience, as well as offering useful critical approaches for those already familiar with its outlines." ---Robert Harrison, Stanford University [blurb from review pending permission] The work of Michel Serres---including the books Hermes, The Parasite, The Natural Contract, Genesis, The Troubadour of Knowledge, and Conversations on Science, Culture, and Time---has stimulated readers for years, as it challenges the boundaries of science, literature, culture, language, and epistemology. The essays in Mapping Michel Serres, written by the leading interpreters of his work, offer perspectives from a range of disciplinary positions, including literature, language studies, and cultural theory. Contributors include Maria Assad, Hanjo Berressem, Stephen Clucas, Steven Connor, Andrew Gibson, René Girard, Paul Harris, Marcel Hénaff, William Johnsen, William Paulson, Marjorie Perloff, Philipp Schweighauser, Isabella Winkler, and Julian Yates.
An Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Traditional Symbols Thinking Space (1975) The Essential writings of
  • J C Cooper
  • Thames
  • London Hudson
  • M Crang
  • N Thrift
Cooper, J.C., (1978) An Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Traditional Symbols, Thames and Hudson, London Crang, M. and Thrift N. (2000) Thinking Space. London: Routledge Duchamp, M., (1975) The Essential writings of Marcel Duchamp ed. Sanouillet., M. and Peterson., E., London: Thames and Hudson.
The Wake of the Imagination – Towards a Postmodern Culture Dinner for Architects: A Collection of Napkin Sketches Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post-critical Philosophy The Voice of Things
  • M R M F L Heidegger
Heidegger, M. (1999) Basic Writings. London: Routledge Kearney, R. (2001) The Wake of the Imagination – Towards a Postmodern Culture. London: Routledge Nerdinger, W. (ed) (2004) Dinner for Architects: A Collection of Napkin Sketches. W.W. Norton & Company Newman, R. (2007) Personal email correspondence Polanyi, M., (1974) Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post-critical Philosophy, University of Chicago Press Ponge, F. (1972) The Voice of Things. New York: McGraw-Hill Potter, L. (2007a) Profile on website <http://www.laurapotter.co.uk> last accessed 16.04.07
Cotton and iron Out there: Marginalization and Contemporary Cultures Applied Grammatology Negative Horizon
  • T Trinh
  • Minh-Ha
Trinh, T. Minh-Ha "Cotton and iron." in Ferguson, R. (ed) [et al.] (1999) Out there: Marginalization and Contemporary Cultures. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press Ulmer G. (1985) Applied Grammatology. John Hopkins University Press Virilio, P. (2005) Negative Horizon. London: Continuum