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The relationship between temperament and sexual orientation

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... It is also foundational for personality (McAdams, 2019). A study found that more common among bisexual than lesbian/gay or heterosexual individuals is the volatile temperament, which is characterized by being "disperse, unquiet, hasty, and disorganized" (Guerim et al., 2015). We suggest that such behaviors in children may frustrate parents, which may lead some parents to maltreat their children. ...
... Openness to experience, a Big Five personality trait, is associated with creativity, intelligence, esthetic preferences, and liberal political attitudes, as a narrative review detailed (Schwaba, 2019). These findings and our speculations regarding their potential ability to explain why maltreatment is connected to health among bisexual adults highlight the need for additional research and deeper theoretical understanding of the developmental processes and mechanisms that may distinguish the experiences of bisexual individuals from those of lesbian/gay individuals (Allen & Robson, 2020;Guerim et al., 2015;Swan & Habibi, 2018). ...
Article
Three models of recalled childhood gender nonconformity (GNC) and maltreatment are proposed to explain disparities in current psychological distress and lifetime suicidality among sexual minority individuals, using a United States probability sample of cisgender lesbian/gay (n = 701), bisexual (n = 606), and other (e.g., queer, n = 182) adults. Indirect effects indicated that lesbian/gay individuals were more likely than bisexual individuals to experience maltreatment and suicidal ideation as childhood GNC increased. Other indirect effects found that bisexual individuals reported more psychological distress and greater likelihood of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts than lesbian/gay individuals as maltreatment increased. The direct effects of sexual orientation were stronger than the indirect effects via maltreatment or GNC, with bisexual individuals reporting more maltreatment, distress, and suicidality than lesbian/gay individuals. Significant findings for individuals with other identities were similar to those of bisexual individuals. Adjusted findings were comparable for women and men. The findings indicated that sexual minority individuals reported experiences consistent with sexual minority stress during early developmental periods, before being aware of their sexual orientation. It is necessary to understand the early lived experiences of sexual minority individuals, differences between lesbian/gay and bisexual individuals in those experiences, and their implications for adaptation.
... Existe un amplio rango de estados intermedios, en el centro de los cuales se encuentra la bisexualidad (Stief, Rieger, & Savin-Williams, 2014). El estudio de la orientación sexual está en su fase inicial, y por consecuente las orientaciones sexuales minoritarias, como la bisexualidad, se han visto infrarrepresentadas en la investigación (Guerim, De Carvalho, & Lara, 2015). Los estudios acerca de orientaciones no heterosexuales mencionan la "hipótesis del estrés social", que sugiere que las personas con identidades y orientaciones sexuales minoritarias tendrán mayor vulnerabilidad a los problemas de salud psicológica debido a la presión social que experimentan (Meyer, 2003). ...
... La sexualidad forma parte del patrón de pensamientos y conductas de las personas, lo que sugiere que podría estar relacionado con la personalidad (Fernández & Rodríguez, 2003 (Fernández & Rodríguez, 2003;Lippa, 2005), así como mayor tendencia a la desinhibición (Guerim et al., 2015). Según la hipótesis del estrés social, las mujeres con orientaciones sexuales no heterosexuales tienen mayores niveles de neuroticismo, pues la presión social que experimentan por su sexualidad podría impactar negativamente en su estabilidad emocional (Zheng et al., 2011). ...
... Presume-se que sua emergência se dê na primeira infância e que mostre relativa estabilidade ao longo do desenvolvimento (Zentner e Bates, 2008;Caspi, 2000). Variáveis temperamentais têm mostrado grande relevância para prever e explicar as manifestações, ocorrências e coocorrências de variados desfechos comportamentais, sejam estes adaptativos (Guerrin et al., 2015;Holden e Klassen, 2010) ou disfuncionais Clark, 2005). ...
... As variáveis de temperamento delineadas pelo modelo AFECT podem ser avaliadas pela Escala de Temperamento Emocional e Afetivo (AFECTS), cujas propriedades psicométricas foram previamente avaliadas em amostras brasileiras Carvalho et al., 2013) e mexicanas (Romo-Nava et al., 2015) e, em ambos contextos, apresentou ótimos indicadores de fidedignidade e de validade fatorial. Ainda, a administração da AFECTS em pesquisas tem produzido dados que corroboram as hipóteses delineadas com base no modelo teórico, ampliando o status de validade do mesmo e ratificando seu poder preditivo no que tange à avaliação de diferentes desfechos comportamentais, a saber: heterogeneidade clínica do Transtorno de Personalidade Borderline ; abuso e negligência na infância (Sudbrack et al., 2015), orientação sexual (Guerrin et al., 2015), dependência de cocaína (Fuscaldo et al., 2013) e tendências suicidas (Araújo et al., 2015). ...
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O presente estudo visou contribuir para o entendimento da relação entre temperamento e o cuidado de pacientes oncológicos por meio do exame da prevalência de tipos temperamentais e a das associações destes com medidas de bem-estar psicológico e percepção de sobrecarga em uma amostra de cuidadores principais de pacientes oncológicos internados. Participaram do estudo 53 cuidadores (45 mulheres) que responderam voluntariamente a questionários que avaliavam indicadores sócio-demográficos, temperamentais e pertinentes ao bem-estar psicológico e à sobrecarga relacionada ao cuidado do paciente. Os resultados mostraram maior prevalência de temperamentos estáveis entre os cuidadores avaliados (56,6%) e que os tipos estáveis apresentaram associações positivas com bem-estar psicológico e percepção de sobrecarga relacionada ao cuidado de pacientes (t > 2,0; p < 0,05). Cuidadores com temperamento estável apresentam melhores indicadores de ajustamento psicológico, e o temperamento parece ser uma variável importante na designação da pessoa que assumirá o papel do cuidador principal do paciente oncológico.
... Growing evidence supports the notion that gay, lesbian, and transgender populations are at increased risk for a wide range of mental health problems, including links with bipolar disorder, depression, suicidality, and drug and alcohol misuse (Cochran et al., 2013;Cochran and Mays, 2000;Farmer et al., 2013;Guerim et al., 2015). The preponderance of research was conducted in the United States and other Western cultures, while research is extremely limited on MSM from Eastern European nations, specifically independent nations in Central and Eastern European region. ...
... The link to depression, discomfort, and anxiety as well as high risk behavior could have a cumulative effect if persons with depression are more likely to engage in high risk behaviors and experience high levels internalized depression and IH. Similar findings have included a disproportionate representation of MSM among persons with depressive and bipolar disorder, specifically persons who identify as bisexual (Akiskal, 2005;Guerim et al., 2015) Contents lists available at ScienceDirect journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jad Recreational drug use, lower educational attainment, income, and more negative health outcomes have also been linked. ...
Article
Evidence supports that gay, lesbian, and transgender populations are at increased risk for mental health problems. The current study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and related factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia. This is the only known study of its type in the Eastern European region. In 2013, an Internet-based survey was conducted among men who have sex with men, collecting data on socio-demographics, sexuality, drug and alcohol use, mental health, suicidality, and internalized homonegativity. 265 MSM completed the questionnaire (median age 31 years, 90% Estonian, 71% from the capital; 73% employed full-time, 42% with at least college education; 44% in a steady relationship; 72% gay, 23% bisexual; 23% reported illegal drug use in the last 12 months). One third met criteria for problem drinking and depressive symptoms with one quarter for anxiety symptoms. Suicidality was 44% reported lifetime suicidal thoughts and 11% with at least one suicide attempt. The study instruments, EST-Q and CAGE, only measure symptoms and are not diagnostic tests. A non-random sample which could possibly include persons with easier internet access. Self-reported data and cross-sectional study design are prone to issues with recall bias and temporality. With demonstrated high rates of anxiety, depression, drinking, and drug use among MSM which is consistent with similar studies in Western countries, further research could help determine effective MSM focused interventions to address the broad spectrum of issues among MSM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... The main psychobiological theories of personality include Cloninger's temperament and character model (18,19), the positive and negative affect/ temperament model proposed by Watson et al. (20), Akiskal's affective temperaments model (21), and the affective and emotional composite temperament proposed by Lara et al. (22). So far, several studies have examined the relationship between the structures of these theories and sleep disorders and sexual dysfunction (11)(12)(13)(14)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28). However, the findings are very scattered and the integrated interpretation of them is challenging. ...
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Sleep and its disorders are still the least understood phenomena in biology. This systematic review aims to identify four personality psychobiological models related to sleep disorders and sexual dysfunction. The literature search for English-language records was conducted on the Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, ProQuest and Cochrane databases from January 1990 to April 2019. According to the number of studies available related to research variables and heterogeneous designs, the pooled effect size was calculated separately for both case-control and correlation studies using the random-effects method because of the heterogeneity of the studies and use of the I2 measure. The numbers of studies on parasomnias, Restless Legs syndrome, sleep breathing disorders, daytime sleepiness and sexual dysfunction were minimal. However, the present meta-analysis on four studies on insomnia showed that the cases and controls in harm avoidance (HA) are significantly different (p=0.001). Another meta-analysis on 11 studies showed that a significant correlation exists between poor sleep quality assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality index with negative affect (NA) (z=10.437, p<0.001) and positive affect (PA) (z=-6.826, p<0.001). In addition to the few studies on sleep and sexual disorders, the greater challenge is the wide range of these disorders, making it difficult to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis and draw a conclusion. Generally, NA/PA and HA may play critical roles in sleep quality and insomnia, respectively. These findings and limitations are debatable.
... Inhibition 1 was designed as a second-order factor that accounted for the correlations between fear an caution first-order factors. Nevertheless, accumulating evidence have shown that fear and caution display opposite association with external outcome criteria: while fear is investilly associated with psychosocial adjustment patterns, caution seem to predict positive adjustment [4][5][6][7] . Thus, in this investigation, we addressed Inhibition vector as comprised by two single-factors of fear and caution: fear is thought to arises from "here and now" threaten situations and is related to freezing and flight reactions. ...
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Background The Emotional and Affective Composite Temperament (AFECT) model describes originally six traits of volition, anger, inhibition (fear and caution subordinate factors), control, sensitivity, and coping. However, fear and caution have shown opposite relatioships with criteria-variables, indicating factor independence. Objective The current investigation aimed to advance in the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the emotional trait section of the Emotional and Affective Composite Temperament Scale (AFECTS) by examining the suitability of a 7-factor structure and the reliability of each scale using data from a population-based sample. Methods AFECTS was administered via face-to-face assessments in a single-session, population-based cross-sectional survey. Samples was composed of teenagers and adults (14 to 35 years). The latent structure and reliability were analyzed via structural equation modeling: confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the a priori correlated 7-factor model (with fear and caution designed as single-factors) and trait-scores reliability was assessed by the estimation of information curves. Results Findings attested the suitability of the 7-factor model presumed to underline the item set of the traits section of AFECTS and information curve interpretation showed adequate levels of reliability for all trait-scores. Discussion The 7-factor model showed robust indicators of construct validity for the AFECTS.
... Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a marginalised population facing many challenges including stigma, abuse, social and legal discrimination, and lack of social support, 1-3 which may result in high risk for a variety of mental and psychosocial health problems, such as depression, suicidality, and drug and alcohol abuse. [4][5][6][7] A large prospective cohort study showed that syndemics of depressive symptoms, heavy alcohol use and drug use, and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) increased HIV risk and HIV-related risk behaviours. 8 Depression and substance abuse among MSM have been linked to condomless anal intercourse (CAI), 9 10 which was the predominant factor strengths and limitations of this study ► The present study obtained the prevalence of major depressive symptoms, sexual risk behaviours, sexual victimisation, suicidal ideation, substance use and elucidated some related syndemic factors to depressive symptoms among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Wenzhou with high HIV prevalence. ...
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Objectives Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a marginalised population at high risk for a variety of mental health problems that may mutually facilitate HIV transmission. We assessed factors associated with depressive symptoms among MSM, which can provide some guidance for future mental health interventions with the MSM population for prevention of HIV infection and transmission. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wenzhou city, China using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) between December 2013 and June 2014. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was employed to collect information about mental and psychosocial health conditions and sexual behaviour characteristics among MSM. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with major depressive symptoms. Results Of the 454 participants in the study, prevalence of major depressive symptoms was 34.6%. During the past 6 months, 85% had anal sex with men, and rate of consistent condom use during anal intercourse was 45.1%. Of the respondents, 16.1% reported suicidal ideation, 62.6% had a history of smoking and 41.4% had a history of drinking alcohol, of which 46.3% reported that they were once drunk. Drug use was reported in 3.7% of the sample. Adult sexual violence from same-sex partners was 7.9%, and 5.1% reported childhood sexual abuse. ARDS-weighted multivariable analysis showed that major depressive symptoms among MSM were associated with inconsistent condom use during anal sex with men, multiple oral male sexual partners, suicidal ideation, adult sexual violence from male partners and being once drunk in the past year. Conclusion We found high levels of depressive symptoms, unprotected sex and suicidal ideation among MSM. Comprehensive intervention strategies that combine psychological, behavioural and social aspects are needed to address the mental health issues of MSM, with special attention given to suicidality and high-risk behaviours in mental health and HIV prevention interventions.
... In a recent large web-survey, Guerin, Carvalho, and Lara (2015) examined the relationship between temperament variables and six categories of sexual orientation (heterosexuals, mostly heterosexuals, bisexuals, mostly homosexuals, and homosexuals) in sample composed of 16,571 adult participants. The authors found distinct temperament profiles related to each category of sexual orientation. ...
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Avaliou-se a prevalência de identidades sexuais em homens e mulheres de diferentes gerações com base em cinco categorias (heterossexuais, predominantemente heterossexuais, bissexuais, predominantemente homossexuais e homossexuais) e aferiu-se a ideação e comportamentos homoeróticos em heterossexuais. A coletada de dados foi realizada por meio de questionários de autorrelato disponibilizados em um sitio de pesquisa na Internet. Dados de 41.873 Brasileiros foram colhidos e analisados. Do total, 78.2% dos homens e 89.8% das mulheres se declaram heterossexuais, a minoria sexual mais prevalente foi a de homossexuais (4.6%) e de predominantemente heterossexuais (4.1%). Ideação e comportamentos homoeróticos em heterossexuais foram frequentes e diferenças entre homens e mulheres foram robustas. Não heterossexualidades foram mais prevalentes em gerações mais jovens.
... In an attempt to obtain LGBT data, a search was conducted using the terms ("bipolar" OR "manic") AND ("homosexual" OR "gay" OR "lesbian"). Of note, several articles have been published in recent years that offered new insight into mental health and bipolar disorder within the LGBT community; unfortunately, none of them focused on the sexual health of bipolar patients specifically (Bolton and Sareen, 2011, Cochran and Mays, 2009, Guerim et al, 2015, Hellman et al., 2010, Herek and Garnets, 2007, McIntosh, 2012, Mizock et al., 2014, and Pandya, 2014. ...
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Background: Although change in sexual behavior is recognized as an integral part of bipolar disorder, most of the relevant literature on sexual issues in patients with this illness concerns medication side effects and does not differentiate bipolar disorder from other serious mental disorders. Surprisingly, little has been published on mania-induced hypersexuality and the effects of mood cycling on couple relationships. In this review, we examine the extant literature on both of these subjects and propose a framework for future research. Methods: A search of PsycINFO and PubMed was conducted using keywords pertaining to bipolar disorder, hypersexuality and couple relationships. A total of 27 articles were selected for review. Results: Despite lack of uniformity in diagnosis of bipolar disorder and no formal definition of hypersexuality, the literature points to an increased incidence of risky sexual behaviors in bipolar patients during manic episodes compared to patients with other psychiatric diagnoses. Further, it appears that bipolar patients are more similar to healthy controls than to other psychiatric patients when it comes to establishing and maintaining couple relationships. Nonetheless, the studies that examined sexuality in couples with one bipolar partner found decreased levels of sexual satisfaction associated with the diagnosis, varying levels of sexual interest across polarities, increased incidence of sexual dysfunction during depressive episodes, and disparate levels of satisfaction in general between patients and their partners. Limitations: Due to changes in diagnostic criteria over time, there is a lack of uniformity in the definition of bipolar disorder across studies. Hypersexuality is not systematically defined and therefore the construct was not consistent across studies. Some of the older articles date back more than 30 years, making them subject to the biases of sexual and gender norms that have since become outdated. Finally, the heterogeneity of the samples, which include patients with comorbid substance use as well as inpatient, outpatient, symptomatic and euthymic patients, may limit the generalizability of results. Conclusions: Although bipolar patients experience disease-specific sexual problems of mania-induced hypersexuality and specific effects of mood cycling on couple relationships, the existing literature is mostly outdated and lacks a consistent definition of hypersexuality. Novel research is needed to address sexual symptomatology in bipolar disorder within the context of current sexual, cultural and gender norms.
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Introduction: Adolescents are one of the most important and influential people in society and research on their psychological issues is important. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between femininity-masculinity tendency with antisocial, histrionic and paranoia personality disorders in adolescents girl. Method: The method of this research is correlational. The study population included girl high school students in Kamyaran in the academic year of 2018-2019, 302 of them were selected as the research sample and answered the Michel Googlen Scales (1996) and the Millon-III scale (1977). Data analysis was performed using spss software version 23 and Pearson correlation and regression statistical methods. Results: The finding showed that there was a correlation between feminity and histrionic personality disorder with 0.26 (P
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Borderline and antisocial personality disorder is a common and chronic disease that disrupts all aspects of life. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the affective and emotional temperament among patients with borderline and antisocial personality disorder and normal individuals. The study method is descriptive and causal-comparative. The statistical population consisted of all patients with antisocial and borderline personality disorder in Ardabil central prison and Isar and Fatemi psychiatric hospital in 2018. The sample included 50 patients diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder and 50 patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, as well as 50 normal individuals. All subjects were selected based on availability. The data were collected by structured clinical interview for personality disorders and Lara et al.’s affective and emotional composite temperament questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance and LSD test. The results showed that there were significant differences among the three groups of antisocial and borderline personality disorders and normal individuals in different dimensions of affective and emotional temperament (p<0.01). It seems that individuals with antisocial and borderline personality disorder are different emotionally and affectively. It is suggested that using the results of the present study and with the differential diagnosis of borderline and antisocial personality disorder can be provided an appropriate and comprehensive treatment plan by psychologists and psychiatrists to improve these individuals. Key words: Affective and emotional temperament, Antisocial personality disorder, Borderline personality disorder
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The aim of this study was to find the associations between sffective temperament and attitude to homosexual persons in representants of various backgrounds. The study of the affective temperaments and enviromental factors and attitude to homosexual persons were performed in Bydgoszcz in May 2015. In this study participated 90 subjects aged 19-50 from three bacgrounds: artistic, medical and nonmedical or nonartists. In this study two self-assessment methods were applied: TEMPS-A questionaire for evaluation of five affective temperament dimensions and own madequestionairefor assessment of attitudes and the level of tolerance for homosexual persons. The character of variable distribution were checked usin Shapiro-Wilk test. Because of nnparametric variable distribution consequently nonparametric test were applied in statistical analysis. For comparison of the differences between two groups the Mann Whitney test were used, and for evaluation of the differences between three or more gropus the Krusakal Wallis ANOVA test. The internal inconsistency of the TEMPS-A subscales were performed, the Cronbach alpha coefficient was calculated. The results obtained allows to draw following conclusions: 1. The attitudes for homosexual subjects are associated with environmental factors, knowledge of the homosexuality and to having in surrounded the homosexual persons. The lowest knowledge of homosexuality persons from the medical surround were presented. 2. In the investigator subjects opinion factors mostly connected with etiology of homosexuality are family influence, rarely religion. 3. The tolerance for homosexual persons is important for quality of life of these persons, however Poland is recognized as a country with low tolerance for homosexual persons. 4. The attitudes and tolerance for homosexual persons are associated with affective temperament dimensions, especially cyclothymic and anxiety, in which dimensions more tolerance persons show higher results. The artistic surrounds is more tolerance for homosexual persons around the others, which may be connected with specific affective temperamental features, mostly with higher intensity of cyclothymic and anxiety dimensions
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OBJECTIVE : To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS : Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS : Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p < 0.05): getting drunk (18.7% and 10.5%, respectively), frequent cannabis use (6.1% and 2.1%, respectively), suicidal thoughts (42.5% and 18.7%, respectively), and having been the victim of sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p < 0.001). In the correspondence analysis, three groups were found, one composed of adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk frequently, and adolescents with heterosexual behavior and none of the risk factors investigated. More of the risk factors were found in adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior compared with those with heterosexual behavior. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior were more likely to talk about their positive personal experiences and negative relationship experiences that their heterosexual peers, but spoke less about religion. CONCLUSIONS : Not only should this issue be studied in more detail, but preventative actions aimed at adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior should be widened.
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Bullying perpetration and sexual harassment perpetration among adolescents are major public health issues. However, few studies have addressed the empirical link between being a perpetrator of bullying and subsequent sexual harassment perpetration among early adolescents in the literature. Homophobic teasing has been shown to be common among middle school youth and was tested as a moderator of the link between bullying and sexual harassment perpetration in this 2-year longitudinal study. More specifically, the present study tests the Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway theory, which posits that adolescent bullies who also participate in homophobic name-calling toward peers are more likely to perpetrate sexual harassment over time. Findings from logistical regression analyses (n = 979, 5th-7th graders) reveal an association between bullying in early middle school and sexual harassment in later middle school, and results support the Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway model, with homophobic teasing as a moderator, for boys only. Results suggest that to prevent bully perpetration and its later association with sexual harassment perpetration, prevention programs should address the use of homophobic epithets.
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This survey, which had as the target population adolescents aged between 12 and 20 years living in three municipalities in São Paulo, sought to investigate the associations between sexual orientation and ideation and suicide attempts. Confirming international research findings, it is showed that non-heterosexuals are more likely to attempt and think about suicide, compared to heterosexuals. However, we found that among the group of teenagers who assumed to be non-heterosexuals, the most vulnerable are those who define themselves as bisexual and "other", which constitute the group of people less assumed, among non-heterosexuals. Similarly, it was found that the respondents have different homophobic, sexist and heterocentric opinions and values, which turn out to be the school environment, where these young non-heterosexual study, loaded with enough discriminatory discursive positions. We conclude that the issue of suicide is a public health problem and that the population of young non-heterosexual needs specific approaches for prevention and care in respect to this conduct.
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Verbal/psychological homophobic bullying is widespread among youths of sexual minorities. Homophobic bullying has been associated with both high internalized homophobia and low self-esteem. The objectives were to document verbal/psychological homophobic bullying among youths of sexual minorities and model the relationships between homophobic bullying, internalized homophobia and self-esteem. A community sample of 300 youths of sexual minorities aged 14 to 22 years old was used. A structural equation model was tested using a nonlinear, robust estimator implemented in Mplus. The model postulated that homophobic bullying impacts self-esteem both directly and indirectly, via internalized homophobia. 60.7% of the sample reported at least one form of verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model explained 29% of the variance of self-esteem, 19.6% of the variance of internalized homophobia and 5.3% of the verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model suggests that the relationship between verbal/psychological homophobic bullying and self-esteem is partially mediated by internalized homophobia. The results underscore the importance of initiatives to prevent homophobic bullying in order to prevent its negative effects on the well-being of youths of sexual minorities.
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Pleasure may be the key to the successful working of the reproductive systems of humans. However, for all the enjoyment sexual relationships can provide, there are countervailing forces of guilt and disappointment at work on the individual psyche. Religious and social norms enforce limits on sexual expressiveness. These controls are defended as means to protect individuals and their partners from unhappiness due to infidelity. The contrasting balance of potential pleasure on the one hand and deeply felt self-controls on the other gives rise to many problems of sexual health. Couples with discordant expectations about sexual pleasures can find their relationships crumbling. Deeply planted understandings about inappropriate behavior can cause individuals to feel shame or fear when faced with choices about their sexuality and particularly their desires. People unable to achieve desired pleasures due to physical handicaps experience a loss of wellbeing that can be extremely distressing. Simultaneously society struggles to control the individual expression of harmful sexual behavior such as child molestation while protecting the rights of individuals to enjoy personal satisfaction. The recognition and promotion of sexual pleasure as an integral part of wellbeing is one of the most challenging elements on the sexual health agenda. Progress in this area will require extraordinary efforts by professional groups and political leaders to forge a forthright understanding of the meaning of pleasure in people's lives, and the priority of promoting healthy sexuality as a part of a global health agenda.
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Given the primacy of reproduction, same-sex sexual behavior poses an evolutionary puzzle. Why would selection fashion motivational mechanisms to engage in sexual behaviors with members of the same sex? We propose the alloparenting hypothesis, which posits that sexual fluidity in women is a contingent adaptation that increased ancestral women's ability to form pair bonds with female alloparents who helped them rear children to reproductive age. Ancestral women recurrently faced the adaptive problems of securing resources and care for their offspring, but were frequently confronted with either a dearth of paternal resources due to their mates' death, an absence of paternal investment due to rape, or a divestment of paternal resources due to their mates' extra-pair mating efforts. A fluid sexuality would have helped ancestral women secure resources and care for their offspring by promoting the acquisition of allomothering investment from unrelated women. Under this view, most heterosexual women are born with the capacity to form romantic bonds with both sexes. Sexual fluidity is a conditional reproductive strategy with pursuit of men as the default strategy and same-sex sexual responsiveness triggered when inadequate paternal investment occurs or when women with alloparenting capabilities are encountered. Discussion focuses on (a) evidence for alloparenting and sexual fluidity in humans and other primates; (b) alternative explanations for sexual fluidity in women; and(c) fourteen circumstances predicted to promote same-sex sexual behavior in women.
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We recruited twins systematically from the Australian Twin Registry and assessed their sexual orientation and 2 related traits: childhood gender nonconformity and continuous gender identity. Men and women differed in their distributions of sexual orientation, with women more likely to have slight-to-moderate degrees of homosexual attraction, and men more likely to have high degrees of homosexual attraction. Twin concordances for nonheterosexual orientation were lower than in prior studies. Univariate analyses showed that familial factors were important for all traits, but were less successful in distinguishing genetic from shared environmental influences. Only childhood gender nonconformity was significantly heritable for both men and women. Multivariate analyses suggested that the causal architecture differed between men and women, and, for women, provided significant evidence for the importance of genetic factors to the traits' covariation.
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There have been many anecdotal accounts of individuals who self-identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual only to relinquish these identities later. The current study examines this phenomenon among a sample of young nonheterosexual women who underwent 3 interviews over a 5-year period. Over a quarter of these women relinquished their lesbian/bisexual identities during this period: half reclaimed heterosexual identities and half gave up all identity labels. These women did not differ from those who maintained lesbian/bisexual identities regarding the age at which they underwent sexual identity milestones, the factors that precipitated their sexual questioning, or their recollection of childhood "indicators" of same-sex sexuality. Women who relinquished their identities for heterosexual identities had smaller ratios of same-sex to other-sex attractions across the 5-year assessment period, but their attractions did not significantly change. Only 1 woman described her previous same-sex identification as a phase; the rest emphasized changes in how they interpreted or acted on their attractions.
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We assessed core gender identity, sexual orientation, and recalled childhood gender role behavior in 16 women and 9 men with CAH and in 15 unaffected female and 10 unaffected male relatives, all between the ages of 18 and 44 years. Women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) recalled significantly more male-typical play behavior as children than did unaffected women, whereas men with and without CAH did not differ. Women with CAH also reported significantly less satisfaction with the female sex of assignment and less heterosexual interest than did unaffected women. Again, men with CAH did not differ significantly from unaffected men in these respects. Our results for women with CAH are consistent with numerous prior reports indicating that girls with CAH show increased male-typical play behavior. They also support the hypotheses that these women show reduced heterosexual interest and reduced satisfaction with the female sex of assignment. Our results for males are consistent with most prior reports that boys with CAH do not show a general alteration in childhood play behavior. In addition, they provide initial evidence that core gender identity and sexual orientation are unaffected in men with CAH. Finally, among women with CAH, we found that recalled male-typical play in childhood correlated with reduced satisfaction with the female gender and reduced heterosexual interest in adulthood. Although prospective studies are needed, these results suggest that those girls with CAH who show the greatest alterations in childhood play behavior may be the most likely to develop a bisexual or homosexual orientation as adults and to be dissatisfied with the female sex of assignment.
Article
Fluidity in attractions and behaviors among same-sex attracted women has been well-documented, suggesting the appropriateness of dynamical systems modeling of these phenomena over time. As dynamical systems modeling offer an approach to explaining the patterns of complex phenomena, it may be apt for explaining variability in female same-sex sexuality. The present research is the first application of this analytical approach to such data. Dynamical systems modeling, and specifically generalized local linear approximation modeling, was used to fit daily diary data on same-sex attractions and behaviors over a 21 day period among a group of 33 sexual minority women characterized as lesbian, bisexual or "fluid" based on their identity histories. Daily measures of women's reported same-sex attractions were fit using a linear oscillator model and its parameters estimated the cyclicity in these attractions. Results supported the existence of a "core sexual orientation" for women in this sample, regardless of how they identified and despite a high degree of variability in daily same-sex attractions. Thus, modeling individual differences in the variability of attractions and behaviors of sexual minority women may be critical to furthering our understanding of female same-sex sexuality and human sexual orientation more broadly.
Article
This exploratory study investigated the nature of sexual orientation (categorical or spectrum) by assessing the relative ability of sexual and romantic indicators to be predicted by sexual orientation labels. Young adults from a variety of community and college venues (N =292) reported their sexual orientation label on a 9-point scale; from a 10-item list, their sexual identity; and the percentage of their sexual attraction, fantasy, genital contact, infatuation, and romantic relationship directed to males and females. Although the five indicators were significantly intercorrelated and sexual orientation labels predicted each indicator, discrepancies existed across indicators in relationship to sexual orientation (highest for attraction, lowest for romantic relationship). Sexual identity and sexual orientation label were strongly related at the ends of the sexual spectrum, less so in the middle. Men were nearly as nonexclusive as women. Study results supported the perspective that sexual orientation is a continuously distributed individual characteristic.
Article
Sex is a fundamental pleasure, and crucial to the survival of our species. Though not many people would disagree with the proposition that sexual behaviour depends on the brain, the neuroscientific study of human sex is still relatively taboo and much remains to be discovered. On the contrary, excellent experimental animal models (mostly rat) are available that have uncovered major behavioural, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical characteristics of sexual behaviour. Restructuring sexual behaviour into broader terms reflecting behavioural states (wanting, liking, and inhibition) facilitates species comparison, revealing many similarities between animal and human sexual pleasure cycles, some of which can serve as potential avenues of new human sex research. In particular, behavioural and brain evidence clearly shows that motivational and consummatory phases are fundamentally distinct, and that genitally-induced sexual reward is a major factor in sexual learning mechanisms.
Article
The internet provides a research opportunity for psychiatry and psychology. This article presents the development and preliminary data of a large web-survey created to study how temperament relates to other psychological measures, behavior and psychiatric disorders. We used the Affective and Emotional Composite Temperament Scale (AFECTS) to evaluate temperament and we selected several self-report instruments to evaluate behavior, psychological constructs and mental disorders. The system provides anonymous psychological (phase 1) and psychiatric (phase 2) feedback and includes questions to assess the validity of the answers. Each phase has around 450 questions. This system was broadcast utilizing Brazilian media. After the exclusion of 21.5% of the volunteers (those who failed the validation questions), 41,427 participants concluded the first part of the system (mean age=31.2±10.5yrs, 26.9% males), and 21,836 (mean age=32.5±10.9yrs, 25.1% males) completed phase 2. Around 25% have received a psychiatric diagnosis from a mental health professional. Demographic and temperament profiles of those who completed either only 80 questions, only phase 1, or the whole system were similar. The rate of non-serious answers (e.g. on bizarre behaviors) was very low and congruency of answers was very high. The internal consistency of classical trait scales (TCI-R and PANAS) was high (Cronbach's alpha>0.80) for all dimensions. Relatively high dropout rate due to the length of the process and an overrepresentation of female, young and well-educated subjects. The BRAINSTEP provides valid and abundant data on psychological and psychiatric measures.
Article
Based on many temperament frameworks, here we propose an integration of emotional and affective temperaments (the AFECT model), forming a common substrate for mood, behavior, personality and part of cognition. Temperament is conceived as a self-regulated system with six emotional dimensions: volition, anger, inhibition, sensitivity, coping and control. The different combinations of these emotional dimensions result in 12 affective temperament types, namely depressive, anxious, apathetic, obsessive, cyclothymic, dysphoric, irritable, volatile, disinhibited, hyperthymic and euphoric. We also developed and validated a self-report scale to evaluate this construct, the Affective and Emotional Composite Temperament Scale (AFECTS). Exploratory and confirmatory psychometric analyses were performed with the internet version of the AFECTS in 2947 subjects (72% females, 35±11years old). The factors interpreted as volition, anger, inhibition, sensitivity, coping and control showed very good Cronbach's alphas for 5 dimensions (0.87-0.90) and acceptable alpha for inhibition (0.75). Confirmatory factor analysis corroborated this 6-factor structure when considering inhibition as a second-order factor with fear and caution as first-order factors (SRMR=0.061; RMSEA=0.053). In the Affective section, all 12 categorical affective temperaments were selected in the categorical choice, with 99% of volunteers identifying at least one adequate description of their affective temperament. Only the internet version was used in a general population sample. The AFECT model provides an integrated framework of temperament as a self-regulated system, with implications for mental health, psychiatric disorders and their treatment. The AFECTS showed good psychometric properties to further study this model.
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of homosexuality/ bisexuality and same-sex relationships in a sample of 362 hospitalized subjects, 290 with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and 72 comparison subjects with other personality disorders. At baseline and at five contiguous 2-year follow-up intervals, subjects meeting DIB-R and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD or at least one other personality disorder were interviewed using a semi-structured interview about their sexual orientation and the gender of intimate partners. Subjects with BPD were significantly more likely than comparison subjects to report homosexual or bisexual orientation and intimate same-sex relationships. There were no significant differences between male and female borderline subjects in prevalence of reported homosexual or bisexual orientation or in prevalence of reported same-sex relationships. Subjects with BPD were significantly more likely than comparison subjects to report changing the gender of intimate partners, but not sexual orientation, at some point during the follow-up period. A reported family history of homosexual or bisexual orientation was a significant predictor of an aggregate outcome variable assessing homosexual/bisexual orientation and/or same sex relationship in borderline subjects. Results of this study suggest that same-gender attraction and/or intimate relationship choice may be an important interpersonal issue for approximately one-third of both men and women with BPD.
Article
In this chapter the author addresses the following question: Can the historical occurrence of various forms of homosexuality and bisexuality be explained as part of the management of reproduction in response to environmental conditions? She believes that explanations for the occurrence and forms of homosexuality appealing to genetics are biologically indefensible and historically inadequate. However, Darwinian behavioral theory, and specifically that subset termed life history theory, provides an explanatory framework. An individual's life course consists of behaviors coerced by parents and chosen by the individual in response to environmental conditions, forming a coherent reproductive strategy. In the process, alternate male and female genders, such as cadet sons, spinsters, and religious celibates are explained and the normative male bisexuality of Classical Athens and modern Mediterranean/Latin societies is elucidated. The rise of modern homosexuality in industrial nations results from the demographic transition to low mortality and low fertility, relaxing the reproductive management of children by parents and permitting a greater role for temperament in individual sexual and gender choices.
Article
How to define and identify sexual orientations for the purpose of constructing representative samples of homosexuals, bisexuals, and heterosexuals is unclear and confusing to researchers. Different definitions and measures have been proposed and used to develop samples since the 1860s when sexual orientations first gained widespread research interest. Unfortunately, the definitions and measurement tools used since then result in the selection of divergent and incomparable samples. If advances in the understanding of sexual orientations are to be made, it is critical that definitions and measures of sexual orientation be standardized. This paper reviews and critiques definitions and measures of sexual orientation that have been proposed and used by researchers over the past century. This review is intended to further our understanding of this subject and to encourage researchers to be critical of how they classify subjects based upon sexual orientation.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is defined as an uncontrollable disposition to worry about one's welfare and that of one's immediate kin. Associated manifestations include arousal, vigilance, tension, irritability, unrestful sleep and gastrointestinal distress. There is growing evidence for the lifelong nature of this condition among many of its sufferers. This and other evidence reviewed in the present paper provide further support for the thesis that the chronic disposition to worry should probably be classified under constitutional or trait anxiety. GAD is best considered an exaggeration of a normal personality disposition that can be named 'Generalized anxious temperament' (GAT). Despite some overlap with anxious-phobic, inhibited and avoidant-sensitive temperaments, GAT seems to have a distinct profile with altruistic overtones; on the other hand, GAT is less easily distinguished from harm-avoidant and obsessive traits. That worrying would increase upon relaxation is not a paradox at all, and is understandable in an ethological perspective as subserving the defensive function of being vigilant of ever present yet uncertain external dangers--to oneself and one's kin--in day-to-day living. GAT can thus be considered as 'altruistic anxiety', subserving hypothetically the survival of one's extended phenotype in a 'kin selection' paradigm. Only when extreme does worrying manifest in a clinical context, impairing one's interpersonal life and functioning at work, and increasing use of general health care resources. Furthermore, generalized anxiety appears to predispose to and is often associated with depression, and a spectrum of phobic disorders, as well as alcohol and sedative use. These considerations place GAD (and the putative GAT) in the limelight and underscore the need for more research into its fundamental characteristics. Towards this aim, a self-rated GAT measure under development in our center is provided in an appendix to this paper.
Article
Responding to controversies about the balance between nature and culture in determining human sexuality, the author proposes that the female sex drive is more malleable than the male in response to sociocultural and situational factors. A large assortment of evidence supports 3 predictions based on the hypothesis of female erotic plasticity: (a) Individual women will exhibit more variation across time than men in sexual behavior, (b) female sexuality will exhibit larger effects than male in response to most specific sociocultural variables, and (c) sexual attitude-behavior consistency will be lower for women than men. Several possible explanations for female erotic plasticity are reviewed, including adaptation to superior male political and physical power, the centrality of female change (from no to yes) as a prerequisite for intercourse, and the idea that women have a milder sex drive than men.
Article
Background: Since 1977, the work of the author has shown the primacy of behavioral activation, flamboyance, and extravagance in detecting hypomania, the historical hallmark of cyclothymic and the broader spectrum of bipolar II (BP-II) disorders. In other words, the soft spectrum is more likely to declare itself in behavioral rather than mood disturbances. The obligatory search for elation and related mood changes a la DSM-IV (and its interview form, the SCID) during the clinical interview is often doomed to failure, thereby "condemning" the patient to a unipolar diagnosis, and hence to sequential and often tragic failures with antidepressants or combinations thereof. Methods: To characterize behavioral signs of good specificity, though individually of low sensitivity for BP-II in patents presenting with major depression, the author undertook a chart review of over 1000 depressive patients he had examined extending over a period of nearly three decades. The Mood Clinic Data Questionnaire (MCDQ) used in the author's Memphis mood clinic permitted systematization of unstructured observations. BP-II had been independently confirmed by hypomania of > or =2 days and/or cyclothymia over the course of the index illness (both of which were validated by family history for bipolarity in earlier research in our clinic). Results: Triads of behavior or traits in the patients' biographical history-as well as in the biologic kin-involving polyglottism, eminence, creative achievement, professional instability, multiple substance/alcohol use, multiple comorbidity (axis I and axis II), multiple marriages, a broad repertoire of sexual behavior (including brief interludes of homosexuality), impulse control disorders, as well as ornamentation and flamboyance (with red and other bright colors dominating) were specific for BP-II. Temperamentally, many of these individuals thrive on activity-they are indeed "activity junkies." Limitation: The reported findings pertain primarily to the differential diagnosis between BP-II and unipolar depression. Replication of the approach espoused herein will require quantification of the operational definitions of the observed phenomenology. Conclusion: The findings, which make sense in an evolutionary model of the advantage that "dilute" bipolar traits confer to human biography and erotic life, suggest that such behavioral traits can be useful provisionally in assigning a depressive episode to the realm of the bipolar II spectrum. Overall, the perspective espoused in this paper indicates that temperamental excesses and, more generally, a biographical approach, represent a more coherent approach than hypomanic episodes in the diagnosis of BP-II patients. Finally, such a diagnostic approach underscores the importance of incorporating evolutionary considerations and principles in understanding the origin of affective disorders.
Article
We sketch out putative evolutionary roles for affective temperaments within the theoretical framework of mood disorders conceptualized as extremes in an oligogenic model of inheritance, whereby the constituent traits in their dilute phenotypes confer adaptive advantages to individuals and/or their social group. Depressive traits, among other functions, would subserve sensitivity to the suffering of other members of the species, overlapping with those of the generalized anxious temperament, thereby enhancing the survival of not only kin but also other conspecifics. The pursuit of romantic opportunities in cyclothymia suggests that it may have evolved as a mechanism in reproductive success; cyclothymics' creative bent in poetry, music, painting, cooking or fashion design (among men, in particular) also appears useful for sexual seduction. Hyperthymic traits would lend distinct advantages in leadership, exploration, territoriality and mating. These are just some of the possibilities of the rich and complex temperamental traits subserving bipolarity within an evolutionary framework. We test selected aspects of these hypotheses with the use of correlations between the constituent traits of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS) and correlations between the TEMPS and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Such data support the counterbalancing protective influence of harm avoidance on the risk-taking behavior of cyclothymic individuals, in both men and women. Finally, we outline a hypothesis on the evolutionary function of anxious-depressive traits for women.
Article
Our aim was to validate the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) in a clinical population. The study was conducted in two Memphis mood clinics involving 398 affectively ill patients with young to middle index age (42 years+/-13 S.D.), who were 95% white, 62% female, and 51% bipolar spectrum. A subset of 157 of the entire sample were retested in 6-12 months, and the entire sample was then subjected to factor analysis (PCA extraction method with varimax rotation). We obtained high test-retest reliability ranging from 0.58 for the irritable, to 0.68, 0.69 and 0.70, respectively, for the cyclothymic, dysthymic and hyperthymic. The hypothesized four-factor structure of the TEMPS-A was upheld, with the cyclothymic explaining 14% of the variance, followed by the irritable, hyperthymic, and dysthymic together accounting for another 14%. Internal consistency was excellent, with Chronbach alphas ranging from 0.76 for the dysthymic to 0.88 for the cyclothymic. Exploratory factor analysis revealed 2 super factors, Factor I loading on cyclothymic, irritable, and dysthymic temperaments, and Factor II loading heavily on the hyperthymic. The 50-item TEMPS-A-Clinical Version was constructed by using a cutoff of alpha > or =0.4 for traits loading exclusively on their original temperaments. We also proposed a longer 69-item version for future study, in which we permitted a greater number of traits based on clinical considerations (alpha cutoff 0.30). The sample was preponderantly white, and may not generalize to other U.S. ethnic groups. This earlier version of TEMPS-A did not include the anxious temperament. We psychometrically validated the TEMPS-A in affectively ill outpatients, leading to an instrument suitable for use in psychiatric, especially affectively ill, populations. It is noteworthy that in this clinically ill population we succeeded in measuring traits which could make subjects vulnerable to affective episodes, as well as those of adaptive nature. For instance, the dysthymic emerged as bound to routine, self-blaming, shy-nonassertive, sensitive to criticism, yet self-denying, dependable, and preferring to work for someone else rather than be the boss. The hyperthymic had the highest number of "positive" traits: upbeat, fun-loving, outgoing, jocular, optimistic, confident, full of ideas, eloquent, on the go, short-sleeper, tireless, who likes to be the boss, but single-minded, risk-taker, and unlikely to admit to his/her meddlesome nature. The cyclothymic emerged as labile with rapid shifts in mood; unstable in energy, self-esteem and socialization; unevenly gifted and dilettante; yet keen in perception, intense in emotions, and romantic. The irritable emerged as skeptical and critical (which might be considered intellectual virtues), but otherwise having the "darkest" nature of all temperaments: grouchy, complaining, dissatisfied; anger- and violence-prone, and sexually jealous. The foregoing temperament attributes, observed in a moderately severe group of patients with affective disorders, nonetheless testify to the evolutionary context of these disorders-"submissive" behavior, territoriality, romantic charm, and last, but not least, sexually jealous with its associated specter of violence. We hypothesize that the putative social and limbic mechanisms underlying mood disorders appear to have archaic origins on an evolutionary scale. We finally submit that the traits underlying affective disorders are very much part of human nature.
Article
One of the most enduring and controversial questions in the neuroscience of sexual behaviour surrounds the mechanisms which produce sexual attraction to either males or females. Here, evidence is reviewed which supports the proposal that sexual orientation in humans may be laid down in neural circuitry during early foetal development. Behaviour genetic investigations provide strong evidence for a heritable component to male and female sexual orientation. Linkage studies are partly suggestive of X-linked loci although candidate gene studies have produced null findings. Further evidence demonstrates a role for prenatal sex hormones which may influence the development of a putative network of sexual-orientation-related neural substrates. However, hormonal effects are often inconsistent and investigations rely heavily on 'proxy markers'. A consistent fraternal birth order effect in male sexual orientation also provides support for a model of maternal immunization processes affecting prenatal sexual differentiation. The notion that non-heterosexual preferences may reflect generalized neurodevelopmental perturbations is not supported by available data. These current theories have left little room for learning models of sexual orientation. Future investigations, across the neurosciences, should focus to elucidate the fundamental neural architecture underlying the target-specific direction of human sexual orientation, and their antecedents in developmental neurobiology.
Article
Some propositions on male and female sexual orientation will be considered. Some of these are established; others are more speculative. The aim is to offer some notes towards a coherent, comprehensive theory of sexual orientation. 1. The distinction between butch and femme lesbians seems real rather than a social construct. 2. High levels of prenatal steroid hormones seem to be causally associated with the sexual orientation of butch lesbians. However it is not established whether the causal process operates prenatally or postnatally (or both). This is so because prenatal hormone levels are thought to correlate positively with postnatal hormone levels. And high postnatal hormone levels may facilitate homosexual behaviour as a consequence of sensation-seeking. 3. Male bisexuals also are interpreted to have been exposed to high prenatal testosterone levels. But (for reasons similar to those outlined above in regard to butch lesbians) it is unclear whether these have a direct prenatal effect on the brain or whether they are precursors of high postnatal testosterone levels, which are associated with male bisexual orientation by promoting sensation-seeking behaviour. 4. Postnatal learning processes seem to be causally involved in the sexual orientation of some femme lesbians and some exclusive male homosexuals. 5. Some homosexual men have genes that predispose to their sexual orientation. 6. The same may apply to some lesbians, but such genes have not, as far as I know, been identified. 7. People (of both sexes) who engage in same-sex sexual behaviour may be classified simultaneously in two ways, viz (1) 'active' vs 'passive' and (2) those who do and those who do not engage (or consider engaging) in sex with members of the opposite sex. Ex hypothesi, some of the 'active' ones initiate some of the 'passive' ones. The active ones are driven more by hormones and the passive ones by psychosocial factors. The active males contain a substantial proportion of self-identified bisexuals; and the active females a substantial proportion of self-identified butches. 8. These two active categories (butch lesbians and male bisexuals) share a number of endocrinological, psychological, morphological and behavioural features vis-a-vis their exclusively homosexual and heterosexual peers. Methods of testing some of these ideas are presented.
Article
Despite a plethora of studies, controversies abound on whether the long-term traits of unipolar and bipolar patients could be differentiated by temperament and whether these traits, in turn, could be distinguished from subthreshold affective symptomatology. 98 bipolar I (BP-I), 64 bipolar II (BP-II), and 251 unipolar major depressive disorder (UP-MDD) patients all when recovered from discrete affective episodes) and 617 relatives, spouses or acquaintances without lifetime RDC diagnoses (the comparison group, CG) were administered a battery of 17 self-rated personality scales chosen for theoretical relevance to mood disorders. Subsamples of each of the four groups also received the General Behavior Inventory (GBI). Of the 436 personality items, 103 that significantly distinguished the three patient groups were subjected to principal components analysis, yielding four factors which reflect the temperamental dimensions of "Mood Lability", "Energy-Assertiveness," "Sensitivity-Brooding," and "Social Anxiety." Most BP-I described themselves as near normal in emotional stability and extroversion; BP-II emerged as labile in mood, energetic and assertive, yet sensitive and brooding; MDD were socially timid, sensitive and brooding. Gender and age did not have marked influence on these overall profiles. Within the MDD group, those with baseline dysthymia were the most pathological (i.e., high in neuroticism, insecurity and introversion). Selected GBI items measuring hypomania and biphasic mood changes were endorsed significantly more often by BP-II. Finally, it is relevant to highlight a methodologic finding about the precision these derived temperament factors brought to the UP-BP differentiation. Unlike BP-I who were low on neuroticism, both BP-II and UP scored high on this measure: yet, in the case of BP-II high neuroticism was largely due to mood lability, in UP it reflected subdepressive traits. We used self-rated personality measures, a possible limitation generic to the paper-and-pencil personality literature. It is therefore likely that BP-I may have over-rated their "sanguinity"; or should one consider such self-report as a reliable reflection of one's temperament? One can raise similar unanswerable questions about "depressiveness" and "mood lability." As contrasted to CG and published norms, the postmorbid self-described "usual" personality is 1) sanguine among many, but not all, BP-I; 2) labile or cyclothymic among BP-II; and 3) subanxious and subdepressive among UP. It is further noteworthy that with the exception of BP-II, the temperament scores of BP-I and MDD were within one SD from published norms. Rather than being pathological, these attributes are best conceived as subclinical temperamental variants of the normal, thereby supporting the notion of continuity between interepisodic and episodic phases of affective disorders. These findings overall are in line with Kraepelin's views and contrary to the DSM-IV formulation of axis-II constructs as being pathological and sharply demarcated from affective episodes.
Article
Current formal psychiatric approaches to nosology are plagued by an unwieldy degree of heterogeneity with insufficient appreciation of the commonalities of emotional, personality, behavioral, and addictive disorders. We address this challenge by building a spectrum model that integrates the advantages of Cloninger's and Akiskalian approaches to personality and temperament while avoiding some of their limitations. We specifically propose that "fear" and "anger" traits--used in a broader connotation than in the conventional literature--provide an optimum basis for understanding how the spectra of anxiety, depressive, bipolar, ADHD, alcohol, substance use and other impulse-control, as well as cluster B and C personality disorders arise and relate to one another. By erecting a bidimensional approach, we attempt to resolve the paradox that apparently polar conditions (e.g. depression and mania, compulsivity and impulsivity, internalizing and externalizing disorders) can coexist without cancelling one another. The combination of excessive or deficient fear and anger traits produces 4 main quadrants corresponding to the main temperament types of hyperthymic, depressive, cyclothymic and labile individuals, which roughly correspond to bipolar I, unipolar depression, bipolar II and ADHD, respectively. Other affective temperaments resulting from excess or deficiency of only fear or anger include irritable, anxious, apathetic and hyperactive. Our model does not consider schizophrenia. We propose that "healthy" or euthymic individuals would have average or moderate fear and anger traits. We further propose that family history, course and comorbidity patterns can also be understood based on fear and anger traits. We finally discuss the implications of the new derived model for clinical diagnosis of the common psychiatric disorders, and for subtyping depression and anxiety as well as cognitive and behavioral styles. We submit this proposed schema represented herein as a heuristic attempt to build bridges between basic and clinical science.
We argue for a mixed state core for melancholia comparing concepts of melancholia across centuries using examples from art, history and scientific literature. Literature reviews focusing on studies from Kraepelin onward, DSM-IV classification and view-points from clinical experience highlighting phenomenologic and biologic features as predictors of bipolar outcome in prospective studies of depression. Despite the implied chemical pathology in the term endogenous/melancholic depression, frequently reported glucocortical and sleep neurophysiologic abnormalities, there is little evidence that melancholia is inherited independently from more broadly defined depressions. Prospective follow-up of 'neurotic' depressions have shown melancholic outcomes in as many as a third; hypomania has also been observed in such follow-up. These findings and considerations overall do suggest that melancholia as defined today is more closely aligned with the depressive and/or mixed phase of bipolar disorder. Given the high suicidality from many of these patients the practice of treating them with antidepressant monotherapy needs re-evaluation.
Article
Is suffering associated with melancholia and "madness" necessary for artistic creativity and eminence? Or do creativity and leadership have something to do with the temperaments associated with affective disease? We integrate concepts dating back to Greek psychological medicine and philosophy--especially work attributed to Aristotle--with modern data-based examination of the role of cyclothymic and related temperaments in the interface between mixity, the bipolar spectrum and normality. We place our query within the general framework of evolutionary biology and human nature. In doing so, we propose that affective disease--including mania and associated psychotic states--exist because they serve as the genetic reservoir for adaptive temperaments and the genes for genius. Affective disorder can therefore be regarded as the price of exceptional greatness. Thus, creative and eminent individuals, by virtue of their being exceptional, occupy a somewhat unstable terrain between temperament and affective disease.
Ideações e tentativas de suicídio em adolescentes com práticas sexuais hetero e homoeróticas
  • F S Teixeira-Filho
  • C A Rondini
Teixeira-Filho, F.S., Rondini, C.A., 2012. Ideações e tentativas de suicídio em adolescentes com práticas sexuais hetero e homoeróticas. Saude Soc. 21, 651-667.
Adolescent sexual behavior, drug use, and violence: increased reporting with computer survey technology
  • C F Turner
  • L Ku
  • S M Rogers
  • L D Lindberg
Turner, C.F., Ku, L., Rogers, S.M., Lindberg, L.D., 1998. Adolescent sexual behavior, drug use, and violence: increased reporting with computer survey technology. Science 280, 867-873.