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The Achieving Society

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... The first ER theory mentioned is the Human motivation theory, the so-called Learned needs theory, presented by David McClelland in 1961. This theory suggests that employees are expected to have motivators such as the need for achievement, the need for affiliation, and the need for power (McClelland, 1961). Moreover, Smith (1964) claims that people are motivated by achievement when receiving instructions, feedback or appraisal after they complete challenging projects and resolve complex problems or difficulties, as well as by affiliation when they contribute best to group working through integration with a team since they are afraid of uncertainty or risk. ...
... Moreover, Smith (1964) claims that people are motivated by achievement when receiving instructions, feedback or appraisal after they complete challenging projects and resolve complex problems or difficulties, as well as by affiliation when they contribute best to group working through integration with a team since they are afraid of uncertainty or risk. Furthermore, in his theory, McClelland (1961) claims that people work best with responsibility and competition in challenging projects or jobs. Practically, in the retail sector, Dunne et al. (2011) emphasize that motivating employees can make employees excel in job requirements and their responsibilities to satisfy customers. ...
... Recognition is an organizational factor according to the theories of Herzberg (1959) and McClelland (1961). Indeed, it is a non-financial motivator, positively correlating with organizational achievement if EE is built effectively for the long term (Chandani et al., 2016). ...
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Retailing is one of the critical stages in supply chain operations, in which human resources and employee retention play a decisive role as in any organization. Based on motivation theories for employee retention (ER), this study examines the integrated indirect effects of organizational and personal motivators on ER through employee engagement (EE) in the retail industry. Furthermore, it assesses how psychological ownership (PO) directly affects ER and moderates the effect of ER on EE of full-time employees in the Vietnamese context as empirical evidence. The combination of a qualitative methodology (in-depth interviews with retail experts) and a quantitative methodology (a survey conducted with 571 full-time retail employees) is deployed. PLS-SEM with SmartPLS is utilized for data analysis and hypothesis testing. The study findings demonstrate that the integrated roles of organizational and personal motivators significantly affect ER through EE in retail companies. Interestingly, the study discovered that PO has a significant positive influence on ER, but a higher PO can reduce the relationship between EE and ER. Practically, the study highlights the implication that organizational motivators may not be sufficient to retain employees, since the intention of employees to remain or quit also depends on personal factors. It also suggests that in the working environment with a solid relationship between EE and ER, PO can lead to negative employee behaviour, such as bias, misconduct, and disengagement, which may harm the company.
... That personality research has focused on traits and characteristics such as internal locus of control, self-reliance, competitive aggressiveness, autonomy, innovativeness, proactivity, and risk taking, achievement orientation. Among the physiological traits McClelland (1961) pioneered in the notion of need for achievement, "nAch" and has summarized some key other characteristics such as; confidence, perseverance, energy, diligence, foresight, initiative, versatility, intelligence and perceptiveness. McClelland (1961) has summarized the characteristics based on (1) list of 27 different traits that promotes success in small business, proposed by U.S. Small Business Administration (2) list of 16 characteristics presented by Hornaday and Bunker (1970) and (3) list of 32 traits prepared by East-West Center Technology and Development Institute (1976). ...
... Among the physiological traits McClelland (1961) pioneered in the notion of need for achievement, "nAch" and has summarized some key other characteristics such as; confidence, perseverance, energy, diligence, foresight, initiative, versatility, intelligence and perceptiveness. McClelland (1961) has summarized the characteristics based on (1) list of 27 different traits that promotes success in small business, proposed by U.S. Small Business Administration (2) list of 16 characteristics presented by Hornaday and Bunker (1970) and (3) list of 32 traits prepared by East-West Center Technology and Development Institute (1976). The theory of locus of control was developed by Rotter (1966). ...
... Driessen and Zwart (2007) mentioned about; nAch, need for autonomy, need for power, social orientation, self-belief, endurance, market awareness, creativity, flexibility. The internal locus of control ( Budner 1962;Rotter 1966), need for achievement (McClelland 1961), belief in the effect of personal effort on outcomes (McGhee and Crandall 1968;Lao 1970), self-confidence or overconfidence (Stevenson and Gumpert 1985;Busenitz and Barney 1997;Liles 1974), tolerance for ambiguity ( Schere 1982), willingness to bear uncertainty (Khilstrom and Laffont 1979), and attitudes towards risk ( Liles 1974;Mintzberg 1973) are important for an entrepreneur to be successful. According to Deáková, Drážovská, Grznárik and Kondášová (2010) the most important personal qualities for an entrepreneur are: courage, self-reliance, responsibility, determination, perseverance, proactive approach, creativity and scholarship in a particular area, where this entrepreneur intends to do business. ...
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There are many studies carried out in many countries about entrepreneurial characteristics over a long period of time. However, there is no consensus among the scholars on a common set of characteristics of successful entrepreneurs in the world. Therefore, in this study it is expected to explore common characteristics that may affect entrepreneurial success. In this study, thirty-one characteristics were taken from literature and they were investigated through 121 entrepreneurs who are into micro, small, medium and large-scale businesses in Sri Lanka. In the hundred and twenty-one sample the entrepreneurs are from micro, small, medium and large. Almost all seminal articles related to entrepreneurial characteristics and traits were taken into consideration in doing the literature survey. The questionnaire of this research has been developed by taking pretested questionnaires on the same phenomenon and a few questions were developed by the researcher. Some modifications were done to the questions in the questionnaire before administering it to the Sri Lankan context. There was more than one question asked in the questionnaire to test one variable. A reliability test had been carried out to see the internal consistency among them and Cronbach's Alpha value was calculated for each variable separately. At the end of the research, it is expected to have two outcomes. They are: first, to see the common list of characteristics which are needed for entrepreneurs to be successful and second; to see the characteristics which are important for micro, small, medium and large-scale businesses to be successful. In deriving the previously mentioned outcomes two types of analytical tools were used. They are: first, to see the common list of characteristics which are needed for entrepreneurs to be successful, One-Way ANOVA technique has been used and second; to see the characteristics which are important for micro, small, medium and large-scale businesses to be successful, descriptive statistics (mean values) were used. Finally, it was found that there are many characteristics which affect the success of entrepreneurs out of the thirty-one characteristics taken for investigation and also different characteristics affect micro, small, medium and large-scale entrepreneurs to be successful.
... That personality research has focused on traits and characteristics such as internal locus of control, self-reliance, competitive aggressiveness, autonomy, innovativeness, proactivity, and risk taking, achievement orientation. Among the physiological traits McClelland (1961) pioneered in the notion of need for achievement, "nAch" and has summarized some key other characteristics such as; confidence, perseverance, energy, diligence, foresight, initiative, versatility, intelligence and perceptiveness. McClelland (1961) has summarized the characteristics based on (1) list of 27 different traits that promotes success in small business, proposed by U.S. Small Business Administration (2) list of 16 characteristics presented by Hornaday and Bunker (1970) and (3) list of 32 traits prepared by East-West Center Technology and Development Institute (1976). ...
... Among the physiological traits McClelland (1961) pioneered in the notion of need for achievement, "nAch" and has summarized some key other characteristics such as; confidence, perseverance, energy, diligence, foresight, initiative, versatility, intelligence and perceptiveness. McClelland (1961) has summarized the characteristics based on (1) list of 27 different traits that promotes success in small business, proposed by U.S. Small Business Administration (2) list of 16 characteristics presented by Hornaday and Bunker (1970) and (3) list of 32 traits prepared by East-West Center Technology and Development Institute (1976). The theory of locus of control was developed by Rotter (1966). ...
... Driessen and Zwart (2007) mentioned about; nAch, need for autonomy, need for power, social orientation, self-belief, endurance, market awareness, creativity, flexibility. The internal locus of control ( Budner 1962;Rotter 1966), need for achievement (McClelland 1961), belief in the effect of personal effort on outcomes (McGhee and Crandall 1968;Lao 1970), self-confidence or overconfidence (Stevenson and Gumpert 1985;Busenitz and Barney 1997;Liles 1974), tolerance for ambiguity ( Schere 1982), willingness to bear uncertainty (Khilstrom and Laffont 1979), and attitudes towards risk ( Liles 1974;Mintzberg 1973) are important for an entrepreneur to be successful. According to Deáková, Drážovská, Grznárik and Kondášová (2010) the most important personal qualities for an entrepreneur are: courage, self-reliance, responsibility, determination, perseverance, proactive approach, creativity and scholarship in a particular area, where this entrepreneur intends to do business. ...
... The present Kenyan woman entrepreneur tends to be highly motivated and self-directed. This is because they have the ability to portray a high degree of internal locus of control which is a personality trait that plays a decisive role in increasing entrepreneurial intention (Brunel et al., 2017), high need to achieve (McClelland, 1961) and the urge to break away from social and economic marginalization. These attributes have driven most Kenyan women towards economic independence. ...
... First, she has a high degree of inner locus of control. According to McClelland (1961), this is one factor that is required for an individual to succeed in business. Second, she went 'against all odds' by choosing a path that was male dominated in the country. ...
... This could have been the case for Jennifer Riria. Further, McClelland's (1961) observation about the desire to succeed for the sake of an inner feeling could have been a contributory factor to Jennifer's success. In her quest to succeed, she desired to make women succeed as well. ...
... The role of an entrepreneur-innovator enhances relevant social and cognitive competences. It should also be connected with the motivation to and the chance of advancement in the social structure (McClelland 1961). For this reason, Mc-Closkey (2016) associates innovation with the middle class. ...
... As it turns out, the system of permanent dispositions, which is the quintessential social layer of the culture of innovation, is formed at the symbolic level. This is what the studies of McClelland (1961) and Fromm and Maccoby (1970) demonstrate. The former shows that the dominant narratives in a given culture shape the entrepreneurial-innovative personality. ...
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The aim of the article is to present a novel model for the analysis of regional differentiation of innovation cultures. The research output of sociology in this area allows us to identify three strands of analysis: materialist, ideological and social. It also allows us to make inferences about cognitive reductionism associated with the adoption of a single selected perspective. This is also what the proposed model aims to counteract. It is intended to be a conceptual construct that enables a multivariate diagnosis of the regional diversification of innovation culture. At the same time, it highlights the fact, that a complete diagnosis of innovation requires an appropriate unit of analysis (region) and a related analytical category (culture). Linking together these concepts leads to constructing a model that allows us to determine the level of innovation in the modern world and its territorial differentiation. Investigating innovation in accordance with that model involves reaching the content of the different layers of culture and analysing the relationship between the different layers of innovation and the region. Each of the indicated layers can be diagnosed in a quantitative and qualitative way. This model will be built in three stages. In the first stage, a multivariate (i.e. including the material, ideological and social aspects) unit of analysis-region-will be constructed. In the second stage, a private diagnostic category, i.e. culture, will be matched to this unit. Stage three will bring the final construction of the model.
... Research suggests that economic, social, and psychological factors may each contribute to individuals' decisions to start a new venture (Mitchell et al., 2002). Specifically, personality traits (Carland, Carland, Hoy & Carland, 2002), cognition (Mitchell et al., 2002), motivational needs including the need for achievement (McClelland, 1961;McClelland & Winter, 1969), self-efficacy (Chen, Green, & Crick, 1998), self-determination (Ryan & Deci, 2000), cognitive biases (De Carolis & Saparito, 2006) and risk taking perception and propensity (Carland, Carland, Carland & Pearce, 1995) are all found to be related to new venture creation. Additional studies have determined that even demographic characteristics such as age, gender, race, marital status, socioeconomic status, previous work experience, education level of the individual and parents, family background and previous entrepreneurial experiences (Robinson, Stimpson, Huefner & Hunt, 1991;Robinson & Sexton, 1994;Gartner, 2004;Sajilan, Hadi & Tehseen, 2015;Startiene & Remeikiene, 2015) of the individual entrepreneurs explain some part of their drive to create new ventures. ...
... One of the basic premises of entrepreneurship is that an entrepreneur builds an organization (Cole, 1965;Kilby, 1971;Leibenstein, 1968;Schumpeter, 1934). New venture creation is a fundamental goal for an entrepreneur and an entrepreneur's motivation to start a new venture has frequently been studied in relation to personality traits (Carland et al., 2002), cognition (Mitchell et al., 2002), need for achievement (McClelland, 1961;McClelland & Winter, 1969), self-efficacy (Chen et al., 1998), self-determination (Ryan & Deci, 2000), cognitive biases (De Carolis & Saparito, 2006) and risk taking perception and propensity (Carland, et al., 1995). Other factors that contribute to the entrepreneurs' intention to start a new business have been classified under demographic characteristics such as age, gender, race, marital status, socioeconomic status, previous work experience, education level of the individual and parents, family background and previous entrepreneurial experiences (Robinson et al., 1991;Robinson & Sexton, 1994;Gartner, 2004;Sajilan et al., 2015;Startiene & Remeikiene, 2015). ...
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This case study examines the implementation of a multi-disciplinary course to prepare students for living overseas. The same instructor taught this course to over 1000 students over a period of four years. Teaching evaluations and written comments were used discovering that a traditional course was preferred over an online course. Findings suggest that colleges carefully consider the target markets and curriculum before deciding whether the curriculum should be Internet-based.
... In view of its goals, cross-cultural psychology adopts the universalist perspective on the influence of culture on psychological processes. However, as exemplified below, early cross-cultural studies (e.g., McClelland, 1961;Whang & Hancock, 1994) tended to be absolutist in nature as they were conducted based on the assumed universality of the motivation constructs they sought to compare across cultural groups. ...
... In the field of motivation, absolutists typically conduct cross-cultural research and, in the process, they administer a Western-developed measure and compare the level of the adoption of certain motivation constructs (e.g., achievement goals) and their relationships with other variables (e. g., achievement, learning) across cultural groups, without establishing the cross-cultural equivalence of such constructs because they assume such constructs are universal (i.e., imposed etic). Early cross-cultural comparative studies by Whang and Hancock (1994) and Zusho, Pintrich, and Cortina (2005) fit the characteristics of absolutist research, as does McClelland's (1961) work because of his approach to using a Euro-centric achievement motive construct (nAch) to explain societal differences in the development of civilisation (see Zusho & Clayton, 2011). ...
... Tal es el caso de las teorías de la motivación, que permitieron expandir el campo de estudios hacia otras direcciones. Por esa línea se tienen los estudios de McClelland (1961) motivación, en articulación con la noción de emprendimiento. ...
... Según Swedberg (2000) uno de los más famosos intentos para dar cuenta de la "personalidad emprendedora" es el trabajo de McClelland (1961), quien caracterizó tres tipos de necesidades; (1) de logro, centrada en la búsqueda por el triunfo y realizaciones personales; (2) de poder, que consiste en el deseo de influenciar otras personas y; ...
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We explore the concept of the Entrepreneurial Man (EM) that has emerged in two fields of knowledge, from the structural changes imposed by the new neoliberal social order in the last decades of the 20th century. In the field of Economics, the EM has been associated with risks-taking practices, innovating and detecting opportunities, which shows a tendency to incorporate notions, concepts, constructs and categories typically treated by Psychology in general. In organizational and work Psychology, the concept of the EM was initially associated with personality traits, a notion that currently coexists with an approach that emphasizes the individual-context interaction, which tends to privilege psychosocial notions, concepts, constructs and categories. Finally, some issues of contrast and analytical convergence of the EM in the two fields are proposed; as well as the importance of making explicit the reciprocal influence between applied social sciences and their historical context, without ignoring current tensions.
... A motive or need for achievement is a desire to do well to achieve a sense of personal accomplishment [73]. Achievement orientation has been taken as one of the EO factors as individuals with a high need for achievement perform better with non-routine tasks and take responsibility for their performance [42]. ...
... Achievement orientation has been taken as one of the EO factors as individuals with a high need for achievement perform better with non-routine tasks and take responsibility for their performance [42]. McClelland [73] stated that owners with strong achievement orientation lead to growth and success in the business. According to Koop et al. [74], Rauch and Frese [75], and Spencer and Spencer [76] success of a firm depend on owners' achievement orientation. ...
... In short, an emphasis on material possessions will motivate college students to seek wealth, place high importance on income and lead them to prioritize the satisfaction gained from the achievement of personal interests, thus exhibiting higher achievement motivation. In line with McClelland (1961) theory of nAch, having a need for achievement motivates entrepreneurship. Achievement motivation brings a positive attitude toward entrepreneurship, as reported in earlier studies (e.g., Kusmintarti et al., 2014;Ajiwibawani and Subroto, 2017;Maharani et al., 2020;Bagiş et al., 2022). ...
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Entrepreneurship is perceived as a critical pillar for unemployment alleviation and economic growth, especially in the era of COVID-19, which highlights the importance of the entrepreneurial potential of college students. The current research focused on the role of personal values in the entrepreneurial process and investigated the relationship between materialism and entrepreneurial intention among college students. Few studies have been examined this relationship, and the underlying mechanisms were also not identified. From the perspective of personal value, we hypothesized that materialism could positively predict entrepreneurial intention. Moreover, based on McClelland's theory of need for achievement and the theory of planned behavior, a serial mediation model, with achievement motivation and entrepreneurial attitude as the mediators, was proposed. We conducted a correlational study on a sample of 1,002 Chinese university students to examine our hypotheses. They participated in an online survey and completed the measurement of entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurial attitude, materialism, and achievement motivation. The hypothesized models were examined through serial mediation bootstrapping procedures. The results showed that materialism positively predicted college students' entrepreneurial intention, and this relationship was serially mediated through achievement motivation and entrepreneurial attitude. Materialism boosted college students' achievement motivation, which in turn was associated with a more positive entrepreneurial attitude and subsequently stronger entrepreneurial intention. The present research is the first to empirically examine this association's mechanism and establish a serial mediation involving achievement motivation and entrepreneurial attitude. For the theoretical contribution, the present research provides a more comprehensive picture of the role of personal values in entrepreneurship by complementing the effect of materialism. And regarding the practical implications, the present research implies the silver lining of materialism and points out a possible way to enhance college students' entrepreneurial intention, i.e., entrepreneurial education could take advantage of the characteristics of materialism and transform the “harmful” value into socially beneficial entrepreneurial intentions through enhancing their achievement motivation and positive attitude toward entrepreneurship.
... Other needs were identified in international, cross-cultural studies by McClelland (1961) as the need for power, deemed necessary for managerial success; ...
... De acuerdo con su origen, las motivaciones se clasifican en factores internos, tales como interés, autodeterminación, autodirección, necesidad de logro, independencia, seguridad, hedonismo, reciprocidad, alcanzar metas, iniciativa, autoeficacia, tolerancia a la ambigüedad, locus de control interno (Antonioli, Nicolli, Ramaciotti y Rizzo, 2016;Bandura, 1977Bandura, , 1982Carsrud y Brännback, 2011;Eijdenberg y Masurel, 2013;Ferreira, Loiola y Guedes Gondim, 2017;McClelland, 1961;Schwartz, 1992;Shane et al., 2003;Shane y Venkataraman, 2000), y factores externos, tales como las normas formales, trámites de constitución de empresas, actitudes hacia el empresario, aspectos culturales, estabilidad política y monetaria, fuerzas del mercado, capital de inversión, mercado de trabajo, tecnología e infraestructura de transporte (Antonioli et al., 2016;Carsrud y Brännback, 2011;Fuentelsaz y González, 2015;García Ramos et al., 2010;Marulanda Valencia et al., 2014;Shane et al., 2003;Soriano, 2001). ...
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Este artículo analiza factores relacionados con la intención emprendedora en una muestra de 4 157 venezolanos mayores de edad que emigraron en 2019. Es un estudio cuantitativo, no experimental, con muestreo no probabilístico, en el que se aplicó una encuesta estructurada. Se hizo un análisis bivariado entre la variable dependiente "intención de emprender su propio negocio" respecto de las variables independientes relacionadas con información sociodemográfica, así como con las causas psicosociales y económicas de la emigración. Se empleó la prueba Chi-cuadrado de Pearson y las variables se ajustaron a un modelo de Regresión Logística Binaria (RLB). Los hallazgos revelan que la intención emprendedora está asociada a la reagrupación familiar y a la violencia e inseguridad en Venezuela (push factors), así como a la indagación sobre las oportunidades y normativas laborales (pull factor). Así mismo, se subraya la importancia del apoyo institucional para el fomento del autoempleo y del empleo formal. Palabras clave: 1. emigrantes venezolanos, 2. intención emprendedora, 3. factores de atracción, 4. Venezuela, 5. América Latina. ABSTRACT This article analyzes the factors related to entrepreneurial intention in a sample of 4 157 Venezuelans of legal age who emigrated in 2019. It is a quantitative, non-experimental study with non-probability sampling in which a structured survey was applied. A bivariate analysis was made between the dependent variable "the intention to undertake their own business" with respect to the independent variables that relate to sociodemographic information, psychosocial and economic causes of emigration. Pearson's chi-square test was used, and the variables were adjusted to a binary logistic regression model. Among others, the findings reveal that entrepreneurial intention is associated with family reunification and violence and insecurity in Venezuela (push factors), as well as research on opportunities and labor regulations (pull factor). Likewise, the importance of institutional support for the promotion of self-employment and formal employment is underlined.
... The study of Silva et al. (2008) indicate a statistical significant relationship between planning flexibility and corporate entrepreneurship as well as reveal a significant difference between the entrepreneurship of firms whose planning flexibility are low and those whose planning flexibility are high. McClelland (1961) opined that one who chooses to become an entrepreneur prefers to pursue ambitious goals, independently. He argued that people who have a great need for success (N-Ach) tend to become entrepreneurs and presented empirical evidence to support his argument. ...
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The Government of India in the last two decades has carved out many small regions from their parental states such as Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, Uttarakhand and recently Laddakh. These regions are full of natural resources, and the government had initiated and implemented various policies for their development. However, the results are a bit lopsided. The growth seems to be more skewed towards plain areas then hill areas. Even in the hill regions, it is more skewed towards urban districts then rural districts. And within the rural district, it is more skewed towards males than women. There is a very meagre change in the development of women in the rural areas of hill districts. This calls for a paradigm shift. This calls for a change from an agricultural society to an entrepreneurial society. However, entrepreneurship cannot be developed from outside unless there is an orientation from within. The purpose of this paper is to explore the entrepreneurial orientation among women in the rural regions of hill districts of Uttarakhand.
... De acuerdo con Hansemark (2003), es necesario que las características del comportamiento emprendedor, formen parte de la personalidad individual antes de la actividad empresarial, al existir diversas variables a considerar, como la necesidad de logro, que está relacionada positivamente con el éxito de las empresas (McClelland, 1961). Schultheiss y Brunstein (2005) la definen como, desviaciones de las expectativas o incertidumbre al abordar una tarea, a través del aprendizaje previo asociado con el efecto positivo, convirtiendo el desafío en una oportunidad de recompensa. ...
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Con la intención de explorar la relación entre la educación media superior en México y el desarrollo sustentable, se llevó a cabo un estudio con enfoque cuantitativo, se analizaron datos de fuentes secundarias, específicamente de bases oficiales proporcionadas por el INEGI, INEE, CONAGUA, SEP y CONAPO. Por medio de la regresión lineal se evalúo y determinó que existe una relación significativa entre la matricula e instituciones de educación media superior y el desarrollo sustentable. Los resultados generados permiten observar la importancia de dar continuidad a la reforma educativa en este nivel en México, que establece entre sus prioridades desarrollar en el alumnado la competencia en materia de sustentabilidad.
... In discussing motivation, McClelland (1961); Adnan and Mokhtar (2018) explain that achievement motivation involves a process of internal pressure from birth that occurs among individuals with the goal of obtaining satisfaction and success in self-achievement. Meanwhile, Moi (1997); Marjanti (2015) state that such motivation is a requirement to achieve excellence. ...
... Engeser, Rheinberg, and Möller [57] analyzed German textbooks regarding their motiverelated content. By coding second-and ninth-grade textbooks from two German federal states, the authors tested McClelland's [58] hypothesis that achievement imagery in texts (e.g., textbooks, speeches) is an indicator of the motivational climate in a society. Affiliation, achievement, and power imagery were coded with Winter's [59] "Manual for Scoring Motive Imagery in Running Text." ...
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A motivational downturn in mathematics during secondary school has been well documented for many students. As a way to address this, creating personally relevant tasks is supposed to increase students’ motivation for mathematical tasks. According to recent research, topics relating to affiliation, achievement, and power are personally relevant for young people. Prior research showed that motive imagery in school tasks increases students’ task-related intrinsic value and success expectancies. The present study examined the effect of motive topics in word problems on students’ task performance. We contextualized mathematical tasks either with affiliation, achievement, and power topics or with neutral topics not related to motive topics. The tasks were comparable regarding their mean word count, text, and mathematical complexity. In three experimental studies ( N 1 = 56, N 2 = 63, N 3 = 62), the students solved four tasks for each motive topic and neutral tasks, respectively. The dependent variables were task performance, intrinsic values, and expectancies of success. Repeated measures analyses of variance with the four-level, within-subjects factor motive imagery revealed positive effects of motive imagery in word problems on students’ task performance. This was particularly true for achievement-related tasks compared with neutral tasks. The results also indicated slightly positive effects for affiliation-related word problems on students’ performance. In addition, the intrinsic value for affiliation-related (Experiment 1) and achievement-related tasks (Experiment 3) was higher than for neutral tasks. Power imagery did not affect students’ task performance; it negatively affected students’ intrinsic value compared with neutral tasks. Task-related success expectancies were not influenced by motive imagery. The present study replicates and extends previous findings that indicate that tasks referring to affiliation and achievement imagery are more appealing to students and can benefit their performance.
... There is a vast literature on the underpinnings of entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial activities, and the entrepreneurs. From the views that stress on the risk of such activity(Cantillon, 1756;Knight, 1921, among the most widely cited), to those that focus on its cultural aspects (e.g.,Leighton, 1988;Dana, 2002, to the ones that stress innovation(Schumpeter, , 1934)-widely cited in development-to others that highlight entrepreneurship as the need for achievement(McClelland, 1961) or the recognition in compensation for social marginality(Hagen, 1962), or that rather stress certain traits and behaviors of the entrepreneur, e.g., a social agent for change, as innate, as learned, her desire for independence, her need for autonomy in the workplace, and her desire to develop skills and acquire social status(Barth, 1967;Kets de Vries, 1977;Sexton & Upton, 1990;Gibb, 1986;Knight, 1987;Creedy & Johnson, 1983;Evans & Leighton, 1990;Vivarelli, 2004Vivarelli, , 1991Blanchflower & Oswald, 1998) to those that search for the reasons why entrepreneurs pursue such activity (for instance,Lazear, 2005;Poschke, 2013;Lederman et al., 2014); among others. The reader is invited to discover these and many more, as these references discuss the concepts and theories on which the measurement of entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial activities, and the entrepreneurs are based. ...
Chapter
Understanding context is essential to succeed in entrepreneurship. South America is a land of contrasts, and context is perhaps even more important here than elsewhere. It is a continent of superlatives, home to rain forest and desert. Influenced by the environment, entrepreneurship varies greatly across this vast continent. Entrepreneurship can be considered a vehicle to foster inclusive economic development.
... Expressed through particular Chinese tropes and motifs, the psychological and socio-cultural narratives in the above Chinese thinking evoke a bottom-up ideology of micro-level, 'low modernism' that was once promoted by various modernisation theorists (Inkeles 1969;McClelland 1961;Parsons 1966). They emphasise a model of major behavioural change stemming from small-scale technological and capital transfer and institutional change, by tempering scientific planning with local lifestyle-engineering (Fourie 2020). ...
... Job satisfaction of an employee of a bank is an outcome of experiences related to job. Good experiences signify satisfied employees and results in best utilization of workforce (McClelland, 1961). Therefore, the utmost important is to cater the factors that contribute in job satisfaction and the purpose of this research was to investigate the factors contributing towards the job satisfaction of private banking sector employees in Larkana. ...
... Entrepreneurship is proficiency, cognition and effortoriented genderless outcome. Every individual has a desire for achievement, affiliation and power (Agarwal et al., 2020;McClelland, 1961) and their efforts are directed accordingly. Being human, men and women both have to rehearse naturally and socially grown responsibilities and follow a path of progression with acquired skills and resources; their commercial and non-commercial engagement depends on education, family, society and environment. ...
Article
In entrepreneurial literature male and female entrepreneurs are compared frequently. Female entrepreneur’s contributions are significantly appreciated but still they are lagging behind male entrepreneurs, is concluded in numerous studies. Women entrepreneurs have diverse motives in comparison to male while engaging in business activities. This study builds on qualitative approach and responses of 22 female entrepreneurs belonging to different industries/domains of Uttar Pradesh (UP), India were collected through face to face in-depth interviews which were analyzed afterwards as per the identified themes. The outcome has concluded that undoubtedly women are made for entrepreneurship but their comparison with male entrepreneurs is completely unjustified; even if researchers are interested, a discrete and self-reliant framework incorporating all possible challenges faced especially by women entrepreneurs should be utilized for better in-depth evaluation of their performance and productivity. Further, the outcome can also be utilized by educational and training institutions, policymakers, researchers and other stakeholders to create a more conducive environment for female entrepreneurs in male-dominant entrepreneurial world.
... Most models of entrepreneurship have been developed following Eurocentric models. For example, McClelland (1961) lists some of the psychological factors that contribute to successful entrepreneurship in different cultures. These cultural characteristics are representative of those found in the West and include achieved rather than ascribed status; anti-traditionalism; the belief that all citizens are born equal; and selforientation rather than collectivism. ...
Chapter
Indigenous community-based ecotourism (ICBE) can only benefit from the insights of indigenous social entrepreneurship (ISE) literature when human – environment relationships such as the Fijian vanua are recognised.
... Goals and motives are important for understanding human behaviour. The achievement motivation theory was developed by Atkinson (1957Atkinson ( , 1964 and McClelland (1961). It suggests that individuals differ in the strength of achievement motive, which in turn has effects on the behaviour. ...
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Entrepreneurship competence (EC) has received considerable attention in Europe, particularly after the European Commission published the EntreComp framework in 2016. EC can be defined as a competence for life, relevant to personal development and fulfilment, finding and progressing in employment, as well as initiating new ventures ranging from community campaigns, social enterprises to new start-up businesses. There is a need to develop EC of European citizens, and especially in higher education context, but little is known about the factors shaping EC. The objective of this research is twofold: (1) to examine the relationship between entrepreneurial role models and entrepreneurship competence of higher education students, and (2) to examine the relationship between motivation and entrepreneurship competence of higher education students. The data (n=1373) was gathered from two Finnish universities, and respondents represent first year students in versatile study fields. In this research, entrepreneurial role model is defined as someone in the close family (parents or siblings) working as an entrepreneur, and motivation is examined through multidimensional achievement motivation. The results show that there is a positive relationship between entrepreneurial role models and EC. The most important factor explaining EC is the motivation subscale of work orientation followed by mastery needs and interpersonal competitiveness. The model explains 46 percent of the variance in EC. The study contributes to understanding the underlying factors shaping the EC of higher education students, and suggests practical solutions for entrepreneurship education.
... The reality is that every individual-level variable can be aggregated to other levels of analysis; psychological variables exist in aggregate as well as across individuals. As an example, after his extensive research on individuals' need for achievement (nAch), McClelland (1961) studied it at the country level of analysis and showed important between country differences in economic progress as a function of country-level nAch. ...
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The paper proposes that industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology will benefit greatly from expanding our research focus from predominantly individual differences to studying organizational differences. We argue here that an increased organizational frame of reference on variables of interest to I-O psychology (e.g., selection, job design, performance management (PM), work motivation) is important because it will enhance our understanding of organizational behavior and make I-O research more effective in practice. After noting some organizational-level research already being done, several examples are provided for how an organizational mindset and methods can provide new insights into traditional areas of I-O effort. Also discussed is how methodological issues that may have constrained the study of organizational differences in the past and the potential new issues such research may yield can be addressed. We conclude that the future maintenance and enhancement of the I-O psychology brand as a science–practice profession requires enhanced attention to the organization level of analysis as our frame of reference for research.
... Another approach to development is the psychological theories of development. McClelland (1967) concentrated on the primacy of ideas in society, which was captured thus, "This is just one more piece of evidence to support the growing conviction among social scientists that it is values, motives or psychological forces that determine ultimately the rate of economic and social development...The American Society suggests that ideas are in fact more important in shaping history than purely materialistic arrangements" (McClelland, 1963:17). The import of this perspective is that the larger the number of the critical mass of people who are 'infected' with the strategic psychological impetus for development, the greater the economic growth and development of the country. ...
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The importance of Sociology as an academic discipline transcends mere theoretical orientations. Sociology plays a pivotal role in developing critical thinking, which influences citizens' involvement in sustainable development. Sociological imagination enables the Sociologist to interrogate the social dynamics that shape experiences, opportunities and social realities. It also provides pragmatic solutions to germane social problems hence the need to examine the relevance of Sociology to sustainable national development. This paper examines the utility of Sociology to the improvement of human condition which ultimately promotes sustainable development. The lived experiences of fifty Sociology graduates are examined in order to establish their contributions to development. Structural-functionalism and Social Exchange theories are adopted as theoretical tools. Sociology has the potentials to improve living conditions and address Nigeria's developmental challenges which will promote citizens' quality of life and sustainable national development. The paper recommends the need to make Sociology more viable and visible by encouraging the active involvement of its graduates in policy formulation, programme development and national development.
... Bu açıdan bakıldığında, başarma arzusu yüksek düzeyde olan bireylerin başarıya ulaşmak için çok daha istekli davranmaları, bu bireylerin girişimcilik eğilimlerinin yüksek olmasına sebep olmaktadır (İşcan ve Kaygın, 2011:446). Yine McClelland (1961), başarma arzusu yüksek düzeyde olan bireylerin başarma arzusu düşük bireylere göre geleceğe daha çok odaklandıkları, yenilikçilik yapma ve görev odaklı çalışmak için kişisel sorumluluk alma olasılıklarının daha yüksek düzeyde olduğunu öne sürmüştür (Eroğlu ve Avcı, 2021:3610-3611). Başarma arzusu, tüm insan davranışlarının arkasında yatan psikolojik bir güçtür. ...
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The importance of entrepreneurs, which are indispensable building blocks of national economies, is increasing day by day. In this direction, universities provide valuable contributions to the process with the education they give. University students can be considered as potential entrepreneurs. This study is carried out to determine the entrepreneurial tendencies of students in associate degree programs of universities. The sample group of the research consists of students at Adıyaman University, Vocational School of Social Sciences. In this study, in which the quantitative research method is used, the explanatory research technique is utilized. Questionnaire method is used to collect data. The questionnaire form used in the study consists of two parts. In the first part, there are 8 questions to determine the demographic characteristics of the students participating in the survey. In the second part, the "Entrepreneurship for University Students" scale developed by Yılmaz and Sünbül (2009) for university students is used in order to reveal the entrepreneurial tendency of the participants. SPSS 22.00 statistical analysis program is used for the analysis of the data. Exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, frequency analysis, independent sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance are applied to the obtained data. Considering the findings of the study, it is concluded that the sub-dimensions of entrepreneurial tendency (self-confidence, locus of control, using opportunities, innovativeness, risk taking, desire to succeed) in terms of demographic variables do not reveal a significant difference on the entrepreneurial tendency of the participants.
... In contrast, a te ao Pākehā world view has its roots in ancient Greece, the Christian religion, and the Enlightenment period, and their adaptation to Aotearoa via Great Britain (McClelland, 1961;Novitz & Willmott, 1989). A te ao Pākehā world view is sometimes known as a Cartesian or Western world view, though many variations of this view are acknowledged (Subramanian & Pisupati, 2010). ...
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... (2) the need for connection; and (3) the need for power (McClelland, 1961). Linnenbrink (2005) noted that achievement goals motivate individuals to engage in task behavior. ...
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Graduate students’ failure to graduate is of great concern, with the failure to graduate due to the dissertation being the most influential factor. However, there are many factors that influence the writing of a dissertation, and research on these factors that influence graduate students’ learning through emotion and cognition is still quite rare. A review of past research revealed that the main factor causing graduate students to drop out midway is not completing their thesis, followed by factors including insufficient achievement motivation, lack of learning strategy, and low confidence. The graduation rate of graduate students has been emphasized by the academic community; therefore, this study investigated the correlation between graduate students’ achievement motivation, active learning, and academic confidence in writing research. The study invited graduated students from two universities of science and technology situated in the northern region of Taiwan to complete the questionnaire. In this study, valid data for validation analysis were collected from 173 respondents, and the results showed that achievement motivation positively influenced active learning (higher-order learning, integrative learning, reflective learning) and that active learning (higher-order learning, integrative learning, reflective learning) positively influenced academic confidence. From the above findings, it can be seen that to help graduate students from University of Science and Technology to effectively complete their graduate studies, students should develop good motivation to adopt active learning strategies to enhance their academic self-confidence.
... Concepts like participation, community, empowerment, institutional development, civil society and self-help are promoted by those who would do good, but still do not add up to a viable political philosophy or economic strategy. The block to growth in civil societies results from a lack of entrepreneurial spirit (McClelland, 1961), and thus businesses are an integral part of the socially embedded system (Choudhury & Harahap, 2015). Small-and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play major roles at all levels of a country's economic development as they are a source of employment and as such are considered as vital for both competitiveness and economic growth. ...
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It has been established that development in most African countries has been severely affected due to the loss of the key aspects that define communities and the environments in which they live. Rural communities are normally overlooked when development interventions are implemented. Immediate intervention of rural communities requires funding for infrastructure such as earth dams, training facilities, marketing of products and services, frameworks for rural development plans as well as capacity support. Such funding plays a positive role in the development of self-reliance of rural communities. Other than funding, African indigenous knowledge is critical in advancing the self-reliance of rural communities. However, such a knowledge system is either underdeveloped or not fully utilised for development purposes. The underutilisation of African indigenous knowledge leads to the loss of valuable information that could be used for developmental purposes, ensuring unified communities. This affects the establishment of self-reliance strategies in rural communities leading to the creation of endogenous growth. Such growth enriches the development process and empowers communities to be self-reliant, thus improving quality of life. The economic empowerment strategies should result in the development of rural entrepreneurs for South Africa. This study assesses the effects of self-reliance on rural community development in KwaZulu-Natal.
... Job satisfaction of an employee of a bank is an outcome of experiences related to job. Good experiences signify satisfied employees and results in best utilization of workforce (McClelland, 1961). Therefore, the utmost important is to cater the factors that contribute in job satisfaction and the purpose of this research was to investigate the factors contributing towards the job satisfaction of private banking sector employees in Larkana. ...
Chapter
The following chapter analyzes human behavior in the economy. What motivates people, what goals do they pursue and what makes them happy? We need the insights gained to explain unethical behavior and to move people to ethical behavior.
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The relationship between need achievement and career preference of in-school adolescents were examined in this study. The need for the study was prompted by previous studies’ report that students make wrong career preferences due to poor information among other factors. The negative impact of these wrong preferences on the individual and the work place have become worrisome to all concerned. To achieve the main purpose of the research, a questionnaire was constructed through literature and was face validated by experts in the field of education. The instrument proved to be reliable (with a reliability index of .92.) to answer the research questions and also test the hypothesis at 0.5 level of significance. Participants were 380 (both male and female) in-schooling adolescents who supplied information to the questionnaires about need achievement and career preferences. Results revealed a heterogeneous pattern of career preference and a positive significant relationship between in-school adolescents’ need-achievement and career preference. Based on the findings, the paper made recommendations and highlights a significant need to reposition the roles of the school librarians and the services of the libraries to include career guidance services.
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This research aims to report the differing findings of previous studies on empowerment in correlation with employee performance, then to explore and analyze the effects of the NMA-based leadership training orientation on affective commitment, job satisfaction, and employee performance in small-medium enterprises in Central Java. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM AMOS 21) is used to analyze the data in the hypothesis testing model. The population is the line managers who are given credence by the owners of Small-Medium Enterprises to attend the NMA-Based Leadership Training Orientation, which focuses on self-development for leaders and is held by the Department of Cooperatives and Small-Medium Enterprises in the Central Java Province. In total, there are approximately 1,270 Small-Medium Enterprises. Out of 200 samples, only 178 samples could be used. The SEM test results show that out of 8 hypotheses, only 6 are accepted while the other two are rejected. The hypothesis testing is done by analizing the values of CR (critical ratio) and P (probability) on the data processing result of Regression Weights, using the requirement of statistical limit points, i.e. the CR (critical ratio) is over 1.96 and the P (probability) is below 0.05. The effect analysis conducted on the existing five influence lines has indicated that the greatest influence in shaping employee performance is the NMA-based leadership orientation training.
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Bu çalışma, bilinçli farkındalığın yapısal iş kaynaklarını artırmaya etkisinde iş tatminin rolünün araştırılması amacıyla yapılmıştır. Araştırma, kamu ve özel sektör hastanelerinde görev yapan 572 hasta bakıcıdan anket yöntemiyle toplanan verilerin analiziyle gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçları, bilinçli farkındalığın yapısal iş kaynaklarını artırmayı aynı yönde etkilediğini ve bu etkide iş tatmininin kısmi aracı rolü olduğunu göstermiştir. Ayrıca çalışma bulguları, iş tatmininin yapısal iş kaynaklarını aynı yönde etkilediğini ortaya çıkarmıştır.
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Female entrepreneurs have moved into all industry sectors in recent years; yet most start businesses in only a few of these sectors, such as education and healthcare. We argue this is, at least in part, because gender role stereotypes permeate self-concepts and behaviors very early in life. Therefore, when children engage in entrepreneurial activities (which we term ‘childpreneurship’), they choose activities that match their gender role (much like adults), thereby reinforcing gender roles that later influence their adult entrepreneurial and occupational choices. We examine the mediating force of gendered childpreneur activities on the relationship between gender and adult entrepreneurial industry preference. We also examine the moderating effect of the quantity of childpreneur activities on the relationship between gender and entrepreneurial intention. A cross-sectional survey study of over 900 U.S. college students and working adults reveals that men and women report a stronger preference to start a business in gender-congruent industries. For men, engagement in male-typed childpreneur activities partially mediates this relationship. In general, the number of childpreneur activities is positively related to adult entrepreneurial intentions. More specifically, gender-neutral childpreneur activities are positively associated with women’s adult entrepreneurial intentions. Our study expands knowledge of distal factors influencing entrepreneurial intention and industry preference.
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Employees are deemed to be happy when there is job satisfaction, job security, and work-life balance. This study used a quantitative approach. The foremost aims of the study were to assess the employees’ happiness in terms of time use in business colleges of Bhutan and to find out the difference between employees’ happiness in terms of time used for public and private business colleges of Bhutan. This study has adopted the time use dimension from GNH of Business which consists of working hours, work pressure, flexi-time, work-life balance, adequate break, and sleeping hours. Using the census survey method, all 141 academics from GCBS and RTC were enumerated. The study found that overall employee happiness in terms of time use is 67.34% whereas employees of GCBS are happier (73.52%) than employees of RTC (60.82%).
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Environmental issues have gauged the attention of marketers and researchers all around the world. Automobile industry has a major environmental impact due to fuel consumption and emissions. A threadbare understanding of the automobile buyer is necessary to better connect with consumers with changing lifestyles, attitudes, and personalities, basically to cater to their sensibilities and psyche, gradually accommodating contemporary environmental viewpoints. Marketers have religiously focused upon studying the car buying behavior and its links with lifestyles. The present study aims to offer a preview of the relationship between lifestyles and ecological behavior among urban car consumers in an emerging economy like India. The findings of the study suggest factors like need for achievement, need for uniqueness, price consciousness, and need for status affect the ecological behavior of the Indian car buyers.
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El libro “Gestión del Conocimiento. Perspectiva Multidisciplinaria”, volumen 17, de la Colección Unión Global, es resultado de investigaciones. Los capítulos del libro, son resultados de investigaciones desarrolladas por sus autores. El libro es una publicación internacional, seriada, continua, arbitrada de acceso abierto a todas las áreas del conocimiento, que cuenta con el esfuerzo de investigadores de varios países del mundo, orientada a contribuir con procesos de gestión del conocimiento científico, tecnológico y humanístico que consoliden la transformación del conocimiento en diferentes escenarios, tanto organizacionales como universitarios, para el desarrollo de habilidades cognitivas del quehacer diario. La gestión del conocimiento es un camino para consolidar una plataforma en las empresas públicas o privadas, entidades educativas, organizaciones no gubernamentales, ya sea generando políticas para todas las jerarquías o un modelo de gestión para la administración, donde es fundamental articular el conocimiento, los trabajadores, directivos, el espacio de trabajo, hacia la creación de ambientes propicios para el desarrollo integral de las instituciones.
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El objetivo de analizar la incidencia de la planeación estratégica en la competitividad de una MIPYME, con enfoque cualitativo, de tipo exploratorio y descriptivo basado en el método hermenéutico se registra el estudio del estado del arte de la planeación estratégica y la ventaja competitiva. Se aplica el estudio de caso en la empresa, considerando que la gestión administrativa parte de hechos empresariales desde 4 acciones ejecutables: 1) La iniciativa, 2) La provisión y administración de recursos, 3) La toma de decisiones y 4) La toma de riesgos. Como resultado, la planeación estratégica fortalece la competitividad de una MIPYME al considerar 7 elementos nodales: 1) estrategias orientadas al manejo de las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones, 2) estrategias de innovación, 3) estrategias de diferenciación, 4) estrategias de habilidades y competencias al personal, 5) estrategias de sustentabilidad, 6) servicio y atención al cliente, y 7) prestigio e imagen de la empresa. Finalmente, la oportunidad de crear una empresa reside en las competencias, el talento y las condiciones para que el personal desarrolle sus habilidades con creatividad. El plan estratégico solo es la herramienta que revela información para comunicar al personal los elementos del entorno dinámico y cambiante.
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Emergency teams facing critical adversity situations (CAS) often feel questioned in their professional roles as conscientious rescuers, leading to feelings of threats as a kind of stress experience. According to the stress-as-offence-to-self theory, perceptions of insufficiency and disrespect trigger threats by frustrating underlying needs. In this study, we explored threats in the context of a CAS by investigating the activation of threat triggers during the action and postaction phases of teamwork, and evaluating the mediating role of needs. In a multitask experiment, student teams ( N = 60 dyads) experienced a controllable mission (non-CAS), followed by a CAS mission in a computer simulation task. After the CAS, teams received negative feedback (situation-nonspecific feedback; situation-specific feedback; no feedback). We measured threats, the activation of insufficiency and disrespect triggers, and the frustration of needs. While insufficiency triggers were activated in the CAS but not in the non-CAS, disrespect triggers were activated by situation-nonspecific and situation-specific feedback but not by no feedback. Furthermore, the results of mediation models indicated the presence of the postulated need-based mechanism between triggers and threats. Our study highlights that the action and postaction phases of a CAS pose a variety of risks for experiencing threats. As individuals cope with these risks, needs are important mediators.
Chapter
This chapter makes a first introduction to the concept of human capital which shows its importance for the development and growth of economies through a modern perspective. Human capital is roughly described, while the historical development of its concept by Adam Smith to date is presented. The central role attributed to human capital for the development of productivity and the growth of economies in the economic theory of the twentieth century is demonstrated. In addition, the relationship between human capital and knowledge and productivity is presented, which is the foundation for economic growth. The positive effect of human capital is demonstrated as it allows faster innovation and the adoption of new technologies, or leads to positive externalities between workers and generations. In conclusion, Becker’s theory of human capital is presented, which argues that education leads to higher wages and therefore higher labor productivity.KeywordsHuman capitalProductivityKnowledgeEducationEconomic Development
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Keputusan berwirausaha sekarang ini semakin terbuka, hal ini dipicu oleh banyaknya pesaing kerja dan dimana terjadi ketidakseimbangan antara jumlah pencari kerja dan tersedianya lapangan kerja yang tersedia.
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Der strukturell-individualistische Ansatz geht davon aus, dass nur über die Erklärung individuellen Handelns echte Erklärungen gesellschaftlicher Phänomene möglich sind. Das Handeln von Akteur:innen wie Journalist:innen oder Redaktionen wird makrotheoretisch fundiert erklärt. Dabei muss aus individueller Sicht zunächst die Logik der Situation und dann die Logik der Selektion einer Handlungsalternative rekonstruiert werden, wofür sich eine weite Variante von Rational Choice anbietet. Um schließlich Strukturen und soziale Prozesse zu verstehen, sind die Ergebnisse individueller Handlungswahlen zu aggregieren. Gelingt der Bau von Brücken zwischen Makro-, Meso- und Mikroebene, lässt sich der methodologisch offene Ansatz auf eine Fülle von Fragen der Journalismusforschung anwenden.
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We review and discuss research on the development of regional entrepreneurship over time. A particular focus is on the long-term persistence of regional levels of entrepreneurship, its explanation, and its meaning for economic development. What is the state of empirical research in this field, and what can explain the empirical findings? How are long-term trends of entrepreneurial activity linked to regional performance in terms of employment, gross domestic product (GDP), and innovative activity? Based on our assessments we derive conclusions for theory, policy implications, and avenues for further research.
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