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The Effect of Zingiber Officinale (Ginger) Extract on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Healthy Humans

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Zingiber officinale (ZO) has a long history of traditional use. It contains several constituents such as gingerol, gingerdiol, gingerdione, beta-carotene, capsaicin, caffeic acid and curumin. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of consumption of ZO on the heart rate and blood pressure (BP). Subjects for the study comprised of 22 males and 38 females making a total of 60 subjects. The subjects were in 3 groups of 20 each; a Control group (distilled water) and 2 experimental groups (100mg/kg bodyweight and 50mg/kg bodyweight of oral consumption of ZO extract). For each group, three readings were obtained per subject-one before administration, and the other two readings at intervals of 2hrs and 4hrs after consumption of water or ZO. The readings taken comprise of systolic BP, diastolic BP, and the heart rate. Results showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in all measured parameters 2hrs after ZO administration and a significant (p<0.05) increase in only the systolic BP, 4hrs after ZO administration. It can be concluded that consumption of ZO at doses employed in this study, has a blood pressure lowering effect and this effect is dose-dependent.
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... The second point is that ginger has been experimentally seen to be beneficial in diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disorders. [70][71][72] It has been found that COVID-19 patients who have diabetes or hypertension as comorbidity are more prone to develop a more severe course and disease progression. Elderly patients with these comorbidities are increasingly likely to enter the intensive care units of hospitals and have a higher mortality rate. ...
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Among the large number of plants that are part of the Ayurvedic system of medicine in India and Bangladesh, Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), or ginger in English, holds a special place and is often referred to as “Mahaushadha” (great medicine) and “Vishvabhesaja” (worldwide or universal herb) to signify its special status. The plant and particularly its rhizomes are used both in the raw and dry form for the relief of a multitude of disorders. Since a number of these disorders occur in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), it was of interest to perform in silico studies (molecular docking) to evaluate the binding affinities of a number of constituents of Zingiber officinale with the 3C-like protease or main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2, which plays an essential role in the cleavage of viral polyproteins and subsequent viral replication. Our studies indicated that 2 of the compounds present in ginger, namely, chlorogenic acid and hesperidin, had high binding affinities for Mpro with predicted binding energies of −7.5 and −8.3 kcal/mol. The two-dimensional and three-dimensional interactions also showed that, while chlorogenic acid interacts with one of the His41 amino acids of the catalytic dyad of Mpro, hesperidin interacts with the other amino acid Cys145, which can account for their predicted high binding energies and, therefore, possibly can inhibit Mpro activity. Taken together, our findings indicate that ginger, besides alleviating the symptoms induced by SARS-CoV-2, may also play a role in inhibiting the virus.
... A study has shown that ginger consumption for 2 h leads to a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) in a dose-dependent manner. 120 A clinical trial in metabolic syndrome patients has demonstrated that daily consumption of 2 g ginger powder for 12 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in DBP, with a reduction of TG and TC. 121 It was also reported that ginger consumption reduced SBP and sICAM-1 concentration in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. ...
Article
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a common and widely used spice. It is rich in various chemical constituents, including phenolic compounds, terpenes, polysaccharides, lipids, organic acids, and raw fibers. Herein, we reviewed its effects on the vascular system. Studies utilizing cell cultures or animal models showed that ginger constituents alleviate oxidative stress and inflammation, increase nitric oxide synthesis, suppress vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation, promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages, inhibit angiogenesis, block voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, and induce autophagy. In clinical trials, ginger was shown to have a favorable effect on serum lipids, inflammatory cytokines, blood pressure, and platelets aggregation. Taken together, these studies point to the potential benefits of ginger and its constituents in treatment of hypertension, coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial diseases, and other vascular diseases
... Z. officinale is known for its blood pressure lowering effects in traditional medicine. Our results with Z. officinale sold in Ouagadougou markets confirm these effects and corroborate those of another author who showed significative dose-dependent decrease of the SAP (and DAP) after Z. officinale administration [12]. Antihypertensive effect of ginger was also reported [13]. ...
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The aim of this study was to exhibit cardiovascular effects of aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale rhizome sold in Ouagadougou markets (Burkina Faso). Phytochemical constituents and some blood biochemical parameters were also investigated. Colorimetric method was used for phytochemical screening. Extract was prepared and orally administered on Wistar rats. Arterial pressure and cardiac rhythm were measured using Ugo Basile Blood Pressure Recorder 58500. Original Research Article Tougouma et al.; EJMP, 31(17): 50-58, 2020; Article no.EJMP.63253 51 Biochemical parameters were performed using Mindray BA-88A, Semi-auto Chemistry Analyzer. Triterpenes and/or sterols, and saponosides were present in aqueous extract of the plant. We also found very significative hypotension effect on rat mean arterial pressure, when plant extract was administered at 400 mg/kg bw (p ˂ 0.01). When extract was administered after a hypertension induced by L-NAME, we observed a high significative antihypertensive effect (p ˂ 0.001) at 200 and 400 mg/kg bw. This effect was comparable to captopril inhibition of L-NAME induced hypertension. However, in all cases, we did not observe any significative variation of heart rate. For biochemical parameters, we did not find any effect, excepted a significant increase of phosphoremia at 400 mg/kg bw and after L-NAME administration (highly significant). Our results confirm literature data and corroborate traditional uses of Z. officinale sold in Ouagadougou markets. They suggest that antihypertensive effect of AEZO is mainly supported by vascular physiology components.
... Lebih lanjut lagi, relawan sehat yang diberi intervensi suspensi jahe merah, di dalam darahnya terkandung 10-gingerol dan 6-shogaol, yang merupakan senyawa fenolat penting dari rimpang jahe merah (Levitaet al., 2018). Senyawa fenolat tersebut juga dilaporkan memiliki aktivitas anti oksidan, menurunkan kadar kolesterol, dan memberi pengaruh langsung pada tekanan darah dan detak jantung (Ojulari & Owoyele, 2014). Oleh karena itu, jahe merah dipilih sebagai tanaman berkhasiat anti radang yang akan dipopulerkan oleh Tim Pengabdian pada Masyarakat (PPM) Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Padjadjaran. ...
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Hasil penelitian kami tentang pencarian tanaman berkhasiat anti radang telah membuktikan bahwa jahe merah dapat menurunkan laju pembentukan prostaglandin secara in vitro, bahkan senyawa kimia di dalam jahe merah terbukti dapat menghambat enzim siklo oksigenase, yaitu enzim yang berperan penting pada terjadinya radang, melalui pembentukan ikatan hidrogen dengan residu asam amino penting di dalam enzim tersebut. Oleh karena itu, jahe merah dipilih sebagai tanaman yang akan dipopulerkan oleh Tim Pengabdian pada Masyarakat (PPM) Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Padjadjaran, kepada kader PKK di Desa Cikidang, Kecamatan Lembang, Kabupaten Bandung Barat. Kegiatan PPM ini meliputi (1) konsultasi kesehatan dan pemeriksaan tekanan darah peserta; (2) pendidikan masyarakat tentang radang dan pemanfaatan jahe merah sebagai swamedikasi radang; (3) difusi ipteks berupa demo pembuatan jahe merah instan sebagai minuman nutrisi. Dari sejumlah tujuh puluhun dangan yang disebarkan, kegiatan PPM dihadiri oleh empat puluh delapan peserta, terdiri dari 46 peserta wanita (95,83%) dan 2 peserta pria (4,17%). Hasil pre-test dan post-test menunjukkan adanya peningkatan pengetahuan peserta, dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa pembekalan pemanfaatan jahe merah kepada kader PKK di Desa Cikidang, Kecamatan Lembang, Kabupaten Bandung Barat, dapat meningkatkan pengetahuan mereka.
Chapter
Zingiber officinale Roscoe is a well-recognized herbal plant throughout the world. Ginger is not only consumed as dietary spice but has also been employed in the traditional medicinal systems as herbal remedy since antiquity. Ginger offers health benefits mainly attributable to many bioactive phytochemicals including phenolic compounds, terpenes, flavonoids, carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, and many more. The principle phenolic compounds in ginger that lead to a plethora of biological activities are gingerols, shogaols, and paradols. Rhizome is an essential nutritional and medicinal component of ginger. The volatile components impart characteristic aroma or fragrance to ginger. This spice is traditionally used to relieve pain, constipation, digestive troubles, fever, cramps, inflammation, hypertension, dementia, and infections. Accumulated evidences have illustrated that ginger and its derivatives exhibit multiple pharmacological effects including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antiemetic, anti-obesity, antimicrobial, anticancer, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective. Ginger thus can be used as potent and innovative therapeutic alternative for the prevention and management of acute and chronic disorders. This chapter highlights current knowledge about the ethanobotanical uses, phytochemicals, and biological activities of ginger and suggests that this updated information will be fruitful for researchers to investigate novel and unexplored applications.KeywordsAdrackGingerGingerolOleoresinParadolsPhenylpropanoidsSonth Zingiber officinale Zingiber zingiber
Article
Objective We sought to evaluate ginger's cardiovascular and metabolic effects (Zingiberofficinale) add-on therapy in type 2 diabetes patients over six weeks. Methods We performed a single-arm clinical trial. In well-to-moderately controlled Type 2 diabetic patients with unchanged treatment for at least three months, the intervention consisted of 6-week add-on oral supplementation of powdered ginger extracts in capsules at a dose of 399 mg three times per day. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), glycatedhaemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, kidney and liver function analysis were performed at initial and final visits, with a follow-up visit on day 21. Adherence to treatment, palatability and safety were also assessed. Results Overall, 21 participants (16 females) were included in the analysis. We found a non-significant decrease of E’ wave from 0.05[0.04-0.09] to 0.06[0.05-0.7]cm/s, A-wave from 0.8[0.6-0.8] to 0.7[0.6-0.8] cm/s, and E-wave from 0.6[0.5-0.7] to 0.5[0.425-0.6]cm/s. There was a significant reduction of HbA1c from 49.7[47.0-57.4] to 44.3[38.8-53.0] mmol/mol and triglycerides from 1.6[1.4-1.9] to 1.2[0.9-1.8] mmol/l. A 5% decrease or more was observed for diurnal DBP, diurnal MAP and 24-hour DBP. Conclusion Zingiberofficinale used as add-on therapy tend to improve diastolic function, blood pressure and lipid profile of type 2 diabetes patients. Further studies are needed to define the dosage and duration of this supplementary treatment accurately. Trial Registration number:NCT04222738.
Article
Background : Medicinal plants or herbs produce a bounty of bioactive phytochemicals. These phytochemicals can influence a variety of physiological events related to cardiovascular health through multiple underlying mechanisms, such as their role as antioxidative, anti-ischemic, anti-proliferative, hypotensive, anti-thrombotic, and anti-hypercholesterolemic agents. Purpose : The purpose of this review is to summarize and connect evidences supporting the use of phytotherapy in the management of some of the most common cardiovascular impairments, molecular mechanisms underlying cardio-protection mediated by herbs, and clinical studies which are positively linked with the use of herbs in cardiovascular biology. Additionally, we also describe several adverse effects associated with some of the herbal plants and their products to provide a balanced set of studies in favor or against phytotherapy in cardiovascular health that may help global discourses on this matter. Methods : Studies relating to the use of medicinal plants were mined by strategically searching scientific databases including Google Scholar, PubMed and Science Direct. Investigations involving approximately 175 articles including reviews, research articles, meta-analyses, and cross-sectional and observational studies were retrieved and analyzed in line with the stated purpose of this study. Results : A positive correlation between the use of medicinal plants and cardiovascular health was observed. While maintaining cardiovascular physiology, medicinal plants and their derivatives seem to govern a variety of cellular mechanisms involved in vasoconstriction and vasorelaxation, which in turn, are important aspects of cardiovascular homeostasis. Furthermore, a variety of studies including clinical trials, cross-sectional studies, and meta-analyses have also supported the anti-hypertensive and thus, cardio-protective effects, of medicinal plants. Apart from this, evidence is also available for the potential drawbacks of several herbs and their products indicating that the unsupervised use of many herbs may lead to severe health issues. Conclusions : The cardio-protective outcomes of medicinal plants and their derivatives are supported by ever-increasing studies, while evidences exist for the potential drawbacks of some of the herbs. A balanced view about the use of medicinal plants and their derivative in cardiovascular biology thus needs to be outlined by researchers and the medical community. The novelty and exhaustiveness of the present manuscript is reflected by the detailed outline of the molecular basis of “herbal cardio-protection”, active involvement of several herbs in ameliorating the cardiovascular status, adverse effects of medicinal plants, and the clinical studies considering the use of phytotherapy, all on a single platform.
Article
The aim of the study was to develop a rapid, efficient, and cheap chromatographic method for determining four selected antihypertensive active flavonoid compounds in medicinal plants in Botswana. The determination of rutin, quercetin, and kaempferol in selected medicinal plants was conducted in less than 6 min using the developed reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with a 2.7 µm Ascentis C18 express column (150 × 4.60 mm i.d) at 340, 360, and 368 nm detection wavelengths and mobile phase of methanol and 0.068% of formic acid solution in isocratic elution. Validation results showed good selectivity, linearity ( r ² > 0.99), high percentage recoveries (90.2–104.7%), and precision (% RSD < 2) for n = 3, confirming suitability of the method for determination of the investigated flavonoids in Zingiber officinale (ginger). Application of the developed RP-HPLC method was performed in selected medicinal plants ( Lippia javanica ) (mosukujane) , Myrothanmus flabellious (galalatshwene) , and Elephantorrhiza elephantina (mositsana) used to manage hypertension by herbalists in Botswana . M. flabellious a very commonly used plant for managing hypertension was found to contain highest amounts of rutin and myricetin, whereas nothing was detected for E. elephantina .
Article
• The present study aimed to determine the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Zingiber officinale on antihypertensive activity and pharmacokinetic of losartan in hypertensive rats. • Hypertension was induced in rats by oral administration of L-NAME (40 mg/kg per day). Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of losartan were evaluated without and with herbal treatment in hypertensive rats. • Treatment of hypertensive rats with investigated herbs substantially reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of rats. Treatment of rats (n = 5) with L-NAME plus H. sabdariffa plus losartan and L-NAME plus Z. officinale plus losartan reduced SBP by 16.20% and 14.88% and DBP by 14.82% and 17.52% respectively after 12 h, as compared to L-NAME alone treated rats. In a pharmacokinetic study, the Cmax and AUC0-t of losartan in L-NAME plus H. sabdariffa plus losartan and L-NAME plus Z. officinale plus losartan treated rats was increased by 0.7, 1.99 and 1.51, 3.00 fold respectively in comparison to the Cmax and AUC0-t obtained for L-NAME plus losartan treated group. In conclusion, both the investigated herbs significantly increased the antihypertensive effect and plasma concentration of losartan in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats. The current study predicted that the herb-drug interaction between H. sabdariffa-losartan and Z. officinale-losartan could occur; hence these results in rats may warrant further studies in humans, either in humans or in in vitro human liver microsomes.
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Herbs and dietary supplements can have significant physiological effects. Garlic (Allium sativum) has shown beneficial lipid effects in a majority of trials; dried garlic preparations are superior to oil preparations. There is preliminary evidence that indicates that hawthorn (Crataegus species) may provide benefits in congestive heart failure. Coenzyme Q also may be of benefit in congestive heart failure. Although observational studies indicate a protective effect of dietary or supplemental vitamin E, controlled trails have not shown a beneficial effect on angina and have been mixed on whether supplementation decreases major cardiac events. Although several observational studies have noted that fish intake protects against cardiovascular disease, prospective studies are less impressive. Fish oil supplementation may have a mild beneficial effect on hypertension, but there is no effect on total cholesterol levels. Trials are inconsistent on whether fish oil reduces restenosis rates following coronary angioplasty. Carnitine appears to have beneficial effects on congestive heart failure and angina; there is also preliminary evidence that arginine may benefit patients with congestive heart failure or angina. Herbs and supplements have been associated with adverse effects and interactions; for example, garlic inhibits platelet aggregation and can cause significant anticoagulation, and the Chinese herb danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) appears to potentiate warfarin. Several herbs and supplements hold promise as adjuncts in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. There is a need for definitive research on the potential risks and benefits of these compounds, including appropriate dosages and formulations, and delineation of adverse events and interactions. (c)2000 by CHF, Inc.
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Previous research showed that exposure to ginger root, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, oil increased the mating success of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This work, however, involved the exposure of small groups of males (n = 25) in small containers (volume 400 ml). Several sterile male release programs use plastic adult rearing containers (so-called PARC boxes; hereafter termed storage boxes; 0.48 by 0.60 by 0.33 m) to hold mature pupae and newly emerged adults before release (approximately = 36,000 flies per box). The objective of the current study was to determine whether the application of ginger root oil to individual storage boxes increases the mating competitiveness of sterile C. capitata males. Irradiated pupae were placed in storage boxes 2 d before adult emergence, and in the initial experiment (adult exposure) ginger root oil was applied 5 d later (i.e., 3 d after peak adult emergence) for 24 h at doses of 0.0625, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ml. In a second experiment (pupal-adult exposure), ginger root oil was applied to storage boxes immediately after pupal placement and left for 6 d (i.e., 4 d after peak adult emergence) at doses of 0.25 and 1.0 ml. Using field cages, we conducted mating trials in which ginger root oil-exposed (treated) or nonexposed (control) sterile males competed against wild-like males for copulations with wild-like females. After adult exposure, treated males had significantly higher mating success than control males for all doses of ginger root oil, except 2.0 ml. After pupal-adult exposure, treated males had a significantly higher mating success than control males for the 1.0-ml but not the 0.25-ml dose of ginger root oil. The results suggest that ginger root oil can be used in conjunction with prerelease, storage boxes to increase the effectiveness of sterile insect release programs.
Article
Aqueous extracts of onion, garlic and ginger were found to inhibit aggregation induced by ADP, epinephrine, collagen and arachidonate in a dose-dependent manner . In the case of onion and garlic extracts relatively much higher volumes were need to bring about even a modest inhibition (by ca. 13–18%) of thromboxane synthesis in washed platelets from labelled AA. On the other hand a good correlation was found between the amounts of ginger extract needed to inhibit platelet aggregation and those to inhibit platelet thromboxane synthesis. Ginger extract reduced also platelet prostaglandin-endoperoxides. A dose-related inhibition of platelet thromboxane- and prostaglandin (PGF2α, PGE2 and PGD2) synthesis was affected by ginger extract. Extracts of onion, garlic and ginger inhibited biosynthesis of prostacyclin in rat aorta from labelled AA. Ginger extract mildly inhibited the synthesis of prostacyclin from endogenous pool of AA in rat aorta; the other two extracts were without effect.
Article
Five new diarylheptanoids were isolated from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and their structures elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. They were oxygenated at C-1, 3 and 5 on the heptane chain and cyclized between C-1 and C-5 through oxygen.
Article
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Antihypertensive therapy consistently reduces complications from stroke and congestive heart failure, whereas benefits from the treatment of ischemic heart disease events are variable. Several plausible explanations, including hemodynamic hypotheses, have been put forth to account for the failure of treatment to more favorably influence mortality from ischemic heart disease. The effect of hypertension on coronary heart disease is probably much more complex than a simple elevation of arterial pressure. Some of these complexities include the potential separate risks of high total peripheral resistance, high cardiac output, increased myocardial power that reflects pressure times flow, and several structural and functional vascular changes. These factors may act in concert to unfavorably alter the balance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand. Several of these factors will be highlighted in an attempt to offer alternative or adjunctive pathophysiologic examinations for the high-risk subgroups of obesity and the failure of antihypertensive therapy to normalize the rate of coronary heart disease events.
Article
General pharmacological studies were performed on (6)-gingerol and (6)-shogaol which are the pungent constituents of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Intravenous (i.v.) administration of (6)-gingerol (at 1.75-3.5 mg/kg) or (6)-shogaol (at 1.75-3.5 mg/kg) and oral administration of them (at 70-140 mg/kg) produced an inhibition of spontaneous motor activity, an antipyretic and analgesic effects, prolonged hexobarbital-induced sleeping time, and these effects of (6)-shogaol were mostly more intensive than that of (6)-gingerol. (6)-Shogaol showed an intense antitussive effect in comparison with dihydrocodeine phosphate. In the electro-encephalogram of cortex, the low amplitude fast wave pattern was observed for 5 min after i.v. administration of (6)-shogaol, and then changed to the drowsy pattern, which was restored after 60 min. In the gastro-intestinal system, (6)-shogaol intensively inhibited the traverse of charcoal meal through the intestine in contrast with (6)-gingerol after i.v. administration of 3.5 mg/kg, but (6)-shogaol facilitated such an intestinal function after oral administration of 35 mg/kg. Both (6)-shogaol and (6)-gingerol suppressed gastric contraction in situ, and the suppression by the former was more intensive than that by the latter. In the cardiovascular system, both (6)-shogaol and (6)-gingerol produced depressor response at lower doses on the blood pressure. At high doses, both drugs produced three phase pattern.
Article
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) has been widely used as a dietary spice, as well as in traditional oriental medicine. The rhizome of ginger contains pungent vanillyl ketones, including [6]-gingerol and [6]-paradol, and has been reported to possess a strong anti-inflammatory activity. These pungent substances have a vanilloid structure found in other chemopreventive phytochemicals, including curcumin. In our study, we found anti-tumor-promoting properties of [6]-gingerol and [6]-paradol. Thus, topical application of [6]-gingerol or [6]-paradol 30 min prior to 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) attenuated the skin papillomagenesis initiated by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in female ICR mice. These substances also significantly inhibited the tumor-promoter-stimulated inflammation, TNF-alpha production, and activation of epidermal ornithine decarboxylase in mice. In another study, [6]-gingerol and [6]-paradol suppressed the superoxide production stimulated by TPA in differentiated HL-60 cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that pungent vanilloids found in ginger possess potential chemopreventive activities.
Article
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), a well-known spice plant, has been used traditionally in a wide variety of ailments including hypertension. We report here the cardiovascular effects of ginger under controlled experimental conditions. The crude extract of ginger (Zo.Cr) induced a dose-dependent (0.3-3 mg/kg) fall in the arterial blood pressure of anesthetized rats. In guinea pig paired atria, Zo.Cr exhibited a cardiodepressant activity on the rate and force of spontaneous contractions. In rabbit thoracic aorta preparation, Zo.Cr relaxed the phenylephrine-induced vascular contraction at a dose 10 times higher than that required against K (80 mM)-induced contraction. Ca2+ channel-blocking (CCB) activity was confirmed when Zo.Cr shifted the Ca2+ dose-response curves to the right similar to the effect of verapamil. It also inhibited the phenylephrine (1 microM) control peaks in normal-Ca2+ and Ca2+-free solution, indicating that it acts at both the membrane-bound and the intracellular Ca2+ channels. When tested in endothelium-intact rat aorta, it again relaxed the K-induced contraction at a dose 14 times less than that required for relaxing the PE-induced contraction. The vasodilator effect of Zo.Cr was endothelium-independent because it was not blocked by L-NAME (0.1 mM) or atropine (1 microM) and also was reproduced in the endothelium-denuded preparations at the same dose range. These data indicate that the blood pressure-lowering effect of ginger is mediated through blockade of voltage-dependent calcium channels.
Dietary supplements in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease Ginger lowers blood pressure through blockade of voltage dependent calcium channels
  • A Fugh-Berman
. A. Fugh-Berman, Dietary supplements in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, Preventive Cardiology, 2000, 24-[11]. M. N. Ghayur, A.H. Gilani, Ginger lowers blood pressure through blockade of voltage dependent calcium channels, Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, 45, 2005, 74-80
Ginger (Zinger offiicinale Roscoe): a hot remedy for cardiovascular disease?
  • R Nicroll
  • M Y Henein
R. Nicroll, M.Y. Henein, Ginger (Zinger offiicinale Roscoe): a hot remedy for cardiovascular disease? International Journal of Cardiology, 131, 2009, 408-9