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The Satisfaction With Life Scale

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Abstract

This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.

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... SD=5.98) were taken. Trait Emotional Intelligence (TEI) Questionnaire Short Form (Petrides, 2009), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSF) (Schwarzer, 1995), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWL) (Diener, 1985) along with the demographic sheet as measurement tools. The outcomes revealed that Emotional Intelligence and Self Efficacy predict Life Satisfaction. ...
... Self-efficacy is an essential element for individual performance to get successful outcomes (Shahnazi et al., 2021). Diener, 1985 satisfaction with life is a person's positive observation of his wellbeing and life's quality in his standard. Satisfaction refers to an individual's positive experience in life. ...
... It's a valid scale with high internal consistency and reliability. Its internal reliability is coefficient alpha 0.87 and testretest stability is coefficient 0.82 (Diener et al., 1985). ...
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The main aim of this is to study Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Self Efficacy (SE) as the determinant of Life Satisfaction (LS) in doctors working in emergency department (ED). It was a correlational study with cross-sectional research design. A purposive sample of 118 doctors working in emergency departments from the age range of (M=29.94, SD=5.98) were taken. Trait Emotional Intelligence (TEI) Questionnaire Short Form (Petrides, 2009), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSF) (Schwarzer, 1995), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWL) (Diener, 1985) along with the demographic sheet as measurement tools. The outcomes revealed that Emotional Intelligence and Self Efficacy predict Life Satisfaction. There was a positive correlation found between EI and LS 0.16* and GS and LS .35**. Moreover, Emotional Intelligence and Self Efficacy proved predictors of Life Satisfaction in doctors. It was concluded that emotional intelligence and self-efficacy proved positive predictors of Life satisfaction in doctors who are working in ED.
... Several studies have been conducted on life satisfaction and psychological and social needs that have proven the relationship between them and social media use [1][2][3][4][5]. The widespread adoption of social media in everyday public activates, particularly in interpersonal relationships, has radically altered how ordinary people engage and intercommunicate [6,7,8]. ...
... Life satisfaction was assessed using life satisfaction scale [2]. The life satisfaction scale included five items such as" in most ways, my life is close to my ideal", and "so for l have gotten the important things I want in life." ...
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In this paper we discuss the associations between social media use, life satisfaction, social comparison, life envy, and self-esteem. The sample included 390 Egyptian subjects aged (18-35) (M=20.94, SD=2.08). The results of analysis conducted using partial correlation and linear regression revealed that the use of social media negatively affects the levels of life satisfaction (p=0.39, R2=0.15). Findings are also discussed within the contexts of the mediating role of social comparison, envy, and self-esteem in connection with social media use and life satisfaction.
... With the aim of determining the level of happiness an individual feels in life the Life Satisfaction Scale developed by Diener, Emmons, Larsem and Griffin (1985) and adapted by Yetim (1993) was used; the Three Dimensional Attachment Style Scale (Erzen, 2016) was used for determination of attachment styles; and with the aim of determining motivation levels in terms of completing academic work, the Academic Motivation Scale (Bozanoğlu, 2004) was used as data collection tool. Information related to age and sex were collected with a personal information form. ...
... The Life Satisfaction Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsem and Griffin 1985) was developed as a Likert-type scale with seven-degree response scale with the aim of determining satisfaction an individual gains from life. The original form of the life satisfaction scale contained five items and had internal consistency coefficient of .87. ...
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The aim of this study was to determine the mediating role of academic motivation in the relationship between attachment styles and life satisfaction. The sample comprised 352 participants [232 (65.9%) female, 120 (34.1%) male]. The ages of participants ranged from 15 to 33 years [Mage = 20.91, SD = 1.85]. According to the results of correlation analysis, there were significant correlations found between attachment styles, academic motivation and life satisfaction. Mediating test results revealed that academic motivation had a full mediating role in the correlations between secure and avoidant attachment styles with life satisfaction. Analyses of the anxious-ambivalent attachment style determined academic motivation had a partial mediating role. The research results offer empirical findings for both clinical and educational practice.
... Subjective wellbeing uses the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) to measure SWB. The SWLS was developed by Diener, Emmons, Larsem, and Griffin (Diener et al., 1985), and its Chinese version was revised by Wu and Yao (Wu and Yao, 2006). The scale has five items and a seven-point Likert scale ranging from "completely disagree" to "strongly agree." ...
... In this study, Cronbach's alpha was 0.88. The standard score for life satisfaction was added to the standard score for positive emotions and subtracted from the standard score for negative emotions as the score for subjective wellbeing (Diener et al., 1985). ...
Article
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Loving-kindness meditation (LKM) was first practiced by Buddhists and then developed by clinical psychologist. Previous studies on LKM have mainly focused on the impact of real person-guided meditation on depression, anxiety, and other negative psychology. During the COVID-19 pandemic, this study explored the effect and mechanism of media-guided LKM on the improvement of social presence, mindfulness, spirituality, and subjective wellbeing (SWB). From the viewpoint of positive psychology, this study compared the different media effects of animated pedagogical agent (APA)-guided LKM and audio-guided LKM. A total of 82 flight attendants were recruited from airlines; then, they were randomly assigned to two groups: APA group (41 participants) and audio group (41 participants), which both underwent an 8-week LKM training intervention. The aforementioned four main variables were measured pre and post the meditation experiment. The results indicated that both APA-guided meditation and audio-guided meditation significantly improved subjects’ spirituality and SWB. Compared with audio-guided meditation, APA-guided meditation significantly improved the subjects’ spirituality, SWB, and social presence. Audio-guided meditation has no significant effect on social presence. This study highlights APA-guided meditation has a positive effect on spirituality, SWB, and social presence, which may provide individuals with a simple and easy method to improve their mental health.
... With the aim of determining the level of happiness an individual feels in life the Life Satisfaction Scale developed by Diener, Emmons, Larsem and Griffin (1985) and adapted by Yetim (1993) was used; the Three Dimensional Attachment Style Scale (Erzen, 2016) was used for determination of attachment styles; and with the aim of determining motivation levels in terms of completing academic work, the Academic Motivation Scale (Bozanoğlu, 2004) was used as data collection tool. Information related to age and sex were collected with a personal information form. ...
... The Life Satisfaction Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsem and Griffin 1985) was developed as a Likert-type scale with seven-degree response scale with the aim of determining satisfaction an individual gains from life. The original form of the life satisfaction scale contained five items and had internal consistency coefficient of .87. ...
Article
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The aim of this study is to determine the mediating role of academic motivation in the relationship between attachment styles and life satisfaction. The study group of the research consists of 352 university students studying in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey [232 (65.9%) female, 120 (34.1%) male]. The ages of participants ranged from 15 to 33 years [Mage= 20.91, SD= 1.85]. In the study, the Personal Information Form created by the researchers together with the Three Dimensional Attachment Styles Scale, the Life Satisfaction Scale and the Academic Motivation Scale was used as a measurement tool. According to the results of Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient analysis performed within the scope of the preliminary analysis, it was determined that there were significant relationships between attachment styles, academic motivation and life satisfaction. Mediation test results; revealed that academic motivation has a full mediating role in the relationship between secure and avoidant attachment styles and life satisfaction. In the analyzes made with the anxious-ambivalent attachment style, it was determined that academic motivation had a partial mediating role. The research results present empirical findings in terms of both clinical and educational applications. The results were discussed in the light of the literature.
... Subjective well-being has three factors and these are positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction. The first two constitute the affective domain while the last is the cognitive domain of the construct (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). The affective domain evaluates a person's feelings and emotions as experienced in his or her life, while the cognitive domain evaluates a person's life in general terms concerning his or her ideal self (Nima et al., 2020). ...
... The academic performance of the participants, which were senior high school students, was based on their self-reported thirdquarter grade point average. Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin (1985). This assesses the psychological well-being of the participants. ...
Article
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The Philippines abruptly shifted from traditional to emergency remote education in response to the threats brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. Emergency remote education is an umbrella term to refer to online learning. Literature on traditional learning suggests that self-regulation correlates positively with well-being, which suggests that students who are autonomous in their learning activities tend to be satisfied with their lives. Research also suggests that academic performance mediates this relationship, which suggests that students tend to become satisfied with their lives when they achieve successful learning outcomes. This research explores the relationship between online self-regulation, academic performance, and well-being of 379 senior high school students from selected public and private schools who hold classes using the online learning modality in the National Capital Region (NCR) using a quantitative approach specifically the explanatory cross-sectional design. The participants completed the online survey on self-regulated learning and well-being (i.e., Online Self-Regulated Learning Questionnaire and Satisfaction With Life Scale), while their academic performance was based on their self-reported third quarter grade point average. Results showed that online self-regulated learning predicted well-being, however, Online self-regulated learning, academic performance, and well-being.. … 49 academic performance did not mediate the positive relationship between online self-regulated learning and well-being. Our findings suggest that, in the context of online learning, senior high school students who regulate their learning may experience satisfaction with their lives even if they do not achieve academic success.
... On the other hand, the disease is nothing more than the imbalance manifested in the organism malfunctioning. The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2013 as cited by Diener et al. [10] defines mental health as a state in which a person maintains a balance between the mental and the physical health that become a resource of everyday living rather than a life ambition. It is a positive notion that emphasizes the social and personal assets and physical capabilities that enable us to adapt to our surroundings most effectively. ...
... In this research, the neuroticism dimension predominates instability with 60.3% among university students and is related to an average level of mental health. For Larsen and Buss [10], extraverted subjects are predisposed to experience positive emotions and to have positive affection. This is usually manifested in establishing solid friendships and the dedication in a matter of time to carry out reinforcing social activities that affect their development as social persons and secure individuals in the processes of interpersonal interaction [24]. ...
Article
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This article analyzes the correlation between PMH and personality dimensions in a sample (358 males and females) of university students. To measure positive mental health, the PMH test of María Teresa Lluch [4] was applied at the same time and personality was measured through Eysenk's personality inventory. A non-parametric test called the Spearman correlation technique was applied to correlate the variables, which was used for the ordinal variables. In the article, two hypotheses are presented. First, there is no correlation between PMH and the dimension of neuroticism "N," and if there is a correlation between PMH and "N" neuroticism, resulting in no correlation between the PMH and the "N" Neuroticism dimension and that there is a correlation between PMH and "E" extroversion in university students of the UNJBG. Tacna (2018) Used the non-probabilistic sampling in its intentional form. The data found regarding the PMH level are mentioned as follow: 25.7% are located in the low level, 58.7% in the middle level, and only 15.6% are located at the high level.
... The original reliability was 0.94 and in our work, α = 0.93. Diener's (1985) scale was used to measure life satisfaction and the scale consists of 4 items (e.g., "In most ways, my life is close to my ideal.") answered on a 7-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). ...
... answered on a 7-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). The scale has produced adequate internal consistency in past work (Compton et al., 1996;Diener et al., 1985) and current work has a 0.91 internal reliability. Rothwell et al., (2008)'s scale was utilized to measure students' perceived labor market condition with 4 items and sample item is: "Students from my course are much in demand in the labor market." ...
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This paper investigates the impact of human capital, social capital, career planning behavior, protean career orientation and core self-evaluations on students’ academic and life satisfaction in China, with the mediation effect of perceived employability and moderation effect of perceived labor market conditions. Data were collected by distributing online questionnaires to 1155 students in three types of universities. All the hypothesized direct paths and the mediation effects were supported. The moderation effect was partially supported. Perceived employability contributes to positive evaluations about life and academic work, and the perception of labor market condition could be enhanced to improve students’ academic evaluations.
... Subjective well-being is a tripartite category of phenomena, which includes emotional responses (i.e., positive and negative affect), domain satisfactions (e.g., work satisfaction, relationship satisfaction), and global judgements of life satisfaction (Diener et al., 1999). Life satisfaction has been defined as a cognitive-judgmental process in which a person forms a general perception of his or her life by comparing it with a personal standard (Diener et al., 1985). It represents a cognitive and global evaluation of the quality of one's life as a whole (Pavot & Diener, 1993). ...
... In each sample the scale showed acceptable internal consistency for both men and women (Men: Italian α = 0.65; Polish α = 0.77; Romanian α = 0.69; British α = 0.74; Iranian α = 0.69; Women: Italian α = 0.60; Polish α = 0.71; Romanian α = 0.74; British α = 0.75; Iranian α = 0.73). 5. The Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al., 1985) including 5 items (e.g. "In most ways, my life is close to my ideal") rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale ranging from "strongly disagree" (1) to "strongly agree" (7). ...
Article
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Life satisfaction is one of the most relevant indicators of psychological health. The present study aimed at extending previous research on life satisfaction by examining its antecedents for men and women in five countries (e.g., Italy, Poland, Romania, the UK, and Iran), with different levels of gender equality, according to the Global Gender Gap Index. Besides traditional variables (i.e., age, self-esteem and income), we also investigated the role of ambivalent sexism and gender identification. Participants were 2561 adults (54% female). Results showed the key role of self-esteem for both men and women and across countries. Gender identification was positively associated with life satisfaction, with the only exception of the more gender egalitarian country, i.e., the UK. Furthermore, in the less egalitarian countries, i.e., Italy and Iran, life satisfaction is also positively related to benevolent stereotypes toward men. Taken together, findings underline the interdependence between personal and contextual dimensions in sustaining life satisfaction, and the role of gender as a significant variable in terms of both the existence of different patterns for men and women and the effects of gender stereotypes across cultures.
... This variable is extremely important in the university stage not only because of its direct link to academic performance but also because it is an essential component of subjective wellbeing (Diener, 1984;Diener et al., 1985). Life satisfaction is defined as an individual's positive assessment of their life in specific areas such as family, work, studies, friends, health, leisure, and so on (Alberto et al., 2019). ...
... The satisfaction with life scale (SWLS; Diener et al., 1985; validated in the Peruvian context by Caycho-Rodríguez et al., 2018) comprises five items, each with Likert-type response options (1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree). The reliability of the SWLS for this study was acceptable, ω = 0.92. ...
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Objective To examine the effect of family and academic satisfaction on the self-esteem and life satisfaction among Peruvian university students. Method Of the 1,182 Peruvian university students who participated, 364 were male; and 818 were female; and ranged from 17 to 39 years of age (mean = 20.67, SD = 4.4). The family satisfaction scale (FSS), the Escala breve de satisfacción con los estudios (EBSE; Brief Academic Satisfaction Scale in Spanish), Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale (RSES), and the satisfaction with life scale (SWLS) were used to perform the assessments. Results The study model showed an adequate fit (χ ² 19.5, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.977, RMSEA = 0.057), confirming the association between family satisfaction and life satisfaction (β = 0.26, p < 0.001) and self-esteem (β = 0.35, p < 0.001), and the correlation between academic satisfaction and self-esteem (β = 0.35, p < 0.001) and life satisfaction (β = 0.23, p < 0.001). The model accounted for 42% of life satisfaction. Conclusion Family satisfaction and academic satisfaction affect self-esteem and life satisfaction.
... No que concerne a satisfação com a vida, a literatura tem definido como sendo a avaliação cognitiva e emocional que os indivíduos fazem a respeito de diferentes aspectos e contextos de suas vidas (Diener et al., 1985), estando frequentemente associada ao bem-estar subjectivo (Caldeira et al., 2015;Nogueira & Sequeira, 2018;Reppold et al., 2019, Sousa & Noronha, 2021. Com efeito, diferentes contextos de vida serão vivenciados de forma diferenciada, proporcionando diversidade de cargas afectivas. ...
... Neste sentido, a satisfação vai variar em função dos contextos e também de cada individuo, sugerindo uma flutuação em função do polo positivo ou negativo (Campira et al., 2016). Embora a satisfação com a vida, possa atender a referida multidimensionalidade, muitos estudos têm adotado a visão mais global (Diener et al., 1985;Gouveia et al., 2005;Reppold et al., 2019;Souza & Noronha, 2021), procurando sempre integrar diferentes itens que descrevem o constructo. ...
... Satisfaction with life will be measured with the Satisfaction With Life Scale [77,78]. A total of 5 items, such as "In most ways my life is close to my ideal," are rated on a 7-point scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). ...
Article
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Background: Loneliness, or perceived social isolation, is prevalent in both the general population and clinical practice. Although loneliness has repeatedly been associated with mental and physical health, research on interventions that reduce loneliness effectively is still rather scarce. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of a guided and an unguided version of the same internet-based cognitive behavioral self-help program for loneliness (SOLUS-D) for adults. Methods: A total of 250 participants will be randomly assigned to 1 of 2 intervention groups (SOLUS-D with guidance or SOLUS-D without guidance) or a wait-list control group (2:2:1 allocation ratio). Adult participants experiencing high levels of loneliness will be recruited from the general population. Individuals currently experiencing at least moderately severe depressive symptoms, an ongoing severe substance use disorder, previous or current bipolar or psychotic disorder, or acute suicidality will be excluded from the trial. Assessments will take place at baseline, 5 weeks (midassessment), and 10 weeks (postassessment). The primary outcome is loneliness assessed using the 9-item University of California, Los Angeles Loneliness Scale at the posttreatment time point. Secondary outcomes include depressive symptoms, symptoms of social anxiety, satisfaction with life, social network size, and variables assessing cognitive bias and social behavior. The maintenance of potentially achieved gains will be assessed and compared at 6 and 12 months after randomization in the 2 active conditions. Potential moderators and mediators will be tested exploratorily. Data will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. Results: Recruitment and data collection started in May 2021 and are expected to be completed by 2022, with the 12-month follow-up to be completed by 2023. As of the time of submission of the manuscript, 134 participants were randomized. Conclusions: This 3-arm randomized controlled trial will add to the existing research on the efficacy of loneliness interventions. Furthermore, it will shed light on the role of human guidance in internet-based treatments for individuals with increased levels of loneliness and the possible mechanisms of change. If SOLUS-D proves effective, it could provide a low-threshold, cost-efficient method of helping and supporting individuals with increased levels of loneliness. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04655196; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04655196. International registered report identifier (irrid): DERR1-10.2196/36358.
... Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) was used to assess individuals' cognitive evaluation of their lives [31]. The SWLS comprises five items rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale, varying from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). ...
Article
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Introduction: Cultivation of resilience is shown to reduce mental health problems and improve wellbeing. The effect of resilience on psychological adjustment problems and satisfaction with life is however not adequately discussed. This study investigated the predictive effect of resilience in psychological adjustment and satisfaction with life among undergraduate students during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sampling method was utilized to recruit undergraduate students from a public educational institution in Turkey. Psychometric valid tools, such as the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS), Brief Psychological Adjustment-6 (BASE-6) and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) were used to measure the primary outcomes of the study. Data were analyzed using the independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and hierarchical multiple regression. Results: Of total 224 undergraduates participated in this study, nearly 74% were males and the mean age of the sample was 21.03±1.66 years. More than half of the participants had average socioeconomic status (53.57%) followed by above-average (40.18%) and below-average (6.25%). The results indicated that males and individuals who had low socioeconomic status reported greater psychological maladjustment problems. Furthermore, the resilience negatively predicted the psychological maladjustment (β = -0.31, p<0.01) and positively predicted satisfaction with life (β = 0.17, p< 0.05) after controlling for age, gender, and perceived socioeconomic status. Discussion: These results shed light on the relationship of resilience with psychological outcomes in terms of satisfaction with life and psychological adjustment during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings of this study point to the potential role of resilience in improving satisfaction with life and psychological adjustment among undergraduate students in Turkey. Additionally, efforts by practitioners and policymakers should be made in developing resilience-building interventions to foster post-traumatic growth among students. Take-home message: The current findings will serve as preliminary evidence to develop innovative preventative intervention programs aiming at reducing psychological adjustment problems and promoting satisfaction with life among undergraduate students in Turkey
... Instruments: Life Satisfaction Scale (by Diener et al., 1985), Trust Propensity Scale (by Lee and Turban, 2001), Positive Perception Scale (by Icekson and Pines, H3b: Positive relations with others mediates the relationship between trust propensity and life satisfaction. ...
Conference Paper
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Amaç: Flash Emdr Tekniği, travmatik veya diğer rahatsız edici anılarla ilişkili psikopatolojik düzeyi azaltmak için yakın zamanda geliştirilmiş bir terapötik müdahaledir. Birçok geleneksel travma terapisi müdahalesinin aksine, Flash Emdr Tekniği, danışanın travmatik hafızayla bilinçli olarak meşgul olmasını gerektirmeyen minimal düzeyde müdahaleci bir yöntemdir. Bu, danışanın travmatik anıları sıkıntı hissetmeden işlemesine izin verir. Diğer bir deyişle travmatik anının yeniden işlemleyerek sonlandırmanın hızlı ve nispeten rahatsız edici olmayan bir yolu olarak kullanılmaktadır. Psikolojik iyi oluş, bireyin hayattaki anlamlı amaçları sürdürmesini, potansiyeline ilişkin farkındalığını ve çevresi ile geliştirdiği anlamlı ilişkilerini yönetme olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Ancak bireyin yaşadığı travmatik yaşantılar onun hayatla olan anlamlı ilişkilerini ve yaşam fonksiyonlarını sekteye uğratacağı düşünülmektedir. Dolayısıyla bu çalışmada amaç; travmatik anılarda acısız iyileşme (travmaya maruz bırakmadan) sağlayan Flash Emdr Tekniğinin psikolojik iyi oluşu artırmada uygulanabilirliğinin ortaya konulmasıdır. Yöntem: Araştırmanın örneklemini belirlemek için Bingöl İlinde resmi bir okulda eğitimini lise 1. Sınıfta devam eden bir öğrenciye psikolojik iyi oluş ölçeği, travmatik yas ölçeği ve Çocuk ve Gençlerde Travma Sonrası Stres Tepkileri Ölçeği uygulanmıştır. Katılımcı 7 yıl önce gaz yüklü bir tankerin patlaması sonucu annesini, babasını ve abisini kaybetmiş ve kendisinin de yüzü ve ellerinde 1. Dereceden yanıklardan ötürü 6 ay yoğun bakımda kalmıştır. Katılımcı son 6 ay içinde yoğun uyku problemi, kâbus görme, patlama anına ilişkin görüntüler, kaybettiklerini özleme, sosyal içe çekilme (özellikle yüz ve ellerdeki yanıklardan ötürü içine kapanma) ve hayattan zevk almadığını ifade etmiştir. Uygulanan ölçeklerin değerlendirilmesi sonucunda Psikolojik iyi oluş ölçeği puanı 27 (bu ölçekte alınabilecek en düşük puan 8), Çocuk ve Gençlerde Travma Sonrası Stres Tepkileri Ölçeği puanı 31 (orta düzeyde TSSB belirtileri) ve travmatik yas ölçeği puanı 25 (bu ölçeğin kesim puanı 24) olarak tespit edilmiştir. Bulgular: Katılımcıya seanstan iki gün önce ve seanstan iki sonra uygulanan ölçeklerde; Psikolojik iyi oluş puanı 27’den 35’e yükseldi, Çocuk ve Gençlerde Travma Sonrası Stres Tepkileri Ölçeği puanı 31’den 23’e düştü, Travmatik Yas puanı 25’ten 11’e düştü, SUD puanı ise 9’dan 1’e düştü. Bir seans Flash Emdr Tekniği uygulaması yapıldıktan sonra TSSB ve Travmatik yasın ön test ve son test puanları arasında düşüş olduğu, psikolojik iyi oluş puanlarında ise yükselme olduğu görülmektedir. Tartışma ve Sonuç: Araştırmanın sonuçlarına göre, Flash Emdr Tekniğinin psikolojik iyi oluşu artırmada, Travmatik yas ve Çocuk ve Gençlerde Travma Sonrası Stres Tepkilerini azaltmada etkili olduğu görülmektedir. Dolayısıyla psikoterapi sürecinde hem danışanın travmaya maruz bırakmadan acısız bir şekilde iyileşmesi sağlanacağı söylenebilir. Yanı sıra Flash Emdr Tekniğinin bir seansının en fazla 20 dakika sürmesi hem zaman yönünden hem de psikolojik iyi oluşu artırmada etkili olması açısından, tekniğin psikoterapilerde kullanılması önerilebilir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Psikolojik İyi Oluş, Flash Emdr Tekniği, Travmatik Yas
... The instruments used to conduct this study included the UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-20] [20], the trait scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI-T] [41], the Beck Hopelessness Scale [BHS] [42], the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] [43], and the Satisfaction with Life Scale [SWLS] [44]. These instruments were used to assess the concurrent validity of the UCLA short-form scales. ...
Article
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An important mental health concern arising from the COVID-19 pandemic was the loneliness resulting from the lockdown measures taken by many countries due to the outbreak. Thus, loneliness needs to be studied in detail for intervention purposes. The UCLA Loneliness Scale is the most widely used measure of loneliness. However, the 20-item measure has some drawbacks, including questionnaire fatigue, especially when used with other measures, and a lack of accurate responses to all items. In this study, we evaluated two short forms of the UCLA Loneliness Scale used in other studies (UCLA-10 and UCLA-8), as well as a five-item version developed in this study, through the classical test theory and Mokken analysis with two different sample groups (teachers, N = 337; students, N = 355). The results of the Mokken analysis and the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the UCLA-10 and UCLA-5 were unidimensional and exhibited reliability and convergent validity. In contrast, the UCLA-8 was multidimensional and violated several assumptions of monotonicity and invariant item-ordering, although it showed satisfactory reliability and concurrent validity. All three versions of the scale correlated significantly with other indices of psychological well-being regarding concurrent validity, and the correlation coefficients were comparable to the coefficients of the 20-item version with the same variables. All three versions of the loneliness scale also demonstrated satisfactory convergent and discriminant validity. The results indicated that the UCLA-10 and UCLA-5 can be used as reliable and valid measures when the use of the long version of the UCLA Loneliness Scale is unsuitable.
... Next, participants completed the Work as Meaning Inventory(WAMI, Steger et al., 2012; ten items, e.g., "I understand how my work contributes to my life´s meaning"; α =.95), the Scale of Positive and Negative Experience, which captures the affective component of subjective well-being (SPANE,Diener et al., 2010; six positive items, e.g., happy; α=.91; six negative items, e.g., sad; α=.85), the Satisfaction with Life Scale, which captures the cognitive component of subjective well-being(Diener et al., 1985; five items, e.g., "In most ways my life is close to my ideal"; α =.93), a job satisfaction scale(Cammann et al., 1983; three items, e.g., "All in all I am satisfied with my job"; α =.82), and a work-life conflict scale(Netemeyer et al., 1996; five items, e.g., "The demands of my work interfere with my home and family life"; α =.93).Subsequently, for the validation of the scale, participants completed a turnover intention scale(Mobley et al., 1978; three items; e.g., "I think a lot about leaving the organization"; α=.93), a work engagement scale(Schaufeli et al., 2016; α=.93, nine items, e.g., "My job inspires me"), and a perceived CSR scale(Lin et al., 2011 adopted from Currás-Pérez et al., 2009 α=.91, ...
Article
Organizational purpose has recently gained great popularity in research and practice. However, the development of this nascent research field has struggled with definitional ambiguity, the lack of a measurement instrument and little empirical testing of potential outcomes. In our paper, we first introduce and define the multidimensional construct of perceived organizational purpose, which sheds light on the individual and subjective experiences of organizational purpose. Second, building on our construct definition, we develop and validate a four‐dimensional Perceived Organizational Purpose Scale. Third, we disentangle the related yet differentiated concepts of perceived organizational purpose and meaningful work and theorize how substantial knowledge in the field of meaningful work can be transferred to the relatively new and untested field of perceived organizational purpose. Fourth, we critically elaborate and empirically test the relationship of perceived organizational purpose with employee job satisfaction, subjective well‐being and work‐life conflict.
... The Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al., 1985) was used to measure subjective satisfaction with one's life as a whole. Five items (e.g., "The conditions of my life are excellent") are rated on a 7-point scale (1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree). ...
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The current paper explores adult friendship and its relation to satisfaction with life and loneliness during established adulthood and midlife. The sample (n = 124) consisted of 59 established adults (30–45 years) and 65 midlifers (46–65 years), with the majority of participants characterized as White, middle-income, and female. Participants completed the Network of Relationships-BSV scale (Furman and Buhrmester, International Journal of Behavioral Development 33:470–478, 2009) to measure friendship quality, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al., Journal of Personality Assessment 49:71–75, 1985) to measure one’s global sense of life satisfaction, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Journal of Personality Assessment 66:20–40, 1996) to measure participants’ level of loneliness. Results suggest that friendship plays a more central part in the lives of those in midlife compared to those in established adulthood and that loneliness is higher in established adulthood than in midlife. There were no significant differences in satisfaction with life for the two groups. Implications of the findings are discussed with regard to the middle adult years as two distinct age frames.
... El bienestar subjetivo suele asociarse con la felicidad. La evaluación del bienestar subjetivo incluye medidas de afecto positivo, equilibrio afectivo, felicidad y satisfacción con la vida (Diener et al., 1985;Ryan y Deci, 2001). En contraste, el bienestar psicológico se refiere a una conceptualización más amplia, incluyendo características del individuo que funciona óptimamente. ...
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En la actualidad, la comida es fuente tanto de placer como de conflicto para las personas. Gracias a la proliferación de redes comerciales y de transporte, la alimentación actual se rige por una diversidad en sus mercados. Aunque existen algunas diferencias, el cierre en la brecha de la variedad de platillos, sabores y olores que pueden disfrutarse ahora tanto en un restaurante como en casa es cada vez más notorio. Si bien la elaboración de platillos ha existido desde tiempos remotos, así como el uso de técnicas y métodos para preparar alimentos, cada cultura a lo largo de la historia de la humanidad ha elaborado una gama de platillos con características específicas, rigiéndose mayormente por la disponibilidad de ingredientes y el medio ambiente en el que habitaban (Goody, 1995; Fischler, 1995). El acto natural de “comer” transciende la idea básica de “alimentarse por sobrevivir” a lo que actualmente se le conoce como “experiencia gastronómica” (Goody, 1997). Consumir un alimento no se limita a la ingesta de nutrientes, incluye también sabores, aromas, texturas, colores, así como otros estímulos, tales como la atmósfera, decoración, pistas visuales y auditivas, sin dejar de lado el contexto social. A diferencia del tratamiento que se le daba a los alimentos en la antigüedad, el arte culinario o la gastronomía implican no sólo la preservación histórica de recetas o fórmulas para realizar un platillo, sino también la innovación del uso de esas técnicas con los ingredientes que son cada vez más disponibles y variados, así como una colaboración con otras disciplinas. La gastronomía, en un sentido general, suele vincularse con diversos conceptos, tales como: cocinas, productos, alimentos, técnicas culinarias, identidades y cosmovisiones (Goody, J. 1995). Asimismo, se le ha vinculado con la hotelería, e industria de la restauración, el arte, el catering, lo gourmet y los chefs. Como disciplina, ha evolucionado de ser un mero arte sin métodos ni guías, a colocarse en una posición de carácter incluso “científico” (Hegarty, 2005). Cabe mencionar que en la actualidad la gastronomía se ha ido dejando de considerar como una línea de investigación que pueda partir de disciplinas tanto químicas y en su mayoría sociales. En ese artículo se presenta una breve historia de cómo se fue consolidando la gastronomía como disciplina a lo largo de los dos últimos siglos, así como algunas actualidades respecto a los estudios gastronómicos consolidados y su relación con otras disciplinas concernientes al comportamiento alimentario y a la nutrición.
... Higher scores reflect greater positive mental health. In a series of six studies that included samples of students, patients, and the general population, the scale showed good psychometric properties e.g., high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha =. 93), satisfactory retest reliability (r = 0.74 − 0.81), and convergent validity was confirmed, e.g., with Satisfaction With Life Scale [32] (r = 0.75), Subjective Happiness Scale [33] (r = 0.81) [4], and demonstrated strong cross-cultural measurement invariance in student samples from Germany, Russia, and China [19]. ...
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Background The investigation of patient-reported outcomes and psycho-oncological interventions mainly focuses on psychological distress or psychopathology. However, the recognition of the equal importance of positive mental health (PMH) has increased lately. The PMH-scale is a brief questionnaire allowing to assess well-being in individuals in the general population and in patients. Previous studies evaluated the psychometric properties of the PMH-scale using classical test theory (CTT). This study is the first to investigate the PMH-scale in patients with cancer using item analysis according to the Rasch model. Methods In total, N = 357 cancer patients participated in the study. A Rasch analysis of the PMH-scale was conducted including testing of unidimensionality, local independence, homogeneity and differential item functioning (DIF) with regard to age, gender, type of cancer, the presence of metastases, psycho-oncological support, and duration of disease. Additionally, the ordering of the item thresholds as well as the targeting of the scale were investigated. Results After excluding one misfitting item and accounting for local dependence by forming superitems, a satisfactory overall fit to the Rasch model was established (χ² = 30.34, p = 0.21). The new PMH-8 scale proved to be unidimensional, and homogeneity of the scale could be inferred. All items showed ordered thresholds, there was no further item misfit. DIF was found for age, but as the impact of DIF was not substantial, no adjustment related to the age-DIF had to be made. The Person Separation Index (PSI = 0.89) was excellent, indicating excellent discriminatory power between different levels of positive mental health. Overall, the targeting of the PMH-8 was good for the majority of the present sample. However, at both ends of the scale item thresholds are missing as indicated by a slight floor effect (1.4%) and a considerable ceiling effect (9.8%). Conclusions Overall, the results of the analysis according to the Rasch model support the use of the revised PMH-scale in a psycho-oncological context.
... With regard to the various subjective measures of QoL (proposed using different measures over time), some are domain-specific, while others are multidimensional scales. For example, the QoL has been operationalized as satisfaction with life (Diener et al., 1985), as a QoL inventory (Frisch et al., 1992), as an overall QoL scale (Burckhardt et al., 2003), and as QoL enjoyment and satisfaction (Endicott et al., 1993). The World Health Organization QoL Scale (WHOQOL-BREF) assesses physical and psychological health, quality of social relationships, and features of an individual's environment (WHO, 1996). ...
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Serious games (SGs), are gaining prominence as a tool for early education at home as well as in school settings. Given the mixed effects of gamification on various aspects of users' lives, it is pertinent to study its broader effects on a child's preschool and school years. Given the lack of consensus on a comprehensive measure that encapsulates these effects on an individual's routine functioning, the present study examined whether various engagement states in SGs use influence a relatively broader measure of users' functioning across significant life domains such as Quality of Life (QoL). It is argued that it would serve scholars, teachers, and parents better to understand the broader implications of SGs on children's overall QoL rather than isolated physiological and behavioral effects. Consequently, utilizing structural equation modeling, results from 335 parents of 2-10-year-olds in a developing country showed that cognitive and behavioral engagement in gamified applications appear to influence the child's QoL, but not affective engagement. Results are discussed in terms of the consequences of using game-based technology for a child's development, with far-reaching academic, personal, physical, and social implications not only for the school-going ages, but also for early teenage years. The results are promising in relation to QoL. The findings indicate the role modern technology plays in improving individuals' lives. The findings provide scholars, parents, and creators of SGs important information for their plan of action regarding children's exposure to SGs and making SGs a frequent aspect of the learning experience early in life.
... We assessed three domains of PROs using valid and reliable self-report questionnaires: (i) perceived physical and mental health status using the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) 12 and the EuroQOL-5D Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS); 13 (ii) psychological distress using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); 14 and (iii) quality of life using a Linear Analogue Scale (QOL-LAS) 15 and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). 16 Expanded definitions of the domains and the interpretation of scores of the questionnaires are provided in Supplementary material online, Table S1. Eligible patients were mailed a questionnaire package or completed surveys during an outpatient visit. ...
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The congenital heart disease (CHD) population now comprises an increasing number of older persons in their 6th decade of life and beyond. We cross-sectionally evaluated patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in persons with CHD aged 60 years or older, and contrasted these with PROs of younger patients aged 40–59 years and 18–39 years. Adjusted for demographic and medical characteristics, patients ≥60 years had a lower Physical Component Summary, higher Mental Component Summary, and lower anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety) scores than patients in the two younger categories. For satisfaction with life, older persons had a higher score than patients aged 40–59 years. Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02150603.
... One of the most widely used instruments for cognitive WB evaluation is The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) (E. D. Diener et al., 1985). ...
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Introduction: Emotional intelligence (EI) is a psychological protective factor that can improve subjective well-being (WB) in adolescents. This study aims to establish the overall relationship between different EI models (performance-based ability model, self-report ability model, and self-report mixed model) and subjective WB in adolescents, analyze the affective WB and cognitive WB components, and examine the moderating effect of EI models on both types of subjective WB. Method: We searched PsycINFO and WOS databases. Eligible studies reported an association between EI and subjective WB in adolescents aged 10-19 years using instruments that directly measure subjective WB. In addition, two meta-analyses were conducted, one for the relationship between EI and affective WB and the other for EI and cognitive WB. Results: A total of 41 studies were included, of which 37 were pooled in the meta-analyses. We found a significant positive relationship between EI and affective WB (estimated effect size = 0.35) and between EI and cognitive WB (estimated effect size = 0.27). Regarding EI models, self-report ability showed an estimated effect size of 0.33 for affective WB and 0.27 for cognitive WB. For the self-report mixed model, we obtained an estimated effect size of 0.42 for affective WB and 0.37 for cognitive WB. Conclusions: Establishing a quantitative relationship between EI and subjective WB makes it possible to implement clinical and educational prevention measures. Introducing EI training in educational and clinical settings can increase subjective WB, significantly impacting the prevention of emotional disorders in adolescents.
... Developed by Diener, Emmons, Larsen and Griffin [13], this 5-item scale was designed to measure global cognitive judgments of satisfaction with one's life. This was used as the third indicator of psychological flourishing and the reliability of scores in this sample was .88. ...
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Psychological studies on the spiritual experience of religiously committed individuals have typically focused on positive spiritual experiences and their impact on psychological flourishing. This study examined two structural equation models of the potential short-term impact of negative spiritual experiences on the psychological flourishing of religiously committed individuals. Modeling results were: a) negative and positive spiritual experiences together emerged as the underlying cause of psychological flourishing, rather than the reverse, and, b) when taken together with positive spiritual experiences, negative spiritual experiences had a significant immediate negative association with psychological flourishing whereas positive spiritual experiences did not have a statistically significant association. These modeling results were discussed in light of the "bad stronger than good" theory of the greater immediate impact of negative events on psychological outcomes. Negative spiritual experiences appear to have similar salience to non-spiritual negative events.
... The SWLS is a self-administered subjective well-being questionnaire that measures global life satisfaction (58). It consists of 5 items, each one scored from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree) with the cutoff scoring values being 10, 15, 20, 21, 26, and 31, for life satisfaction levels ranging from extremely dissatisfied to extremely satisfied. ...
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Hypothesis The main hypothesis is that a digital, biodata-driven, and personalized program would exhibit high user retention and engagement, followed by more effective management of their depressive and anxiety symptoms. Objective This pilot study explores the feasibility, acceptability, engagement, and potential impact on depressive and anxiety and quality of life outcomes of the 16-week Feel Program. Additionally, it examines potential correlations between engagement and impact on mental health outcomes. Methods This single-arm study included 48 adult participants with mild or moderate depressive or anxiety symptoms who joined the 16-week Feel Program, a remote biodata-driven mental health support program created by Feel Therapeutics. The program uses a combination of evidence-based approaches and psychophysiological data. Candidates completed an online demographics and eligibility survey before enrolment. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, respectively. The Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire were used to assess quality of life. User feedback surveys were employed to evaluate user experience and acceptability. Results In total, 31 participants completed the program with an overall retention rate of 65%. Completed participants spent 60 min in the app, completed 13 Mental Health Actions, including 5 Mental Health Exercises and 4.9 emotion logs on a weekly basis. On average, 96% of the completed participants were active and 76.8% of them were engaged with the sensor during the week. Sixty five percent of participants reported very or extremely high satisfaction, while 4 out of 5 were very likely to recommend the program to someone. Additionally, 93.5% of participants presented a decrease in at least one of the depressive or anxiety symptoms, with 51.6 and 45% of participants showing clinically significant improvement, respectively. Finally, our findings suggest increased symptom improvement for participants with higher engagement throughout the program. Conclusions The findings suggest that the Feel Program may be feasible, acceptable, and valuable for adults with mild or moderate depressive and/or anxiety symptoms. However, controlled trials with bigger sample size, inclusion of a control group, and more diverse participant profiles are required in order to provide further evidence of clinical efficacy.
... The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener et al., 1985). The SWLS is a short 5-item instrument designed to measure global cognitive judgments of satisfaction with one's life. ...
Article
This clinical trial investigated the effect of an Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) intervention on brain activation in chronic pain sufferers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). EFT is a brief stress reduction technique which combines stating a cognitive statement with somatic tapping on acupressure points. Twenty-four adults were allocated to a six-week online group EFT treatment and underwent resting-state fMRI pre and post the intervention. A repeated measures MANOVA indicated significant differences in the levels of pain severity (−21%), pain interference (−26%), quality of life (+7%), somatic symptoms (−28%), depression (−13.5%), anxiety (−37.1%), happiness (+17%), and satisfaction with life (+8.8%) from pre-to post-test. Cohen's effect sizes ranged from small (0.2) to large (0.75) values suggesting significance for the intervention. fMRI analysis showed post-EFT treatment significantly decreased connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex (a pain modulating area) and bilateral grey matter areas in the posterior cingulate cortex and thalamus, both areas being related to the modulating and catastrophizing of pain. There were no brain areas that showed significantly increased connectivity post-EFT treatment. Coupled with the psychological measures the findings support the effects of the EFT intervention in reducing chronic pain and its impacts. Recommendations for future research are discussed.
... Life satisfaction. Participants' life satisfaction was assessed via the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) 28 in a subset of countries (see Supplementary Table 2 for SWLS means and standard deviations by country). SWLS was measured in 15 countries in Wave 1 and 28 countries in Wave 2. SWLS was measured in both waves in 10 countries. ...
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How does psychology vary across human societies? The fundamental social motives framework adopts an evolutionary approach to capture the broad range of human social goals within a taxonomy of ancestrally recurring threats and opportunities. These motives—self-protection, disease avoidance, affiliation, status, mate acquisition, mate retention, and kin care—are high in fitness relevance and everyday salience, yet understudied cross-culturally. Here, we gathered data on these motives in 42 countries (N = 15,915) in two cross-sectional waves, including 19 countries (N = 10,907) for which data were gathered in both waves. Wave 1 was collected from mid-2016 through late 2019 (32 countries, N = 8,998; 3,302 male, 5,585 female; Mage = 24.43, SD = 7.91). Wave 2 was collected from April through November 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic (29 countries, N = 6,917; 2,249 male, 4,218 female; Mage = 28.59, SD = 11.31). These data can be used to assess differences and similarities in people’s fundamental social motives both across and within cultures, at different time points, and in relation to other commonly studied cultural indicators and outcomes.
... Psychologists measure happiness from the response of individuals' feelings that come through a physiological assessment done by trained clinicians (Diener 1994). The measurement is done based on some popular scales such as: Affect Balance Scale by Bradburn (1969), Satisfaction with Life Scale by Diener et al. (1985), Delighted-Terrible Scale by Andrews and Withey (1986) (Lyubomirsky and Lepper 1999). On the other hand, sociologists mainly rely on qualitative data based on open-ended questionnaires about individuals' feelings and their subjective experiences in other domains (Bartram 2012). ...
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Bangladesh, one of the poorest countries in the world, is considered one of the happiest countries in the world by most research. This seems counterintuitive considering its socio-economic and political situation. Although a vast literature argues that income is a key determinant of happiness, especially in impoverished societies, Bangladesh’s relatively greater level of happiness poses a challenge to this widely held belief. However, the importance of income in affecting happiness cannot be overstated, because per capita income, which is a key indicator in Bangladesh's happiness puzzle, masks variations in happiness at the individual level. Following the background above, the primary objective of this study is to find out the correlates of happiness in Bangladesh that encourage people to lead a happy and satisfied life even after facing hardships in daily life.
... The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener et al., 1985) was chosen to assess workers' satisfaction regarding their personal life at Time 1 and Time 3. Workers were asked to rate how much they agreed or disagreed with each of five statements (e. g., "In most ways my life is close to my ideal") on a seven-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (Strongly disagree) to 7 (Strongly agree). The Cronbach alpha value was 0.89 (Time 1) and 0.91 (Time 3). ...
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Research has suggested that sacrifices are made to manage the work-home interface. They have been however, related to various deleterious effects. Drawing from self-determination theory, we argue that the sacrifice of psychological needs is worse than the sacrifice of activities such as maintenance and leisure in terms of personal functioning. The present two studies investigate whether sacrifices made in one life sphere to attend matters in another are negatively related to well-being and satisfaction, through enhanced work-family conflict, and whether all sacrifices are created equal. One transversal (n = 141) and one three-wave prospective (n = 78) study were conducted among convenience samples of workers who answered online surveys. Results revealed that personal psychological need sacrifices were negatively related to well-being via family to work conflict (FWC) and work to family conflict (WFC), over and beyond other types of sacrifice. In addition, personal psychological need sacrifices led to decreased life and professional satisfaction over 3 months, via FWC and WFC. Hence, need sacrifices, especially those made in the personal sphere, come at a cost and may not be the best long-term strategy to manage one’s work-home interface.
... This study adopted the Satisfaction with Life Scale [14], consisting of 5 items (5-point Likert scale from 1 = "strongly disagree" to 5 = "strongly agree"). All five are framed in a positive way (e.g., "In general my life is close to my ideal"). ...
Chapter
This research aimed, firstly, to define a conceptual model that considers potential resources/challenges (Physical, Cognitive, Emotional, Social, Material, Environmental, Digital) and describes how those influence the Internet use and modify human behavior during life transitions (e.g., changing school, finding a job). Secondly, starting on that model, user profiles were outlined. Instead of grouping study participants into pre-defined groups, clustering techniques were used to group users with similar profiles. The main advantage of this methodological approach is that the participant groups, i.e., different user profiles, emerged intrinsically from the data. A cross-sectional study was proposed based on the compilation of an Online questionnaire. The sample consists of 1.524 participants. Three clusters emerged with different mean ages: young adult users (mean age = 33.83), youngest users (25.79), and oldest users (36.80). Differences were identified between all dimensions measured, particularly between youngest users and oldest users.
... This study used SWLS for LS consisting of five items from "My life is close to ideal in many ways" to "I would hardly change anything if I lived my life again" (Diener et al., 1985). Each item is scored on a 5-point scale from 1="strongly disagree" to 5="strongly agree". ...
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Atıf/Citation (APA 6): Mavruk, C. (2022). The effects of affectivites over the relationship of dispositional optimism with life satisfaction of university students. Ömer Halisdemir Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 15(3), 550-562. http://doi. Abstract This study investigates whether positive and negative affects (affectivities) mediate and moderate the relationship between dispositional optimism and life satisfaction based on a survey of 855 Çukurova University students. For this purpose, the significance of indirect and interaction effects of positive and negative affects are estimated. Nonparametric Spearman correlation analysis showed significant correlations between optimism, affects and life satisfaction. Hierarchical regression analysis is performed to determine whether the affect is potential mediator and moderator variable. A structural model which shows the life satisfaction relationship with optimism through components of positive and negative affects is estimated. The significance of the indirect effects of optimism is tested to examine the mediating role of the affects. Hierarchical regression analysis results showed that the affects significantly predicted life satisfaction above and beyond optimism (F(2,851)=76.21, ∆R 2 =.120, p<.001). The maximum likelihood estimation results indicated significance of indirect effect of optimism via affects. That is, the affects significantly mediated optimism (z=11.12, p<.001) over life satisfaction. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the mediation was partial and that PA was a moderator. Marginal analysis further showed that particularly being moderately alert and being moderately enthusiastic were moderators. Mavruk, C. (2022). The effects of affectivites over the relationship of dispositional optimism with life satisfaction of university students. Ömer Halisdemir Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 15(3), 550-562. Öz Bu çalışma, 855 Çukurova Üniversitesi öğrenci anketine dayanarak pozitif ve negatif etkilerin, eğilimsel iyimserlik ile yaşam memnuniyeti arasındaki ilişkiye aracılık edip etmediğini ve moderatör olup olmadıklarını araştırmaktadır. Bu amaçla, pozitif ve negatif etkilerin dolaylı ve etkileşim etkilerinin anlamlılığı hesaplanmıştır. Parametrik olmayan Spearman korelasyon analizi, eğilimsel iyimserliğin ve duygulanımların yaşam memnuniyeti ile anlamlı bir ilişkiye sahip olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Pozitif ve negatif etkilerin potansiyel aracı ve moderatör olup olmadığını belirlemek için hiyerarşik regresyon analizi kullanılmıştır. Eğilimsel iyimserlik ile yaşam memnuniyeti ilişkisini pozitif ve negatif etki bileşenleri üzerinden gösteren yapısal bir model tahmin edilmiştir. Etkilerin aracılık rolünü incelemek için eğilimsel iyimserliğin dolaylı etkilerinin anlamlılığı test edilmiştir. Hiyerarşik regresyon analizi sonuçları, pozitif ve negatif etkilerin iyimserliğin üstünde ve ötesinde yaşam memnuniyetini anlamlı bir şekilde yordadığını göstermiştir (F(2,851)=76.21, ∆R 2 =.120, p<.001). Maksimum olabilirlik tahmin sonuçları, iyimserliğin dolaylı etkisinin pozitif ve negatif etkiler yoluyla anlamlı olduğunu göstermiştir. Yani, pozitif ve negatif etkilerin iyimserlik ve yaşam memnuniyeti arasında anlamlı (z=11.12, p<.001) bir aracı rolü olduğunu göstermektedir. Hiyerarşik regresyon analizi, bu arabuluculuğun kısmi olduğunu ve ayrıca PA'nın moderatör olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Marginal analiz, özellikle orta derecede alert ve hevesli olmanın moderatör olduklarını göstermiştir.
... In addition to MAS, the assessment protocol included a series of measures to evaluate sources of construct validity evidence of the MAS. These were two screening instruments for anxiety and depression, that is, the Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS) [36,37] and the Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS) [36,38], and a measure of satisfaction with life, namely the Life Satisfaction Scale (SWLS) [39,40]. The OASIS and the ODSIS identify the frequency, intensity and interference or deterioration caused by the symptoms on the personal and social levels using 5 items each. ...
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Background: maternal ambivalence, which refers to experiencing mixed emotions about motherhood, like happiness and sadness, is frequent during the perinatal period. Aim: Due to the relevance of this topic and the lack of psychometrically-sound instruments to measure it, this study aims to develop and test a measure of maternal ambivalence called the Maternal Ambivalence Scale (MAS). Methods: in this cross-sectional, observational study, participants were 1424 Spanish women recruited online who were either pregnant (33%) or recent mothers of children under 2 years (67%). They responded to the MAS and measures of anxiety and depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. Analyses included exploratory and confirmatory factor solutions for the MAS, internal consistency estimates (Cronbach's α) for all scales, as well as bivariate correlations to investigate sources of validity evidence. Comparisons between pregnant and postpartum women were also examined. Results: The assumptions for factor analysis about the relationship between items were met (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin's [KMO] test = 0.90; Barlett's Chi-square sphericity test = 5853.89, p < .001). A three-factor solution (Doubts, Rejection, and Suppression) for the MAS showed a good model fit both in exploratory (Chi-square = 274.6, p < .001, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation [RMSEA] = 0.059, RMSEA 90% Confidence Interval [CI]=[0.052, 0.066], Comparative Fit Index [CFI] = 0.985, Tucker Lewis Index [TLI] = 0.974) and confirmatory analyses (Chi-square = 428.0, p < .001, RMSEA = 0.062, RMSEA 90% CI=[0.056, 0.068], CFI = 0.977, TLI = 0.971). Doubts (α = 0.83), Rejection (α = 0.70), and Suppression (α = 80) were associated with higher anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as lower life satisfaction (all p < .001). Pregnant women presented greater Rejection (mean difference = 0.30, p = .037, 95% CI=[0.02, 0.58]) and less Suppression (mean difference=-0.47, p = .002, 95% CI=[-0.77,-0.17]) than mothers. Conclusion: with this study, we provide clinicians and researchers with a novel tool that successfully captures the complex nature of maternal ambivalence. Given the associations of maternal ambivalence with important outcomes in perinatal women, this tool could be important for the prevention of distress associated with chronic ambivalence and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions addressing ambivalence.
... All scales meet requirements standards of psychometric quality. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS; Cohen et al., 1983) & The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener et al, 1985) were used to collect data. A telephonic interview was done to know the further factors that affect the perceived stress on life satisfaction. ...
... Method: Near demographics questionnaires about their self-esteem (Rosenberg, 2015), aspirations (Kasser and Ryan, 1996), parental bonding (PBI -Parental Bonding Instrument, Parker, Tupling, Brown, 1979) and satisfaction with their life (Diener et al, 1985) were taken. ...
... The five-item Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener et al., 1985) was used to measure the subjective sense of global cognitive judgement of one's own life. The Portuguese version of the SWLS showed very good psychometric properties (Neto, 1993). ...
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... The most widely used instrument to assess satisfaction with life is the SWLS (Diener et al., 1985). It consists of 5 items which are to be rated on a 7-point scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). ...
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... The German version of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener et al., 1985;Janke & Glöckner-Rist, 2014) was used to evaluate participants' trait life satisfaction. Participants indicated the extent to which they agreed or disagreed with five statements (e.g. ...
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Cada uno de los trabajos fue evaluado y revisado favorablemente para su publicación a través de un comité científico formado ex profeso (p. 227) Corrección de estilo Gonzalo Arreola Medina Este libro no puede imprimirse ni reproducirse total o parcialmente por ningún otro medio sin la autorización por escrito de los editores. 3 CONTENIDO
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This study integrated two research strands to investigate the influence of restorative servicescapes and travel motivations on the wellbeing of middle‐aged and elderly (MAE) adults. A total of 203 valid questionnaires surveying MAE adults staying in wellness resorts was used in the data analysis. The findings indicated that the travel motivations of MAE adults to pursue health improvement in wellness resort contexts are significantly associated with emotional experiences, thus contributing to subjective wellbeing (SWB). This study extends the concept of the restorative potentials of servicescapes by demonstrating the relevance of a restorative servicescape provided by wellness resort to SWB.
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z: Bu çalışmanın amacı, belirsizliğe tahammülsüzlüğün yaşam tatminine etkisinde algılanan örgütsel stresin aracılık rolünün ortaya çıkarılmasıdır. Günümüzdeki hızlı değişimler belirsizlikleri ve bunun sonucunda bireyler tarafından yaşanan stresi ortaya çıkarabilmektedir. Örgütlerde stresin ortaya çıkması hem çalışan bireyler hem de örgütün kolektif biçimde çalışması açısından olumsuz durumların yaşanabilmesine neden olmaktadır. Çalışma kapsamında 402 mavi ve beyaz yakalı çalışandan anket tekniği kullanılarak veriler toplanmıştır. Elde edilen veriler SPSS Paket Programın 21. versiyonuyla analiz edilmiştir. Bu çerçevede Baron ve Kenny'in dört aşamalı regresyon modeli uygulanmış ve Sobel Test hesaplanmıştır. Yapılan analizler sonucunda elde edilen bulgulara göre belirsizliğe tahammülsüzlük ile yaşam tatmini arasında algılanan örgütsel stresin aracı rol üstlendiği ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Bu sonuçlar belirsizliğe tahammülsüzlüğün algılanan örgütsel stresi artırdığını, algılanan örgütsel stresin de yaşam doyumunu azalttığını göstermektedir. Abstract: The aim of this study is to reveal the mediating role of perceived organizational stress in the effect of intolerance of uncertainty on life satisfaction. Today's rapid changes can reveal uncertainties and the stress experienced by individuals as a result. The emergence of stress in organizations causes negative situations in terms of both working individuals and the collective working of the organization. Within the scope of the study, data were collected from 402 blue and white-collar employees by questionnaire technique. The collected data were analyzed with the 21 st version of SPSS Package Program. In this framework, Baron and Kenny's four-stage regression model was applied and the Sobel Test was calculated. According to the findings obtained as a result of the analyzes, it was revealed that perceived organizational stress plays a mediating role between intolerance of uncertainty and life satisfaction. These results show that intolerance of uncertainty increases perceived organizational stress, and perceived organizational stress decreases life satisfaction.
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Positive psychological attributes are associated with better health outcomes, yet few studies have identified their underlying constructs and none have examined their temporal trajectories in clinical vs. non-clinical samples. From data collected over 4 years from people with HIV (PWH) and HIV-uninfected (HIV−) participants, we identified two latent factors (internal strengths; socioemotional support) based on responses to seven positive psychological attributes. Internal strengths increased over 4 years for PWH, but not for HIV− comparisons. Socioemotional support did not change significantly in either group. Lower internal strengths and worse socioemotional support were related to greater depressive symptoms. We speculate that improvement in internal strengths in PWH could reflect their being in care, but this requires further study to include PWH not in care. Given the apparent malleability of internal strengths and their association with improved health outcomes, these attributes can serve as promising intervention targets for PWH.
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