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The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy

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The Merck Manual began in 1899 as a guide to medical treatment and survives today in its 13th edition as a practical guide to diagnosis and therapy of nonsurgical problems. I remember the Merck Manual of medical school days (the 1940 edition) and am awestruck with the change. Memories from student days are poor, but I recall that edition as erroneous, loosely written, and, I believe, anonymous in authorship. The 13th edition, in contrast, was prepared by Dr Berkow with the aid of a distinguished 12-man editorial board and a stellar group of about 250 contributors. In undertaking to review this 2,000-page text of tightly written material, covering everything from ingrown toenail to the principles of cardiac surgery, I read completely the first 600 pages. This portion included many aspects of internal medicine, and I was pleased with what I found. The material, obviously prepared by many different authors, was

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... 14 Although they may not prevent node suppuration or relapses, tetracyclines or chloramphenicol may also be used. 20 ...
... Lyme DNA PCR assays allow the specific diagnosis of this infection using sterile fluids such as the synovial fluid and cerebrospinal fluid for diagnosing Lyme arthritis and neuroborreliosis, respectively. 20 The PCR for Borrelia sp is typically used in endemic regions where prior IgG seropositivity may exist due to past infections. PCR positivity in, say, an arthrocentesis of the knee of a seropositive Lyme patient living in the northeastern United States provides further evidence of an ongoing infection. ...
... Infections may occur year-round in the southern United States, although the disease is more common in the coastal Atlantic states from April to September. 20 The most common vector in the southern and eastern United States is the dog tick, D variabilis. In the western United States, the wood tick, D andersoni, is the principal vector. ...
Article
Close interaction with nature can lead to tick-borne illnesses, which are seen most frequently in primary care clinics when patients present symptoms. Considerable morbidity can result from untreated infections. Fortunately, these illnesses are often easily managed when diagnosed early.
... Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive, debilitating neurological disease that afflicts approximately 2% of the population aged 65 or over (Cody et al., 2008). It is generally accepted that PD is related to a reduction in dopamine production in the brain (Beers and Berkow, 1999). ...
... The symptoms can be treated pharmacologically by the use of levodopa which can cross the blood brain barrier whereas dopamine cannot (Beers and Berkow, 1999). In the longer term, the dosage of levodopa has to be increased as dopamine supplementation becomes less effective at controlling symptoms, including tremor. ...
... Tremor is a highly visible diagnostic feature. Temporary relief is obtained with levodopa, however the tremor returns as the levodopa wears off, commonly known as the "off periods" (Beers and Berkow, 1999). Finding other means, such as repurposed drugs, to reduce tremor would be beneficial in improving the quality of life of patients and perhaps enable a reduction in levodopa, potentially reducing side effects. ...
... Thyme oil also improves the resistance of body to oral infections. It can keep insects and parasites away, for example, mosquitoes, fleas, lice, and moths (Amiri, 2012;Beers & Berkow, 1966;Rustaiyan et al., 2000;Soliman & Badeaa, 2002). ...
... Thymol is a naturally occurring monoterpene derivative of cymene, and carvacrol is its isomer ( Figure 1). Among other bioactivities, both thymol and carvacrol have antitussive, antioxidative, antimicrobial, expectorant, antispasmodic, and antibacterial effects (Amiri, 2012;Beers & Berkow, 1966;Höferl et al., 2009;Johns, Johns, & Rudolph, 1992;Nickavar et al., 2005;Rustaiyan et al., 2000;Youdim, Dorman, & Deans, 1999). Therefore, these compounds could contribute to the pharmacology effects of thyme. ...
... przypadków spotkaae mo¿na postaae barwnikow¹, opisywan¹ jako zaczerwienion¹ plamê z miejscowymi owrzodzeniami i centralnym za-g³êbieniem oraz ogniskami silniejszej pigmentacji. Wymieniae nale¿y jeszcze postaae raka w wr rz zo od dz zi ie ej j¹ ¹c ce eg go o (ulcus rodens), t tw wa ar rd dz zi in no op po od do ob bn ne eg go o (najbardziej opornego na leczenie), t to or rb bi ie el lo ow wa at te eg go o oraz p po ow wi ie er rz zc ch hn ni io ow we eg go o (lokali-zuj¹cego siê g³ównie na tu³owiu) [4][5][6]. ...
... PóŸniej mo¿e przyj¹ae formê guzka, czasem brodawkuj¹cego. Efektem koñcowym jest pojawienie siê owrzodzenia i naciekanie g³êbiej po³o¿onych tkanek [4] oraz tworzenie siê wa³owatych brzegów. SCC lokalizuje siê g³ównie na twarzy, zw³aszcza nosie, ma³¿owinie usznej i wardze dolnej pod postaci¹ wrzodziej¹c¹ lub brodawkuj¹c¹. ...
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Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in a human. Taking under consideration their frequent occurrence and serious cosmetic defects they tend to be a significant clinical problem if not treated, thus decreasing the quality of life of the patients. The aim of this study was to present basic information on biology, symptoms and management of skin cancers. Histology and epidemiology of skin cancers have been discussed and particular attention has been paid to basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas (BCC and SCC), which make together 95 percent of primary malignancies of the skin. Present medical literature has been overviewed and data related to therapeutic methods used in dermatology, surgery, teleradiotherapy (EBRT) and brachytherapy (BT) have been collected. Characteristics, long-term outcomes, cosmetic and side effects of particular therapeutical strategies are described. keywords: skin cancer, dermatology, surgery, teleradiotherapy, brachytherapy
... According to Society of Hospital Pharmacists of Australia (2004), pharmacist possesses the responsibility to comprehend the patients to make them able to adhere on the medication regime and make them informed for the use of medicines [3]. According to Beers et al. (1999), "the psychological, physical, and social realm of health found to be seen in various areas influenced by the experiences, faith, perception, and expectation of any individual" [4]. ...
... According to Society of Hospital Pharmacists of Australia (2004), pharmacist possesses the responsibility to comprehend the patients to make them able to adhere on the medication regime and make them informed for the use of medicines [3]. According to Beers et al. (1999), "the psychological, physical, and social realm of health found to be seen in various areas influenced by the experiences, faith, perception, and expectation of any individual" [4]. ...
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Objectives: The objective of study is to estimate the role of counseling on the diseased patients with asthma and its effects on the medication adherence in relation to their associated side effects on medicines on patients. Methods: The prospective case–control study was carried out at the outpatient department of respiratory department. 190 patients were enrolled for the study of 6 months. Patient counseling and follow-up were done on the basis of knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire. In 190 subjects, 115 were female and 75 were male and were having the pathological history of cough cold, tuberculosis, hypertension, etc. Results: It was found that counseling causes increase in medication adherence of patients from 28.90% to 71.50% and inhaler adherence from 27.60% to 72.60%. Along with the medication adherence, fewer side effects due to various drugs were encountered such as sore throat, rhinitis, constipation, difficulty in glutition, hand tremor, and weight gain. Conclusion: The study concluded that, patient counseling plays an important role in diseases like asthma, which changes the attitude, increases the knowledge which turns out into the better medication results improving the asthmatic symptoms.
... Guidelines for the use of sleep-inducing medicines, referred to as hypnotics, aim to minimise abuse, misuse and addiction (see Box II).8,31,36 The main differences between the hypnotics are their onset of action and the elimination half-life. ...
... Hypnotics with a short halflife are mostly used for sleep-onset insomnia, while those with Box II. Guidelines for the use of hypnotics8,31,36 • Establish a clear indication and treatment goal. • Doses for patients should be individualised. ...
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Adequate quality sleep is essential for good health and quality of life. Nevertheless, the prevalence of insomnia disorder, which can be acute (short-term) or chronic, is increasing globally. This article provides an overview of insomnia and its management. The main causes of, and risk factors for insomnia are described, and the criteria for making an accurate diagnosis. The management of insomnia, which is commonly a combination of cognitive behavioural therapy and pharmacological treatment, is discussed as well as the important role pharmacists can play, not only in the management of insomnia but also in identifying the underlying cause/s of sleep disturbances.
... Despite decades of research on disease control, BRD and its consequences remain the main causes of cattle morbidity, mortality, welfare concerns, and production loss [2]. From an anatomical and physiological perspective, cattle have a complex respiratory system that can be broadly divided into the upper respiratory tract (URT) and the lower respiratory tract (LRT) [3]. The URT includes paired nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, nasal passages, nasopharynx, oropharynx, tonsils, and the upper portion of the larynx. ...
... The LRT includes the lower portion of the larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. The fundamental functions of the respiratory tract are oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, maintenance of acid-base balance, and to warm, humidify, and filter inhaled air [3]. The airway mucosal epithelium acts as a front line of defense against respiratory pathogens by producing functional molecules that initiate multiple innate and adaptive immune mechanisms that are crucial for lung defense mechanisms [4][5][6]. ...
Article
Recognizing the respiratory tract as a dynamic and complex ecosystem has enhanced our understanding of the pathophysiology of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). There is widespread evidence showing that disease-predisposing factors often disrupt the respiratory microbial ecosystem, provoking atypical colonization patterns and a progressive dysbiosis. The ecological factors that shape the respiratory microbiota, and the influence of these complex communities on bovine respiratory health, are a rich area for research exploration. Here, we review the current status of understanding of the bovine respiratory microbiota, the factors that influence its development and stability, its role in maintaining mucosal homeostasis, and ultimately its contribution to bovine health and disease. Finally, we explore the limitations of current research approaches to the microbiome and discuss potential directions for future research that can help us better understand the role of the respiratory microbiota in the health, welfare, and productivity of livestock.
... There is a clearly defined dead area with little or no discharge or pus when the cause of the gangrene is in the blood vessels (e.g., in peripheral vascular disease and polycythaemia). Wet gangrene is a type of gangrene that develops as a result of infection or damage [1][2][3]. ...
... As a result, a person can be diagnosed with gangrene without necessarily being "infected." There are two types of gangrene: diabetic and non-diabetic [1][2][3]. ...
... Despite decades of research on disease control, BRD and its consequences remain the main causes of cattle morbidity, mortality, welfare concerns, and production loss [2]. From an anatomical and physiological perspective, cattle have a complex respiratory system that can be broadly divided into the upper respiratory tract (URT) and the lower respiratory tract (LRT) [3]. The URT includes paired nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, nasal passages, nasopharynx, oropharynx, tonsils, and the upper portion of the larynx. ...
... The LRT includes the lower portion of the larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. The fundamental functions of the respiratory tract are oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, maintenance of acid-base balance, and to warm, humidify, and filter inhaled air [3]. The airway mucosal epithelium acts as a front line of defense against respiratory pathogens by producing functional molecules that initiate multiple innate and adaptive immune mechanisms that are crucial for lung defense mechanisms [4][5][6]. ...
Article
Recognizing the respiratory tract as a dynamic and complex ecosystem has enhanced our understanding of the pathophysiology of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). There is widespread evidence showing that disease-predisposing factors often disrupt the respiratory microbial ecosystem, provoking atypical colonization patterns and a progressive dysbiosis. The ecological factors that shape the respiratory microbiota, and the influence of these complex communities on bovine respiratory health, are a rich area for research exploration. Here, we review the current status of understanding of the bovine respiratory microbiota, the factors that influence its development and stability, its role in maintaining mucosal homeostasis, and ultimately its contribution to bovine health and disease. Finally, we explore the limitations of current research approaches to the microbiome and discuss potential directions for future research that can help us better understand the role of the respiratory microbiota in the health, welfare, and productivity of livestock.
... 181 Daarvoor moeten de candida-cellen daadwerkelijk in het weefsel zijn aangetroffen. 182,183 Normaal geeft Candida geen problemen, maar onder bepaalde omstandigheden kan de groei ervan uit de hand lopen. Als bij redelijk gezonde mensen een Candida Albicans infectie optreedt, blijft dit vaak oppervlakkig en lokaal, en het is het dikwijls goed zichtbaar. ...
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A practical approach to chronic fatigue.
... The concept of VSA comes from when a person is under stress, micro-muscle tremors which are present in every muscle in the body including the vocal chords will transmit this stress through the speech [1]. The physiologic tremors may be produced by anxiety, stress, fatigue, or metabolic derangements or by certain drugs [2]. Stress can be detected by analyzing the change in the microtremor frequency for each person's voice [3 and 4]. ...
Article
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Analyzing the cognitive load generated in the brain is the most important issue for specific applications such as voice stress analysis (VSA) systems in which the detection of stressed speech caused by an act of deception under law enforcement interview questioning or military interrogation. The most widely used algorithm for VSA systems is the empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Currently EMD that uses the cubic spline interpolation technique to find the envelopes of the non-periodic signal takes a long processing time, and to achieve accurate results the process is very time consuming and expensive otherwise some tests tend to produce inaccurate results. On the other hand EMD that uses Hilbert analysis method to speed up the process and provide more accurate results, suffer from finding the envelopes of the non-periodic signal. In this paper, a new algorithm is proposed for VSA, named fast Fourier transform (FFT) with a modified Hilbert analysis method (MH) for EMD algorithm, (FTT_MH_EMD), which provides a new technique that modifies the conventional Hilbert analysis method and combines it with the fast Fourier transform algorithm to overcome the previous limitations of using individually the FTT algorithm, the cubic spline interpolation technique or the conventional Hilbert analysis method and that can speed up the processing time and gives accurate results. Simulations and results witness that the proposed algorithm provides higher accuracy than the other attempts and also the processing time has dropped by 10 times faster than those in the products currently available in the market for VSA.
... 19,[40][41][42]44 LNA− SWCNTs, which are rigid biopolymers with locked conformations, show no measurable conformational changes and a diminished fluorescence shift in the presence of equivalent salt concentrations. Instead, salt concentrations above the physiological range 31,32 are required to induce a fluorescence response with LNA-based complexes. These nanobioengineered hybrids therefore contribute a previously unexplored approach to addressing the pervasive challenge of ion-induced fluorescence drift in optical biosensing. ...
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The omnipresence of salts in biofluids creates a pervasive challenge in designing sensors suitable for in vivo applications. Fluctuations in ion concentrations have been shown to affect the sensitivity and selectivity of optical sensors based on single-walled carbon nanotubes wrapped with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA-SWCNTs). We herein observe fluorescence wavelength shifting for ssDNA-SWCNT-based optical sensors in the presence of divalent cations at concentrations above 3.5 mM. In contrast, no shifting was observed for concentrations up to 350 mM for sensors bioengineered with increased rigidity using xeno nucleic acids (XNAs). Transient fluorescence measurements reveal distinct optical transitions for ssDNA- and XNA-based wrappings during ion-induced conformation changes, with XNA-based sensors showing increased permanence in conformational and signal stability. This demonstration introduces synthetic biology as a complementary means for enhancing nanotube optoelectronic behaviour, unlocking previously unexplored possibilities for developing nano-bioengineered sensors with augmented capabilities.
... Removal of iron ions from wastewater is necessary mainly to reduce operating costs due to the corrosion and scaling in pipes as well as to maintain the required organoleptic quality of the water (Beers and Berkow 1999). ...
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A scheme of selective removal of metal ions from chromium-containing synthetic solutions with the following chemical composition, Cr (VI)-Fe (III), Cr (VI)-Fe (III)-Ni (II), Cr (VI)-Fe (III)-Ni (II)-Zn (II), and Cr (VI)-Fe (III)-Ni (II)-Zn (II)-Cu (II)) by Shewanella xiamenensis biofilm immobilized on a zeolite support, was proposed. Three biological processes, biosorption, bioaccumulation, and longtime bioreduction, were applied for metal removal. The process of Zn (II), Ni (II), and Cu (II) showed to be pH dependent. The maximum removal of Ni (II) was achieved during a 1-hour biosorption process at pH 5.0–6.0, of Zn (II) at pH 5.0, and of Cu (II) at pH 3.0. Chromium (VI) and Fe (III) ions were more efficiently removed by bioaccumulation. Chromium (VI) removal in the studied systems varied from 16.4% to 34.8 and of iron from 55.8 to 94.6%. In a long-term bioreduction experiment, it was possible to achieve complete reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) ions by Shewanella xiamenensis in 42 days and by Shewanella xiamenensis biofilm on zeolite in 35 days. Shewanella oneidensis can be effectively used to remove metal ions from chemically complex effluents.
... The concept of VSA comes from when a person is under stress, micro-muscle tremors which are present in every muscle in the body including the vocal chords will transmit this stress through the speech [1]. The physiologic tremors may be produced by anxiety, stress, fatigue, or metabolic derangements or by certain drugs [2]. Stress can be detected by analyzing the change in the microtremor frequency for each person's voice [3 and 4]. ...
... Preparación de Artículos revista VISIÓN ELECTRÓNICA: algo más que un estado sólido Fecha de envío: octubre 2017 Fecha de recepción: noviembre 2017 Fecha de aceptación: enero 2018Adicionalmente, existe un continuo crecimiento a nivel mundial de pacientes con necesidades de terapias de rehabilitación, lo que ha incrementado la presión sobre los sistemas de salud y, consecuentemente, la reducción de los tiempos y recursos disponibles para los tratamientos.Con respecto a la rehabilitación, esa menudo un proceso tedioso y largo que, incluso, puede prolongarse por meses, aun si se realizan varias sesiones a la semana; esta se lleva a cabo mediante visitas recurrentes a centros de rehabilitación y fisioterapia en casa, involucrando valiosos recursos humanos[1]. Bajo estas consideraciones, es esencial investigar formas más efectivas de realizar las terapias, por lo que seguir un enfoque tecnológico es muy prometedor.En el anterior sentido, actualmente la tecnología y la robótica ofrecen a los usuarios multitud de dispositivos avanzados orientados a la investigación, a la ciencia, a la industria o al entretenimiento, capaces de simular con gran realismo distintas sensaciones hápticas (propioceptivas, táctiles y vestibulares). ...
Article
El presente artículo describe la investigación que condujo al desarrollo de un dispositivo háptico inalámbrico, capaz de generar estímulos mecánicos vibrotáctiles en diferentes puntos de la piel—y a frecuencias deseadas—por medio de dieciséis actuadores contenidos en un brazalete portátil diseñado para cualquier extremidad del cuerpo humano. Este prototipo permite tener control sobre cada actuador usado como punto de estimulación, accionado de forma independiente por medio de comandos transmitidos inalámbricamente hacia un sistema de control autónomo recargable dispuesto en el brazalete. Se realizaron pruebas de usabilidad, con respecto a la percepción táctil, que comprobaron el correcto funcionamiento del dispositivo. En perspectiva, el desarrollo, luego de una variedad de pruebas de validación con una amplia muestra de pacientes con y sin neuropatías, tiene como fin la creación de una base de datos para ser usada como valores consigna frente a estos pacientes—esperando que el sistema se use también en pacientes con déficit de movimiento— y empleando la percepción táctil como estimulante psicomotor en la ejecución de actividades motoras.
... In Bangladesh, this plant is locally known as "Madhabi Lata" and available in the deep forest of Hill Tracts of Chittagong (Mia, 2006). The whole plant contains medicinal value including fruits against a toothache, ascariasis, oxyuriasis, food stagnancy and infantile malnutrition (Beers and Berkow, 1999;Mercola, 2006;De Padua, et al., 1999) ; seeds against diarrhea, fever, rickets (De Padua, et al., 1999) ; leaves are useful in abdominal pain and ache, remedy for boils and ulcers (De Padua, et al., 1999) ); roots as a vermifuge, to treat rheumatism and diarrhea (De Padua, et al., 1999). ...
Article
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Quisqualis indica plant (Stem bark) was analyzed in-vitro to evaluate biological activities including anti-microbial properties and cyto-toxic potentials. The crude n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and aqueous soluble partitionates of the methanolic extract of the plant were subjected to the microbiological investigation against a wide range of Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and fungi. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay was used for evaluation of cytotoxic activity of Quisqualis indica. The zones of inhibition produced by the hex-ane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and aqueous soluble partitionates of the methanolic extract of Quisqualis indica were ranged from 7-15 mm, 8-18 mm, 12-20 mm and 10-16 mm respectively at a concentration of 400μg/disc. The obtained results were compared against standard Kanamycin (30µg/disc). In case of brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and aqueous soluble partitionates were found to show LC50 of 1.254, 0.826, 3.866 and 5.366 µg/ml respectively as compared with vincristine sulfate (with LC50 value of 0.3229 µg/ml) as a standard positive control. The obtained results confirmed the presence of anti-microbial properties and cytotoxic potentials of Quisqualis indica which supports the traditional use of this plant in various diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms and can be a good candidate for a further anti-tumor drug study.
... Its flowers have a soft sweet aroma and they blossom in the spring, early summer or mid fall (Welsh, 1998). Fruits of this plant are used to delight ascariasis and oxyuriasis (Beers, 1999), although the decoction of the fruit is helpful in toothache and nephritis. The roasted ripe seeds are helpful in diarrhea, fever and rickets. ...
Article
The current study aimed to investigate the preliminary phytochemical screening, in vitro antifungal activity, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and characterization techniques from aqueous extract of Quisqualis indica L. all the experiments were conducted by using standard procedures. To synthesis silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using extract of Quisqualis indica L and to test their antifungal activity against four fungal strains. In this paper, the synthesis of AgNPs using aqueous extract of Quisqualis indica as a green method without any chemical stabilizer and reducer is demonstrated. The synthesized AgNPs were determined by UV-vis spectrum, high resolution transmission electron results of the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of different types of microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy analysis. The secondary metabolites like alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins, steroids, glycosides, and proteins. The antifungal activity of Quisqualis indica Linn against four microorganisms namely (Rhizopus microspores, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus) using well diffusion method. The biomolecules present in the aqueous extract of Quisqualis indica plays a significant role as reducing agent as well as capping agent in the formation of silver nanoparticles. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by using analytical techniques such as UV spectrophotometer, and FT-IR. The presence of a sharp surface Plasmon resonance peat at 439 nm showed the formation of silver nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the crystalline nature of the aqueous extract of silver nanoparticles with a face-centred cubic structure. The morphology of Quisqualis indica silver nanoparticles was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in the nano range 10 to 40 nm. So it can be used in biomedical applications
... A deficiency of this vitamin B 1 causes many diseases in adults and children with high intake of white rice or food containing anti-thiamine factorsm, e.g. beriberi [2], and epilepsy [3]. Many of analytical methods are available for the determination of vitamin B 1 either alone or in conjunction with various drugs in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids using calorimetric [4], spectrophotometry [5][6][7], electrochemistry [8], fluorimetric [9], chromatography [10][11][12][13][14][15], chemiluminescence [16]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A simple, fast, selective of a new flow injection analysis method coupled with potentiometric detection was used to determine vitamin B1 in pharmaceutical formulations via the prepared new selective membranes. Two electrodes were constructed for the determination of vitamin B1 based on the ion-pair vitamin B1-phosphotungestic acid (B1-PTA) in a poly (vinyl chloride) supported with a plasticized di-butyl phthalate (DBPH) and di-butyl phosphate (DBP). Applications of these ion selective electrodes for the determination of vitamin B1 in the pharmaceutical preparations for batch and flow injection systems were described. The ion selective membrane exhibited a near-Nernstian slope values 56.88 and 58.53 mV / decade, with the linear dynamic range of vitamin B1 was 5 x 10-5- 1 x 10-2 and 1 x 10-4-1 x 10-2 mol.L-1, in batch and FIA, respectively. The limit of detection was 3.5 x 10-5 and 9.5 x 10-5 mol.L-1, with the percentage linearity 98.85 and 95.22 in batch and FIA, respectively. The suggested ion selective electrode has been utilized perfection in the determination of vitamin B1 in pharmaceutical formulations using batch and flow injection system, respectively.
... (Breslau et al., 1997) They may experience sleep disturbances, loss or increase in appetite, palpitations, nausea/vomiting, panic attacks, anxiety, stress, or they may attempt to not want to remember the incident and cover it up. Beers et al. (1999) was defined it as a disorder that involves recalling after a traumatic event. It evokes emotions such as intense fear and helplessness, thus, avoiding stimuli related to trauma. ...
... congenital malformations and at risk of transmitting or becoming infected by the human immunodeficiency virus [hereinafter HIV] as demonstrated by several studies. [4][5][6][7]. In medical practice, vaginal infections represent a frequent health problem, representing approximately 75% of the patients who are consulted by vaginal discharge, according to the number of patients attending the medical consultation of some studies in Venezuela. ...
... The outcomes of effective patient counseling are as follows: The patients recognize the importance of medication for their wellbeing; encouragement to patients to establish a working relationship with the pharmacist and foundation for continual interaction with, and consultation from, the pharmacist; improvement in the coping strategies of patients to deal with medications side effects and drug interactions; the patients are motivated to take their medication for improvement of their health status; development of the ability in patients to make appropriate medication-related decisions concerning adherence to their medication; and the patients become informed, efficient and active participants in disease treatment and health care management [2] . Asthma is a common and chronic condition characterized by reversible airway obstruction, airway inflammation and increased airway responsiveness to a variety of stimuli [3] .Increasing the knowledge of patients about their asthma therapy is a necessary component of asthma management. Patient counseling should lead to increased patient confidence in the ability to manage asthma on their own, decrease hospital admission rate and emergency visits, increase adherence to treatment and improve the quality of life [4] . ...
Article
Patient counseling is an interpersonal communication between the pharmacists and the patient/patient party regarding the disease, medications and lifestyle modifications. Asthma is a chronic disease affecting the respiratory system. It affects a significant number of people worldwide, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Asthma is a chronic disease requiring lifelong treatment and involves the use of specialized devices. It also requires self-monitoring of treatment by the patient. A pharmacist can play an active role in asthma management by counseling the patients. Counseling the asthma patients is known to increase the patient's knowledge regarding the disease, medications and lifestyle modifications, thus improving patient adherence to the treatment and leading to better therapeutic outcomes and quality of life. While counseling the patients, the pharmacists should focus on the disease, medications, specialized inhaler devices as well as lifestyle modifications such as avoiding cigarette smoking, avoidance of allergens, etc. Pharmacists should provide special counseling to special population groups like pregnant patients, children and elderly patients. A pharmacist can adopt several strategies such as the use of placebo inhalers, audiovisual aids and distribution of patient information leaflets to improve the quality of counseling. There are several studies worldwide showing positive results with pharmacist-provided counseling in asthma. In developing countries, the concept of patient counseling is at the infancy stage and data regarding pharmacist-provided counseling in asthma are scarce.
... Currently, the prevalence of osteoporosis among women in India become a major concern across the country, estimates suggest that of the 230 million Indians expected to be over the age of 50 years in 2015, 20%, ie, ~46 million, are women with osteoporosis [10] . The available therapeutic agents are associated with certain intolerable adverse effects, which arise the question for its chronic [11] use . Certain plant compounds, which have been characterized as phytoestrogens, have shown a weak estrogenic effect on bone [5] in human and animal studies. ...
... Sudden feeling of coldness accompanied by shivering and increased body temperature, as high as 39°C to 41°C and profuse sweating), polyuria, ie. Increased urine production/ urination, severe headaches, nausea, rapid and thready pulse and inactivity due to extreme fatigue [2]. ...
Article
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In an era where there is a globally concerted effort to improve healthcare especially in regions with endemic diseases like Sub-Saharan Africa, there have been major calls for real-time health data acquisition and reporting[1] to prompt health institutions and government to adequately plan and tackle such challenges. Data Acquistion is also very important as it will in the long run drive other future research work. Due to these eminent reasons, this paper seeks to review a number of situational reports, relevant projects and papers with proposed solutions or implemented prototypes that can be employed in monitoring the recovery and health status of patients that are diagnosed of Malaria. This paper also proposes an operational algorithm (based on the existing projects' review) of a wearable embedded device in the form a flowchart to inspires device makers and innovators to design systems and devices to help in the fight against Malaria, which currently claims the lives of thousands annually. [2] The focus, though on Malaria because of its prevalence in the Sub-Saharan Africa, can be employed on other similar endemic diseases
... W ramach analiz desk research 4 Głównym zjawiskiem demograficznym charakterystycznym dla Dolnego Śląska jest starzenie się populacji tego regionu, którego jedną z konsekwencji będzie jego wyludnianie się w najbliższych dekadach. Zgodnie z prognozą liczba mieszkańców Dolnego Śląska zmniejszy się w latach 2013-2050 o prawie 415 tysięcy 5 . ...
... Moreover, it also seems that the mechanism of the anti-hangover effects could be analogous to previously described mechanisms of food browning and its prevention, in vivo inhibition of adverse effects of the food processing induced toxin acrylamide and the amino acid lysinoalanine, as well antibiotic effects of cinnamaldehyde. Finally, it would also be useful if clinical trials could determine if the black rice bran product might help protect individuals against excessive (abusive) alcohol consumption that causes liver cirrhosis and cancer [39]. ...
... According to the World Health Organization (WHO) report, ischemic heart disease (IHD) is responsible for of 7.3 million people's deaths in the world with approximately 58 DALY (Disability Adjusted Life Years) global disease burden [23]. In 2010, The American Heart Association announced that 15.4 million people in America were a icted with IHD [24]. Angina pectoris occurs when myocardial blood perfusion is inadequate and has two types: stable and unstable [25,26]. ...
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Background: Because of the high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and their urgent treatment in a way that have minimal side effects and maximum benefits, this study aims to compare the mortality rate, re-hospitalization, and ejection fraction of smoker patients undergone P-PCI (primary percutaneous coronary intervention) with those who received thrombolytic therapy in autumn 2018. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in Ayatollah Taleghani and Labbafinejad hospitals of Tehran City, Iran. The study group consisted of 42 smoker patients referred to the hospitals with the diagnosis of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) and have undergone P-PCI or thrombolytic therapy from September 2018 to December 2018. Complications such as death and re-hospitalization were noted, and the ejection fraction of each patient was also recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 25. Statistical significance was considered at P< 0.05. Results: The Independent Samples t-test showed no significant difference between two groups of PCI and thrombolytic therapy regarding ejection fraction (EF) at the time of admission. Also, there was no considerable EF difference after three months of follow-up between 2 groups in both smoker and ex-smoker ones (P>0.05). Mean (SD) values of EF in smoker patients who underwent PCI were 41.56 9.95 at the time of admission and 45.00 10.52 after three months of follow-up. The paired sample t-test showed no significant difference between both groups regarding EF at the time of admission and after three months. The mean (SD) values of EF in smoker patients who underwent thrombolytic therapy were 40.26 8.73 at the time of admission and 48.53 5.80 after three months of follow-up. The paired sample t-test showed no significant difference between EF at the time of admission and after three months in the ex-smoker group, but there was a considerable difference in the smoker group (P<0.05). Three months mortality rate was estimated at 23.1% in smokers with PCI and 7.1% in patients treated with thrombolytic therapy. Conclusion: Thrombolytic therapy can increase the EF of smoking patients with STEMI for a long time, indicating a beneficial effect of thrombolytic therapy to prevent heart failure.
... [18,96] It is an extreme and pervasive state of anxiety accompanied by a variety of somatic symptoms that causes significant impairment of social or occupational functions or significant stress to the patient. [102] In stressful and fearful situations, the oxytocin system is stimulated, causing oxytocin release in both the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. [103,104] In a study conducted, a positive relationship was found between plasma oxytocin level and trait anxiety level in women; [105] Another study found an inverse relationship between plasma oxytocin levels and anxiety levels in men. ...
... La sténose aortique se caractérise par un rétrécissement de l'ouverture valvulaire aortique. Elle engendre une résistanceà l'écoulement du sang, du ventricule gauche vers l'aorte [13] (cf. figure 1.5). ...
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Aortic stenosis is the most common valvulopathy in developed countries. It is characterized by a narrowing of the aortic valve and generates a resistance to blood flow, from the left ventricle to the aorta. Once severe symptoms of aortic stenosis appear, survival does not exceed 2 to 5 years without surgery. For most patients, valve replacement is the only effective treatment for aortic stenosis. Several diagnostic criteria exist to assess valve impairment and plan for possible surgery. The effective orifice area (EOA) represents the minimum area of the jet that is formed downstream of the stenosis during ventricular ejection, i.e. the area of the vena contracta. It is the hemodynamic parameter commonly used to quantify the severity of aortic stenosis and can be measured by Doppler echocardiography. Nevertheless, according to the EOA criterion, some patients with a stenosis judged to be severe remain asymptomatic, whereas others with a stenosis judged to be moderate are symptomatic. In this work, a new parameter, the energy loss coefficient ELCo, based on the hydraulic concept of pressure drop, has been proposed to improve the diagnosis. This parameter includes not only the EOA, but also the cross-sectional area of the ascending aorta. It was tested in an in vitro model and then in 138 patients with aortic stenosis. The results show that ELCo, measured by Doppler echocardiography and normalized to body surface area, better predicts the onset of aortic stenosis symptoms than EOA. When echocardiographic data are inconclusive, invasive measurement of EOA by catheterization is performed. It is common to observe that catheter-based EOA is higher than that calculated by Doppler echocardiography, which may cause discrepancy in the assessment of the severity of aortic stenosis. We have shown, in vitro and in vivo, that the catheter-based EOA does not represent the area of the vena contracta, but the energy loss coefficient ELCo derived in the first study. Because the ACC/AHA (American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association) recommendations do not take into account the method used (Doppler echocardiography or catheterization), these results therefore lead to reconsideration of the severity criteria for aortic stenosis. Doubts still remain about the validity of echocardiographic measurement of EOA at low cardiac output. We have shown in a third in vitro study that flow rate does not affect the EOA value when the geometric area of the orifice is fixed. This proves that the variation in EOA observed in the clinic at low flow rates is essentially due to variation in the geometric area of the stenosis and not to a limitation of the echocardiographic method. These three studies, all based on the application of the concept of pressure drop, improve the echocardiographic diagnosis of aortic stenosis.
... To promote the informed use of MT tools to acquire health information through computer-aided translation by vulnerable patients and their caregivers, we developed Bayesian machine learning classifiers to help the public understand the likelihood of inaccurate self-diagnosis based on outputs of online MT applications. The Merk Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy (MSD Manuals) are widely used in health education and family healthcare around the world [20,21]. Its Chinese consumer edition is commissioned to national leading medical professionals of the Chinese Preventive Medicine Association. ...
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Background: Machine translation (MT) technologies have increasing applications in healthcare. Despite their convenience, cost-effectiveness, and constantly improved accuracy, research shows that the use of MT tools in medical or healthcare settings poses risks to vulnerable populations. Objectives: We aimed to develop machine learning classifiers (MNB and RVM) to forecast nuanced yet significant MT errors of clinical symptoms in Chinese neural MT outputs. Methods: We screened human translations of MSD Manuals for information on self-diagnosis of infectious diseases and produced their matching neural MT outputs for subsequent pairwise quality assessment by trained bilingual health researchers. Different feature optimisation and normalisation techniques were used to identify the best feature set. Results: The RVM classifier using optimised, normalised (L2 normalisation) semantic features achieved the highest sensitivity, specificity, AUC, and accuracy. MNB achieved similar high performance using the same optimised semantic feature set. The best probability threshold of the best performing RVM classifier was found at 0.6, with a very high positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 27.82 (95% CI: 3.99, 193.76), and a low negative likelihood ratio (LR-) of 0.19 (95% CI: 0.08, 046), suggesting the high diagnostic utility of our model to predict the probabilities of erroneous MT of disease symptoms to help reverse potential inaccurate self-diagnosis of diseases among vulnerable people without adequate medical knowledge or an ability to ascertain the reliability of MT outputs. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated the viability, flexibility, and efficiency of introducing machine learning models to help promote risk-aware use of MT technologies to achieve optimal, safer digital health outcomes for vulnerable people.
... Of all FQs, CIP has received the most attention because it is a CIA. CIP is given orally in a dosage of 250-750 mg twice a day in adults and intravenously at 200-400 mg over 12 h (Berkow and Beers 1999). ...
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Ciprofloxacin (CIP) (human use) and enrofloxacin (ENR) (veterinary use) are synthetic anti-infectious medications that belong to the second generation of fluoroquinolones. They have a wide antimicrobial spectrum and strong bactericidal effects at very low concentrations via enzymatic inhibition of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, which are required for DNA replication. They also have high bioavailability, rapid absorption with favorable pharmacokinetics and excellent tissue penetration, including cerebral spinal fluid. These features have made them the most applied antibiotics in both human and veterinary medicine. ENR is marketed exclusively for animal medicine and has been widely used as a therapeutic veterinary antibiotic, resulting in its residue in edible tissues and aquatic environments, as well as the development of resistance and toxicity. Estimation of the risks to humans due to antimicrobial resistance produced by CIP and ENR is important and of great interest. Moreover, in rare cases due to their overdose and/or prolonged administration, the development of CIP and ENR toxicity may occur. The toxicity of these fluoroquinolones antimicrobials is mainly related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress (OS) generation, besides metabolism-related toxicity. Therefore, CIP is restricted in pregnant and lactating women, pediatrics and elderly similarly ENR do in the veterinary field. This review manuscript aims to identify the toxicity induced by ROS and OS as a common sequel of CIP and ENR. Furthermore, their metabolism and the role of metabolizing enzymes were reported.
... For example, they have been reported to protect human erythrocytes against oxidative damage in vitro , protect against carbon-tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats , exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in vitro (Kenny et al., 2013), have antidiabetic effects in rodents (Singh et al., 2005;Arun et al., 2015), reduce toxicity of cholesterol oxidation products in rats (Hsieh et al., 2016), protect against atopic dermatitis (Yang et al., 2015), and exhibit antimicrobial activities in vitro (Sinha and Dua, 2016). Potato peel dressings promote wound healing in humans caused by burns ( Van de Velde et al., 2011), and help in the management of necrotizing fasciitis (Manjunath et al., 2015), a subcutaneous infection with a poor prognosis (Beers, 2006). There are also uses for potato peel byproducts in the food industry. ...
Article
Potato peels from the large-scale peeling of potatoes are a source of bioactive compounds. We determined the content of the glycoalkaloids α-chaconine and α-solanine, individual and total phenolics compounds, and total flavonoids extracted from three peels prepared from conventional and three from organic commercial gold, red, and Russet potatoes as well as determining their antioxidant activities using three different methods Glycoalkaloids and individual phenolic compounds (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and chlorogenic acid isomer) were determined using HPLC and LC-MS, and total phenolic and flavonoid content by colorimetry. There was a wide variation in the content of total glycoalkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and antioxidative activities, as indicated by the following ratios for the total organic to nonorganic glycoalkaloids: gold, 3.89; Russet, 2.43; and red, 0.50. The corresponding phenolics and flavonoid ratios indicated a narrower range. The described methods could be used to determine the composition and antioxidative activities of peels derived from other potato cultivars, taking into account their methods of growth and postharvest storage, and aid in compositional, nutritional, medical, and industrial studies on potato peel, to relate their composition to their many described applications.
... The respiratory tract is divided into two parts based on location and function: the upper respiratory tract (URT) and the lower respiratory tract (LRT) [140]. The URT is comprised of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, nasal passages, nasopharynx, oropharynx, tonsils, and upper portion of the larynx. ...
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The microorganisms inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminants have a mutualistic relationship with the host that influences the efficiency and health of the ruminants. The GIT microbiota interacts with the host immune system to influence not only the GIT, but other organs in the body as well. The objective of this review is to highlight the importance of the role the gastrointestinal microbiota plays in modulating the health of a host through communication with different organs in the body through the microbiome-gut-organ axes. Among other things, the GIT microbiota produces metabolites for the host and prevents the colonization of pathogens. In order to prevent dysbiosis of the GIT microbiota, gut microbial therapies can be utilized to re-introduce beneficial bacteria and regain homeostasis within the rumen environment and promote gastrointestinal health. Additionally, controlling GIT dysbiosis can aid the immune system in preventing disfunction in other organ systems in the body through the microbiome-gut-brain axis, the microbiome-gut-lung axis, the microbiome-gut-mammary axis, and the microbiome-gut-reproductive axis.
... Unexplained failure rates appear also in one of the leading medical reference books, the MSD Manual [22]. Although this scholarly remarkable work with a long history states correctly as early as 1999 that the symptothermal method is the most precise in determining the days where abstinence is mandatory, it attributes to this periodic abstinence method a failure rate of 10%, which does not agree with the 0.3 pregnancy rate established by international research [23]. ...
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The paper argues by way of an international comparison that U.S. research publications as well as public health media provide inadequate information on contraceptive methods. To support this argument, the paper analyses the most salient publications as well as websites of public health agencies and compares them to European publications. It concludes that U.S. research has to intensify efforts to strive for accuracy and completeness to enable women to exert their autonomy as fully informed patients.
... Field evidences showed how Vit. B2 deficiency leads to leg paralysis, high mortality and poor growth in broiler chicks (Beers et al, 2003). All the vitamins are claimed to be essential for antibody production. ...
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This study was carried out at the Kalar Technical Institute, Animal health department during the period from 1/ 03/2017 to 26/04 /2017. The aim of the present research was to investigate the effect of different levels of vitamin B-complex in drinking water on productive performance and certain blood traits of ROSS 5109 broiler chickens. 105 day old chicks were used (35 for each treatment group) control group no vitamin B-complex in drinking water (T 1), 1ml/Litter drinking water of vitamin B(T 2 group) and T 3 was 1.5/litter drinking water of vitamin B. Results revealed that adding vitamin B-complex to birds drinking water caused significant (p ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ 0.05) increase regarding body weight gain, feed conversion ratio. Also, vitamin B-complex in drinking water (T 2 and T 3) caused significant (p ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ 0.05) increase concerning the number of red blood cells (RBC) and packed cell volume (PCV%) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and the number of white blood cells (WBCs) in comparison with control (T 1). In conclusion, drinking water containing B-complex vitamins resulted significant improvement respecting production performance and blood traits of broiler chicken specially at the level (1.5 ml B-complex/L) drinking water throughout the study.
... Sudden feeling of coldness accompanied by shivering and increased body temperature, as high as 39°C to 41°C and profuse sweating), polyuria, ie. Increased urine production/ urination, severe headaches, nausea, rapid and thready pulse and inactivity due to extreme fatigue [2]. ...
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In an era where there is a globally concerted effort to improve healthcare especially in regions with endemic diseases like Sub-Saharan Africa, there have been major calls for real-time health data acquisition and reporting[1] to prompt health institutions and government to adequately plan and tackle such challenges. Data Acquistion is also very important as it will in the long run drive other future research work. Due to these eminent reasons, this paper seeks to review a number of situational reports, relevant projects and papers with proposed solutions or implemented prototypes that can be employed in monitoring the recovery and health status of patients that are diagnosed of Malaria. This paper also proposes an operational algorithm (based on the existing projects' review) of a wearable embedded device in the form a flowchart to inspires device makers and innovators to design systems and devices to help in the fight against Malaria, which currently claims the lives of thousands annually. [2] The focus, though on Malaria because of its prevalence in the Sub-Saharan Africa, can be employed on other similar endemic diseases
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In this paper, we analyze ovarian cancer cases from six hospitals in China, screen the prognostic factors and predict the survival rate. The data has the feature that all the covariates are categorical. We use three methods to estimate the survival rate–the traditional Cox regression, the two-step Cox regression and a method based on conditional inference tree. By comparison, we know that they are all effective and can predict the survival curve reasonably. The analysis results show that the survival rate is determined by a combination of risk factors, where clinical stage is the most important prognosis factor.
Chapter
Antibiotics are used in large quantities both in human and veterinary medicine. Due to incomplete metabolism, antibiotics are released and spread into the terrestrial environment. The application of manure in the agricultural fields is the leading cause of the antibiotic spread in soils. Depending on the structural characteristics of each class of antibiotic, they can be adsorbed and fixated on soils with different strengths and may remain there for a long period of time. Repeated use of manure containing antibiotics and resistant bacteria affects the soil microbial communities in various aspects, including the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria due to selective pressure and horizontal gene transfer. Different bacterial species harbor distinct resistance genes, and they were found in humans and domestic animals. These resistance genes were also found in wild animals which had no apparent contact with antibiotics. However, the soil antibiotics may have had spread the resistance genes through different ecological niches reaching the wild animals.
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Human trichomoniasis, caused by the pathogenic parasitic protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease that contributes to reproductive morbidity in affected women and possibly to prostate cancer in men. Tritrichomonas foetus strains cause the disease trichomoniasis in farm animals (cattle, bulls, pigs) and diarrhea in domestic animals (cats and dogs). Because some T. vaginalis strains have become resistant to the widely used drug metronidazole, there is a need to develop alternative treatments, based on safe natural products that have the potential to replace and/or enhance the activity of lower doses of metronidazole. To help meet this need, this overview collates and interprets worldwide reported studies on the efficacy of structurally different classes of food, marine, and medicinal plant extracts and some of their bioactive pure compounds against T. vaginalis and T. foetus in vitro and in infected mice and women. Active food extracts include potato peels and their glycoalkaloids α-chaconine and α-solanine, caffeic and chlorogenic acids, and quercetin; the tomato glycoalkaloid α-tomatine; theaflavin-rich black tea extracts and bioactive theaflavins; plant essential oils and their compounds (+)-α-bisabolol and eugenol; the grape skin compound resveratrol; the kidney bean lectin, marine extracts from algae, seaweeds, and fungi and compounds that are derived from fungi; medicinal extracts and about 30 isolated pure compounds. Also covered are the inactivation of drug-resistant T. vaginalis and T. foetus strains by sensitized light; anti-trichomonad effects in mice and women; beneficial effects of probiotics in women; and mechanisms that govern cell death. The summarized findings will hopefully stimulate additional research, including molecular-mechanism-guided inactivations and human clinical studies, that will help ameliorate adverse effects of pathogenic protozoa.
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This study aimed to describe some of the risk factors of asthma in Basra south in Iraq; The study showed that (3,5) age group population were more affected with asthma (27.9%) and the Females were more affected than males in group 2,3and 5 (6.4%,15.7% and 14.7%)respectively compared to( 4.9%, 12.3% and 13.2) .In same group of male. While There were (68.6%) of patients came from urban areas in comparison to (31.4%) of cases who came from rural areas. The Smoking patients with positive (43.1%). and well patients with animal contact positive their proportion was while (49%). Seasonal asthma attack in male (23.5%) more than female (20.6%) the perennial asthma attach was recorded in male (29%) more than female (26.9%) in this study show Asthmatic patients with other allergy about (15.7%) and with chronic diseases (31.9%). The percentage of patients with positive family history were 39.2% of the cases.
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Cardiac arrhythmias are not life-threatening straight away but can cause serious heart-related complications if not medically handled appropriately. An electrocardiogram (ECG) captures the heart’s electric activity and has widespread usage due to its easy deployment and non-invasive aspect. Arrhythmia classification through manual analysis of electrocardiogram (ECG) is troublesome, tedious, and prone to human errors that can lead to serious repercussions. Hence, it’s a more effective alternative to deploy computational techniques to automatically perform the classification. Traditional techniques are data-driven and require an immense amount of data to train and then perform identification. This paper presents an ontology-driven knowledge model to automatically diagnose arrhythmias based on the patient’s sensor-based ECG data. The proposed approach models the arrhythmia domain knowledge and the conceptual relationships relevant to classification of heartbeat into corresponding cardiac arrhythmias and to facilitate decision making with respect to the patients. The newly developed arrhythmia ontology consists of three different modules, each semantically annotating a different aspect of the arrhythmia detection process. A SWRL (Semantic Web Rule Language) based ontology classifier performs classification of patient’s ECG data into corresponding cardiac arrhythmia types. The constructed knowledge base is ontologically aligned with some benchmarked top-level ontologies that promotes the semantic interoperability across multiple domains. The resultant ontological model is validated with a real-world ECG dataset and compared with the existing approaches showing higher precision rate and comparable performance. The developed model establishes a standardized ontology, that promotes the exchange and shareability of consensual domain knowledge about arrhythmic conditions, supports information retrieval and knowledge discovery.
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Background Cysticercosis is caused by parasitic infestation of larval stage of pork tapeworm (Taenia solium). It is a result of accidental ingestion of contaminated water and food from eggs of tape worm due to poor sanitation. Pigs serve as intermediate host. The most common sites of cysticercosis are the muscles, heart, and liver but sites such as the tongue, buccal mucosa, cheek, or floor of mouth are rare. Case presentation A 10-year-old male patient presented to outpatient clinic of ENT department with gradually progressive swelling of right cheek. Patient has been managed with surgical excision of the cyst. Conclusion Cysticercosis can be a differential diagnosis for painless swelling at cheek.
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hrytsyniak@if.org.ua, Інститут рибного господарства НААН, м. Київ Д. О. Янович, yandeni@yandex.ru, Львівський національний університет ветеринарної медицини та біотехнологій імені С.З. Ґжицького, м. Львів Т. М. Швець, library@if.org.ua, Інститут рибного господарства НААН, м. Київ Мета. Наслідками антропогенного впливу на екосистеми водойм, як правило, є надходження до них ксенобіотиків різної природи або перевищення природного фону біогенних мікроелементів, що в кінцевому результаті призводить до негативних змін в структурі угруповань водної біоти, порушень процесів життєдіяльності окремих представників флори та фауни. Наслідки подібних явищ виявляються у зниженні продуктивності водойм, збідненні їх видового складу, а згодом — непридатності певних водних об'єктів для ведення рибогосподарської діяльності. Вивчення, аналіз та узагальнення інформації стосовно шляхів надходження токсикантів до водойм, їхньої поведінки у гідроекосистемах, можливих наслідків впливу на гідробіонтів різних трофічних рівнів мають важливе теоретичне та практичне значення. Поведінкові, фізіолого‐біохімічні, цито‐ і гістологічні, а також генетичні реакції гідробіонтів на дію тих чи інших хімічних елементів можуть служити обґрунтуванням для вжиття необхідних заходів з покращення екологічного стану водних об'єктів або ж запобігання та уникнення потенційних небезпек для водного населення. Метою даної роботи є аналіз і узагальнення наявних літературних відомостей з питань ролі відносно маловивченого мікроелемента молібдену у гідроекосистемах, його біологічного значення та токсичного впливу для мешканців водойм. Результати. Представлені у статті дані одержано на підставі узагальнення існуючих публікацій вітчизняних та іноземних авторів. Зокрема, описано гідрохімічні властивості молібдену та його сполук, можливі джерела надходження до водних об'єктів, шляхи їх міграції. Представлено коротку характеристику методик визначення та контролю вмісту елемента у водному середовищі. Розкрито біофільні властивості молібдену для організмів водної флори та фауни, вплив на їхні продукційні показники. Наведено відомості щодо біоакумуляційного потенціалу молібдену, а також особливостей його розподілу у тканинах і органах гідробіонтів. Розглянуто адаптаційні реакції організму водних рослин, безхребетних тварин і риб в умовах підвищених концентрацій елемента у воді, можливі згубні наслідки такої дії для біоти на різних рівнях — клітинному, тканинному та на рівні організму. Окреслено перспективи та теоретичні засади подальших досліджень щодо наявності молібдену та його дії в екотоксикологічному аспекті. Наукова новизна. Стаття містить узагальнення результатів досліджень, проведених з середини минулого століття і по теперішній час, щодо значення і функцій молібдену у гідроекосистемах та організмі окремих видів водної біоти, відомості стосовно його екотоксичного впливу за надлишкового надходження до водойм. Практична значимість. Представлені у статті дані обґрунтовують актуальність заходів щодо запобігання та уникнення потенційних небезпек для водних організмів, пов'язаних з надходженням до водойм значних кількостей молібдену у складі сільськогосподарських стоків та промислових викидів. Ключові слова: молібден, гідробіонти, водорості, безхребетні тварини, риби, есенціальність, токсичність.
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