R173 Ito, T. (2014). Effects of tsunami and nuclear disaster on children’s time perspective: A text mining study of essays after the Great East Japan Earthquake Journal of International Society of Life Information Science, 32(1), 44-46.

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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the essays written by children who experienced the Great East Japan Earthquake in order to clarify the characteristics of these essays focusing on the difference between tsunami and nuclear disaster experiences. A total of 161 essays written by school-aged children were extracted for text mining analysis concentrating on their expressions of will and want for the present and future. While after the tsunami incident children mentioned the importance of conveying the crisis experience for future generations, the children experiencing the nuclear disaster expressed their want (desire) to lead a life free from restrictions such as playing outside and meeting with friends and family from whom they had been separated. Although the tsunami experience evoked children's will to remember the painful incident for the future, the children experiencing the nuclear contamination evoked their wants about their present and future life.
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44
Journal
of
International
Society
of
life
Information
Science
(ISliS)
J Intl.
Soc.
Life
In
fo. Sci.
Vo/.32,
No.1, March 2014
The
37th
Symposium
on
life
Information
Science
March 15-16, 2014,
Toho
Uni
versity Omori Medical
Center,
Tokyo,
Japan
Effects
of
Tsunami
and
Nuclear Disaster on
Children's
Time
Perspective
-A Text Mining Study
of
Essays
after
the
Great
East
Japan
Earthquake
-
Takehiko
ITO
Department
of
Psychology and Education,
Wako
University
(Tokyo,
Japan)
Abstract:
The purpose
of
this study was to examine the essays written by children who experienced the
Great East Japan Earthquake
in
order to clarify the characteristics
of
these essays focusing on the
difference between tsunami and nuclear disaster experiences. A total
of
161
essays written by
school-aged children were extracted for text mining analysis concentrating on their expressions
of
will
and want for the present and future. While after the tsunami incident children mentioned the importance
of
conveying the crisis experience for future generations, the children experiencing the nuclear disaster
expressed their want (desire) to lead a life free from restrictions such as playing outside and meeting with
friends and family from whom they had been separated. Although the tsunami experience evoked
children's will to remember the painful incident for the future, the children experiencing the nuclear
contamination evoked their wants about their present and future life.
Keywords:
earthquakes,
tsunami,
nuclear
plants,
text
mining,
time
perspective
I.
Introduction
The Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred on
March
II,
2011 , was a mega-earthquake followed by
large tsunami. The disaster was compounded
by
nuclear
meltdowns at the power plants in Fukushima. This
disaster caused tremendous suffering in Japan, but it also
shocked the entire world and drew global attention to a
variety
of
issues. Among them was the issue
of
widespread radiation leakage from the Fukushima
Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. This leakage forced many
to evacuate their homes and the large population
of
evacuees remains a serious problem. Because the effects
of
radiation are long lasting, the physical and emotional
trauma will remain
an
issue in the coming decades.
Ito & Iijima (2013) analyzed how children responded
and reviewed their difficult experience through their
essays, which were published within two years after the
disaster to understand their resulting posttraumatic
growth.
They used the following books as resources:
I) March
lJ
According
to
Children: Never
Forgetting the Great East Japan Earthquake, by Create
Media (Ed.) (2012).
2) Tsunami:
The
Complete Essays by Children from
the Disaster Areas, by Ken Mori (2012: Bungeishunju).
3) Children
of
the Tsunami:
The
Unwritten Stories,
by Ken Mori (20
11:
Bungeishunju).
4) I
Want
to
Go Home: Children
of
Fukushima
Thinking about Life, Family, and the Future. by The
Takehiko ITO. take@wako.ac.jp
Wako University, Kanai 2160, Machida, Tokyo 195-8585, JAPAN .
Fukushima Children's Project for the Future, edited by
Minoru Kamata (20 12).
Using these publications, we proceeded to explore
the difference
in
the essays' content according to the
types
of
injury with regards to the tsunami and nuclear
disaster.
2. Objectives
The purpose
of
this study was to examine the essays
written by children who experienced the Great East
Japan Earthquake in order to clarify
if
thete were
differences in the characteristics between the tsunami
and nuclear disaster experiences.
3.
Methods
Texts for analysis
Over 169 essays were reviewed
in
order to judge
whether each was appropriate for inclusion in this study,
which yielded: 85 from Mori (2012), four from Mori
(20 11) as six
of
the total
10
essays were already included
in
Mori (2012), 44 from Create Media (2012), and 36
from Kamata (20 12).
In
addition,
in
order to make comparisons among
writers
of
the same age, the essays were classified by age
at the time
of
writing as follows: lower elementary
school students (grades 1-3), upper elementary school
students (grades 4-6), junior high school students, and
high school students. Their age and their descriptions
of
things found from their essays
is
the foundation for this
paper.
Journal
of
International
Society
of
life
Information
Science (/SUS)
[~]]
J Inti. So
c.
Lif
e
Inf
o.
Sci.
Vol.32
, No.1, March 2014
The
37th
Symposium
on
life
Information
Science
Ma
rc
h 15-16, 2014,
Toho
University
Om
ori Medical Cent
er,
Toky
o,
Japan
45
1.
5
0.5
0
m
2 - 0
,5
~
-1
-1.5
- 2
Features
of
the
Tsunami
experience
What
children
want
to
do
To
proce
ed
To
aboli
sh
To
get
back
To
meet
To l
ive
with
-2.5+---------~--
---------r----------r-------
---+----~--
--+---
----~
~
-1.5
-1
-
0.5
0.5 1.5
Fig.
1.
Correspondence analysis
of
will/want expression in four groups according to tsunami and nuclear experiences
Of
the 169 essays eight were excluded
in
total: six
fell outside the scope
of
the study because
of
the writer's
age (one was written by a preschooler and five were
written by young people who had already graduated
from high school) and two others whose authors were
age
18
and who made
no
mention
of
being
in
school.
This left
161
essays written
by
school-aged children for
analysis.
Methods
of
analysis
The
161
essays were then turned into texts and were
text mined using the text mining software
Text
Mining
Studio
Ver.4
.1 (Mathematical System Inc.
).
The narrative
data from the essays was inputted, line by line and
paragraph by paragraph, following the structure
of
the
above mentioned publications. Analysis consisted
of
basic word count, word frequency, related words (word
network), and correspondence analysis. This paper then
focuses
on
those expressions related
to
will and want for
the present and future.
Ethical considerations
Because the analysis exclusively utilized the content
of
essays commercially available
as
published books
in
the public domain, copyright and related issues did not
apply.
4.
Results
The following portrays the physical characteristics
of
the
161
essay
s.
The average length
of
the essays was
601.9 characters and there were a total
of
6,052
sentences. The total number
of
content words for all the
essays analyzed was 39,415, and 6,465 words were
extracted. The relatively low type-token ratio (0.164)
indicated a tendency for the same words to be repeated
Jouma/
of
lntemaUona/
Society
of
life
Information
Science
(/SUS)
[@.]
J Inti.
Soc.
Life Info. Sci.
Vol.32,
No.1, March 2014
The
37th
Symposium
on
life
Information
Science
March 15-16, 2014,
Toho
University Omori Medical
Center,
Tokyo,
Japan
46
in
the essays.
We
will now consider the results
of
the
correspondence analysis
of
will/want expression
in
four
groups according to their tsunami and nuclear
experiences (Fig. 1 ).
In
this diagram
of
correspondence
analysis the frequently used words in verbal expression
of
will and want in each
ofthe
four groups (tsunami only,
earthquake
only[=
neither tsunami nor nuclear], nuclear
only, both tsunami and nuclear) can be seen listed near
the group location. Those children who had only the
tsunami experience (left side
in
Fig. 1) mentioned the
importance
of
conveying the experience such as
"I
don't
want to forget the tsunami disaster" and "I want to pass
down the experience
in
the future." Those children who
were under the influence
of
the nuclear disaster (right
side in Fig. 1 ), regardless
of
tsunami experience, often
wrote about the inconvenience and pain in their life at
that time, such as "I want to go back home," "I want to
see my friends," "I want my home town to recover as
before," and "I want to play outside." Those who had
neither tsunami nor nuclear experience (i.e., earthquake
experience only: center in Fig.1) often expressed their
positive willingness such as
"I
will not give up,"
"I
will
hold my own," and "I want to live passionately."
5. Discussion
The children's lives have changed dramatically after
the Great East Japan Earthquake. As the tsunami disaster
occurs
in
the interval
of
once in decades or even
hundreds
of
years, the children often focused on the
importance to convey the experience for reduction
of
casualties for the next tsunami. Their time perspective
was future-oriented based because the tsunami was now
in
the past. On the other hand, the experience
of
nuclear
disaster was current and ongoing and therefore was quite
different: those children often mentioned their present
life as inconvenient and difficult, and about their painful
feelings. The effects
of
the nuclear accidents were
widespread not only geographically but also time
consuming including the problems
of
housing relocation,
disruption
of
school and workplace, food consumption,
restrictions
of
play on the land, decontamination, money
for reconstruction, etc. The nuclear accident has forcing
children to endure long term distress in their daily life.
Their time perspective was continuity from the disaster
period, to the present time, and into the future.
6.
Acknowledgments
I sincerely thank the children who wrote the essays
used in this study. I thank Ms. Yukie Iijima and Ms.
Kumiko Tatsuno
of
Wako University for their assistance
in preparing this manuscript.
7. References
1)
Ito,
T.,
& Iijima,
Y.:
Posttraumatic growth in essays by
children affected by the March
11
Earthquake Disaster
in Japan: A text mining study. Journal
of
International
Society
of
Life Information Science, 31, 67-72, 2013.
2) Tsuzuki, M., & Shirai, T.: Handbook
of
time
perspective. Kyoto: Nakanishiya. 2007. [In Japanese]
I
I
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