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Designing and Implementing an Integrated Mathematics , Science , and Technology Curriculum for the Middle School

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... Even though the advantages of STEM education are well known, there have been numerous obstacles to the dissemination of these practices in the classroom, including a poor understanding about STEM education [3] and scientific concepts [4,5]. Teachers also have shown difficulties in adopting non-traditional teaching strategies [4,5] and integrating content from different STEM areas [6,7]. In fact, the way in which STEM disciplines should be integrated is still the subject of debate in the literature [8,9]. ...
... According to this model, STEM content integration must be explicit to help students develop their knowledge and skills in the different STEM disciplines. In an integrated curriculum, content from more than one discipline is explicitly addressed, and the same emphasis is given to two or more disciplines [6,7]. In this respect, Roehrig et al. [23] propose a distinction between content integration and context integration. ...
... Only two STEM activities (G2 and G3) presented explicit assimilation of concepts from more than one discipline, according to Satchwell and Loepp [6] view about integrated curricula. That integration between science and mathematics is particularly important in primary education [12]. ...
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STEM (Science-Technology-Engineering-Mathematics) education has received great attention in recent years not only for promoting interest and learning in these areas but also for encouraging children and young people to pursue careers in them. This research explored the effects of a STEM program in developing the primary pre-service teachers’ Content Knowledge (CK) and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) about sound. A qualitative and interpretative study analyzed the impact of a STEM program on the CK and PCK of 18 pre-service primary teachers that were attending a master’s degree program in a Portuguese higher education institution. The data was collected from their lesson plans, field notes, a focus group interview, and participants assignments throughout the STEM activities carried out. Findings revealed several scientific misconceptions and weaknesses in the participants’ PCK. Nevertheless, there was a clear positive impact on pre-service teachers’ CK and PCK, specifically regarding the principles underlying STEM integration that was proposed in the conceptual framework.
... Besides that, for an interdisciplinary approach, it starts with problems or real-world problems and emphasis on interdisciplinary content and skills such as critical thinking and problem-solving, instead of subject-specific content and skills. Satchwell & Loepp (2002), used interdisciplinary curricula and integrated curricula rather than multidisciplinary. Integrated STEM education is an approach that explores teaching and learning between/any two or more STEM subject areas, and/or between STEM subjects and one or more other school subjects (Sanders, 2009). ...
... Lastly, the problems should be authentic, open-ended, and ill-structured real-world problems (Burrows et al., 2014;Edy Hafizan et al., 2017;Satchwell & Loepp, 2002). Although these approaches can be grouped as student centred, advocate the active learning and support the use of real-world problem, but, there is specific differences between these approaches (Asghar et al., 2012). ...
... The inquiry category includes planning and conducting investigations, collecting, analysing, and interpreting data and scientific inquiry. Inquiry learning involving questioning (Wells, 2016), initiating prior knowledge to gain new ideas, design, carry out investigation and discover new concepts with appropriate amount of guidance (Satchwell & Loepp, 2002). Additionally, design category contains learning through design, design-based learning, developing, and applying models and engineering designs. ...
... Nitekim alan yazında mühendislik tasarım süreçleri, ideal FeTeMM içerik bütünleştiricisi olarak değerlendirilmektedir (NRC, 2012). Dahası, FeTeMM'in uygulanmasına yönelik tasarım süreçlerinin, mühendislik uygulamalarını mevcut ortaöğretim programlarına dâhil etmek için ideal bir giriş noktası olarak gösterilmektedir (Carr vd., 2012;Ejiwale, 2013;Satchwell ve Loepp, 2002). Bu nedenle UbD'nin, FeTeMM eğitiminde fen ve matematik kavramlarının tasarıma yansıtılarak tasarım içine gömülü olan bilginin açığa Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Eğitim Dergisi Özel Sayı çıkarılmasında etkin bir araç olarak kullanıldığı söylenebilir (Belland, 2016;Wiggins ve McTighe, 2005). ...
... Bu kullanımın temel sebebinin, FeTeMM bilgisindeki yapının anlaşılmasına yönelik en az iki disipline ait kavramların yeterli düzeyde elde edilebilmesi için (Adıgüzel vd.., 2012;Capraro ve Jones, 2013;Wang vd.., 2011) birden fazla disipline ait öğrenme hedefi veya standartlarına aynı anda odaklanılmasını sağlamak için bir tedbir olduğu düşünülmektedir (Asghar vd.., 2012;Huelskamp, 2010;Morrison vd., 2009). Ayrıca alan yazında FeTeMM odaklı olarak tanımlanan ders planlarında terminoloji bilgisine sıklıkla yer verilmesi (Ejiwale, 2013;Satchwell ve Loepp, 2002), iki veya daha fazla alana eşit olarak dikkat vermenin bir şekilde kavramları aynı perspektife taşıtarak bütünleştiren yeni bir terminoloji için bir çaba olarak değerlendirilmiştir (Lantz, 2009;Ostler, 2012 ...
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The aim of this study is to search for a common framework on STEM lesson plans by comparing the national and international lesson plans, defined as STEM-focused, based on various models and approaches. We used thematic meta-synthesis research method and selected 82 lesson plans from the ones focused on STEM across the world. As a result of content analysis, three main themes and 13 sub-themes emerged. Main themes were named as “STEM knowledge,” “STEM teaching approaches,” and “STEM implementation process.” Sub-themes of the research were "pedagogical knowledge," "content knowledge," "technological knowledge," "assessment knowledge," "project-based learning," "interdisciplinary approach," "inquiry-based learning," "5E learning model," "problem-based learning,” “task analysis,” “STEM connection,” “STEM literacy skill,” and “authentic assessment.” When the disciplines that constitute itself since the emergence of the STEM approach are examined, it is observed that mathematics and science disciplines converge to engineering discipline. When this approach is evaluated together with the findings of the study, it is concluded that STEM as an interdisciplinary approach plays a key role in understanding the holistic structure belonging to STEM rather than causing an identity crisis in STEM.
... These flowcharts contain dilemmas and design decisions that reflect the particular group dynamics in the TDTs, but do not seem to be meant as general guideline for iSTEM curriculum design. Better generalizable are the design activities mentioned in the study of Satchwell et al. (2002). In their study, a team of nine competent middle-school teachers and researchers from different STEM disciplines engaged in (1) choosing a shared theme based on the national math and science standards and key STEM concepts, (2) developing a series of discipline-oriented objectives aligned with the national standards, (3) creating an introductory challenge to raise students' interest, (4) designing learning materials and authentic assessments to have students explore, study, and apply the new key concepts. ...
... Future research could advance the case-based model presented in this work. Firstly, the classroom implementation and corresponding revision of the designed materials could be examined and included (e.g., as extra phases) in the model (Satchwell et al., 2002;Berland, 2013). Additionally, further research among pre-and in-service STEM teachers could examine the extent to which the case-based model and findings of this study support other TDTs' endeavors to design integrated STEM education. ...
... Matematika terintegrasi bukan hal yang baru, mengingat matematika sebagai queen of science memberikan layanan kepada bidang lain terkait dengan matematika yang bisa diterapkan pada bidang lainya, misalnya seringkali mendengar adanya Science technology engineering and mathematics (STEM), dan integrated mathematics, science, and technology yang dikenal dengan IMaST (Satchwell & Loepp, 2002). IMaST Sebagai salah satu kurikulum yang mengintegrasikan matematika sains dan teknologi tidak hanya mengintegrasikan pada bebeapa materi saja namun sudah pada ketentuan yang dituangkan dalam sebuah kurikulum terintegrasi. ...
... Kurikulum terpadu/ integrated curriculum merupakan krikulum dengan asimilasi eksplisit konsep-konsep dari lebih dari satu disiplin ilmu. Kurikulum IMaST mungkin satu-satunya kurikulum sekolah menengah penuh di AS yang mengintegrasikan teknologi, sains, dan matematika (Satchwell & Loepp, 2002). Fitur lain dari kurikulum termasuk koneksi ke seni bahasa dan ilmu sosial, serta bacaan profil karir yang khas terkait dengan konten kurikulum (Huntley, 1998 Fakta lainnya yang menyedihkan hasil PISA 2018 skor siswa usia 15 tahun pada aspek literasi, matematika dan sains berada pada ranking 72 kemampuan matematika turun dari skor 386 pada tahun 2015 menjadi 379 pada tahun 2018 berada dibawah skor rata-rata OECD 487(Harususilo, Yohanes Enggar, 2019). ...
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Integrasi dan interkoneksi merupakan dua kata yang saling berkaitan integrasi berkaitan dengan memadukan atau menyatukan sedangkan interkoneksi berkaitan dengan keterhubungan. Sebuah ilmu akan lengkap manakala ada interkoneksi atau integrasi satu dengan lainnya dan terkadang ilmu itu berkembang melalui kedua hal tersebut, misalnya matematika yang terintegrasi akan lebih kontekstual apabila diintegrasikan atau diinterkoneksikan dengan bidang lain seperti masalah matematika yang konteksnya fisika, biologi, sosial humaniora, agama dan budaya. Jika dapat mengintegrasikan Islam dari setiap konsep matematika tentunya akan lebih mudah mengembangkannya dalam setiap proses pembelajaran
... Without this broader skillset, our students will not be prepared for the jobs of the future or equipped to succeed in an everchanging world. Our education system, then, must focus not only on building students' content knowledge, but also inspiring an entrepreneurial mindset encompassing spatial reasoning and problem solving (Satchwell & Loepp, 2002). ...
... Collaborative problem solving and interactive decision making enrich the overall learning of students in constructivist learning situations (Satchwell & Loepp, 2002). ...
Article
Spatial reasoning involves those skills that allow one to mentally picture and manipulate objects which plays a unique role in learning and succeeding in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields (STEM). Despite the urgent need for strong spatial reasoning skills, our current education system spends little time fostering elementary students’ visual and spatial reasoning skills. This is becoming increasingly problematic as the need to become literate in the STEM fields has never been greater. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the spatial reasoning skills that preservice teachers demonstrated and how their spatial reasoning skills were used in the enactment of the tasks of teaching. Thirty-two preservice teachers completed a spatial reasoning task. Each preservice teacher then teamed with their practicum partner, created an adapted plan using the same spatial reasoning task, and enacted their plan with an elementary student in Grades K-5. Finding from this study indicate that the spatial reasoning skills of preservice teachers are weak, which hinders flexible thinking when observing elementary students engaged in a spatial reasoning task. How learners represent and connect pieces of knowledge is a critical factor in whether they will understand it deeply and can use it in problem solving. Advisor: Lorraine M. Males
... STEM is based on an integrated approach. Integrated STEM, which means combination of science and math education theories with the use of technology and engineering (Satchwell and Loepp, 2002), includes the interdisciplinary education, and aims to search for solutions to the problems with the knowledge obtained through STEM disciplines (Nadelson and Seifert, 2017;Nite et al., 2017). STEM curriculum and pedagogy can be integrated into elementary and secondary classrooms to create awareness about STEM education. ...
Article
The study aimed to investigate the effects of a STEM-based course design on students’ attitudes towards STEM and a science course. STEM activities were prepared per learning outcomes relating to the ‘illumination and sound technologies’ learning domain in the grade 4 science course. The study was carried out based on an experiment and control group quasi-experimental design. The study was carried out at a state school in Mersin in 2021. The experimental group of the study consisted of 32 and the control group consisted of 32 grade 4 students. STEM-based activities were performed in the experimental group. However, non-STEM activities were performed based on usual experimental setups in the control group. At the end of the study, the experimental and control group students’ attitudes towards STEM and science course were examined to determine whether there were statistically significant differences. As part of this study, student opinions on STEM were examined. A STEM Attitude Test and open-ended opinion form were used as data collection tools. Normality tests were conducted, and the homogeneity of variances was examined. Dependent and independent t-tests were conducted in quantitative data analysis and content analysis in the qualitative data analysis. The results suggested that STEM-based course design significantly increased students’ STEM attitudes and their attitudes towards science course more than the attitudes of students not exposed to STEM-based course design. In addition, students considered STEM practices fun and informative. Accordingly preparing STEM based course design for science course has been suggested.
... There have been a large number of studies conducted in the field of IBSE investigating its effect on students' achievement in various fields. The results show its positive effect on conceptual understanding and inquiry skills development [19][20][21][22][23][24], as well as on other aspects of learning, e.g., curiosity [25] and attitudes and motivation towards science [26]. ...
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Active learning, represented by inquiry-based science education (IBSE) strategies, is considered essential for students to develop skills and knowledge to prepare for the challenges of the 21st century world. The success of IBSE, and the resulting development of inquiry skills in particular, can be enhanced by various factors. This study is focused on the synergetic effect of the implementation of IBSE through well-designed inquiry activities across STEM-related disciplines, enhanced by digital technologies and formative assessment tools, delivered by teachers educated in this field. The corresponding research based on a quasi-experimental design evaluated the effect on the development of inquiry skills that were identified before and after a period of consistent implementation of IBSE, using a written test of inquiry skills as the main research instrument. The research findings on the sample of 2307 upper secondary school students confirmed a low initial level of inquiry skills, however a statistically significant improvement in students’ inquiry skills with medium size effect was identified. The detailed analysis shows the largest impact in the skill of determination of accuracy and statistically significant differences between genders without practical importance, however no difference was identified with regard to the number of inquiry activities undertaken.
... It is through integrated STEM projects that this type of learning can occur. (Satchwell & Loepp, 2002) Bigger Picture: Next steps are to expand our definition of STEM to counter the rise in apathy and concern over poor STEM completion rates. Students need to understand that STEM careers include more than bio-science and nanotechnology. ...
... Después de todo, el objetivo es generar interés y compromiso de los estudiantes. El crecimiento profesional en STEM muestra signos de avance en la participación del estudiantado, por lo que es imperativo que nuestros alumnos desarrollen experiencias en busca del desarrollo profesional futuro (Satchwell y Loepp, 2002). Para ello, las aulas necesitan ser transformadas en espacios, donde el docente genera estrategias para transformar el aprendizaje, convirtiéndolo en un logro personal para cada alumno. ...
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Aula en un ambiente STEM: una oportunidad para la innovación CRISTIAN FERRADA, Universidad de Los Lagos, cristian.ferrada@ulagos.cl DANILO DÍAZ-LEVICOY, Universidad Católica del Maule, ddiazl@ucm.cl EDUARDO PURAIVAN, Universidad de Viña del Mar, epuraivan@uvm.cl Resumen La clase STEAM (ciencias, tecnología, ingeniería, artes y matemática) ofrece un espacio adecuado para apoyar la inclusión y participación de los estudiantes mediante el uso de la tecnología. Esta área no solo facilita el trabajo docente para la presentación de contenidos, sino que también proporciona al alumno múltiples herramientas de implementación relacionadas con la tecnología para el desarrollo de diversos programas enfocados en la metodología STEAM. Se busca establecer un entorno de aprendizaje vanguardistas, demostrativos, basados en la simulación de la realidad virtual mediante el acondicionamiento de ambientes de aprendizaje que promuevan el desarrollo de habilidades en las nuevas generaciones, con el fin de retomar el conocimiento científico y carreras enmarcadas en los avances tecnológicos. Esta iniciativa tiene como objetivo fomentar y estimular espacios de enseñanza y de aprendizaje que se desarrollen en un espacio físico, según un modelo educativo colaborativo y flexible incentivando nuevos modelos y competencias de aprendizaje a través de tecnologías en un ambiente STEAM. Además, de fomentar la creatividad en la búsqueda de expresión sobre las artes, innovando y afrontando las necesidades del futuro a través del desarrollo de proyectos para trabajar en y para los mismos estudiantes, explorando y resolviendo problemas a través del pensamiento crítico, la comunicación efectiva, la gestión eficiente del tiempo. Palabras clave: Aula STEAM, Innovación, Ciencia, Experimentación. Classroom in a STEM environment: an opportunity for innovation Abstract The STEAM (science, technology, engineering, arts, and math) class provides an appropriate space to support student inclusion and participation through the use of technology. This area not only facilitates the teaching work for the presentation of content, but also provides the student with multiple implementation tools related to
... It was also found that motivating students with interdisciplinary authentic problems, the PjbL-STEM method helps students solve real-life problems by developing and making use of their cooperative problem-solving skills (Hickey, 2014), increases their senses of responsibility (Connors-Kellgren et al., 2016), allows them to solve the problems from the perspectives of a scientist or an engineer (Capraro & Slough,2013, p.1-2) and thus develops their scientific process skills indirectly (Satchwell & Loepp, 2002). Furthermore, related studies revealed that teaching with the help of PjbL-STEM had a positive influence on students' creativity and attitudes towards scientific learning (Tseng et al., 2013), their motivations (Siew et al., 2015), and their academic achievements (Çevik & Abdioğlu, 2018;Lou et al. 2014;Nurtanto et al., 2020). ...
... This shows that STEM activities are still successful in increasing academic achievement. When the literature is examined, it is seen that STEM education generally increases the academic success of students (Altun & Yıldırım, 2015;Ceylan, 2014;Doppelt et al., 2008;Erdoğan, Çorlu & Capraro, 2013;Marulcu & Höbek 2014;Satchwell & Loepp 2002;Wendell & Lee, 2010;Yıldırım & Selvi, 2016;Zeynegiller, 2006). In this respect, research results differ from other studies. ...
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The aim of this study is to examine the effect of instructional design applications prepared in accordance with the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) approach based on the 5E model in the subject of “Matter and Heat” unit on the academic achievement and problem-solving skills of sixth grade students. The research was carried out with a mixed research design. In the quantitative dimension of the study, quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest control group was used. The study group consists of sixth grade students in a secondary school located in the district center of a metropolitan city in the Mediterranean region. The “Matter and Heat” unit was explained through the STEM education course plan integrated in 5E learning model in the experimental group and through the current course plans as required by the curriculum in the control group. As a data collection tool, the “Matter and Heat Achievement Test” and the “Problem Solving Inventory” were applied to both groups before and after STEM education. In order to support the qualitative dimension of the mixed research, the “Semi-Structured Interview Form” was filled in to get the opinions of the students in the experimental group about STEM education and it was analyzed using descriptive statistics. As a result, it was determined that STEM education did not make a statistical difference in students’ academic performance and problem-solving skills. However, the opinions of the students revealed that STEM education increased student engagement in the course that classes were more fun with STEM education, and that using this education in classes would be better for student learning.
... These approaches can enhanced student learning outcomes. Students employed the application of the knowledge and skills as they doing their researches These improve their higher order of thinking achievement [8,23]. My viewpoint, some researchers that continued submit the ESS research to the GLOBE SRC, their research had trend to be the invention research type and probably get a chance to win the competition. ...
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The Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) is an international science and education program that promote teaching and learning of science, enhance environmental literacy and awareness. The Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology (IPST) acted as a country coordinator. IPST has implemented GLOBE throughout the country. One of the important approach is “GLOBE Student research competition (GLOBE SRC)”, this project aim to promote students to learn and share Earth System Science (ESS) research. The research focused on environmental science by using GLOBE measurement protocols. This study reflected outcome of the project such as the amount of ESS research, type of environmental science research and learning outcome of the project in 2009 - 2020. A total of 451 researches were analyzed in term of title and abstract. The result indicated that Survey research is 69%, Experimental research is 26%, and Invention research is 5%. The trend of the Experimental research increased and Invention research slightly increased in the last six years. The result indicated that this approach enabled students to improve their scientific inquiry, scientific thinking and scientific attitude. They received learning experiences that build 21 st century competency to assist them in the future.
... Een herontwerp van het huidige onderwijs naar meer geïntegreerd onderwijs dringt zich op; een onderwijsvernieuwing waarin de vakleraren en hun onderlinge samenwerking een cruciale rol spelen. Onderzoeksliteratuur over onderwijsvernieuwing wijst uit dat de draagkracht ervan vergroot wordt door leraren inspraak te geven in het beslissingsen ontwerpproces (Pintó, 2005;Satchwell & Loepp, 2002) en dat de effectiviteit ervan bepaald wordt door de inbreng en het leren van de leraren zelf (Voogt et al., 2011;Stolk, Bulte, De Jong, & Pilot, 2016). ...
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De wereldwijde trend naar een meer geïntegreerde benadering van schoolse vakken, is er één die ook Vlaanderen niet aan zich wil laten voorbijgaan. Zo wilden we met het initiatief STEM@school onderzoeken op welke manier de STEM-disciplines (Science, Technology, Engineering en Mathematics, de zogenaamde bètavakken) geïntegreerd kunnen worden aangebracht in het voortgezet onderwijs. Om een breder draagvlak te creëren voor deze onderwijsvernieuwing werd tussen leraren en universiteit een partnerverband gesloten om vakoverschrijdende leermiddelen te ontwerpen. Maar hoe kunnen we leraren daar nu voor opleiden? Vanuit academisch perspectief distilleerden we uit onze ervaringen met leraren in dit onderzoeksinitiatief enkele belangrijke ontwerpprincipes en-processen. Op basis daarvan stellen we in deze beschouwing een programma voor voor het opleiden van leraren tot ontwerpers van geïntegreerd onderwijs. Het ontwerpen van STEM-integrerend leermateriaal in STEM@school zal als casus de achterliggende ontwerpprincipes en de ontwerpprocessen illustreren.
... In the 1990s, the research of [17,18] emerged, pioneering the development of integrated learning. The emergence of these studies coincides with two elements: The educational reforms of the 1990s which supported an integrated curriculum in the USA and Canada (and later spread to Europe and the rest of the world); the STEM education movement, which is based on the idea of integrating the curriculum from concepts of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics [19]. Together these elements represent an important effort to broaden the theoretical framework, which interprets scientific learning in terms of conceptual and procedural understanding [20]. ...
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The intention of this article is to share research taken from the initial training of secondary education pre-service teachers, in which college professors from mathematics and social sciences education participate. There are numerous studies regarding curriculum integration. However, there is insufficient research that offers insight into how different forms of disciplinary thought may come together in the design and development in practice for an educational purpose. The research professors carried out a qualitative investigation, working with two pre-service teacher groups from the fields of mathematics and social sciences. We used a validated research instrument to analyze how interdisciplinary educational proposals are developed, and how said proposals can be used to understand our social reality. Through an integrated project, pre-service teachers addressed sexist hate speech taken from different contexts. They designed didactic proposals, with mathematical contents, which allow high school students to argue with data and create counter-narratives, which softened or eliminated the sexist hate speech Among the conclusions, we may emphasize the value of pre-service teachers identifying their strengths in order to use the mathematical and social thought processes in an autonomous and creative way, thereby developing the instrumental, functional, and formative character in mathematics education.
... For instance, teachers can guide students through the six phases of the 6E learning cycle: the need to "engage," "explore," "explain," "engineer," "enrich," and "evaluate" (Barry, 2014). Alternatively, they can also guide students through the processes of "exploring," "getting the idea," "applying the idea," "expanding the idea," and conducting "assessment" (Satchwell & Loepp, 2002). ...
Article
Integrated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curricula have taken center stage in the recent education reforms. However, the challenge in teaching STEM curricula lies in finding ways to develop students’ content knowledge and plan suitable learning activities and instructional strategies. This paper is focused on the implementation of STEM curricula by secondary technology and engineering teachers and presents a framework for implementing a STEM curriculum centered on engineering design while illuminating its components, such as curriculum theme, content knowledge, learning activities, and teaching strategies. As an effective STEM teaching strategy relies on content integration, the focal point of this framework is the use of learning activities, such as “inquiry and experiment” and “design and making,” to integrate STEM content into lessons and help students develop core competencies through engineering design processes. This paper is meant to serve as a reference for technology and engineering educators to use when designing and implementing engineering-oriented STEM curricula, thereby providing a deeper learning experience of engineering design and STEM integration in secondary-school classrooms.
... However, according to Merrill (2009), since STEM education has been widely implemented and more focused on solving authentic problems, hands-on, technological tools and equipment have become increasingly important. Thibaut et al. (2018) proposed that inquiry-based learning is one of the common teaching strategies in STEM activities, during which students learn through hands-on activities (Satchwell & Loepp, 2002). At the same time, Shahali, Halim, Rasul, Osman, and Zulkifeli (2016) also mentioned that the engineering design in STEM education should include hands-on applications. ...
Article
With the development of the maker movement, more and more teachers are applying a broad range of technological tools in their pedagogy, instead of only information technology. This study details the development and validation of the Teachers Maker-based TPACK Survey Instrument (TMTSI), a revised model designed to measure technology teachers’ maker-based technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) in utilizing maker based tools to support their teaching. We recruited 165 preservice secondary technology teachers in Taiwan for this study and confirmatory factor analysis was applied to validate the instrument. Our findings suggest that TMTSI provided a valid and highly reliable research-based instrument that also serves as a professional development model to help scaffold the development of K-12 technology teachers. This paper details the theoretical foundations of TMTSI, reports on its reliability and validity, and discusses the application and implications of TMTSI for teacher education and professional development.
... Research has shown that students who participated in an integrated STEM curriculum demonstrate an improved performance on standards-based science, mathematics, and integrated science/mathematics problems (Becker and Park 2011;Kiray and Kaptan 2012). Integration of STEM contents also positively affects students' problem-solving, analysis and modelling skills (Ross and Hogaboam-Gray 1998;Satchwell and Loepp 2002). Furthermore, it enhances students' sense of relevance and importance of STEM subjects to environmental issues and future careers (Kutch 2011;Tseng et al. 2013). ...
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Our rapidly changing society needs highly-qualified STEM professionals (experts in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) to develop solutions to the problems it is facing. Many of the students who graduate from a STEM programme in secondary education, however, opt out of STEM when enrolling in higher education, often due to a loss of interest. To ensure sufficiently high and qualified enrolment in higher STEM education, we need to bridge this gap between secondary and higher STEM education by showing our youngsters the relevance of science and technology to their personal life and environment. To this end, the project STEM@school promoted and studied the idea of integrated STEM in secondary education in Flanders, Belgium. In integrated STEM education, learning contents from the separate STEM courses are linked in an authentic way, as they often are in our environmental challenges. This approach encourages students as well as their teachers to acquire a robust understanding of STEM concepts, and a creative, inquisitive, and collaborative mindset. For the design of integrated STEM curricula, STEM@school united secondary-school STEM teachers and university researchers. This article elaborates on the principles, opportunities and challenges of the design and implementation of these curricula and discusses their promising effects on students’ conceptual understanding and attitudes towards STEM subjects. The article concludes with tips and tricks to get started with integrated STEM education in secondary schools.
... Other ways in which integration occurs include the following: STEM and STEAM (Satchwell and Loepp, 2002;Vega, 2012b;Miller, 2014;MacDonald et al., 2019); the infusion of literacy (Cervetti et al., 2007;Alvermann et al., 2011;Romance and Vitale, 2012a,b;Vega, 2013); the infusion of the arts (Upitis, 2011;Catterall et al., 2012;Riley, 2013); and the infusion of environmental responsibility (Blair, 2009). Challenges to Implementing IC So far, widespread implementation of IC has been hampered by practical and theoretical challenges. ...
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Integrated or interdisciplinary curriculum (IC) is an effective and relevant way to teach the 21st century competencies and to apply the transdisciplinary skills necessary for solving complex global problems. We review the underpinnings of both traditional and progressive education and past periods of implementation of IC in order to understand its history. Multiple definitions of IC are identified on a continuum. Reasons to dismiss the continuum are also offered. Two periods when IC was implemented in a consistent way in the United States are explored: the progressive era from 1919 to 1955, and the late 1980s and early 1990s. Similarities in each era are identified such as progressive principles of teaching and learning. Differences are also considered in basic assumptions held by curriculum developers of the day with the 1980s and 1990s lacking the 1930s deep social purpose of teaching for a democratic society. The socio-political context is visited to understand the beginnings and endings of these eras. The current educational context is then viewed from a global context. We see a landscape in which accountability and disciplines are counterbalanced by a global redefinition of what’s worth knowing and a shift toward interdisciplinary competencies/skills/capabilities, well-being and teaching the whole child. Indeed, this is happening in places around the planet such as Finland. The ideas are reminiscent of the 1930s progressive movement—a time of experimentation when student interests and needs more than disciplinary content shaped an IC. We propose that the current global conversation can offer conceptual cohesion to encourage and support the implementation of IC and can act as a proxy for the Progressive Education Association that guided practitioners from 1919 to 1955.
... The concept of curriculum fidelity is defined by Pence, Justice, and Wiggins (2008) as the extent to which teachers implement an intervention, curriculum, innovation, or program as intended by the developers. However, a review of related studies in the area of curriculum implementation (Azano, Misset, Callahan, Oh, Brunner, Foster & Moon, 2011;Bümena, Çakarb & Yildizc, 2014;Hord & Huling-Austin, 1986;Koo, 2009;Ntumi, 2016;Phaeton & Stears, 2017;Rusman, 2015;Satchwell & Loepp, 2002;Shadan & Oliver, 2016) reveal inadequate attention into how teachers unpack the intended curriculum into classroom instruction. This indicates an implied need to conduct a study in the area of curriculum unpacking practices of teachers where a knowledge gap exists. ...
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Curriculum unpacking, defined as the process of interpreting the intended curriculum into classroom instruction, is important in the overall success of the school curriculum. As a critical process that serves as a bridge between the intended curriculum and classroom instruction, however, there is a paucity of research about it. Hence, this study aimed to describe the curriculum unpacking practices of a teacher. It entailed a qualitative research design specifically a case study to look closely into the single context of a purposively selected kindergarten teacher in a public school. The main data gathering techniques used were key informant interview and document review. The data obtained were subjected to thematic analysis. The result of the study revealed that the participant follows a generally linear process in unpacking the curriculum as noted in the compliance to the minimum standards of the intended curriculum, main consideration of the learner while translating the intended curriculum into instruction as mandated in the law, and alignment of the curriculum and instructional components. However, qualitative probes uncovered possible errors such as misinterpretation of the developmentally appropriate principle espoused by the intended curriculum and discrepancy between the curriculum standards and instructional activities. The implications in practice are discussed in the study.
... Such studies add weight to the argument promulgated by some authors that the word might be used simply to sound more innovative or to increase funding opportunities (Akerson et al. 2018). Based on these considerations many papers (e.g., Satchwell and Loepp 2002;Shahali et al. 2017;Stump et al. 2016;Thibaut et al. 2018) stress the importance of genuinely trying to integrate at lease two disciplines. ...
Article
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In recent years, there is a growing interest in educational approaches that include the integration of STEAM disciplines. However, to contribute to increase students' interest in these subjects from an early age, it is crucial to prepare primary teachers to carry out an integrated STEAM approach in schools. This study is aimed to demonstrate the potential of engaging primary pre-service teachers in a STEAM program within a science and a mathematics course. The results of the study emerged from the analysis of the participants' responses to a pre-post questionnaire, STEAM lesson plans they have developed, and reflective writing assignments they carried out at the end of the STEAM program. Findings show that primary pre-service teachers' attitudes toward a STEAM-integrated approach evolved positively through developing lesson plans. The results revealed benefits and challenges of planning STEAM activities according to the participants and their confidence to implement a STEAM-integrated approach in the context of practice. This work was supported by Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, I.P., Grant/Award Number UIDP/04748/2020.
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El término STEAM hace referencia al estudio y enseñanza de la ciencia, tecnología, ingeniería, matemáticas y arte, que considera su aplicación desde el nivel de la educación preescolar hasta los estudios superiores. La finalidad de su metodología se orienta hacia el desarrollo del pensamiento crítico y sistémico, la autogestión y la autoinnovación institucional. La metodología utilizada fue la documental, es decir, fundamentado en una revisión bibliográfica a nivel nacional e internacional sobre el enfoque STEAM, mediante los buscadores especializados: Biblioteca de Concytec, Mendeley, Redalyc y Google Académico. El enfoque STEAM representa para el proceso educativo un valioso aporte para abarcar a los actores principales de la educación, promover competencias, actuaciones en conjunto, de carácter colaborativo, entre docentes y estudiantes de cualquier nivel educativo. Por lo tanto, surge la necesidad de poner el énfasis en la promoción de las ciencias y tecnología a lo largo de toda la cadena educativa sobre la base de la formación de competencias en los niños y jóvenes, así como, la necesidad de implementar en los docentes una amplia competencia en pedagogía y en tecnología, con un pensamiento flexible-creativo e interdisciplinar para plantear el desarrollo de estrategias y configurar ambientes de aprendizaje favorables.
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The purpose of this study was to explore the perception of science teachers in public schools in Jordan towards science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning. Adopting the quantitative approach, the researchers of this study used a questionnaire comprehending (30) consistent items, prechecked for validity and reliability, subdivided into two domains. The first domain revealed teachers' perceptions of STEM trends in science teaching, and the second domain revealed faculty members' knowledge of teaching requirements incorporating STEM in science learning. The participants in the study consisted of a simple random sample of (750) male and female teachers from public schools in the Jordanian Ministry of Education during the second semester of the year 2020/2021. Study data were analyzed using SPSS. The results of the study showed that the perceptions of science teachers of the public schools of the Ministry of Education in Jordan towards science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning came at a high level, with a total mean of (2.51) and a standard deviation of (0.46). They also demonstrated a high level of knowledge of the requirements of science teaching using STEM. Besides, study findings showed that Science teachers' perception relative to the variables of gender (for female) and teaching experience (from 5 years-to less than 10 years of experience category of men and women Science teachers). Nonetheless, there were no statistically significant differences amongst men and women Science teachers relative to the Educational level variable. The study recommended the importance of activating the role of science teachers to use the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) approach.
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https://rodin.uca.es/handle/10498/26368 There has been a substantial increase in research focused on numerical cognition in recent years. Although the notable growth in scientific productivity worldwide has focused on methods that might improve mathematical learning, mathematics is not yet perceived by all students as an accessible and enjoyable discipline. The study of mathematics is critical to academic success and can have a major impact on adaptation to everyday life. Given the relevance of early education and its impact on future development, advances in this research topic should be addressed using several different approaches. It is certainly essential to explore the cognitive profiles of students who are beginning in mathematical learning, as the intellectual development predicted by these cognitive processes may lead to improved methods of instruction. Studies that focus on variables that influence learning are also important. Among these variables, students' sociodemographics and/or attitudes towards mathematics may be associated with their mathematical development. However, while taking into account the cognitive basis of these findings, it will also be critical to encourage the development of instruments that promote student motivation and improved mathematical learning. The use of state-of-the-art technological devices that operate via the use of touch screens is an influential, accessible, and familiar means of interaction with students in their daily lives and provides an attractive option for the teaching of mathematics. The increased use of technology-mediated methodologies in both educational and domestic fields has encouraged the design of new and effective tools that may be used to improve student learning. This has also led to new methods for instruction on the appropriate use of these technologies and devices by young children in their homes. With this as a background, this study aimed to develop computer applications (APPs) that focused on student training based on our understanding of the cognitive basis of mathematical learning. These APPs were intended to be both didactic and enjoyable tools that can be used in early childhood education. Our goal was to promote the transfer of scientific research on mathematical learning via the development of new tools and to generate synergies with the children's entertainment industry. The results of this study are consistent with findings that document the relevance of the general foundations on which mathematical learning is based and highlighted specific aspects of mathematics as needed to obtain adequate development. The results of our study reveal that touch screen devices and their APPs can be used to develop programs for early childhood education that are focused on the cognitive bases of numerical learning and that cognitive predictors can be used to introduce the appropriate ways of employing these devices in early childhood. This technology can be applied both in the classroom and at home. The goal of these efforts is to improve mathematical competence among students regardless of their initial academic achievement.
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Bir disiplinin diğer disiplinlerle bütünleştirilerek öğretilmesini ifade eden disiplinlerarası öğretim kavramı ve bunun nasıl gerçekleştirilebileceği durumu alanyazında tartışılan yeni bir olgu değildir. Fakat son yıllarda STEM eğitimi gibi disiplinlerarası öğretimi vadeden yaklaşımların ortaya çıkması disiplinlerarası öğretime yönelik alanyazında yer alan bu yaklaşımları ele almayı daha da gerekli kılmaktadır. Çünkü disiplinlerarası öğretim, etkili ve anlamlı öğrenmeye olan katkısı sebebiyle ve gerçek yaşam temelli problemlerin doğası gereği, her geçen gün daha da önemi artan ve vurgu yapılan bir kavram olarak alanyazında karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bu çalışmada bu sebeple disiplinlerarası öğretim kavramı ve disiplinlerarası öğretimi sağlamaya yönelik alanyazında yer alan yaklaşımlar ele alınarak STEM eğitiminin ilkokul kademesinde bütünleştirilmesi(entegrasyonu) bağlamında tartışılmıştır. !lanyazın incelendiğinde Drake (1991, 1998), Fogarty (1991) ve Lederman ve Niess (1997) tarafından öne sürülen yaklaşımlar yer almaktadır. Bahsi geçen bu yaklaşımların STEM eğitiminin vadettiği disiplinlerarası öğretimi sağlamada öğretmenlere yardımcı olacağı söylenebilir. Bu yaklaşımların özellikleri incelendiğinde STEM eğitimin bütünleştirilmesine yönelik birbirlerine karşı bir üstünlüğünü olmamakla birlikte STEM eğitiminin farklı yaklaşımları kullanmaya olanak sunması, bütünleştirme çeşitliliğini destekleyen bir doğası gereği, hepsinin ilkokul ve diğer öğretim kademelerinde kullanılabileceği söylenebilir. İlgili STEM disiplinlerinin bütünleştirilmesinde hangi yaklaşımın işe koşulacağı ise ele alınan problem durumu, içerik ve konu, öğrencilere kazandırılmak istenen beceriler veya öğrenci ilgi ve yönelimi göz önünde bulundurularak karar verilebilmektedir. Sonuç olarak STEM eğitiminin ilkokul ve diğer kademelerde disiplinlerarası bütünleştirilmesiyle ilgili aşağıda çizilen genel çerçevenin önerdiği yaklaşımların kullanılabileceği söylenebilir. !yrıca bütünleştirmeyi daha da geliştirip zenginleştirmek, daha etkili yaklaşımları sınıflarda öğretmenlerin uygulamasını sağlamak amacıyla da bu alanda daha birçok tartışmanın ve araştırmanın yapılması gerektiği anlaşılmaktadır.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the structural relationship between technology teachers’ attitudes toward STEAM education and the cooperation of instructional resources collaboration, school educational change receptivity, and instructional expertise and instructional efficacy. The population comprised about 3500 technology teachers working in middle schools in Korea, and the sample size was set at 650. Data were collected in parallel with postal surveys and online surveys. A total of 650 copies were distributed, of which 409 were recovered, and 283 copies were used for analysis after data cleaning. The Mplus 7 program was used for data analysis, and the significance level was set at 5%. First, we found that the suitability of the structural model established to clarify technology teachers’ attitudes toward STEAM education, instructional resource collaboration, school educational change receptivity, instructional expertise, and instructional efficacy was generally good, so the relationship between the variables was reasonably confirmed. Second, school educational change receptivity and instructional efficacy were found to have a direct effect on attitudes toward STEAM education. Third, the teachers’ instructional resources collaboration was confirmed to influence their attitudes toward STEAM education by mediating the school educational change receptivity and instructional efficacy, and their instructional expertise mediated their instructional efficacy. Fourth, school educational change receptivity was confirmed to influence attitudes toward STEAM education through the dual media of instructional expertise and instructional efficacy. Finally, instructional resource collaboration was confirmed to influence attitudes toward STEAM education through school educational change receptivity, instructional expertise, and instructional efficacy.
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This research aims to study the implementation of the PjBL-STEM strategy to increasing scientific literacy in students at MTsN 28 Jakarta. The study population was students of class VII MTs Negeri 28 East Jakarta in the 2018/2019 academic year with a sample of 2 similar classes each of 32 students. This research is exploratory using multi methods, namely case studies and experiments. Researchers conducted lesson in the experimental class using the PjBL-STEM strategy in life systems organization curriculum subject. The lesson was observed in the implementation process, student responses and measure scientific literacy level. To ensure the functioning of this strategy in improving scientific literacy, researcher measured scientific literacy level in the control class. The research used observation, survey and test to collect data using observation sheets, questionnaires and test items. The data were processed using descriptive statistics and t-test. Research shows that the implementation and response to the implementation of the PjBL-STEM strategy is categorized as good. Students' scientific literacy in the knowledge aspect of the experimental class was better than the control class, not significantly different in the aspect of identifying scientific issues, while in the aspect of using scientific evidence the experimental class was superior to that of the control class. The experimental class showed a positive response and was happy with the implementation of PjBL-STEM. The research recommends science teacher to use PjBL-STEM strategy in a certain topic and condition.
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Access to science-based environmental education is critical to improve rural coastal communities’ adaptive capacity and resilience. Based on research in two rural, underprivileged schools in South Africa’s southern Cape coastal region, we describe the process and lessons learnt in developing and deploying a series of integrated teaching modules for middle school (Gr 7-9) learners. The modules’ structure was informed by integrated curriculum design, and lessons were developed to augment the existing syllabus. Social and situated learning paradigms also informed the modules’ development, with lessons and practical exercises drawn from the surrounding environment and community, as well as incorporating data from ongoing regional marine science research. In a context of rural isolation, limited resources and a mistrust of outsiders amongst adult community members, the findings suggest that the modules may serve as building blocks of intentional learning to bolster adaptive capacity amongst both learners and the broader local community.
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The STEAM model combines the academic disciplines of Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics (STEAM), forming a very relevant and increasingly fundamental educational approach within technologically advanced societies. Real‐world concepts and applications are associated in ways that encourage students to apply them whenever possible to their learning processes. In this context, Jupyter Notebooks and their highly innovative tools offer transparency for scientific research and the reproducibility of new findings. These virtual notebooks can be used to display text, video, and embedded interactive graphics. In this study, two laboratory sessions are described where students use the Jupyter Notebook to learn about the direct stiffness method. This study unit within the Theory of Structures and Industrial Constructions course module involves matrix structural analysis, requiring intensive matrix calculus and computational methods, which cannot be solved with pen and paper alone. Student use of the Jupyter Notebook when applying the direct stiffness method to the resolution of reticulated structures was studied in two laboratory sessions. An example of the software was first presented and explained. The students were then required to solve a series of problems of increasing difficultly where only part of the solution was available to check their results, thereby facilitating self‐directed learning. At the end of the session, the students were administered a survey to evaluate their satisfaction. The survey responses reflected their high levels of acceptance of this teaching methodology.
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The chapter reports the results of integrating computing, project or problem-based learning and engineering process to address the needs of preparing the STEM workforce in Punjab, Pakistan through transforming STEM teaching and learning processes. It also aimed to build the capacity of the University of Education, Lahore to improve the quality and relevancy of its STEM teacher education programs and its partnership schools. A collaborative team of STEM and STEM education faculty from two U.S. universities and University of Education (UE), Lahore designed, developed, implemented, and evaluated STEM learning units with a specific focus on water and management of natural resources to under-served 6-8 grade students in Pakistan through the integration of project-based and problem-based learning (PBL) and Squeak Etoys, modeling, and simulation tool.
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Se registra en la comunicadad académica la preocupación por buscar alternativas para trascender el aprendizaje memorístico recurrente en la clase de Ciencias. No obstante, a pesar de identificarse que el Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABP) y la Experimentación Exploratoria son alternativas con potencial para trascender este tipo de aprendizaje, habitualmente son integradas de forma aislada y por ende se atiende parcialmente la problemática. Por lo tanto, el presente estudio desarrolla un análisis documental con el objetivo de delimitar los fundamentos del ABP y la Experimentación para ubicar el principal punto de encuentro entre ambas alternativas como oportunidad para ser integradas en conjunto en la educación en Ciencias. Los resultados del estudio permiten concluir que las preguntas formuladas en la etapa de ejecución de un proyecto, son el principal punto de encuentro para desarrollar proyectos en la clase de Ciencias a través de la Experimentación Exploratoria.
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La literatura reporta la necesidad de programas que aporten a la formación de los profesores en Educación STEM. Debido a tensiones como la caracterización de una disciplina en el contexto de las demás y el delimitar los aprendizajes específicos de cada disciplina en una implementación interdisciplinar, existe un especial interés en los profesores de matemáticas y ciencias pues enfrentan más tensiones al favorecer la educación STEM por los fundamentos epistemológicos de dichas disciplinas. En el estudio que se reporta en este documento se ofrece una aproximación al componente teórico de un programa de formación de profesores de matemáticas y ciencias en educación STEM. A partir de una revisión de literatura, se identificaron características fundamentales y nucleares en el componente teórico del programa: los conocimientos a desarrollar, las experiencias a beneficiar y el favorecimiento de una configuración de comunidades de aprendizaje profesional.
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Se reconoce en la comunidad académica el alcance de la educación STEM/STEAM para potenciar cambios en los procesos educativos al favorecer conexiones interdisciplinares, no obstante, se tiene un registro limitado de su desarrollo a nivel Iberoamericano. Por lo tanto, este estudio tiene por objetivos identificar los principales eventos Iberoamericanos que discuten la educación STEM/STEAM y caracterizar la publicación de estos eventos relacionada con la formación de profesores. Para ello, se utilizaron dos ecuaciones de búsqueda en Google que permitieron rastrear y seleccionar los eventos Iberoamericanos. Entre los principales resultados se reporta que no se registró un evento dedicado exclusivamente a educación STEM/STEAM, la producción académica de los eventos presenta limitaciones tanto en cantidad como en fundamentación de los estudios y la relacionada con la formación de profesores requiere ser ampliada sustancialmente en futuras investigaciones, a partir de iniciativas que incrementen las conexiones con las demás disciplinas que componen el acrónimo.
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Implement project-based learning to improve student competency in managing hotspot configurations on MikroTik in accordance with Y generation characteristics. With the other aim of knowing the feasibility of M-netsys application through assessment instruments from Walker & Hess for media and RISTKDIKTI for materials with scale measurements using assessment scales. The research method used in this research is Research and Development (R & D) using One-Shot Case Study testing strategy with minimum learning completeness ≥ 3.0 or B. This research was conducted in 2015 Wireless Network class with 25 students. The results of the research have been obtained: (1) To improve student competence in setting (configuration) hotspot on MikroTik which according to Y generation characteristics can be done by implementing project-based learning in the learning process through the application of M-netsys learning media supplement. (2) The feasibility of M-netsys learning material with the research instrument from RISTEKDIKTI is stated very strong with the percentage of 84.4%. Meanwhile, the prevalence of M-netsys media through the assessment instrument of Walker & Hess is considered very strong with a percentage of 83.58%. (3) Students’ learning outcomes after using M-netsys as many as 25 students completed and expressed classically with 100% percentage.
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The purpose of this chapter was to identify and describe the extent to which Saudi female middle school mathematics teachers perceive the need for pedagogical content knowledge in integrated STEM education. To develop STEM education for girls' schools, this study sought clarity from mathematics teachers how they intended to reach set goals. In this study, 118 female middle school mathematics teachers were surveyed for this study. Participants showed higher-level pedagogical knowledge; knowledge was not fully applied in their classrooms, and participants had an average level of subject matter knowledge related to STEM disciplines indicating a deeper need for STEM disciplines knowledge and systematic support, such as training courses or professional development programs.
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Bütünleşik STEM / STEAM eğitimi Türkiye’de özellikle ilkokul kademesi için yeni bir alandır. Sınıf öğretmenleri STEM eğitimiyle ilgili yeterince deneyimleri olmadığından sınıflarında bütünleşik STEM / STEAM etkinliklerini uygulamak istediklerinde birçok problemle karşı karşıya kalabilmektedirler. Bu nedenle bu araştırmanın amacı ilkokul dördüncü sınıf düzeyinde katılımcı sınıf öğretmenleriyle birlikte bütünleşik STEM / STEAM etkinliklerinin başarılı bir şekilde gerçekleştirilmesidir. Araştırma, katılımcı araştırmacı ve beş katılımcı öğretmenin döngüsel bir süreç boyunca gerçekleştirdikleri bütünleşik STEM / STEAM etkinliklerini planlama, uygulama ve mesleki gelişim faaliyetlerini içermektedir. Araştırma nitel araştırma geleneğinde yer alan eylem araştırması desenlerinden katılımcı eylem araştırması türünde yürütülmüştür. Katılımcı eylem araştırması, katılımcı araştırmacı olarak araştırmacı ve beş ilkokul dördüncü sınıf öğretmeni olmak üzere toplam altı öğretmen tarafından gerçekleştirilmiştir. Katılımcı öğretmenlerin tümü sınıf öğretmenidir. Ayrıca iki adet değerlendirici öğretmen de katılımcı öğretmenlerin uygulamalarını gözlemlemek ve değerlendirmek üzere süreçte konumlanmıştır. Araştırma Osmaniye Merkez ilçesinde görev yapan sınıf öğretmenlerinin kendi sınıflarında fen bilimleri dersinde 2017-2018 eğitim-öğretim yılı ikinci döneminde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Katılımcı eylem araştırması sürecinde genel olarak tüm katılımcı öğretmenlerin etkinliklerin planlanması ve uygulamasında teknoloji ve mühendislik boyutunda problem yaşadıkları fakat fen, matematik ve sanat boyutlarında herhangi bir problem yaşamadıkları tespit edilmiştir. Bu nedenle süreçte etkinliklerin teknoloji ve mühendislik boyutlarına odaklanılarak bu boyutlara yönelik müdahaleler ve mesleki gelişim faaliyetleri gerçekleştirilmiş ve işlevsel müdahaleler belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca ilkokullarda STEM disiplinlerine beşinci bir disiplin olarak sanat (A) boyutunun da bütünleştirilmesi (STEAM) gerektiği ve sanat boyutunun diğer STEM disiplinleriyle bütünleştirilmesinin etkinliğe bazı katkılarının olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Süreçte sanat boyutu odaklanılan diğer bir boyut olmuştur. Ayrıca süreçte etkinliklerin planlanmasında ve uygulanmasında belirli bir akışın olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Öğretmenlerin bütünleşik STEM/STEAM etkinliklerin planlanmasında TA>SM>EA ve uygulanmasında E>TA>SM>EA kullandıkları modelleri, ilkokul düzeyinde faydalı ve işlevsel yöntemler olarak eylem araştırması sürecindeki gerçekleştirdikleri uygulamalar sonucunda elde edilmiştir. Bununla birlikte öğretmenlerin sınıf öğretmeni olmaları sebebiyle etkinlikleri öğrencilerinin seviyesine uyarlamada kendilerine özgü stratejilerin olduğu deneyimlenmiştir. Öğretmenler katılımcı eylem araştırması sürecindeki deneyimlerini ifade etmeleri sonucunda ise ilkokul kademesinde bütünleşik STEM / STEAM etkinliklerinin planlanıp uygulanmasıyla ilgili ne tür zorluklar tecrübe ettikleri ve ne tür ihtiyaçlara gereksinim duydukları belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca öğretmenler katılımcı eylem araştırmasının bir yürütücüsü olarak, sürecin kendi bütünleşik STEM / STEAM eğitimiyle ilgili mesleki gelişimlerine ilişkin katkısını da ifade etmişlerdir. Araştırma sürecinde öğretmenlerin gerçekleştirdikleri ilkokul düzeyine uyarlanmış beş bütünleşik STEAM etkinliği planı elde edilmiş ve diğer sınıf öğretmenlerinin de yararlanabilmesi amacıyla ekte sunulmuştur. Araştırma sonucunda ilkokul kademesinde teoriyle uygulama sürecinin birleştirileceği daha birçok çalışmanın yapılması gerekliliğini doğurmuştur. Bu bulgular ışığında araştırmacılara ve uygulayıcılara yönelik öneriler sunulmuştur. Abstract STEM education is particularly a new area at primary level in Turkey. Therefore, primary school teachers encounter numerous difficulties in adapting the new STEM integration reforms into their classrooms because of a lack of knowledge and experience. The aim of this participatory action research is preparing and implementing successful STEM activities in primary schools with primary school teachers. The study contains participant teachers’ planning, implementing STEM / STEAM activities and professional development sections though the cyclical action process. And to explore teachers’ perceptions and classroom practices in order to set up the baseline for STEM integration. The study was carried out 2017-2018 educational year in the second term in Osmaniye province. The participants of the action research are the inside researcher and three female, two male fourth-grade primary school teachers. The study carried out collaboratively and democratically in teachers' fourth-grade classrooms. According to the findings all participant teachers have experienced difficulty in technology and engineering disciplines of the STEM activities while preparing and implementing STEM / STEAM activities in their classrooms. Moreover, findings suggest that integrating art (A) to other STEM disciplines (STEAM) in primary level is a necessity for implementing STEM activities successfully. On the other hand, integrating art have some positive and negative effects. In the participatory action research process participant teachers have experienced that TA>SM>EA and E>TA>SM>EA methods are helpful models for preparing, implementing and adapting activities to the classroom level. Also, being a primary school teacher participant teachers have unique strategies for adapting activities for their students. Teachers, as experiencing participatory action research in their classrooms, expressed barriers, requirements and professional development needs for implementing STEM /STEAM activities at the primary level. The integrated STEAM activity plans which were prepared by participant teachers in the process are presented at the appendix section of the study for other primary school teachers who wants to implement them in their classrooms. Findings from the study provide critical data for making informed decisions about the direction for STEM integration at the primary level. As a result of the research, there is a need for more studies for the primary level which combines theory and practice.
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This study focuses on Grade 5/6 Knowledge Building through robotics-based math, employing a collaborative innovation network framework to assess the extent to which the knowledge building community displayed characteristics of knowledge-creating organizations. The research was conducted in two main phases, employing social network, social semantic, lexical, and discourse analyses to uncover dynamics of innovation networks and knowledge advancement. The pilot phase showed the emergence of three network types identified in knowledge creation organizations, along with change over time. Students forming COINs (Collaborative Innovation Network) contributed more advanced math-related notes, engaged in more theory building and design thinking discourse, and provided greater explanatory coherence. However, the community lacked symmetric advances involving all community members, as several students remained at the periphery of the knowledge network. Also, students’ advances in math understanding were only marginally improved over time. In the second phase, pedagogical and technological supports were designed to improve levels of engagement and knowledge advancement. The analyses confirmed the existence of network types for Innovation networks with the greater movement of members across network types and greater contribution of math notes from more students. COIN members continued as the mainstay of notes creating explanatory coherence. Findings demonstrate the nature of analytic tools and authoritative sources for increasing contributions to community knowledge, resulting in higher engagement, more advanced math contributions, and greater engagement of initially peripheral students who outperforming central network students to demonstrate symmetric knowledge advancements and greater responsibility for knowledge advancement. Results also indicated that students’ ideas in math significantly improved over time. This study contributes to the literature surrounding robotics by employing Knowledge Building pedagogy and technology and provides empirical evidence that Knowledge Building can be an effective alternative approach to competition-based learning in robotics. This research also adds to Knowledge Building literature and learning sciences by employing COINs framework from organizational behaviour literature, and opens up the possibility of future work at the intersection of Knowledge Building and COIN. This study also contributes to knowledge building analytics by suggesting tools to analyze knowledge building communities against knowledge creation organizations criteria to facilitate the formation of an innovation network.
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The catapult was one of the most effective and deadly weapons in medieval siege warfare. They have been critical to warfare since ancient times and have been used by Greek, Roman, and Chinese warriors to vanquish their enemies. This case will present a problem-based scenario where students will assume the identity of an astronaut stranded on Mars. Like the character in the Disney film The Martian, the astronaut only has a small collection of “spare parts” at their disposal. In an effort to fend off predators, they must design and construct a catapult.
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