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Proliferation of Bifidobacteria by Oligosaccharides and Their Useful Effect on Human Health

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Abstract

Studies of oligosaccharides have recently become common, especially in Japan. This has been because of findings of marked biofunctions and usefulness of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) for human health due to their effect of improving the intestinal microflora. In this paper, we demonstrate several useful characteristics of FOS such as cholesterol reduction, suppression of putrefaction, normalization of microbial disorders of the colon and alleviation of constipation in clinical studies. It seems that the usefulness of FOS is related to the proliferation of bifidobacteria and other saccharolytic intestinal bacteria and also short chain fatty acids produced by these organisms.

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... Bazı besinlerin bağırsak mikrobiyotasını değiştirebileceği fikri bu tarzdaki besin maddelerinin tanımları yapılmadan önce mevcut olmakla beraber 1980 ile 1990'li yıllarda sukrozdan üretilen inulin, oligofruktoz ve fruktooligosakkaritlerin biyolojik özellikleri rapor edilmiştir (Hidaka et al., 1991, Okazaki et al., 1990, Ito et al., 1990, Tanaka et al., 1983. ...
... Ayrıca inülin bazlı oligosakkaritler birçok bilim adamları tarafından prebiyotik olduğu varsayılmıştır (Dixon, 2006, Brugger, 2006, Slavin, 2003, Charalampopoulos et al., 2002, Blaut, 2002. Özellikle inülin ve fruktooligosakkaritler ile beslenen sağlıklı insanlar ve hayvanlarda belirgin bir şekilde Bifidobacterium ve Lactobacillus cinslerinin artığı gözlemlenmiştir (Williams et al., 2009, Roberfroid et al., 1998, Roberfroid, 1996, Hidaka et al., 1991. Prebiyotik kullanımında probiyotik mikroorganizma olarak önemli ölçüde varlığını gösteren Bifidobacterium ve Lactobacillus cinsleri gelişimin teşvik edilmesi noktasında hedef alınmıştır (Tannock, 2002, Fooks and Gibson, 2002, Capurso, 2001, Hirayama and Rafter, 2000, Gibson and Angus, 2000, Roberfroid et al., 1998, Hamburger et al., 1997, Fuller, 1997. ...
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ZET İnülin, fruktan yapısında olup bakteriler ve mantarların yanı sıra bitkilerden de elde edilmektedir. İnülin yararlı bir besin maddesi olmakla birlikte insanlar tarafından sindirilemeyen, çözülebilir bir gıda lifidir. İnülin tipi fruktanlar bağırsaktaki probiyotik mikroorganizmalar tarafından fermente edildiğinde prebiyotik özelliklere sahip olmaktadır. Sağlık üzerinde olumlu etkilerinden dolayı fruktanlar fonksiyonel gıda bileşenleri olarak kabul edilirler. İnülin ve diğer fruktanlar; soğan, pırasa ve enginar da dâhil olmak üzere yediğimiz bitkilerin çoğunda doğal olarak bulundukları için normal insan beslenmesinin bir parçasıdır. Fruktanların çeşitli yollarla sağlık üzerinde düzenleyici etkileri olduğu düşünülmektedir. Bağırsaktaki yararlı Lactobacilli ve Bifidobacteria türlerinin büyümesini teşvik ederler. Bu etkilerin tümü genellikle sağlığı teşvik ettiğinden dolayı inülinin fonksiyonel bir bileşen olarak düşünülmektedir. Bu çalışmada inülinin potansiyel prebiyotik etkilerine yer verilmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: inülin, prebiyotik, probiyotik mikroorganizmalar INÜLİN AS AN IMPORTANT PREBIOTIC ABSTRACT Inulin is a fructan structure that is obtained from plants as well as bacteria and fungi. Inulin is a food nutrient that is a nutrient that cannot be digested by humans. Inulin type fructans have prebiotic properties when fermented by probiotic microorganisms in the intestine. Fructans are considered functional foods because of their positive effects on health. Inulin and other fructans; it is part of normal human nutrition, since they are naturally found in most of the plants we eat, including onions, leeks and artichokes. Fructans are thought to have regulatory effects on health in various ways. They promote the growth of useful Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria species in the gut. All of these effects are generally considered to be a functional component of inulin as it promotes health. In this study, potential prebiotic effects of inulin were included.
... In the study of Gibson et al.(14), the number of Bacteroides decreased significantly with 15g/d OF. In the group taking 8g OF per day, a rapid decline in the number of Bacteriodes has also been observed 19 . As for the studies done by Williams et al. (21) with 4g OF dosage per day, the number of Bacteroides has decreased. ...
... In the study of Reading et al. (23) 5 different OF dosages (1,2,4,6 and 8g/d) were employed under in vitro conditions , and they have observed an increase in the number of Bacteroides in all dosages. In another study 19 an increase in the number of Bacteroides has been observed in the group taking OF at low dosage (5g/d). In our study, an increase in the number of Bacteroides at 0.04 log 10 CFU/g level was found (p>0.05). ...
Article
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Prebiotics are non-digestable food ingredients, made of carbohydrates targeting human colonic microflora. In the present study, the prebiotic potential of oligofructose (OF) and polydextrose (PD) in mixed sweetener (MS) in cake was investigated in healthy male volunteers. MS included PD (40.9 %) and OF (20%). Aim of this study was to investigate the tolerable amount of MS and to evaluate the prebiotic effects of MS ingestion. This study was conducted in two steps. In the first step of the study, gastrointestinal system symptoms of the volunteers were examined during four weeks and the tolerable amount of MS was detected. In the second step the prebiotic effects of tolerable dosage of MS (12 g/d) ingestion was investigated. At the end of the placebo and test period, faecal samples were analysed. Flatus was more frequent and intense in volunteers consuming MS48 than the other groups and MS ingestion affected fecal weight in all groups. MS ingestion increased the amount of Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus and total anaerobes (except for Clostridium) and decreased all aerobes. However these changes were not statistically significant (p>0.05). MS consumption decreased the amount of all aerobes, but only the reduction in the number of Staphylococcus was statistically significant compared to placebo period (p<0.01). As a result, 12g/d consumption of MS generated prebiotic effects in colon of healthy volunteers.
... 10) Ingestion of fructooligosaccharides (FOS), typical nondigestible oligosaccharides, increase the numbers of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Bacteroides in the intestine. 11,12) Ingestion of glucomannan (GM), a nondigestible polysaccharide, increases bifidobacteria counts in cecum and feces. 13,14) In addition, lactobacilli, bacteroides and bifidobacteria have been shown to metabolize MeHg to an inorganic form in vitro. ...
... In addition, nondigestible saccharides have been reported to increase the densities of cecal and fecal saccharolytic bacteria, such as bifidobacteria, bacteroides and lactobacilli, in animals [12][13][14] and humans. 10,11) Unlike those reports, Hosono 23) mentioned that Bifidobacterium was rarely detected in the cecal microbiota analysis of mice orally administered FOS (or their components), while the Bacteroides abundance changed most prominently. Nakanishi et al. 24) showed that the number of 16S rRNA genes of Bacteroides was increased significantly in the feces of female BALB/c mice fed 7.5% FOS (or their components). ...
Article
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Methylmercury (MeHg) exposure during pregnancy is a concern because of its potential health risks to fetuses. Intestinal microbiota has important roles in the decomposition and fecal excretion of MeHg. We investigated the effect of nondigestible saccharides on the accumulation and excretion of Hg after MeHg exposure. Female BALB/cByJ mice were fed a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 5% fructooligosaccharides (FOS) or 2.5% glucomannan. Six weeks after feeding, mice were administered MeHg chloride (4 mg Hg/kg, per os (p.o.)), and urine and feces were collected for 28 d. FOS-fed mice had lower total Hg levels in all tissues (including the brain) compared with that of controls. The glucomannan diet had no effect on tissue Hg levels. No differences in tissue concentrations of inorganic Hg among groups were found. Fecal Hg excretion was markedly higher in FOS-fed mice than that in controls, but urinary Hg excretion was similar. FOS-fed mice had a higher proportion of inorganic Hg in feces than that of controls, with a significant increase in fecal Hg excretion. Analysis of fecal bacterial population showed the relative abundance of Bacteroides in FOS-fed mice to be higher than that in controls. The results suggest that FOS enhanced fecal Hg excretion and decreased tissue Hg levels after MeHg administration, possibly by accelerating MeHg demethylation by intestinal bacteria (the candidate genus Bacteroides). This demethylation also reduces MeHg absorption in the large intestine. In conclusion, daily FOS intake may decrease tissue Hg levels in animals and humans exposed to MeHg. Fullsize Image
... In recent years, the shift of the consumer's behavior towards healthier diets and nutritious foods increased tremendously since researchers linked some food ingredients with potential health benefits [1][2][3][4]. The growing demand triggered an increase in the global market for functional foods, especially for the so-called "prebiotic" compounds and "probiotics" [1,[4][5][6]. Recent studies associated the consumption of prebiotics with potential beneficial effects on human and animal health, namely on the gastrointestinal tract (GI), obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease, cardiovascular diseases, bones, and neurological disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and cognitive deficiency [2,[7][8][9][10][11]. ...
Article
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The consumer awareness towards healthier diets and the impact of nutrition on health has triggered an increase in the production and commercialization of foods with health claims. The scientific literature classifies these food products as functional foods, with a role in promoting health and preventing diseases, and they had a market share of almost 200 million EUR in 2019. Prebiotics are considered functional foods, referring to substrates that are selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit, as defined by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics. Several health benefits are associated with the consumption of prebiotics; however, specific requirements must demonstrate the causality between the specific ingredient and the claimed effect. Health claims associated with food products are assessed in the European Union and need to be supported by rigorous scientific evidence before being authorized and permitted on the market. Consumers’ perception of this topic is influenced by the various stakeholders involved. The current work aimed to study the consumers’ perception and interest and to assess the knowledge on the prebiotic concept in Romania. The consumer interest level was quantified by using the web-based data tool Google Trends, and a questionnaire-based investigation was designed. The collected data were analyzed with the help of the SPSS program, and crosstabulation was used to identify the influence of socio-demographic characteristics on diet choice and awareness of prebiotics. A total of 303 persons answered the online applied questionnaire, grouped as young consumers (15–24 years old) and adults (25–64 years old). Even if most responders were familiar with the term of prebiotics (74% of total responders), some results were contradictory regarding their knowledge. The work emphasized the need to carry out educational campaigns and inform consumers on the relationship between certain food ingredients and health outcomes in a clear way and based on a rigorous assessment of the scientific evidence.
... The idea that certain nutrients (including carbohydrates) can modify the gut microbiota existed long before definitions for such nutrients had been proposed. Reports on the bifidogenic properties of inulin and oligofructose (produced from inulin), and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) synthetically produced from sucrose, as well as galactose-containing and xylose-containing oligosaccharides appeared in the 1980s and early 1990s [1][2][3][4]. Even earlier, in the 1950s, researchers described the presence of a so-called 'bifidus factor' in human milk, a component that enriched for bifidobacteria in infants [5]. ...
... Recently, fructosyl oligosaccharides have gained popularity, with a 1-kestose, nystose and 1-fructofuranosylnystose serving as examples ( Figure 1). These saccharides are known as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS); they have been reported to have functions such as indigestibility and prebiotics, which are beneficial to human health [13,14]. Although these saccharides have been found in natural products such onion, burdock, and banana [15][16][17][18][19], the amounts are minute. ...
Article
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Fructosyl oligosaccharides, including fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), are gaining popularity as functional oligosaccharides and have been found in various natural products. Our previous study suggested that maple syrup contains an unidentified fructosyl oligosaccharide. Because these saccharides cannot be detected with high sensitivity using derivatization methods, they must be detected directly. As a result, an analytical method based on charged aerosol detection (CAD) that can detect saccharides directly was optimized in order to avoid relying on these structures and physical properties to clarify the profile of fructosyl oligosaccharides in maple syrup. This analytical method is simple and can analyze up to hepta-saccharides in 30 min. This analytical method was also reliable and reproducible with high validation values. It was used to determine the content of saccharides in maple syrup, which revealed that it contained not only fructose, glucose, and sucrose but also FOS such as 1-kestose and nystose. Furthermore, we discovered a fructosyl oligosaccharide called neokestose in maple syrup, which has only been found in a few natural foods. These findings help to shed light on the saccharides profile of maple syrup.
... An extra benefit of inulin as a potential source of dietary fibre in many manufactured food products is that it cannot be digested by the enzymes of the human small intestine. The most effective human intake level of inulin for reducing serum triglyceride, cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in the blood was found to be 8-10 g per day (Abrams et al., 2005(Abrams et al., , 2007Canzi, Brighenti, Casiraghi, Del Puppo, & Ferrari, 1995;Hidaka, Tashiro, & Eida, 1991;Jackson, Taylor, Clohessy, & Williams, 1999;Williams, 1999). Inulin at 15-20 g per day was found by Gibson, Beatty, Wang, and Cummings (1995), Hond, Geypens, and Ghoos (2000), Kleessen, Svkura, Zunft, and Blaut (1997) to be effective in relieving constipation. ...
Article
This study examined inulin content in 266 samples. They were 126 dried, 105 liquid and 27 semi-solid of twelve commercial inulin fortified food products and 8 samples of natural dried sunchoke. For dried food products, inulin content ranged from 3.0 ± 0.8 g/100 g fresh weight (FW) in milk powder to 83.7 ± 17.8 g/100 g FW in inulin powder. The levels in a descending order are the powder of inulin, weight control diet, coffee mixed, instant beverage, supplemented food products for pregnant and milk. For liquid fortified foods, inulin at the level of 0.3 ± 0.1 g/100 mL FW was found in UHT milk, and up to 13.5 ± 4.1 g/100 mL FW in weight control diet beverage. The level of 2.0–2.3 g/100 g FW of inulin was found in beverage with different flavours, soybean milk and fruit juice. For semi-solid food, cream yoghurt, inulin at 3.9 ± 1.1 g/100 g FW was found. A serving of most products contributes inulin at 11–33% of the recommended daily intake of dietary fibre.
... Many dietary fibers, particularly soluble fibers, exhibit prebiotic activity [16], and amongst the various prebiotics, inulin and oligo-fructoses (also referred to as inulin-type prebiotics) have been the subject of extensive research [12][13][14][15]. However, despite the widespread use of fructans, for their prebiotic properties, and the increasing number of scientific reports regarding their beneficial effects [14,15,[17][18][19][20][21], the exact mechanism by which they act remains to be defined. The potential mechanisms involved are: modulation of the immune system, prevention of the enterotoxin binding to the intestinal epithelium, regulation of intestinal microbial flora and direct effects on colonic motility [22]. ...
Article
Background: Fructans, such as inulin, are dietary fibers which stimulate gastro-intestinal (GI) function acting as prebiotics. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) impairs GI motility, through production of reactive oxygen species. The antioxidant activity of various fructans was tested and the protective effect of inulin on colonic smooth muscle cell (SMC) impairment, induced by exposure of human mucosa to LPS, was assessed in an ex vivo experimental model.
... Different human studied have suggested that fermentation of carbohydrate stimulate colonic motility [48], [49], and therefore, administration of oligofructose and inulin to a daily diet could improve constipation, abdominal discomfort, and increase in stool frequency. Hidaka et al. [50] observed that the administration of oligofructose relieved constipation and inulin ingestion improved constipation in 9 of 10 subjects. Abdominal discomfort, mainly flatulence, was reported rarely, and by only a few patients. ...
Article
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Interest in consumption of prebiotics and probiotics to improve human gastrointestinal health is increasing. Consumption of beneficial probiotic bacteria combined with oligosaccharides may enhance colonic bacterial composition and improve internal health. Inulin is a polyfructans which is widely used as prebiotic, sugar replacer, fat replacer and texture modifier. It is a significant ingredient used in food industry by virtue of its diversified nutritional and functional properties. Inulin, cellulose, starch, pectin, carrageenan and xanthan gum are of great attention because of their nutritional and tecchnological properties.The inulin concentration enhances product texture; at high concentration inulin can alter the texture profile of products because of its physico-chemical significance. Inulin may also significantly affect the sensory attributes of many products. The physico-chemical significance of inulin is associated with its degree of polymerization. The short chain fraction of inulin possesses more solubility and also contain much more sweetness than the long chain oligosaccharides. It can improve the mouth feel due to its properties which directly relate with those of other sugars.
... Cholesterol lowering effects of oligofructose and inulin has also been confirmed in animal 32 and human studies. 33,34 Recent studies have proposed that the effects on serum TG is due to reduced secretion of VLDL particles from the liver and is associated with reduced activity and gene expression of the key regulatory enzyme fatty acid synthetase. 35,36 In summary, given the several beneficial effects of oligofructoseenriched inulin on the improvement of the immune function, serum lipid, and glycemic status, further studies are warranted to confirm our results and better clarify the underlying mechanisms. ...
Article
Backgrounds and aims: Type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) asone of the main causes of morbidity and mortality is associated with immune system disturbances and metabolic abnormalities. In the current study we aimed to evaluate the effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin on T-cell subsets and their related cytokines, anthropometric and metabolic parameters in patients with T2DM. Methods: Forty-six diabetic females patients were randomly allocated into intervention (n = 27) and control (n = 22) groups. Subjects in the intervention group received a daily dose of 10 g of oligofructose-enriched inulin and subjects in control group received a placebo for two months. Anthropometric variables, metabolic parameters including fasting serum glucose (FSG), hemoglobin A1 c (HbA1c), lipid profile and blood pressure were measured at the beginning and after two months. Immune markers also included serum interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ concentrations were assessed and CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD11b+T-cell counts were determined by flow cytometry at baseline and end of the trial. Results: After two months intervention, significant improvements in anthropometric variables, blood pressure and serum lipids occurred in prebiotic-treated group (P < 0.001). Serum IL-4, IL-12 and IFN-γ concentrationsalso significantly decreased in intervention group (P < 0.001). No significant changes in CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD11b+ T-cell counts were observed in treatment groups after intervention. Conclusion: The present study showed several beneficial effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin on the improvement of the glycemic status, lipid profile, and immune markers in patients with T2DM. Further studies are needed to confirming our findings and to better clarify the underlying mechanisms.
... Prebiotics improve the activity of beneficial intestinal microflora and increase intestinal nutrient absorption (Rastall and Maitin 2002;Al-Sheraji et al. 2013). Non-digestible oligosaccharides are the most important class of prebiotics and are fermented by intestinal microflora to form short-chain fatty acids, which have the beneficial effect of increasing densities of bifidobacteria (Hidaka et al. 1991) and lactobacilli (Williams et al. 1994) in the intestine. In contrast, polysaccharides do not function in this role. ...
Article
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Ulva prolifera Müller, an alga rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds, is a natural feed resource for aquatic animals. In this study, instead of extracting polysaccharides (PUs) from U. prolifera, algae powder was used directly as the primary carbon source in a fermentation medium. Five percent (5%) algae powder was more conducive to fermentation. Using submerged liquid fermentation, the soluble components of U. prolifera were released efficiently in a 50-L fermenter. Levels of mannitol acquired using submerged liquid fermentation were 1.8 times higher than those acquired using the hot-water method, and polysaccharides were efficiently hydrolyzed to form oligosaccharides with an average molecular weight of approximately 3300 Da. Furthermore, a 2-month experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of U. prolifera fermentation extracts on the growth performance of juvenile abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino). Diets containing algae fermentation extracts in concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1% significantly increased linear shell growth rate (LGR), weight growth rate (WGR), and specific growth rate (SGR). Diets supplemented with fermentation extracts in concentrations of 0.5 and 1% significantly increased the degree of green coloration in the shell. Treatment of algae tissue using submerged liquid fermentation has the advantages of high efficiency and convenient process monitoring. Additionally, the technique can be scaled up for use in animal husbandry and aquaculture.
... Recently, Fuller redefined these benefits of viable microbes as "probiotics" (9) . The oral administration of non-digestive oligosaccharides has also been found to contribute to improving intestinal flora and reducing putrefactive metabolites in the intestines of adults (12,15,18,31,33) and infants (4,13). ...
Article
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Cow's milk-based follow-up formula (NAN BF) containing viable Bifidobacterium bifidum strain Bb12 was given to seven healthy children of 15 to 31 months old for 21 days, and the effect of NAN BF on fecal flora and fecal metabolic products was studied. The formula NAN BF was well-accepted by the children. During the intake of NAN BF, fecal bifidobacteria showed a tendency to increase, and lecithinase-negative clostridia decreased (p<0.05). B. bifidumstrain Bb12 was detected in fecal samples from five subjects (71%) during intake, with a maximum of 27% of total bifidobacteria. Fecal putrefactive products, ammonia and indole, were significantly reduced (p<0.01) and acetic acid increased (p<0.05) during intake. These results suggest that the intake of NAN BF is beneficial as “probiotics” in improving the intestinal flora and in maintaining the healthy intestinal condition of children during and after weaning.
... As previously mentioned, they escape digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract and reach the large intestine virtually intact, where they are quantitatively fermented and act as prebiotics. Indeed, in the studies (30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39)(40)(41)(42)(43)(44) that investigated the effects of inulin and oligofructose on the human gut microbiota, a selective stimulation of growth of the beneficial flora, namely bifidobacteria, to a lesser extent lactobacilli, and possibly other species such as the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale cluster known to be butyrate producers has been reported (45,46). According to these data, and even though all inulin derivatives (see Fig. 1) induce a significant stimulation of growth of bifidobacteria, they do not have, qualitatively, the same effects in the different segments of the large bowel, which might be differently influenced. ...
Article
A food (ingredient) is regarded as functional if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially 1 or more target functions in the body beyond adequate nutritional effects. The term inulin-type fructans covers all β(2←1) linear fructans including native inulin (DP 2–60, DPav = 12), oligofructose (DP 2–8, DPav = 4), and inulin HP (DP 10–60, DPav = 25) as well as Synergy 1, a specific combination of oligofructose and inulin HP. Inulin-type fructans resist digestion and function as dietary fiber improving bowel habits. But, unlike most dietary fibers, their colonic fermentation is selective, thus causing significant changes in the composition of the gut microflora with increased and reduced numbers of potentially health-promoting bacteria and potentially harmful species, respectively. Both oligofructose and inulin act in this way and thus are prebiotic: they also induce changes in the colonic epithelium and in miscellaneous colonic functions. In particular, the claim “inulin-type fructans enhance calcium and magnesium absorption” is scientifically substantiated, and the most active product is oligofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy 1). A series of studies furthermore demonstrate that inulin-type fructans modulate the secretion of gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite regulation as well as lipid metabolism. Moreover, a large number of animal studies and preliminary human data show that inulin-type fructans reduce the risk of colon carcinogenesis and improve the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Inulin-type fructans are thus functional food ingredients that are eligible for enhanced function claims, but, as more human data become available, risk reduction claims will become scientifically substantiated.
... IOS have very similar structure and functionalities to fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) whose beneficial effects on humans and animals have been well characterized as functional sweeteners. Thus, IOS can be used as soluble dietary fiber, a functional sweetener, or as prebiotic for enriching population of Bifidobacteria (Hidaka et al., 1991;Roberfroid, 1993). In this paper, we review some vegetable sources of inulin for obtaining IOS and its different characteristics, microbial endoinulinase producers, factors affecting their production, and strategies for increasing oligosaccharide production. ...
Article
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Oligosaccharides have been marketed since the 1980s as low calories agents and recently have gained interest in the pharmaceutical and food industry as functional sweeteners and prebiotic enriching population of Bifidobacteria. Currently, they have an approximated value of $ 200 per kg and recently, inulin has been proposed as a feedstock for production of oligosaccharides through selective hydrolysis by action of endoinulinase. High optimum temperature (60 °C) and thermostability are two important criteria which determine suitability of this enzyme for industrial applications as well as enzyme cost, a major limiting factor. Significant reduction in cost can be achieved by employing low-value and abundant inulin rich plants as Jerusalem artichoke, dahlia, yacon, garlic and onion, among others. In general, the early-harvested tubers of these plants contain a greater amount of highly polymerized sugar fractions, which offer more industrial value than late-harvested tubers or those after storage. Also, development of recombinant microorganisms could be useful to reduce the cost of enzyme technology for large scale production of oligosaccharides. In the case of fungal inulinases, several studies of cloning and modification have been made to achieve greater efficiency. The present article reviews inulin from vegetable sources as feedstock for oligosaccharides production through the action of inulinases, the impact of polymerization degree of inulin and its availability and some strategies to increase oligosaccharides production.
... For example, fructo-oligosaccharide promotes the growth of bifidobacteria in vivo. Oligofructose and inulin also increase the population of colonic bifidobacteria [46,47]. Hsu et al. [48] observed that xylo-oligosaccharides and fructo-oligosaccharides affect the intestinal microbiota and precancerous development of colonic lesions in rats. ...
Article
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Recent evidence suggests that probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics may serve as important dietary components in the prevention (especially) and treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the recommendations for their use are often based on brief reports and small clinical studies. This review evaluates the current literature on the correlation between CVD and probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics. Although research on probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics has grown exponentially in recent years, particularly regarding the effect of probiotics on CVD, their mechanisms have not been clearly defined. It has been proposed that probiotics lower cholesterol levels, and may protect against CVD, by increasing bile salt synthesis and bile acid deconjugation. Similar effects have also been observed for prebiotics and synbiotics; however, probiotics also appear to have anti-oxidative, anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory properties. Importantly, probiotics not only have demonstrated effects in vitro and in animal models, but also in humans, where supplementation with probiotics decreases the risk factors of CVD. In addition, the properties of commercial probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics remain undetermined, and further experimental research is needed before these substances can be used in the prevention and treatment of CVD. In particular, well-designed clinical trials are required to determine the influence of probiotics on trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), which is believed to be a marker of CVDs, and to clarify the long-term effects, and action, of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic supplementation in combination with drug therapy (for example, aspirin). However, while it cannot be unequivocally stated whether such supplementation yields benefits in the prevention and treatment of CVDs, it is important to note that clinical studies performed to date have not identified any side-effects to use.
... Fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) has been observed to escape the enzymatic digestion in the small intestine and forms a substrate for the gastrointestinal microflora (Tokunaga et al., 1989). The FOS, on the other hand, enhances the growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, but prevent Escherichia coli in the large intestine (Hidaka et al., 1986(Hidaka et al., , 1991Bunce et al., 1995;Roberfroid et al., 1998). This leads to increase fecal bile acid excretion and decrease in its intestinal concentration (Delzenne, 1993;Kim and Shin, 1998). ...
Chapter
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Legumes are important source of nutrients in human diet, particularly from low-income group of developing nations. They are rich in proteins and good source of polyphenolic compounds which result in several positive effects on health. However, their nutritional value is adversely impacted by the presence of many antinutritional factors, such as amylase inhibitors, chlorogenic acid, cyanogenic glycosides, goitrogens, gossypol, isoflavones, lectins (phytohemagglutinins), oligosaccharides, oxalates, phytic acid (phytates), protease inhibitors (trypsin inhibitors), saponins, tannins, etc. These antinutritional substances can be removed or minimized to an accept- able level by simple and inexpensive processing techniques like boiling, dehulling, fermentation, extrusion, soaking, and pressure cooking which are discussed in detail. The present chapter will also highlight the significance of antinutritional substances in human health. Recent researches carried out to eliminate these antinutrients using technological processing are also emphasized in the study.
... It has been established that indigestible carbohydrates have beneficial effects (11,12,35). These dietary components, such as inulin (16), resistant starch (38), and guar gum hydrolysate (9), increase apparent intestinal calcium absorption, calcium balance, and bone mineral density in rats. ...
Article
Several studies have been carried out to establish the role of calcium and magnesium in bone. These minerals may play an important role in bone structure or strength. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are known to be stimulators of intestinal mineral absorption. In intact rats, bone volume and the mineral content (Ca, and Mg) of the bone surface are greater in FOS-fed rats. Moreover, a significant relationship exists between the absorption of these minerals and their content in bone. Osteopenia is known to follow total gastrectomy in animals, leading to the severe concordant loss of both cortical and cancellous bone. These findings are similar to senile osteoporosis in humans. Dietary FOS completely prevents the gastrectomy-induced osteopenia in rats. If similar effects are found in humans, an increase in mineral deposition in bone during growth may contribute to the prevention of bone disease with age. Thus FOS might be a promising prebiotic for bone.
... Different human studied have suggested that fermentation of carbohydrate stimulate colonic motility [48], [49], and therefore, administration of oligofructose and inulin to a daily diet could improve constipation, abdominal discomfort, and increase in stool frequency. Hidaka et al. [50] observed that the administration of oligofructose relieved constipation and inulin ingestion improved constipation in 9 of 10 subjects. Abdominal discomfort, mainly flatulence, was reported rarely, and by only a few patients. ...
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Interest in consumption of prebiotics and probiotics to improve human gastrointestinal health is increasing. Consumption of beneficial probiotic bacteria combined with oligosaccharides may enhance colonic bacterial composition and improve internal health. Inulin is a polyfructans which is widely used as prebiotic, sugar replacer, fat replacer and texture modifier. It is a significant ingredient used in food industry by virtue of its diversified nutritional and functional properties. Inulin, cellulose, starch, pectin, carrageenan and xanthan gum are of great attention because of their nutritional and tecchnological properties.The inulin concentration enhances product texture; at high concentration inulin can alter the texture profile of products because of its physico -chemical significance. Inulin may also significantly affect the sensory attributes of many products. The physico-chemical significance of inulin is associated with its degree of polymerization. The short chain fraction of inulin possesses more solubility and also contain much more sweetness than the long chain oligosaccharides. It can improve the mouth feel due to its properties which directly relate with those of other sugars.
... İnülin tip fruktanların βkonfigurasyonu sayesinde tükrük ve kalın barsakta sindirim enzimleri ile yıkımına direnç [35]. Ek olarak, OF alımının kabızlığı azalttığı gösterilmiştir [36]. Bir başka çalışmada, inülin alımının 10 kişinin 9'unda konstipasyonu azalttığı ve çok az hastada abdominal rahatsızlık ve gaz şikâyetleri olduğu gözlenmiştir [37]. ...
... The degree of polymerization (DP) can vary from 2-35. FOS with DP of 3-5 are called neosugars [12] and are enzymatically synthesized from sucrose using fructosyltransferase obtained from Aspergillus niger [13]. Mckellar and Modler showed that the maximum activity of ß-fructosidase responsible for the hydrolysis of inulin type polysaccharides by bifidobacteria was observed with neosugars [14]. ...
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The environmental and nutritional parameters were studied aiming to maximal EPS production by Bacillus subtilis. The basal medium (BM) was appeared to be the optimum medium among the seven tested media at 150 rpm. The highest production of EPS was obtained after 3 dayes incubation period, pH 7.0 and 25C. Sucrose was the best carbon source stimulating the maximum production of EPS followed by mannitol. The maximum production was achieved at concentration 4.5% of sucrose. The highest production of EPS was recorded by using yeast extract with a concentration of 0.22%.
... FOS, a mixture of fructose units linked by beta-1,2-bond and a degree of polymerization (DP) between 2 and 8, was one of the earliest described nondigestible food ingredients [1] and is widely used in food products including infant formulas due to advantageous chemical properties and potential benefits to health [10]. It is fermented in the colon [11], and human studies have shown FOS to increase Bifidobacterium growth [12][13][14]. In contrast, PDX is a mixture of nondigestible polysaccharides comprised of varying lengths of glucose monomers linked with diverse glycosidic bonds and small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid with an average DP of 12 [15,16]. ...
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Background: Dietary glycans, widely used as food ingredients and not directly digested by humans, are of intense interest for their beneficial roles in human health through shaping the microbiome. Characterizing the consistency and temporal responses of the gut microbiome to glycans is critical for rationally developing and deploying these compounds as therapeutics. Methods: We investigated the effect of two chemically distinct glycans (fructooligosaccharides and polydextrose) through three clinical studies conducted with 80 healthy volunteers. Stool samples, collected at dense temporal resolution (~ 4 times per week over 10 weeks) and analyzed using shotgun metagenomic sequencing, enabled detailed characterization of participants' microbiomes. For analyzing the microbiome time-series data, we developed MC-TIMME2 (Microbial Counts Trajectories Infinite Mixture Model Engine 2.0), a purpose-built computational tool based on nonparametric Bayesian methods that infer temporal patterns induced by perturbations and groups of microbes sharing these patterns. Results: Overall microbiome structure as well as individual taxa showed rapid, consistent, and durable alterations across participants, regardless of compound dose or the order in which glycans were consumed. Significant changes also occurred in the abundances of microbial carbohydrate utilization genes in response to polydextrose, but not in response to fructooligosaccharides. Using MC-TIMME2, we produced detailed, high-resolution temporal maps of the microbiota in response to glycans within and across microbiomes. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that dietary glycans cause reproducible, dynamic, and differential alterations to the community structure of the human microbiome.
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Previous studies have shown that fructans, a soluble dietary fiber, are beneficial to human health and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some diseases. Fructans are nonreducing carbohydrates composed of fructosyl units and terminated by a single glucose molecule. These carbohydrates may be straight or branched with varying degrees of polymerization. Additionally, fructans are resistant to hydrolysis by human digestive enzymes but can be fermented by the colonic microbiota to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), metabolic by-products that possess immunomodulatory activity. The indirect role of fructans in stimulating probiotic growth is one of the mechanisms through which fructans exert their prebiotic activity and improve health or ameliorate disease. However, a more direct mechanism for fructan activity has recently been suggested; fructans may interact with immune cells in the intestinal lumen to modulate immune responses in the body. Fructans are currently being studied for their potential as “ROS scavengers” that benefit intestinal epithelial cells by improving their redox environment. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of fructans interaction with the intestinal immune system, the gut microbiota, and other components of the intestinal lumen to provide an overview of the mechanisms underlying the effects of fructans on health and disease.
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The β-xylosidase B from Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC15703 belongs to the newly characterized family 120 of glycoside hydrolases. In order to investigate its catalytic mechanism, an extensive kinetic study of the wild-type enzyme and mutants targeting the three highly conserved residues Asp(393), Glu(416) and Glu(364) was performed. NMR analysis of the xyloside hydrolysis products, the change of the reaction rate-limiting step for the Glu(416) mutants, the pH dependency of E416A activity and its chemical rescue allowed to demonstrate that this GH120 enzyme uses a retaining mechanism of glycoside hydrolysis, Glu(416) playing the role of acid/base catalyst and Asp(393) that of nucleophile. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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We investigated the effects of oral administration of undigestible oligo- and polysaccharides to rats on microbial fermentation products and fecal enzyme activities. The fecal pH values were decreased by feeding diet containing arabinogalactan (AG), kestose (Kes) and nystose (Nys). The fecal moisture was significantly increased by feeding polydextrose (PD), xylooligosaccharide (XO), glucuronosyl xylooligosaccharide (GXO), citrus pectin (CP) and apple pectin (AP) diet. Oligo- and polysaccharides in the diet resulted in a decrease in fecal β-glucosidase, β-glucuronidase and urease activities measured at a constant pH (7.2). PD-containing diet, exceptionally, increased fecal β-glucosidase activity three- to fourfold. Furthermore, fecal enzyme activities were assayed at the fecal pH to assume their actual activities in the colon. These activities were distinctly altered; particularly, β-glucosidase activity in rats fed PD increased and all of the enzyme activities assayed in rats fed Kes and Nys were significantly decreased. These results suggest that the actual enzyme activities of intestinal bacteria should be assayed not at their optimal pHs, but at intestinal pHs. The effects of ten oligo- and polysaccharides on the intestinal environment are discussed in connection with the reduction in the incidence of colon cancer by daily intake of the saccharide.
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Fructooligosaccharides are an ideal source of fermentable fiber for medical foods. Typically, medical foods are liquid, many of which are fed to patients through a tube. Liquid medical foods that are fed through a tube must be low in viscosity. Fructooligosaccharides are soluble and will not clog feeding tubes and do not significantly increase the viscosity of the product. Rationale for the use of fructooligosaccharides in medical foods includes: normalization of bowel function, maintenance of large bowel integrity, restoration of colonization resistance, alteration in route of nitrogen excretion, and improvement in calcium absorption. Normalization of bowel function refers to the treatment or prevention of constipation or diarrhea in patients receiving a medical food. Fructooligosaccharides, through anaerobic fermentation by colonic bacteria and the production of short chain fatty acids, may be useful in preventing large bowel atrophy or treating distal ulcerative colitis. Fructooligosaccharides, by selectively supporting the growth of bifidobacteria or producing an environment in the colon (e.g., increased short chain fatty acid concentration or decreased pH) that is not conducive to the growth of certain pathogenic organisms, may help restore colonization resistance. Anaerobic fermentation of fructooligosaccharides, leading to the bacterial cell growth and a reduction is colonic pH, may shift nitrogen excretion from the urinary to the fecal route. Improvements in calcium absorption may occur through mechanisms involving short chain fatty acid absorption and a reduction in large bowel pH. Overall, compatibility with liquid products and numerous physiological benefits to the patient justify the use of fructooligosaccharides in medical foods.
Chapter
Nowadays, most consumers are aware of a strong relationship between diet and health. Although the primary role of diet is to provide nutrients, foods are no longer considered only in terms of taste and nutritional needs. The use of foods to improve health is an increasingly accepted idea. The World Health Organization (WHO) delineated that unhealthy diets such as those high in fat, salt and free sugar, and low in complex carbohydrates, fruits and vegetables, lead to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (WHO 2003). Lipids have an important role in humans and abnormalities in lipid metabolism can cause serious disorders such as obesity, diabetes, etc. More recent findings show that elevated fasting triglyceride levels are associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular diseases. The WHO has predicted that by 2030, cardiovascular diseases will remain the leading causes of death, affecting approximately 23.6 million people around the World (WHO 2009). In view of this, there is extensive interest in the dietary management of triglyceride levels. Drug therapy is largely used for this purpose, but most people are affected by unwanted side effects of such treatments. Current dietary strategies for prevention of cardiovascular disorders include low-fat/low-saturated fat diet (Taylor and Williams 1998). Although such diets are an effective therapy, they are difficult to maintain on a long-term and their efficacy diminishes over time (Pereira and Gibson 2002). There is a growing interest in alternative agents which have preventative and therapeutic potential. Probiotic and prebiotic foods fall into this category. Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote health benefits upon consumption, while prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be used as alternative supplements to exert health benefits. Past in vivo studies showed that the administration of probiotics and/or prebiotics are effective in improving lipid profiles, including the reduction of serum/plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides or increment of HDL-cholesterol. However, other past studies have also shown that probiotics and prebiotics had insignificant effects on lipid profiles (Ooi and Liong 2010). It is still unclear which mechanisms are used by probiotics or prebiotics to bring about improved lipid metabolism. Nowadays, combining probiotics and prebiotics into “synbiotics” is a new approach to further enhance their effects.
Chapter
We have previously defined a prebiotic as ‘a non-digestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon’ (Gibson and Roberfroid, 1995). In this context, a prebiotic is a dietary ingredient that reaches the large intestine in an intact form and has a specific metabolism therein — directed towards advantageous rather than adverse bacteria. This would ultimately lead to a marked change in the gut microflora composition. The premise is based on the hypothesis that the human large gut contains bacterial genera, and species, that are beneficial, benign and deterimental for host health. Whilst this generalisation probably gives too simplistic a view of gut microbiology, it is a feasible working concept. Fig. 1 gives our view of how different bacterial groups in the colon may be categorised in this manner. Forthcoming research will no doubt identify the realistic health values of the gut microflora, whilst other chapters in this book have discussed some of the more useful areas of interest.
Chapter
Most studies on prebiotics and mineral absorption have focused on calcium as it is crucial for bone health, especially in children and women. Many human trials have been carried out, and these have confirmed that prebiotics stimulate mineral absorption. Prebiotics were originally defined by some researchers as 'a non-digestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon, and thus improves host health'. Since prebiotics can benefit human gut health in many aspects, their effects on colorectal cancer have also been investigated. Inulin-type fructans are the best studied prebiotics, and many human studies have been carried out to investigate various health benefits, such as increased mineral absorption, effect on energy regulation, effect on lipid metabolism, improvement of immunity, potential to prevent colorectal cancer and gut function improvement.
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Inulin‐type fructan (ITF) intake has been suggested to alleviate several features of metabolic syndrome including obesity, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia; yet, results from the human trials remained inconsistent. We aimed to systematically evaluate the effects of ITF intake on body weight, glucose homeostasis, and lipid profile on human subjects with different health status, including healthy, overweight and obese, prediabetes and diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) between ITF and control groups were calculated by a random‐effects model. A total of 33 randomized controlled human trials were included. Significant effect of ITF intake was only observed in the diabetics, but not in the other subject groups. Specifically, ITF intervention significantly decreased the WMD of blood glucose (−0.42 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.71, −0.14; p = .004), total cholesterol (−0.46 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.75, −0.17; p = .002), and triglycerides (TAG) (−0.21 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.37, −0.05; p = .01) compared with the control. The stability of these favorable effects of ITF on diabetics was confirmed by sensitivity analysis. Also, ITF tends to lower LDL cholesterol (p = .084). But body weight and blood insulin were not affected by ITF intake. It should be noted that blood glucose, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol exhibited high unexplained heterogeneity. In conclusion, ITF intake lowers blood glucose, total cholesterol, and TAG in the people with diabetes, and they may benefit from addition of inulin into their diets, but the underlying mechanisms responsible for these effects are inconclusive. Significant effect of inulin‐type fructans intake was only observed in the diabetics, but not in the other subject groups, inculding including healthy, overweight and obese, and hyperlipidemia.
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Chickpea, the second most important pulse crop, delivers multiple benefits to farming systems—a lower footprint with reduced use of synthetic nitrogen and soil improvements, and enhanced livestock and human health due to its superior dietary quality with valuable proteins, minerals, vitamins, and fibers. However, if chickpea is to fully deliver these benefits, the crops need greater productivity and resilience to a changing climate. If realized, chickpea has much potential to contribute to the growing food demand of our global family and address the problem of undernourishment in developing countries of Asia and Africa. Tremendous progress has been made over the past decade on removing the bottleneck of narrow genetic diversity by broadening the genetic base of cultivated chickpeas through the incorporation of crop wild relatives and landraces. However, increases in chickpea productivity have been slow with average yields of about 1 t/ha, stagnated or threatened by multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. To boost productivity and global production, improved cultivars have to be bred and developed with resistance to region-specific diseases and environmental stresses. Recent developments have capitalized on modern genomic tools and enabled implementing successful genomics-assisted breeding of improved cultivars adapted to biotic and abiotic stresses in various environments, and these can yield up to >2 t/ha. This chapter provides an overview of chickpea’s nutritional profile, current production constraints, crop phenology, genetic improvement, genomic resources, cropping systems, seed systems as well as web-based resources for current and future chickpea improvement programs.
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Prebiotics are indigestible substances in the upper gastrointestinal tract that have a positive effect on the health host improvement due to the stimulation of growth and activity of a group of beneficial bacteria in the colon (probiotics). Short-chain fructooligosaccharides such as β-glucan fibre, resistant starch, pectin, inulin and many indigestible carbohydrates are examples of prebiotic compounds. Inulin is a storage biological polymer composed of D-fructose molecules with β (1 2) bonds, which at the end has a D-glucose molecule with α (2 1) bond. Inulin configuration and arrangement of fructose monomers causes inulin to be indigestible in the human gastrointestinal tract and Inulin doesn't increase blood sugar levels. Also, inulin has beneficial effects on the composition of the intestinal flora, minerals absorption, the combination of blood lipids and the prevention of colon cancer. Inulin stimulates the growth of health beneficial microorganisms while inhibiting enteropathogenic bacteria. The beneficial microorganisms ferment inulin and produce acids including short-chain fatty acids that lower the pH in the colon and inhibit pathogens. The amount of inulin in different plants varies from 1% in bananas to more than 15% in chicory root. Fructan-type inulin is found mainly in a variety of dicotyledonous plants belonging to the genus Astrases, including chicory, Jerusalem artichoke, artichoke, dandelions and dahlia. The present study introduces the most common of salutary prebiotic combinations, especially inulin. Keywords: Oligosaccharides, Inulin, Prebiotics, Fibres, Functional foods, Artichoke
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To assess the effect of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on the intestinal bacterial flora, lipid metabolism and constipation in hemodialysis patients, we conducted clinical studies on 18 patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. Eighteen patients were divided into two groups: nine of the patients were administered 6 g of FOS daily for three months (FOS group), and the other 9 patients were given no FOS (control group). Analyses were made on peripheral blood counts, blood chemistries, intestinal bacterial flora and bowel habits. In the FOS group, 8 of the patients showed an increase in the amount of Bifidobacterium, lactobacilli and streptococci in their feces. In this group, a significant decrease in the amount of putrefactive products such as indole, skatole, and p-cresol was observed (p<0.05). The mean serum triglyceride concentration decreased from 281.0±207.4 mg/dl (mean±SD) to 232.5±133.4 mg/dl after three months of FOS administration. The degree of this reduction showed a strong inverse correlation to the initial value (r=-0.8376). The mean serum cholesterol concentration decreased from 192.1±27.3 mg/dl to 185.4±30.2 mg/dl at the end of the third month of the study without any reduction in serum HDL-C. In 7 patients out of 9 (77.8%), defecation became regular and smooth. As a result, laxatives could be withdrawn for 2 of the patients. No adverse effects were observed. In the control group, these parameters remained unchanged throughout this study. These results indicate the outstanding clinical advantages of the administration of fructooligosaccharide in hemodialysis patients.
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Scope The gut microbiota might be a critical modifier of metabolic disease development. Dietary fibers such as galacto‐oligosaccharides (GOS) presumably stimulate the growth of bacteria beneficial for metabolic health. This study aimed to assess the impact of GOS on obesity, glucose and lipid metabolism. Methods & results Following Western‐type diet feeding (C57BL/6 mice) with or without β‐GOS (7% w/w, 15 weeks), body composition, glucose and insulin tolerance tests, lipid profiles, fat kinetics studies and microbiota analyses were performed. GOS reduced body weight gain (p<0.01), accumulation of epididymal (p<0.05) and perirenal (p<0.01) fat, and development of insulin resistance (p<0.01). GOS‐fed mice had lower plasma cholesterol (p<0.05), mainly within low‐density lipoproteins, lower intestinal fat absorption (p<0.01), more fecal neutral sterol excretion (p<0.05). and higher intestinal GLP‐1 expression (p<0.01). Fecal bile acid excretion was lower (p<0.01) in GOS‐fed mice with substantial compositional differences, namely decreased cholic (p<0.05), α‐muricholic (p<0.05), and deoxycholic acid excretion (p<0.01), whereas hyodeoxycholic acid increased (p<0.01). Substantial changes in microbiota composition, conceivably beneficial for metabolic health occured upon GOS feeding. Conclusion GOS supplementation to Western‐type diet improved body weight gain, dyslipidemia and insulin sensitivity supporting a therapeutic potential of GOS for individuals at risk of developing metabolic syndrome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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The purpose of this review is to analyze current concepts of prebiotics as one of the most promising groups of functional food ingredients, identify problems and trends in the investigations in this area. The background for the emergence and development stages of the concept of «prebiotics» as non-digestible food substances that selectively stimulate the growth and (or) the biological activity of one or a limited number of representatives of the protective microflora of the human intestine, contributing to the maintenance of its normal structure and biological activity is shown. The criteria for selecting prebiotics and the formula for prebiotic index determining are presented. Methods for determining the bifidogenic properties of functional foods enriched with probiotic microorganisms or prebiotic substances are described. Prebiotics are classified according to several factors: nature and structure, origin and sources of raw materials, the method of production, the field of application. It is shown that most researchers consider prebiotics only as substances of carbohydrate nature, primarily indigestible oligosaccharides. A brief description of the most studied prebiotics (fructans, galactans and lactulose) is given. The information on technological properties of oligosaccharide-prebiotics is generalized. It is shown that prebiotics belong to the fast growing segments in the world market of functional ingredients, however their production and use in Russia is still at the initial stage of development. The main tasks in the field of prebiotics researches are defined: clarifying the definition, improving the methods for analyzing their chemical composition, study of the effectiveness and mechanisms of influence on the intestinal microbiota, especially on the interaction in the «macroorganism-microbiota» system using modern molecular genetic methods; scientific substantiation of the possibility of prebiotics using for the prevention and treatment of alimentary-dependent diseases. For the practical implementation of these tasks, it is necessary to develop new cost-effective methods for the production of prebiotics and synbiotics, as well as food technology with their use.
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Obesity is currently a public health problem worldwide. Recently, non-reducing carbohydrates, that include β(2→1) and β(2→6) linkages in their structure, have been of particular interest in the field of obesity because they are involved in lipid metabolism. Some of these are agave fructans (AF) and oligofructose (OF). In this study, we evaluated both AF and OF on oxidative stress (OS) markers in the brain of overweight mice (OM). AF and OF decreased TBARS levels and carbonyls at different levels in hippocampus (HP), frontal cortex (FC) and cerebellum (CB) of OM. The results indicated that fructans may have anti-oxidative potential and can be used as an alternative treatment for the prevention of the consequences of this pathology.
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Eleven oligosaccharides were isolated from sugar beet molasses using carbon-Celite column chromatography and HPLC. The constituent sugars and linkage positions were determined using methylation analysis, MALDI-TOF-MS, and NMR measurements. The configurations of isolated oligosaccharides were confirmed based on detailed NMR analysis. Based on our results, three of the 11 oligosaccharides were novel.
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Effects of ingestion of raffinose-rich soup (Raf) on the fecal flora and fecal metabolic products were determined in seven healthy humans (age, 33.6±6.5; M/F, 7/0) and compared with that of placebo soup (Pla). Raf contained 5 g of raffinose per daily intake. After ingestion of Pla for two weeks, subjects were given Raf for two weeks. The number of fecal bifidobacteria and the percentage of that to total bacteria significantly increased during ingestion of Raf, and the concentrations of fecal ammonia and indole also significantly decreased. While effects of Raf on the daily defecation were determined in 32 healthy humans (age, 35.2±9.7; M/F, 2/30). The subjects ingested Raf or Pla for two weeks in a cross-over manner. The number of days with defecation and total times of defecation significantly increased during Raf in the group (n=26) with slight constipation. These results indicate that the ingestion of Raf is effective to improve the intestinal flora and the daily defecation.
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Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are complex sugars found in vegetables and fruits. FOS have high hygroscopicity that cause deliquescence with wetness in the atmosphere. However, the combination of FOS and Acacia Fiber, known as water-soluble dietary fiber, leads to a decreasing effect of hygroscopicity. In this study, we investigated physical properties directly related to that effect using thermal analysis. FOS, Acacia Fiber, their Combination Product and Blend, which included them in the ratio of 1 to 1, were used as samples. Two glass transition regions were observed from modulated DSC measurements, which provides information about the reversing characteristic of thermal events, in Combination Product and Blend, respectively. The lower glass transition temperatures in both samples were almost the same, and they were thought to be those of FOS. However, the higher glass transition temperatures in both samples were different. This result would make it possible to suppose that the amorphous structure in the Combination Product might be formed into a much more stable state than that in Blend, and furthermore that the glass transition of the combination of FOS and Acacia Fiber is relevant to its hygroscopicity.
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The objective was to determine the effects of prebiotics and synbiotics on adults with functional constipation (FC). Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched for literature published up to February 2015. We selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported administration of prebiotics or synbiotics to adults with FC. The end points included stool frequency, stool consistency and other symptoms related to constipation. Mean differences (MD) or standard mean differences (SMD) were used for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for discontinuous outcomes using a random-effects model. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to determine the quality of the trials. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to analyze for publication bias. We included 5 RCTs involving 199 patients who were administered prebiotics and 8 RCTs involving 825 patients who were administered synbiotics. Prebiotics increased weekly stool frequency (MD: 1.01 bowel movements/week, 95% CI: 0.04-1.99) and improved stool consistency (SMD: −0.59, 95% CI: −1.16 to −0.02). Subgroup analysis showed specific effects for galacto-oligosaccharides on stool frequency, consistency, ease of defecation and abdominal pain. Synbiotics significantly improved stool frequency (MD: 1.15 bowel movements/week, 95% CI: 0.58-1.71), consistency (SMD: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.33-0.92) and reduced whole-gut transit time (MD: 13.52, 95% CI: −26.56 to −0.49) in patients with FC. Subgroup analysis showed specific effects for fructo-oligosaccharides and probiotic combinations on stool frequency, consistency, straining defecation and bloating. Galacto-oligosaccharides and synbiotics made up of fructo-oligosaccharides with probiotic combinations may improve stool frequency, consistency and some other symptoms related to constipation.
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The outstanding of fructooligosaccharide as a nondigestible dietary fiber has been proved for the prevention of hypercholesterolemia, overgrowth of pathogen bacteria, colon cancer, and enhancement of mucosal immune response.The primary function of beneficial intestinal microflora is to protect the intestinal tract from the proliferation of infection or harmful bacteria. Bifidobacterium bifidum produces volatile fatty acids, which provide important metabolic energy, and acidifies the bowel, which inhibits the growth of harmful bacteria, including Salmonella, Shigella, Clostridium, Campilobacter jejuni, and Escherichia coli. When the population of beneficial microflora decreases the gastrointestinal environment makes a subtle chemical shift, which allows harmful bacteria such as Clostridium perfringens and E. coli to proliferate. One clinical manifestation of this imbalance is diarrhea. In developing countries, diarrhea is still the most important cause of child morbidity and mortality with an estimation of 1.3 billion episodes each year in children under 5 years old. FOS acts like an efficient intestinal “fertilizer” by feeding beneficial intestinal microflora and helping them to reproduce. The improvement in the intestinal microflora was followed by a relief of constipation, or loose stool;decreased formation of putrefactive products in the large intestine, improved serum lipids in hyperlipidemia; and reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose, and blood pressure. Studies show that the duration of diarrhea in children who ingested FOS were shorter than in those who ingested a placebos (2.62 days versus 4.24 days). The pH of stool in children who ingested FOS was significantly lower than in children who did not.
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The effects of various dietary fats on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase in rat liver microsomes, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterogenesis, were examined. A series of experiments demonstrated the dependency of the HMG-CoA reductase activity on the nature of dietary fats. When saturated fats with chain length of 12 to 18 were the dietary sources and were fed at the 10% level for 19 days, feeding fats with shorter chain fatty acids caused a lower enzyme activity compared to those with longer chain fatty acids. The activity was also regulated by the degree of unsaturation of dietary fats; when safflower oil, camellia oil or tristearin were fed at the 10% level for 18 days, the higher the unsaturation, the lower the activity. When trimyristin or tripalmitin were fed at the 10% level for 14 days, addition of essential fatty acid, at the level of minimum daily requirement (1% was replaced by safflower oil), did not affect the enzyme activity. Through the rate of incorporation of mevalonate into cholesterol in the 12,500 x g supernatant fraction of the liver was also found to be influenced by the types of dietary fats, the extent of the response appeared much smaller than that of HMG-CoA reductase. No consistent correlation between the HMG-CoA reductase activity and the content of microsomal cholesterol or cholesteryl ester and the fatty acid composition of microsomal lipids was observed.
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A study was made of the effects of fructooligosaccharides, which exist widely inplants such as onion, edible burdock, wheat etc., on the human and animal intestinal flora. Fructooligosaccharides are produced from sucrose with the aid of β-fructofuranosidase from Aspergillus niger on a commercial scale by Meiji Seika Kaisha, Ltd.(Neosugar, Meioligo®). It has been found that they are not hydrolyzed by any digestive enzymes of humans and animals. Moreover utilization byvarious kinds ofintestinal bacteria indicated that Bifidobacterium spp., the Bacteroides fragilis group, Peptostreptococcus spp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae can utilize these saccharides, but Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli and others cannot. The fructooligosaccharides are selectively utilized, particularly by bifidobacteria.The clinical studies showed that fructooligosaccharides administration improved the intestinal flora, with subsequent relief of constipation, improved blood lipids in hyperlipidemia, and suppressed the production of intestinal putrefactivesubstances.
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Utilization of fructooligosaccharides, 1F-(β-fructofuranosyl)n-1-sucrose, which are not digestible in the small intestine but are fermentable by intestinal microorganisms in man, was investigated by a radiorespirometric study and an anaerobic incubation of [U-14C]fructooligosaccharides with feces.About 49% and 55% of the administered radioactivity were detected in expired 14CO2 after 24 and 48h, respectively.In the anaerobic incubation, the saccharides were catabolized to 14CO2 (9.6%), microbial cell constituents (10.4%), and 14C-volatile fatty acid (acetic acid, 24.1%; propionic acid, 20.2%; butyric acid, 11.4% and valeric acid, 2.2%).Complemental interpretation of the two studies allowed quantitation of the catabolic pathway of fructooligosaccharides in man, and utilization of the oligosaccharides was estimated to be 1.5kcal/g.
Article
The fructosyl transfer to sucrose was investigated, and Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611 was selected as the most suitable strain for fructooligosaccharide production. This strain showed very high enzyme productivity, and its transfructosylating activity was very strong compared to its hydrolyzing activity. Fructooligosaccharides could be more effectively prepared with a higher concentration of sucrose if use could be made of an enzyme having higher transfructosylating ability. Treatment of 50% (w/v) sucrose with the A. niger enzyme afforded a mixture of fructooligosaccharides with inulin-type structures of 1F(1-β-fructofuranosyl)n-sucrose (n=1 to 3). The individual saccharides could be separated by the combination of a carbon column chromatography and preparative HPLC.
Article
Fructo-oligosaccharides are widely distributed in plants such as onions, asparagus, wheat etc., and obtained from sucrose by the action of fructosyltransferase. They are not hydrolyzed by human digestive enzymes, but are utilized by intestinal bacteria such as bifidobacteria. Bacteroides fragilis group, peptostreptococci and klebsiellae. In the experiment with 23 patients (73 ± 9 years old), improvement of fecal microflora was observed by oral administration of fructo-oligosaccharides 8 g per day for two weeks: the population of bifidobacteria in feces increased about 10 times compared before the administration; average pH of stool showed 0.3 lower than that before administration.
Article
Daily intake of 8.0 g per day of fructo-oligosaccharides for fourteen days significantly reduced mean fasting blood glucose levels by 15 mg/dl, mean serum total cholesterol levels by 19 mg/dl and LDL-cholesterol levels by 17 mg/dl in diabetic subjects (n=18), while the control diabetic subjects (n=10) who were given 5.0 g per day of sucrose showed no significant changes. The levels of serum HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides or free fatty acids were not significantly affected either by fructo-oligosaccharides or sucrose. These results indicate that the daily intake of fructo-oligosaccharides ameliorates the derangements of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic subjects.
Article
In order to study the digestibility of the fructooligosaccharide "Neosugar," [U-14C]Neosugar or [U-14C]sucrose was orally administered to germfree, conventional and antibiotic-treated rats and the radioactivities of expired 14CO2, urine and feces were determined 24 h later. More than 50% of the Neosugar was expired as CO2 in conventional rats. This was the same as for sucrose, but the time course was delayed by about 2 h. In germfree rats, no 14CO2 was released for the first 8 h, and 14CO2 released after 8 h probably reflected bacterial colonization of the gut. The radioactivity of the urine was about 3-4% in all groups, but that of the feces from germfree rats was about eight times higher than the level in conventional rats. When [U-14C]Neosugar was anaerobically incubated with the cecal contents of conventional rats, more than 10% of the added Neosugar was metabolized to CO2, about 66% to volatile fatty acids and about 7% to microbes. More than 58% of 1-14C-volatile fatty acids such as acetic acid, propionic acid or butyric acid injected directly into the cecum of conventional rats was excreted as CO2 within 24 h. These results indicate that Neosugar given orally to rats is metabolized mainly to volatile fatty acids and CO2 by intestinal microorganisms, and the volatile fatty acids produced are absorbed and further converted to CO2 in the body. Thus, the data indicate that Neosugar is partially utilized as an energy source.
Article
The Fecal microflora of 15 healthy elderly persons with a median age of 84 years in a rural area whose inhabitants tend to be long-lived (Yuzurihara-area, Uenohara, Yamanashi Prefecture) was compared with the microflora of individuals with a median age of 68 years in an urban area (Tokyo). The diet of the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area is characterized by a high intake of dietary fiber. Total numbers of anaerobic bacteria were significantly smaller in the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area than those in the Tokyo area. A significantly large number of bifidobacteria, but not of lecithinase-negative clostridia, was observed in the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area. Large numbers and high incidences of bacilli and lecithinase-positive clostridia (mainly Clostridium perfringens) were found in the elderly persons in the Tokyo area. Twenty-five genera and over 81 species were isolated from the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area, and 25 genera and over 92 species were isolated from the elderly persons in the Tokyo area. Furthermore, significantly larger numbers of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Fusobacterium mortiferum strains were found in the Yuzurihara group, but significant reductions in the Bacteroides buccae-oris group, B. thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides spp., C. coccoides, C. paraputrificum, and Clostridium spp. were observed in the same group. A significantly higher isolation rate of Bacillus subtilis was observed in the elderly persons in the Tokyo area. The difference in the fecal microflora between elderly persons in Yuzurihara and those in the Tokyo area might be due to a difference in the intake of dietary fiber.
Article
1. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on either a purified, fibre-free diet or a diet in which half the maize starch was replaced with uncooked amylomaize or potato starch (equivalent to 100 or 200 g amylase-resistant starch (ARS)/kg diet respectively). Changes in short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), pH, ammonia and a number of bacterial variables in caecal contents were then assessed. 2. Both ARS supplements decreased caecal content pH by approximately 1–2 units, with an associated reduction in ammonia concentration. Potato starch significantly decreased the concentration of SCFA in the hind-gut, while amylomaize supplementation increased propionic and butyric acids but decreased the occurrence of minor, branched-chain fatty acids. 3. Caecal bacterial biotransformation activities (β-glucosidase ( EC 3.2.1.21), β-glucuronidase ( EC 3.2.1.31), reduction of p -nitrobenzoic acid, apparent ammonia formation) were consistently decreased by both ARS sources. 4. The results demonstrate that amylase-resistant carbohydrate altered toxicologically important functions in the large-intestinal flora of the rat.
Article
Analysis of human gut contents showed that substantial quantities of soluble protein, ammonia and branched chain volatile fatty acids occurred throughout the large intestine [0.1-24.4 g (kg contents)-1, 7.7-66.0 mmol (kg contents)-1 and 1.5-11.1 mmol (kg contents)-1 respectively]. The presence of these metabolites suggested that substantial proteolysis was occurring. In vitro studies showed that casein and bovine serum albumin were partly degraded in slurries of human faeces over a 96 h incubation period, to produce TCA-soluble peptides, ammonia and volatile fatty acids. Proteolytic activity detected in the stools of five individuals ranged from 3.5 to 19.8 mg azocasein hydrolysed h-1 (g faecal material)-1. Washed cell and washed particulate faecal fractions accounted for 24-67% of total activity. The predominant proteolytic bacteria in the faecal samples examined were identified as Bacteroides spp. [1.0 X 10(11)-1.3 X 10(12) (g dry wt faeces)-1] and Propionibacterium spp. [1.2 X 10(8)-1.0 X 10(10) (g dry wt faeces)-1]. Other proteolytic bacteria which occurred in lesser numbers were identified as belonging to the genera Streptococcus, Clostridium, Bacillus and Staphylococcus. These results demonstrate that the gut microflora could potentially play a major role in proteolysis in the human colon.
Article
When an unknown amount of antigen is allowed to diffuse radially from a well in a uniformly thin layer of antibody-containing agar for a sufficient time to allow all antigen to combine, the final area reached by the precipitate is directly proportional to the amount of antigen employed, and inversely proportional to the concentration of antibody. It is also shown that the temperature at which the plates are incubated has no perceptible influence upon the results. By standardizing the technical conditions of the experiment it is possible to use this principle for the immunochemical determination of antigens. In the experimental albumin-antialbumin system here described, the lower limit of the method was found to correspond to 0·0025 μg of antigen, and to an antigen concentrations of 1·25 μg per ml. The standard deviation of the antigen determinations was less than 2 per cent of the mean.
Article
The effects of propionate on serum and liver lipid concentrations were studied in cholesterol-fed rats. Both serum and liver cholesterol levels were significantly lower in rats fed the cholesterol-propionate diet than in rats fed the cholesterol diet without propionate. Liver triglyceride levels were also significantly lower in the propionate-treated group. Serum triglyceride concentrations were not influenced by the propionate feeding. Propionate intake was not associated with histologic changes in liver tissue. This study indicates that 0.5% sodium propionate-supplemented diets slightly but significantly reduced cholesterol accumulation in both serum and liver of cholesterol-fed rats. Thus propionate, a metabolic product of fiber fermentation, may mediate some of the hypocholesterolemic effects of certain soluble plant fibers.
Article
The digestion of Neosugar, a mixture of 1F-(1-beta-fructofuranosyl)n-1 sucrose [n = 2, 1-kestose (GF2); n = 3, nystose (GF3); n = 4, 1F-beta-fructofuranosyl nystose (GF4)] was investigated in vitro and in vivo by using the rat. The results obtained were as follows. GF2 and GF3 were not hydrolyzed by a pancreatic homogenate. The GF2- and GF3-hydrolyzing activities of the enzymes in the intestinal mucosa homogenate were negligible compared with the activities of maltase and sucrase. GF2 and GF3 added to the incubation mixture did not affect the activities of sucrase and maltase in the intestinal mucosa. Long-term ingestion of Neosugar did not cause induction or suppression of GF2- and GF3-hydrolyzing enzymes in the small intestine. [U-14C]Neosugar injected intravenously was rapidly excreted in the urine without having undergone any degradation. These results indicate that Neosugar, which consists of GF2, GF3 and GF4, is scarcely hydrolyzed by the digestive enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract and internal organs, and that suggests to us that Neosugar is not utilized as an energy source in the body.
Clinical study of fructooligosaccharide on chronic constipation
  • S Kameoka
  • H Nogata
  • H Yoshitoshi
  • K Hamano
Kameoka, S., H. Nogata, H. Yoshitoshi, and K. Hamano. 1986. Clinical study of fructooligosaccharide on chronic constipation. Jpn. J. Clin. Nutr. 68: 823-829 (in Japanese).
Effect of fructooligosaccharides on blood glucose and pancreatic hormones
  • M Yoshioka
  • M Hasegawa
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  • S Takashima
  • K Kitada
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Yoshioka, M., M. Hasegawa, H. Makimura, S. Takashima, K. Kitada, K. Ishii, and A. Matsuoka. 1984. Effect of fructooligosaccharides on blood glucose and pancreatic hormones. Diabetes 27: 814 (in Japanese).
Human intestinal microflora in health and disease
  • S M Finegold
  • V L Sutter
  • G E Mathisen
Finegold, S.M., V.L. Sutter, and G.E. Mathisen. 1983. Normal indigenous intestinal flora, p. 3-31. In D.J. Hentges (ed.), Human intestinal microflora in health and disease, Academic Press, New York.
The effect of fructooligosaccharides (Neosugar) on hyperlipidemia
  • Y Hata
  • T Hara
  • T Oikawa
  • M Yamamoto
  • N Hirose
  • T Nagashima
  • N Torihama
  • K Nakajima
  • A Watabe
  • M Yamashita
Hata, Y., T. Hara, T. Oikawa, M. Yamamoto, N. Hirose, T. Nagashima, N. Torihama, K. Nakajima, A. Watabe, and M. Yamashita. 1983. The effect of fructooligosaccharides (Neosugar) on hyperlipidemia. Geriatr. Med. 21: 156-167 (in Japanese).