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Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one's own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments.

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Abstract

People tend to hold overly favorable views of their abilities in many social and intellectual domains. The authors suggest that this overestimation occurs, in part, because people who are unskilled in these domains suffer a dual burden: Not only do these people reach erroneous conclusions and make unfortunate choices, but their incompetence robs them of the metacognitive ability to realize it. Across 4 studies, the authors found that participants scoring in the bottom quartile on tests of humor, grammar, and logic grossly overestimated their test performance and ability. Although their test scores put them in the 12th percentile, they estimated themselves to be in the 62nd. Several analyses linked this miscalibration to deficits in metacognitive skill, or the capacity to distinguish accuracy from error. Paradoxically, improving the skills of the participants, and thus increasing their metacognitive competence, helped them recognize the limitations of their abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... (Bandura, 1989;Schunk, 1989). Esasen bu bulgunun, Dunning-Kruger etkisine (Dunning ve Kruger, 1999) İngilizce dersine yönelik tutumla ilgili olarak elde edilen bulgular araştırmanın birinci ve ikinci hipotezi bağlamında elde edilenlerle ve daha önce değinilen literatürdeki bir dizi araştırma bulguları (Delbesoğlugil, 2013;Kaşık, 2014;Selçuk, 1997) Gardner'ın (1985), tutumun öğrencilerin derslere yönelik ilgi ve isteğini önemli düzeyde etkileyen bir duyuşsal değişken olduğuna yönelik çıkarımıyla tutarlıdır. Dolayısıyla, diğer değişkenlerden farklı olarak, tutum değişkeninin dönem başlarındaki görünümlerinin dönem sonlarındaki başarıyı tutarlı biçimde yordaması, herhangi bir derse yönelik olarak başlangıçta hissedilen olumlu duyguların (hoşlanma, sevme vb.), başarıyı olumlu yönde etkilediğine ilişkin bulgularla (Kazazoğlu, 2013) ve başarı duygularının kontrol-değer teorisinin öngörüleriyle (Pekrun, 2006) tutarlıdır. ...
... bağlı bir görünüme işaret ettiği de söylenebilir. Dunning-Kruger etkisi, bireylerin gerçekte yeterli olmadıkları konularda kendilerini yeterli olarak görmelerinin, bu alanlara yönelik performanslarını olumsuz yönde etkilediğini betimleyen bir kavramdır (Dunning veKruger, 1999).4.10. Bahar Dönemi Sonu Ders Başarısının Yordayıcılarına İlişkin Bulgular ve YorumlarAraştırmanın "Öğrencilerin bahar dönemi başındaki İngilizce derslerine ilişkin bilgiye yönelik merakları, başarı amaçları, biliş-ötesi öğrenme stratejileri, öz-yeterlik inançları, tutumları ve algıladıkları araçsallık, bahar dönemi sonundaki İngilizce ders başarılarını anlamlı düzeyde yordar" şeklinde belirlenen üçüncü hipotezi kapsamında elde edilen yapısal eşitlik modellemesi sonuçları Tablo 4.48.'de ...
... Diğer taraftan Tablo 4.49'da, güz dönemi başında İngilizce derslerine yönelik olarak benimsenen yazma öz-yeterliği inançlarının güz dönemi sonu ders başarısını olumsuz; güz dönemi sonu ders başarısının bahar dönemi başındaki yazma öz-yeterliğini olumlu yönde etkilediği ve güz dönemi sonu ders başarısının bu ilişkideki arabulucu rolünün olumsuz yönde olduğu görülmektedir. Bu bulgu, daha önce vurgulanan Dunning-Kruger etkisine bağlı olarak açıklanabileceği gibi (Dunning veKruger, 1999), aynı zamanda, öğrencilerin İngilizce yazma öz-yeterliklerinin, öğrenim gördükleri süre boyunca sınavlar aracılığıyla ölçülen yazma becerileriyle uyumlu olmamasıyla da açıklanabilir. NitekimBandura (1986) öz-yeterliğin alan odaklı olma özelliğine vurgu yaparak, ölçümü yapılacak yeterlik türlerine ilişkin sınırların belirgin hatlarla çizilmesinin, öz-yeterlik inançlarıyla ölçülmesi düşünülen beceriler arasındaki ilişkiyi güçlendirebileceğini ifade etmiştir. ...
Thesis
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Bu araştırmanın amacı, lise öğrencilerinin İngilizce dersleriyle ilgili öz-yeterlik inançlarının, algıladıkları araçsallığın, biliş-ötesi öğrenme stratejilerinin, bilgiye yönelik meraklarının, başarı amaçlarının ve tutumlarının, İngilizce ders başarıları üzerindeki olası etkilerinin bir öğretim yılı süresince incelenmesiydi. Araştırmada, boylamsal tarama yöntemi ile panel deseni kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın verileri bir öğretim yılının dört ayrı zaman kesitinde (güz dönemi başı, güz dönemi sonu, bahar dönemi başı ve bahar dönemi sonu) ve aynı öğrencilerden elde edilmiştir. Araştırmanın örneklemi, 2015-2016 eğitimöğretim yılında Zonguldak ilinin dört ilçesinde yer alan beş ayrı Anadolu Lisesi’nde öğrenim gören 1357 öğrenciden oluşmuştur. Öğrencilerin İngilizce derslerine yönelik tutumları, öz-yeterlik inançları, algıladıkları araçsallık, başarı amaçları, biliş-ötesi öğrenme stratejileri ve bilgiye yönelik merakları sırasıyla, “İngilizceye Yönelik Tutum Ölçeği”, “Yabancı Dil Öz Yeterlik Ölçeği”, “Algılanan Araçsallık Ölçeği”, “2x2 Başarı Amaçları Ölçeği”, “Biliş-ötesi Öğrenme Stratejileri Ölçeği” ve “Bilgiye Yönelik Merak Ölçeği” aracılığıyla belirlenmiştir. Öğrencilerin İngilizce ders başarıları ise 2015-2016 eğitim öğretim yılının güz dönemi ve bahar dönemi sonunda elde edilen not ortalamaları temel alınarak tanımlanmıştır. Veri analizleri SPSS 21 ve AMOS 21 istatistik yazılım programları kullanılarak gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın bulguları, İngilizce derslerine yönelik tutumun ders başarısını, İngilizce ders başarısının da tutumu etkilediğini göstermiş ve İngilizceye yönelik tutum ile İngilizce ders başarısı arasında nedenselliğe dayalı bir ilişki olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Bununla birlikte bulgular, İngilizceye yönelik tutumun ders başarısı üzerinde, diğer değişkenlerin etkileriyle kıyaslandığında, güçlü bir etkisi olduğunu ve bu etkinin, diğer değişkenlerin ders başarısı üzerindeki etkilerini baskıladığını da göstermiştir. Önemli olarak, araştırmada, güz dönemi başındaki İngilizce derslerine yönelik tutumun bahar dönemi sonu ders başarısı üzerindeki doğrudan etkisinin anlamlı düzeyde ve olumsuz yönde olduğu, ancak güz dönemi sonu ders başarısı ile bahar dönemi başındaki tutum aracılığıyla sağlanan dolaylı etkisinin, anlamlı düzeyde ve olumlu yönde olduğu da saptanmıştır. Araştırmanın diğer önemli bir bulgusu ise, yüksek düzeyde bilgiye yönelik meraka ve algılanan araçsallığa sahip olmayla bazı başarı amaçlarını (performansa yaklaşma) ve biliş-ötesi öğrenme stratejilerini (örgütleme ve değerlendirme stratejileri) benimsemenin, İngilizce ders başarısına bağlı olduğudur. Öğrencilerin, öğretim yılı başındaki gerçekçi olmayan İngilizce yazma öz-yeterlik algılarının ders başarıları üzerindeki olumsuz etkisi araştırmanın bir diğer önemli bulgusudur. Araştırmada, İngilizce öğretimiyle gelecekte yapılabilecek araştırmalara ilişkin öneriler de tartışılmıştır.
... Obvykle se jedná o kombinaci uzavřených otázek a otevřených (Cross & Paris, 1988). Některé výzkumy (Kruger & Dunning, 1999;Winne & Perry, 2000) však zpochybňují techniky rozhovoru a naznačují, ţe subjektivní výpovědi jedince o výkonu mají omezenou platnost při usuzování na jejich výkon a mnoho ţáků má rovněţ značně zkreslené představy o svém výkonu a tíhnou k přecenění či naopak podcenění úsudku o svém výkonu. Někteří autoři dále konstatují (Brown, 1987; McDonald, Edwards, & Zhao, 2012), ţe při řešení úlohy jedinec stylizuje své slovní výpovědi a můţe tak omezit postihnutí všech myšlenkových procesů, které by za normální situace mohl vyuţít, a tak výzkumníkovi můţe poskytovat údaje, které neodpovídají skutečnému postupu během řešení úkolu. ...
... Na otázku, proč v některých experimentech, kde mají ţáci místo odpovědi moţnost říci "já nevím" (a v případě určité míry nejistoty tak přeskočit otázku; zvýšit tak celkovou přesnost metakognitivního monitorování), stejně tito ţáci raději odpoví, lze vysvětlit tak, ţe respondenti se jednoduše snaţí ospravedlnit svou odpověď a proto usouvztaţňují své soudy jistoty směrem k vyšší jistotě (Roebers, 2002). Jedinci obvykle vyhledávají potvrzení toho, co si myslí, ţe ví, tím, ţe vyhledávají důvody, proč by jejich odpověď měla být pravdivá, spíše, neţ by hledali důvody, proč by jejich odpověď pravdivá být neměla (Koriat, Lichtenstein, & Fischhoff, 1980 Kruger & Dunning, 1999), která by mohla být vysvětlující příčinou niţší výkonnosti v poloţkách zjišťujících porozumění čtenému. Iluze kompetence popisuje efekt, kdy jedinec subjektivně nadhodnocuje svůj výkon, ačkoli tomu jeho reálná výkonnost neodpovídá. ...
... Obecně lze konstatovat, ţe bias u méně zdatných ţáků vyvěrá z chybného vnímání sebe sama, kdeţto bias u více zdatných ţáků pramení z chybného vnímání druhých. Nadhodnocení vlastní výkonnosti méně zdatnými ţáky a chybu (či nízké skóre z testu) vnímají jako šanci na sebezlepšení (Kruger & Dunning, 1999 (Flannelly, 2001). Nadhodnocení tedy způsobuje, ţe se ţák rozhodne předčasně skončit se studiem na test a vystaví se tak riziku selhání. ...
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This study focuses on identification of metacognitive development levels among students in their grade 5 in either (a) mainstream elementary schools, (b) elementary schools implementing Dalton education elements in their curriculum or (c) elementary schools implementing RWCT program in their daily activities. The main goal of the empirical study is to verify or disprove the assumption which states that the type of educational programme can influence the metacognitive development of a child in a specific reading domain. That is why author of this text examines the level of (a) the regulation aspect and (b) knowledge aspect of metacognition at research sample of 1103 students from different types of elementary schools. The results of this study verify the hypothesis that the type of education program has direct influence on metacognitive development of a student: (a) students of RWCT elementary can better judge the relative effectivity of suggested strategies based on the task situation (metacognitive knowledge) and together with student from Dalton plan elementary schools they are able to (b) recognize false answers from correct ones and are also (c) more accurate in their error approximations of answers related to reading comprehension (metacognitive regulation). Students from RWCT elementary schools, as well as from Dalton plan elementary were significantly better at (d) scoring high in their tests which evaluated the reading comprehension levels, than their peers in mainstream schools. Students from RWCT elementary schools, as well as from Dalton plan elementary also (e) showed a slight underestimation in their performance. The conclusion part of the study suggests possible outcome explanations of the differences among individual types of study programmes in relation to the metacognitive knowledge and regulation levels among students (based on curriculum) and also suggestions for future research in this specific area, limits of this study and suggestions for theory and clinical practice.
... While Klein had worked extensively with fire commanders, nurses and other professionals of undoubted expertise who were aware of the limits of their knowledge, this was not necessarily the case for Kahneman, who had worked with clinicians, brokers and pseudo-experts who had no idea that they did not know what they were doing. This is reminiscent of the Dunning-Kruger effect [135], whereby the least qualified people tend to overestimate their competence. In their studies, Dunning and Kruger [135] show that the underqualified individuals fail to recognize their incompetence and to evaluate their capacities. ...
... This is reminiscent of the Dunning-Kruger effect [135], whereby the least qualified people tend to overestimate their competence. In their studies, Dunning and Kruger [135] show that the underqualified individuals fail to recognize their incompetence and to evaluate their capacities. Conversely, qualified individuals tend to underestimate their competence, hence the existence of pseudo-experts. ...
Thesis
In view of the increasingly stringent regulatory context, banks have had to adapt by implementing many methods to meet data quality requirements. Regulators understand that risk assessment is impossible without good-quality data, which is why recent regulations increasingly deal, be it explicitly or implicitly, with data management and with the management of missing data in particular. For this reason, banks are interested in imputation methods, their efficiency and in particular, their impact on risk management. Accordingly, the PhD thesis presents general issues that are related to missing data before focusing on the financial framework and regulation. Then, a comparative analysis that is based on several criteria (statistical moments, proximity measures, covariance matrix, risk measures and computation time) is conducted. The analysis compares numerous imputation methods, such as linear interpolation and LOCF, which are used as benchmarks, and the Brownian bridge, K-NN, MSSA, random forests, Amelia, MICE, IPCA and MIPCA. These methods have been applied to simulated samples whereby data are removed in line with an MCAR, MAR or MNAR mechanism and to historical samples with MCAR data. The comparative analysis produces particularly satisfactory results for the Amelia algorithm and for random forests. It also reveals many critical issues for banks and regulators.
... Relevant to Asimov's Foundation series, but empirically grounded (Sternberg, Roediger III, & Halpern, 2007), adult magical thinking (i.e., magical ideation), or the persistence of inadequate or sub-optimal reasoning modalities well into adulthood, and the Dunning-Kruger Effect (Kruger, & Dunning, 1999), or overestimating one's confidence of "knowing," despite a profound lack of information and actual knowledge, can explain why humans cannot move beyond --satisfactorily resolve--extremely challenging and even dire problems: intrapersonal, interpersonal, societal, or ecological. ...
... But by 'change' they mean and envision, on a global scale, the implementation of a plethora of pseudo-scientific notions ('Earth spirituality'), making their proposals akin to New Age formulations of religion. Circling back to magical thinking and the Dunning-Kruger effect (Kruger, & Dunning, 1999), it is fair to say that if when lacking scientific training, many professionals end up overestimating their confidence of "knowing," despite a profound lack of information and actual knowledge. So, what the lady in purple robes told me during an 'ecoattuning' retreat must be true. ...
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Declining Science Education Chapter excerpt from Real Psychology https://31d4a51d-9f6f-4372-bfe9-0bccaba1c444.filesusr.com/ugd/f7d609_0d28fc735e774ecc91e2e734f98a9a96.pdf
... For example, it is likely that some early adolescents who perceive challenges with emotional awareness may still have access to strategies to regulate emotions. At the same time, other early adolescents may perceive fewer problems in emotional awareness but persistent deficits in accessing effective emotion regulation strategies-though it is possible this discrepancy may be in part due to biased self-evaluation (Kruger & Dunning, 1999). Still yet, profiles with varying levels of emotional awareness or accessing emotion regulation strategies might be similarly or differentially related to developmental outcomes. ...
... While it may be that deficits in emotional awareness portend less effective emotion regulation despite having access to emotion regulation strategies, we hypothesize that adolescents in the Low EA/High ER cluster were also less able to accurately self-evaluate their emotion regulation skills. Kruger and Dunning (1999) explain that self-assessments of social and intellectual abilities become most biased when people have significant deficits, as they are usually unaware of the extent of such deficits. Lack of emotional awareness likely limits these adolescents' abilities to accurately rate access to strategies to regulate emotions. ...
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Emotional awareness (EA) and access to emotion regulation strategies (ER) are often conceptualized as being on a single continuum, yet discrepancies in these associations are found across samples. We conducted a person-centered analysis to identify distinct profiles of adolescents’ perceived EA and ER. Secondary analyses were conducted to compare demographic variables, distress tolerance, and parent- and teacher-report emotional functioning across profiles. Participants (N = 414) completed two subscales of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and a behavioral measure of distress tolerance. A parent and teacher completed the Emotion Regulation Checklist. Adolescent mental health symptoms were measured, with responses dichotomized based on adolescent- and/or parent-report of clinically significant symptoms of any disorder. Exploratory two-step cluster analysis identified three clusters: Varied EA/Low ER, Low EA/High ER, and High EA/High ER. Gender differences emerged, with a greater proportion of girls in the Varied EA/Low ER cluster and boys in the Low EA/High ER cluster. The Varied EA/Low ER and Low EA/High ER clusters demonstrated greater mental health symptoms, and greater parent- and teacher-reported negativity/lability and problems with emotion regulation, than adolescents in the High EA/High ER cluster. The Low EA/High ER cluster tolerated less distress on the behavioral task than the Varied EA/Low ER or High EA/High ER clusters, which suggests problems with emotional awareness may contribute to inaccurate self-evaluation of one’s related emotional abilities. A person-centered approach was useful in identifying patterns of adolescent perceptions of strengths and difficulties in emotional development and their associations with other-report and performance on a behavioral task.
... Les individus qui se perçoivent comme compétents sont plus efficaces dans l'analyse de problèmes que ceux qui doutent de leurs capacités. Elle ne prévient pas à elle seule les éventuels biais tels que l'effet Dunning- Kruger (1999) et ne permet pas d'évaluer précisément si la perception de l'apprenant est proche de ses compétences professionnelles réelles en situation de travail ou, au contraire, de sous-estimer sa propre incompétence. ...
Thesis
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La formation par simulation interprofessionnelle s’est imposée ces dernières années avec pour perspective le développement des compétences relatives à la sécurité des patients. Néanmoins, l’incidence des événements indésirables liés aux soins concerne encore un patient hospitalisé sur dix. Cette thèse contribue à éclairer le rapport travail- formation, plus précisément le rapport entre la configuration didactico-pédagogique et le potentiel d’apprentissage organisationnel. Elle s’appuie sur une méthode mixte intégrée, combinant un ensemble d’analyses qui traite des composantes de l’acte éducatif, de la pluralité des situations professionnelles qui en constitue la référence, de l’évolution des compétences perçues qui en découlent. Le dispositif étudié est caractérisé par un mode transmissif davantage qu’interactif, par un faible partage de la réflexivité de la part des apprenants, et par des débats centrés très largement sur des éléments favorables à un apprentissage simple boucle plutôt que double boucle. Le suivi en quatre temps de l’évolution des compétences perçues montre un développement limité dans le temps de la plupart des domaines de compétences relatives à la sécurité des patients. Exploiter le potentiel d’apprentissage organisationnel en simulation interprofessionnelle et renforcer les compétences relatives à la sécurité des patients par leur ampleur et leur durée, impliquent une consolidation de l’articulation entre le travail et la formation, d’une part en soutenant le positionnement des apprenants à partir de leurs richesses d’expérience, d’autre part en abordant l’environnement de simulation comme un lieu de réflexivité sur l’activité, propice à la transformation des pratiques.
... p=.041). This result appears to be in line with numerous other published results citing the Dunning-Kruger effect [6]. Unfortunately, the result is misleading the same way as the Dunning-Kruger effect [7]. ...
Chapter
Over- and under-confidence in uncertain and volatile conditions often encountered by military personnel may lead to suboptimal high impact decitions. We investigated the relation between the metacognition accuracy of cadets‘ performance in a technical IT subject and their observed and measured behaviour characteristics: learning outcomes, knowledge of meta-cognitive strategies, emotional states, time spent for studies, and overall satisfaction with the course and their own efforts. Growth of IT knowledge of a group of 19 cadets who received metacognition training during a three-week long IT course significantly exceeded the results of a control group. Their metacognitive accuracy changed from over-confidence to a moderate under-confidence towards the end of the course, although the relation between the accuracy and the final grade did not differ significantly from random data.
... For such people there is no way out because of their wavering self-esteem and their lacking phantasy. -(Today, such a behaviour is called the Kruger-Dunning-effect, see Kruger & Dunning, 1999) The necessity for self-criticism and to think always anew at war and in politics is illustrated by nobody else as well as by Clausewitz: ...
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This article is not about red trousers. The title points to a political foolishness that killed more than 100,000 soldiers. The discussion of this foolishness is an introduction to a general discussion of the reasons for political foolishness.-In her book 'The March of Folly-From Troy to Vietnam', Barbara Tuchman said that in the last 3,000 years mankind has made large progress, primarily in science, but also in medicine, architecture, economy, agriculture, etc. Only in politics, in the art of managing a state, nearly no progress is visible. Others share this opinion. The Swedish Chancellor in the time of Gustav II Adolph, in the time of the 30 Years' War, Axel Oxen-stierna, said to his son, who was elected for an important political position and had doubts, whether, with his 18 years, he would be able to cope with this difficult task: "If you would know, my son, with what low degree of intelligence the world is governed. .. ."-In surveys about the reputation of professions, politicians normally get low ranks. Why is that so?-In this article we try to give an answer to that question. The answer is very simple. Foolish decisions are reducible firstly to a low or wavering self-esteem. Secondly, they are based on a lack of phantasy; politicians have difficulties in finding new solutions for problems.-This answer is not at all new; already Platon and-nearly at the same time-the ancient Indian Bhagavad Gita gave the same response. In this article we develop a theory about political foolishness.
... Moreover, the current study results showed that PTs have high selfefficacy beliefs. However, this reporting may not be true because it may have been sourced by the Dunning-Kruger effect (Kruger & Dunning, 1999). That is, it may be that PTs have evaluated their professional self-efficacy as high due to a lack of expertize and knowledge (Eren & Yeşilbursa, 2019). ...
Article
The present study aims to investigate associations between prospective teachers’ professional achievement goal orientations, self-efficacy beliefs, and perfectionistic characteristics. The results revealed that different aspects of perfectionism, and professional self-efficacy belief predicted prospective teachers’ different professional goal orientations. Socially prescribed perfectionism positively and significantly predicted prospective teachers' professional self-efficacy beliefs. While doubt about actions positively predicted work-avoidance goal orientation, concern over mistakes positively predicted prospective teachers’ performance-avoidance goal orientation. Self-oriented perfectionism, self-worth contingencies, entitlement, and PTs' self-efficacy beliefs positively predicted their performance-approach goal orientation. Prospective teachers' professional self-efficacy beliefs fully mediated the relationship between doubt about actions and learning goal orientation, and the relationship between socially prescribed perfectionism and performance-approach goal orientation.
... Also, a number of subjective elements, such as an individual's attitude, interest, commitment and practice consistency, are factors to consider; they could explain the disparity between radiological diagnostic performance and professional seniority [40]. It is well known that people are not always accurate in estimating their performance and in recognizing their own incompetence [41,42], also in the medical field [43]. Nevertheless, the assessment of one's competence could assist in identifying the training and learning needs in continuing professional development [34,44]. ...
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Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of experience with traumatic dental injuries (TDI) on paediatric dentists' performance and self-assessed confidence when radiodiagnosing traumatic dental injuries (TDI) and to explore whether this is influenced by the imaging technique used (2D versus 3D). Materials and methods: Both 2D and 3D radiological images of young anterior permanent teeth having experienced dental trauma were assessed randomly by a panel of paediatric dentists using structured scoring sheets. The impact of level of experience with dental traumatology on radiological detection, identification and interpretation of lesions and on observer's self-assessed confidence was evaluated. Findings were compared to benchmark data deriving from expert consensus of an experienced paediatric endodontologist and dentomaxillofacial radiologist. Results were analysed using generalized linear mixed modelling. Results: Overall, observers performed moderately to poor, irrespective of their level of TDI experience and imaging modality used. No proof could be yielded that paediatric dentists with high TDI experience performed better than those with low experience, for any of the outcomes and irrespective of the imaging modality used. When comparing the use of 3D images with 2D images, significantly higher sensitivities for the detection and correct identification of anomalies were observed in the low experienced group (P < 0.05). This was not the case regarding interpretation of the findings. Self-assessed confidence was significantly higher in more experienced dentists, both when using 2D and 3D images (P < 0.05). Conclusion: There was no proof that paediatric dentist's higher experience with TDI is associated with better radiodiagnostic performance. Neither could it be proven that the use of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) contributes to an improved interpretation of findings, for any experience level. More experienced dentists feel more confident, irrespective of the imaging modality used, but this does not correlate with improved performance. The overall poor performance in image interpretation highlights the importance of teaching and training in both dental radiology and dental traumatology.
... From perspectives of either supervising PhD candidates, mentoring junior colleagues or reviewing experimental research papers, the authors experienced that, following the Dunning-Kruger effect [15], new researchers to laboratory environments often think that experimental testing is straight forward, and that specimens only need to be positioned in the testing machine and loaded. It is believed that many mistakes could be avoided if the aim and scope of the experimental programs are articulated from the beginning and the experimental procedure is reflected upon. ...
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This paper is addressed to research students and academics who are entering or planning to enter experimental structural testing. Following the Dunning–Kruger effect, new researchers to laboratory environments often think that experimental testing is straight forward, and only require specimens to be positioned into the testing machine and loaded. However, if the tests are not carefully planned, safely designed, correctly executed and basic experimental rules followed; the results would be invalid and misleading, and possibly serious injuries could occur. Unfortunately, often these rules cannot be found in textbooks. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide guidance on experimental testing of structural systems based on the experience of the authors gained from design and execution of experiments, supervision of research students, mentoring junior colleagues and reviewing experimental research papers. While this paper aims at becoming a reference document to the experimentalists to be, it only focusses on mistakes commonly encountered, provide advice and does not intend to deliver an exhaustive guide on experimental structural testing. It is hoped that this paper will assist researchers in obtaining carefully planned experimental outputs, leading to high-quality research papers. This paper is articulated around three categories: (i) articulating the aims of the experimental tests to be performed, (ii) their execution and (iii) reporting. Accordingly, the testing philosophy in the context of research is discussed to achieve desired outcomes. In terms of execution, common mistakes often seen are described in terms of consistency, preparation, choosing the strain rates, identifying failure modes and accurately assessing the material properties of tested specimens. Solutions are also provided to avoid these mistakes. Finally, advice is provided on the experimental information to be reported in research papers for the readers to trust the investigations and genuinely cite these papers.
... (PdC) Moreover, these commenters hold, conspiracy theorists "show herd behavior by sharing populist statements" (Dit_vind_ook_ik_ervan), "traffic in ridiculous generalizations and superlatives" (Asimo), and "always blame the same people, lumping whole industries (pharmaceuticals) or companies (Monsanto and Shell) together as devilish" (Bart_de_Koning). They point to "the Dunning-Kruger effect" (Thijzer, Ria_Heijnsbroek, Rene_Fijnhart), referring to the cognitive bias through which incompetent people overestimate their own abilities (Kruger and Dunning, 1999), "which is the reason that exactly those with least knowledge of things are most convinced of being right" (Rene_Fijnhart). ...
Article
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Conspiracy theories are central to “post-truth” discussions. Official knowledge, backed by science, politics, and media, is distrusted by various people resorting to alternative (conspiratorial) explanations. While elite commentators lament the rise of such “untruths,” we know little of people’s everyday opinions on this topic, despite their societal ramifications. We therefore performed a qualitative content analysis of 522 comments under a Dutch newspaper article on conspiracy theories to study how ordinary people discuss post-truth matters. We found four main points of controversy: “habitus of distrust”; “who to involve in public debates”; “which ways of knowing to allow”; and “what is at stake?” The diverging opinions outline the limits of pluralism in a post-truth era, revealing tensions between technocratic and democratic ideals in society. We show that popular opinions on conspiracy theories embody more complexity and nuance than elite conceptions of post-truth allow for: they lay bare the multiple sociological dimensions of poly-truth.
... Notably, there is empirical evidence for self-enhancement in people's self-perception, even among otherwise well-adjusted individuals. For example, most people see themselves as above average, even in the face of contrary evidence (Kruger and Dunning 1999). ...
Book
The study of “subjective wellbeing” has seen explosive growth in recent decades, opening important new discourses in personality and social psychology, happiness economics, and moral philosophy. Now it is moving into the policy domain. In this it has arguably overstepped its limits. The shallow theoretical base of subjective wellbeing research, the limitations of its measurement instruments, and its ethical naivety make policymaking on the basis of its findings a risky venture. The present volume is an attempt to shore up these weaknesses and set subjective wellbeing scholarship on a course for several more decades of growth and maturation. It presents a theory of subjective wellbeing in two parts. The first is the subjective wellbeing production function—a model of wellbeing as outcome. The second is the coalescence of being—a model of the self-actualization process by which wellbeing is achieved. This two-part model integrates ideas from subjective wellbeing studies with complementary ideas in analytical and continental philosophy, clinical, moral, and developmental psychology, and welfare economics. Importantly, this theory is ethically sensitive, bridging the gap between the philosophical and psychological perspectives on wellbeing in a way that illuminates the complexities facing the application of subjective wellbeing in public policy. The book also provides a thorough review of various ways in which subjective wellbeing can be studied empirically, and the hard trade-offs we face between long surveys that capture the richness of the concept and the parsimony required by social surveys and policy analysis.
... The retrospective post-test evaluating change was selected over the pre-and post-test design because individuals with limited knowledge and experience have been reported to have difficulty with accurate self-assessment. This often results in over estimation of knowledge, skills, and abilities on the pretest and lower scores on the posttest (Kruger & Dunning, 2009). ...
Article
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Clinical education standards for speech-language pathology and nursing programs indicate the need for students to gain experience with interprofessional collaborative practice (ICP). However, colleges not affiliated with hospitals struggle to offer experiences between healthcare disciplines. The purpose of this paper is to present a case study as a model for interprofessional healthcare simulation that can be applied to schools that have limited access to a variety of professional programs and few complimentary medical specialties at their home institution. The partnership of a masters in speech-language pathology (MS-SLP) program at a public state sponsored institution and a bachelors of science in nursing (BSN) program at a private college provides insights on model effectiveness. A strong partnership between simulation facilitators allowed for agreement on learning objectives, mapping the experience from pre-brief to debrief, and maintenance of unique professional roles for greater authenticity. MS-SLP and BSN students reported high ratings of confidence, understanding of other professional roles, and a shared respect for the unique roles and responsibilities of each team member. Strengths and challenges of the approach are discussed.
... Specifically, on average, individuals tend to believe they are aboveaverage as compared to their peers (Mattern, Burrus, & Shaw, 2010) . This over-estimation is most severe among those who are below-average (Austin & Gregory, 2007;Ehrlinger, Johnson, Banner, Dunning, & Kruger, 2008, Kruger & Dunning, 1999Mattern et al . , 2010) . ...
... Interestingly, the students' confidence in their own skills decreased by 6.6%. This is likely owed to the fact that PenQuest introduces intricate concepts that are otherwise not fully grasped and where a lack of understanding might make the subject matter appear less complex than it actually is [47]. Specifically, test group students claimed to best understand attacker motivation (4.0 out of 5) but felt overwhelmed by the prospect of planning an organization's defense against cyberattacks in general (1.9). ...
Conference Paper
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Today's IT and OT infrastructure is threatened by a plethora of cyber-attacks conducted by actors with different motivations and means. Furthermore, the complexity of these exposed systems as well as the adversaries' sophisticated technical arsenal makes it increasingly difficult to plan and implement an organization's defense. Understanding the link between specific attacks and effective mitigating measures is particularly challenging-as is understanding the underlying information security concepts. To support the training of current, and more importantly, nascent security engineers, we propose PenQuest, a digital attack and defense game where an attacker attempts to compromise an abstracted IT infrastructure and the defender works to prevent or mitigate the threat. The game is based on MITRE ATT&CK, D3FEND, and the NIST SP 800-53 security standard and incorporates a multitude of concepts such as cyber kill chains, attack vectors, network segmentation, and more. PenQuest is built to support security education and risk assessment and was evaluated with a class of engineering students as well as independent security experts. Initial results show a significant increase in knowledge retention and attest to the game's feasibility for educational use.
... Partnerstwo służy optymalizacji (tzn. wybrania najlepszego lub zadowalającego) wariantu kosztów i korzyści skali 191 . Dotyczy to także kluczowych zasobów. ...
Book
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W ostatniej dekadzie radykalnie wzrosło zainteresowanie koncepcją modeli biznesu z uwagi na przekonanie, że o sukcesie w biznesie w pierwszej kolejności decyduje zmonetyzowana uwaga klienta, a nie sam produkt czy zastosowana technologia. Żyjemy w czasach, w których budowanie produktu jest łatwiejsze i tańsze niż kiedykolwiek wcześniej, a podaż samych usług jest największa w historii. Jednocześnie, żeby pochwalić się sukcesem, trzeba z największą uwagą podejść zarówno do produktu, jak i do modelu biznesu, za pomocą którego produkt znajdzie klientów. Parafrazując Ash Maurya: „Model biznesu, a nie usługa, to usługa. To model biznesu kupują inwestorzy i klienci, a nie oferowane im rozwiązanie”. Koncepcja ta jest szczególnie interesująca w kontekście projektowania, skalowania, okresów przejściowych i planowania zmian o znaczeniu strategicznym. Samo modelowanie, weryfikacja i prototypowanie są permanentnym wyzwaniem każdej działalności twórczej. Każdy architekt, lekarz czy księgowy zaczyna edukację od modelu. Mimo że architektów uczy się posługiwania makietami, przedsiębiorców szkoli się głównie w działalności operacyjnej. Starają się i są innowacyjni, ale zbyt rzadko posługują się narzędziami o cechach modeli. Koncepcja modeli biznesu jest narzędziem poręcznym daleko bardziej niż biznesplan i bardziej zrozumiałym. Ponadto projektowanie modeli biznesu tym różni się od biznesplanu, że projekt nie zawiera elementu akceptacji, ale stanowi przygotowanie planu, szkic zawierający kilka wariantów ewentualnych planów i opisujący różne sposoby działania. Projektant wyznacza cele i omawia środki prowadzące w danych okolicznościach do ich realizacji. Skoncentrowanie się na usługach profesjonalnych jest obiecującym i ciekawym przedmiotem analizy z zakresu modeli biznesu. Badanie modeli biznesu tych przedsiębiorstw wpisuje się w coraz wyraźniejszy trend nadawania tym usługom wzorcowego znaczenia w kategorii przedsiębiorstw opartych na wiedzy. Usługi profesjonalne to właściwie konglomerat wzorowych postaw zarządzania wiedzą, w szczególności wobec uczenia się, budowania relacji, autokoncepcji, poczucia tożsamości, kompetencji i stanu poznania. Zrozumienie konstrukcji przedsiębiorstw profesjonalnych ma znaczenie także dla pozostałych rodzajów usług. Przedsiębiorstwa tej klasy opierają swój rozwój na wiedzy i rosną zdecydowanie najszybciej we współczesnej gospodarce. Problematyka projektowania innowacyjnych modeli biznesu usług z uwzględnieniem potencjału mediów społecznościowych jest nadal aktualna. W minionych czasach budowa i prowadzenie przedsiębiorstwa wymagały zaangażowania różnego rodzaju interesariuszy oraz dostępu do kapitału, mediów masowych, kanałów dystrybucji itd. Dzisiaj każdy, kto ma dostęp do internetu może zwiększyć swój „koszyk zasobów” poprzez crowdsourcing i crowdfunding, czego dobitnym przykładem są wdrożenia chmur obliczeniowych i oprogramowania open source. Przy tym na rynek pracy wkroczyło pokolenie milenialsów i post-milenialsów. Ta generacja charakteryzuje się przede wszystkim tym, że „egzystuje” w świecie nowych technologii, ich światem są media społecznościowe, a za decyzją zakupu nie stoi już marka, ale kultura i wartości, jakie przejawia dane przedsiębiorstwo. Pokolenie C uczy się codziennie, w szczególności konfigurując swoje sieci społecznościowe jako wirtualne uniwersytety.
... Ces paradoxes constituent des mises en garde sur les possibilités et limites dans le processus d'évaluation de l'autonomie pour proposer un accompagnement à l'autoévaluation de l'autonomisation. Le paradoxe de l'observateur aveugle applique les biais cognitifs identifiés par Kruger et Dunning (1999) (2017) montrent que les verbalisations rétrospectives informent moins sur les processus cognitifs à l'oeuvre lors de l'action que sur le processus de mise en forme rationalisante pendant la verbalisation conçue dans sa dimension allocutive (Bakthine, 1977) et d'acceptabilité sociale. Par conséquent, il n'est pas possible de se baser sur ces verbalisations pour une évaluation de l'autonomisation. ...
Article
This article focuses on the social dimensions of autonomy. Firstly, the context of the studies reviewed is explained, in order to situate the observations within the framework of a self-directed and language learning system integrating advising sessions. Secondly, the social dimensions are discussed in three aspects. The first is horizontal interactions between learners to support metacognition. The second is that of interactions between learner and tutor, with the cognitive biases that it generates and proposals to exploit them for pedagogical purposes. The third is the link between learner autonomy and general autonomy, or citizenship, taken from the perspective of digital citizenship. A brief review of the situation leads to proposals for pedagogical avenues that can be explored in language and culture didactics.
... However, social desirability is not limited to self-assessment contexts. Self-assessment of empathy might also be biased by the Dunning-Kruger effect leading unexperienced individuals to overestimate their abilities (here their empathy) or the imposter syndrome (leading individual to underestimate their abilities) (Kruger & Dunning, 1999;Langford & Clance, 1993). Another effect that could have contributed to the lack of correlation between self-and external assessments is the overall very good assessment of empathy by the selection panel members (leniency error) (Hui & Triandis, 1985). ...
Article
Full-text available
Places to study at medical schools are scarce, which makes well-designed selection procedures employing criteria with predictive validity for good students and doctors necessary. In Germany, the pre-university grade point average (pu-GPA) is the main selection criterion for medical school application. However, this is criticised. According to a decision by the Federal Constitutional Court, selection must be supplemented with a criterion other than the pu-GPA. Empathy is a core competency in medical care. Therefore, it seems to be an appropriate criterion. This study evaluates the feasibility of an empathy questionnaire and empathy appraisal by a panel for applicant selection. We employed a sequential explanatory mixed-methods design. Results of self- and external assessments of empathy were compared in a quantitative analysis. Thereafter, the concept of empathy and the approach to empathy appraisal by the selection panel members were explored qualitatively in six focus groups with 19 selection panel members using a semi-structured guideline. Transcripts were content analysed using both deductive and inductive coding. We found no significant correlation of self- and external empathy assessment (ρ(212) = − .031, p > .05). The results of the focus groups showed that, while panel members judged the external empathy assessment to be useful, they had neither a homogenous concept of empathy nor an implicit basis for this assessment. This diversity in panel members’ concepts of empathy and differences in the concepts underlying the Davis Interpersonal Reactivity Index seem to be the main reasons for the lack of correlation between self- and external empathy assessments. While empathy is a possible amendment to established selection criteria for medical education in Germany, its external assessment should not be employed without training panel members based on an established theoretical concept of empathy and an objective self-assessment measure.
... For example, several studies have found that higher levels of pay dispersion are associated with worse employee attitudes (e.g., lower employee job satisfaction), shorter employee tenure, as well as higher rates of voluntary turnover (Bloom & Michel, 2002;Messersmith et al., 2011;Petrescu & Simmons, 2008), which may be costly to organizations (O'Connell & Kung, 2007). Given people's proclivity to overestimate their own performance (Harrison & Shaffer, 1994;Kruger & Dunning, 1999), one explanation for the negative relationship could be that pay dispersion provides greater opportunities for employees to feel that they are underpaid for their performance, which in turn leads to worse employee attitudes (e.g., lower pay and job satisfaction). Such a notion is supported by Trevor and Wazeter's (2006) findings that those lower in their organization's hierarchy saw the spread of pay as less equitable in their organization (see also Carnahan et al., 2012 for similar results). ...
Thesis
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Public opinion to rising pay dispersion is mixed. Arguments in support of or in opposition to pay dispersion center around whether it is seen as just (e.g., EPI, 2021). The current research uses a distributive justice framework to examine under what conditions people more strongly oppose pay dispersion and why. In two between-subjects experiments, participants read and evaluated the spread of pay for fictitious organizations. Based on discussions in press media (e.g., Cowen, 2019, April 11), and previous work (Sin et al., 2021), I reasoned that people would rate higher (vs. lower) levels of pay dispersion (Study 1) and high levels of pay dispersion in low (vs. high) performing organizations (Study 2) to be more justice-violating. Consequently, I predicted that those who perceive the pay dispersion to be more justice-violating would oppose it more. Moreover, I predicted that these effects should be stronger for those who prefer outcomes to be distributed justly-based on principles of equity, equality, and need. In both studies, the more participants perceived the spread of pay to be more inequitable, unequal, and need-violating, the more they opposed it. Furthermore in Study 1, participants opposed higher (vs. lower) pay dispersion because they perceived it to more inequitable, too unequal, and need-violating, and more strongly opposed the spread of pay. These effects were stronger among those higher in preference for the merit principle, SDO-egalitarianism, and preference for need orientation. In Study 2, organizational performance did not predict justice perceptions or opposition to pay dispersion. Implications are discussed.
... This result is somewhat surprising as our questionnaire invited the answer 'I don't know' and scientists should be more aware of the importance of a conservative scoring. In addition, selfconfidence in one's own skills often decreases with expertise (also known as the 'Dunning-Kruger effect', after Kruger & Dunning, 1999). We therefore expected that self-declared scientists would have been more reluctant than less experienced respondents to classify predation marks in case their identification was ambiguous. ...
Article
Experimental studies of biotic interactions in real field conditions are essential to understand the structure and functioning of ecological networks. The use of artificial caterpillars to mimic actual prey availability is generally seen as a standard approach to compare the activity and diversity of predators along environmental gradients. Yet, even with standardized material and procedures, biases may still affect data from multiple observers with different expertise. We used pictures of artificial caterpillars with or without various predation marks, in an online survey that was targeted for the participants of the project, to evaluate the reliability of predation marks identification made by non‐scientists and by scientists with and without experience in predation mark identification. Pictures of artificial caterpillars displayed typical marks left by birds, mammals, and arthropods, as well as non‐predation marks (‘false positive’). In total 357 respondents scanned 7140 pictures of artificial caterpillars. Scientists were more confident and accurate in their observations than non‐scientists, but the differences in correct identifications among scientists and non‐scientists were low. Scientists with experience were also more accurate than scientists without experience, whereas there were no differences in self‐confidence among scientists with and without experience. Accuracy in predation mark identification did not differ among types of predators, but respondents were more keen to identify marks left by birds or mammals than marks left by arthropods. Our results have practical implications for the design of multi‐observer projects relying on artificial caterpillars as a proxy to assess predation intensity, in particular in the context of citizen science.
... However, to interpret these results, some aspects need to be considered: self-appraisal is assumed to facilitate the reflection abilities of (medical) students, especially whether students recognize the skills they still need to improve (Eva & Regehr, 2007). However, previous research has revealed evidence that less competent people are unaware of their lack of knowledge and overestimate their abilities in comparison to their more competent counterparts (Kruger & Dunning, 1999). With an increase in competence, the accuracy of self-assessment can increase with years of study and experiences (Blanch-Hartigan, 2010). ...
Thesis
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The dissertation is an investigation of changes in medical communication competence and attitudes during undergraduate medical education in two publications. The first publication describes the validation of a measure to examine changes in medical communication competence in two cohorts. The second publication reports attitude changes toward medical communication during the clinical elective year by applying the Q methodology. The results highlight an increase in medical communication competence during medical studies in general and empathetic attitudes in particular.
... Notably, there is empirical evidence for self-enhancement in people's self-perception, even among otherwise well-adjusted individuals. For example, most people see themselves as above average, even in the face of contrary evidence (Kruger and Dunning 1999). ...
Chapter
While subjective well-being scholarship has its merits, it is not without its weaknesses, and these are the subject of this chapter. While the definition and approach of the field were appropriate in its historical context, they are inappropriate and indeed problematic for applications in public policy. In particular, this chapter demonstrates that the field is naive about the normative implications of “wellbeing” theories and that its measurement instruments lack precision. Both of these faults find their origins in the field’s atheoretic inclinations and operationalist epistemology. It is time to replace this with a more realist epistemology. That requires a thorough theory of subjective wellbeing that engages extensively with normativity, which this book provides.
... Notably, there is empirical evidence for self-enhancement in people's self-perception, even among otherwise well-adjusted individuals. For example, most people see themselves as above average, even in the face of contrary evidence (Kruger and Dunning 1999). ...
Chapter
How do you measure a construct as complex as subjective wellbeing? The first part of this chapter reviews the many tools available for measuring each dimension of the construct, as well as the well-being profile—a new measure that holds some promise for capturing subjective wellbeing holistically in only fifteen questions. The second part of the chapter then explains why even fifteen questions is likely too long for many applications in policy and social science. Life satisfaction scales hold a great deal of promise as a unidimensional and sufficiently cardinal measure of subjective wellbeing for these applications. However, there are several concerns about these scales, notably inconsistent scale use across respondents or within respondents over time, that need to be investigated more thoroughly. The chapter provides a conceptual analysis of these concerns and uses them to differentiate adaptation, scale-norming, and reference point shifts.
... Second, evidence has demonstrated that people often underestimate their ignorance (Kruger & Dunning, 1999), because ignorance often falls into a category termed "unknown unknowns" (e.g., Dunning, 2011). Compounding these inaccuracies of intuitive impressions and the underestimation of one's ignorance is a third element. ...
Article
Full-text available
According to the knowledge transfer literature, members of a project workgroup who share collaborative history possess a “shared understanding” thought to increase psychological safety and efficiency, thereby improving current project performance. But knowledge misfit can occur depending on where they have previously collaborated (internal or external to the focal firm) and the type of project currently pursued. We contend that misfit engenders “shared misunderstanding” where prior collaborators impose irrelevant knowledge onto a project, undermining performance. We extend research on knowledge transfer and human capital mobility by predicting that internal collaborative history helps exploitative projects but undermines imitative projects, while external collaborative history aids imitative projects but undercuts exploitative projects. We test these predictions in the context of the video game industry, with a sample of 1,000 video games released by 53 game publishers from 1996-2013, spanning 47,437 person-game observations, and find results largely consistent with our hypotheses.
... Similarly, Chew et al (2016) used a mnemonic to support medical students' clinical decision-making; in their quasi-experimental study, students in the experimental Explicitly categorising thinking, for example, using Bloom's taxonomy group achieved significantly higher grades than those in the control group. 'Knowledge surveys' enable students to monitor their confidence in answering test questions; although such surveys reveal deficits in students' judgements (Bell & Volckmann, 2011) consistent with the Dunning-Kruger effect (Kruger & Dunning, 1999), these deficits can be overcome by specific instruction in the dangers of over-confidence (Roelle et al, 2017). Assessment against mark criteria, either of students' own work or their peers' work, enables students to develop awareness of their competencies (Borton & Anderson, 2018) and increase the quality of their work (Navarro et al, 2022). ...
Article
Full-text available
Metacognition is the knowledge and regulation of one’s cognition and has been associated with academic performance across all levels of education, including higher education (HE). Previously, a gap has been reported between extensive metacognition research and elaboration of theory versus minimal inclusion of metacognition in teaching practice in primary and secondary education. The present study investigated whether this theory-practice gap extends to HE. Furthermore, we took a novel approach to evaluating academics’ broad and implicit inclusion of metacognitive supportive practices (MSPs) in their teaching practice. A questionnaire and semi-structured interviews were used to evaluate awareness of metacognition and inclusion of 16 MSPs in undergraduate teaching among 72 academics in scientific disciplines at a UK research-intensive university. We found that a minority of academics (27/72, 37.5%) were familiar with metacognition and, of those who were, they typically emphasised knowledge of cognition, rather than regulation of cognition. Nonetheless, all respondents incorporated at least two MSPs in their teaching, although typically in a limited fashion, emphasising knowledge and understanding of discipline content rather than cognitive regulation. Compared to academics without a teaching qualification, respondents holding or working towards a teaching qualification used significantly more MSPs, earlier in their career, and used significantly more MSPs aligned with regulation of cognition. This study demonstrates that the metacognition theory-practice gap extends to HE and highlights the scope for staff development programmes to better support students’ metacognitive development relevant for their studies and post-graduation careers.
... Indeed, metacognitive awareness of one's actual level of skill and ability in Auslan may be over-estimated by less competent signers, who are typically unable to identify, and address, their own skills gaps in the language (BONTEMPO, NA-PIER, 2007). Further, cognitive bias suggests less well-skilled people are more likely to have an inflated view of their skill level, which typically does not match their actual performance in that domain (KRUGER, DUNNING, 1999), reinforcing concerns regarding the protocols around implementing Auslan courses in Australian schools. ...
Article
Full-text available
Australia’s education system has historically been premised on state and territory-based curricula, until the development of a national curriculum in each learning area, released in stages from 2014. This paper will discuss the curriculum development process for the Auslan curriculum in the Languages learning area, which delivered an endorsed blueprint for the formal teaching and learning of Auslan in Australian schools from 2017. Unique features of the curriculum will be outlined, such as the dual-pathways for first and second language learners of Auslan, and the different sequence entry points, specifically designed to meet the needs of deaf children in both the early primary school years, as well as those who are late learners of a first language, entering secondary school with limited spoken and/or signed language later in childhood. The paper will provide an overview of the structure and content of the curriculum and the nature of the learners, and conclude with some of the opportunities and challenges arising from this initiative, such as the ongoing lack of quality resources that exist for its day-to-day implementation in schools nation-wide.
... Another explanation might be the use of trainees that were unskilled for MIS suturing, or that the trainees did not evaluate the assessment form before the start of the first training and were not aware what was expected for a good performance. Previous research has shown that trainees that are unskilled in a particular domain lack the ability to realize that they are incompetent (unconsciously incompetent) [25][26][27][28][29][30]. As a result, unskilled trainees will be less able to recognize competence compared to more competent peers or experts. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Simulation-based training may be used to acquire MIS skills. While mostly done in a simulation center, it is proposed that this training can be undertaken at-home as well. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether unsupervised at-home training and assessment of MIS skills is feasible and results in increased MIS skills. Methods Medical doctors and senior medical students were tested on their innate abilities by performing a pre-test on a take-home simulator. Henceforth, they followed a two-week interval training practicing two advanced MIS skills (an interrupted suture with knot tying task and a precise peg transfer task) and subsequently performed a post-test. Both tests and all training moments were performed at home. Performance was measured using motion analysis software (SurgTrac) and by expert-assessment and self-assessment using a competency assessment tool for MIS suturing (LS-CAT). Results A total of 38 participants enrolled in the study. Participants improved significantly between the pre-test and the post-test for both tasks. They were faster (632 s vs. 213 s, p < 0.001) and more efficient (distance of instrument tips: 9.8 m vs. 3.4 m, p = 0.001) in the suturing task. Total LS-CAT scores, rated by an expert, improved significantly with a decrease from 36 at the pre-test to 20 at the post-test (p < 0.001) and showed a strong correlation with self-assessment scores (R 0.771, p < 0.001). The precise peg transfer task was completed faster (300 s vs. 163 s, p < 0.001) and more efficient as well (14.8 m vs. 5.7 m, p = 0.005). Additionally, they placed more rings correctly (7 vs. 12, p = 0.010). Conclusion Unsupervised at-home training and assessment of MIS skills is feasible and resulted in an evident increase in skills. Especially in times of less exposure in the clinical setting and less education on training locations this can aid in improving MIS skills.
... The overestimation of their own NK could induce individuals to incorporate incorrect dietary practices with the conviction that they are beneficial, without considering the need for advice from health/nutrition professionals. This could lead to these athletes having too much confidence in their ability and therefore overestimating their competence to decide some aspects of their diet; that is, the so-called Dunning-Kruger effect [50]. So, it is important to detect athletes with the lowest NK and, among these, athletes that overestimate their own NK. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nutrition knowledge (NK) is one of several factors needed to establish proper eating habits and is especially important for athletes. The aims of this study were the following: to assess the NK of athletes from the Fútbol Club Barcelona; and to study its possible association with self-perceived level of NK, attitude towards nutrition, sources of information, and some dietary habits. We performed a cross-sectional study in two parts. First, we assessed the NK of elite athletes (n = 264) and compared it to the NK of technical teams of different sports (n = 59) and non-athletes (n = 183) of different ages and levels of education. Second, we investigated the associations between NK and other variables. To assess NK, we used a previously validated questionnaire Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire for Young and Adult Athletes (NUKYA). Athletes showed a low median score (25.1 points), similar to the scores obtained by high school students (19.5) and university Philosophy students (29.0), and significantly lower than the scores of the sports technical team (58.5, p<0.05) and final year students of Human Nutrition and Dietetics (74.6, p<0.05). Moreover, we found statistically significant associations between NK and self-perceived level of NK (n=240,ρ=0.2546,p=0.0001) intake of fruits and vegetables (n=111,ρ=0.2701,p=0.0041), and intake of discretionary food (n=111,ρ=−0.2008,p=0.0001). Athletes with lower scores tended to overestimate their competence in nutrition (Dunning-Kruger effect). We concluded that NK of athletes needs to be improved through education plans that should consider aspects such as the proper selection of information resources and the importance of not consuming supplements without the adequate prescription. Incorporation of technical team and families to the education plan should be considered.
... On the other hand, research demonstrates that learners whose aptitudes or knowledge bases are feeble in a specific range tend to overestimate their capacity in that area (Kruger & Dunning, 1999). They don't know enough to perceive that they need adequate learning for precise self-assessment. ...
Conference Paper
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Joyce termed the collection of short stories “Dubliners” as a “chapter of Dublin’s moral history”. The collection is subdivided into four main branches: childhood, youth, adulthood and social cycles. The third cycle is a matter of our focal interest. It consists of four stories: “A Little Cloud”, “Counterparts”, “Clay” and “A Painful Case”. Despite the age, gender, and social differences, all protagonists have the unifying traits - their inability to change their life or environment, fear of freedom. They are captivated by a deadly routine that drains life out of them and leads to ‘paralysis’, which is the natural state of Dublin. This cycle is the most tragic part of the “Dubliners”, as after the first feeble and futile attempt of releasing themselves from the deadly influence of Dublin, the young protagonists of the previous cycle join the humble and mute majority and turn into the grim protagonists of the adult cycle, who have to face the outcomes of their cowardice and indecisiveness in the period of youth and resort to violence and alcohol as the means of escape from reality. The ‘paralysis’ of the key characters in the collection of short stories is emphasized by means of numerous artistic devices. Joyce refers to such symbols as colours associated with death and decay: yellow, grey, brown - the weather, which is usually drab, gloomy and rainy, constant darkness and the lack of bright colours; the symbol of the circle - despite its positive connotation in general, as a form of harmony, in this collection the circle denotes enslavement, deadlock, constant repetition of the monotonous routine which lives no way out. Key words: Dublin, paralysis, indecisive, freedom, violence, routine
... On one hand, those with adequate health literacy may have an advantage in overall processing ability, allowing them to make decisions more quickly and confidently. However, there is also evidence that poor performers are overconfident in their abilities (e.g., Kruger & Dunning, 1999). Those who score low in health literacy might also be overconfident even when they respond incorrectly. ...
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... One one hand, those with adequate health literacy may have an advantage in overall processing ability, allowing them to make decisions more quickly and confidently. However, there is also evidence that poor performers are overconfident in their abilities (e.g., Kruger and Dunning, 1999). Those who score low in health literacy might also be overconfident even when they respond incorrectly. ...
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... A recent study by Gupta (2011) has reported that along with core competencies, the individual is required to develop a variety of professional competencies. However, Kruger and Dunning (1999) have mentioned that incompetent individuals are more challenged in recognising their own level of ability and performance compared to more competent individuals. A model of effective performance by Boyatzis (1982) has suggested that practical action and performance only occur when all three critical components including the individual's competencies, the job's demands, and the organisational environment are consistent. ...
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... Metacognition describes individuals' "cognition about cognitive 173 phenomena" (Flavell, 1979) which is divided into metacognitive knowledge and 174 metacognitive control (Lai, 2011). In the context of sequential collaboration, 175 metacognitive knowledge about one's own expertise allows contributors to evaluate the 176 accuracy of presented judgments and one's own capacity to provide improvements 177 (Kruger & Dunning, 1999). Given that contributors decide whether to opt in or opt 178 out, sequential collaboration does not require the identification of experts. ...
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Many collaborative online projects such as Wikipedia and OpenStreetMap organize collaboration among their contributors sequentially. In sequential collaboration, one contributor creates an entry which is consecutively encountered by other contributors who then decide whether to adjust or maintain the presented entry. Sequential collaboration yields improved judgments over the course of a sequential chain and results in accurate final estimates. We hypothesize that these benefits emerge since contributors adjust entries according to their expertise, implying that judgments of experts have a larger impact compared to those of novices. In three preregistered studies, we measured and manipulated expertise to investigate whether expertise leads to higher change probabilities and larger improvements in judgment accuracy. Moreover, we tested whether expertise results in an increase in accuracy over the course of a sequential chain. As expected, experts adjusted entries more frequently, made larger improvements, and contributed more to the final estimates of sequential chains. Overall, our findings show that the high accuracy of sequential collaboration is due to an implict weighting of judgments by expertise.
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Thesis
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