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The word immunity means the state of protection from infectious disease. The immune system evolved as defense system to protect animals from invading microorganisms and malignant disorders. Immunology is a branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune response in all organisms. The study of the molecular and cellular components that comprise the immune system, including their function and interaction, is the central science of immunology. Ayurvedic system of medicine not only deals with treating the diseases but also aims to prevention the disease. Vyadhikshamatva (Immunity) is described in Ayurveda and this concept is considered equivalent to immunity. Hence an attempt has been made to present Ayurvedic concepts of immunity and immunization.
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Ayurpharm Int J Ayur Alli Sci., Vol.3, No.8 (2014) Pages 230 - 240
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Review Article
A BRIEF REVIEW ON AYURVEDIC CONCEPT OF IMMUNITY AND
IMMUNIZATION
Pravin Masram1*, Suhas Chaudhary2, Patel KS3, Kori VK4, Rajagopala S5
1. Ph.D Scholar, Dept. of Kaumarbhritya, I.P.G.T. & R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India.
2. MD Scholar, Dept. of Kaumarbhritya, I.P.G.T. & R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India.
3. Professor & Head, Dept. of Kaumarbhritya, I.P.G.T. & R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, India.
4. Asst. Professor, Dept. of Kaumarbhritya, I.P.G.T. & R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India.
5. Asst. Professor, Dept. of Kaumarbhritya, I.P.G.T. & R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India.
Received: 25-04-2014; Revised: 18-06-2014; Accepted: 25-07-2014
………………………………………………………………………….………….……….……………………..
Abstract
The word immunity means the state of protection from infectious disease. The immune system
evolved as defense system to protect animals from invading microorganisms and malignant
disorders. Immunology is a branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the
immune response in all organisms. The study of the molecular and cellular components that comprise
the immune system, including their function and interaction, is the central science of immunology.
Ayurvedic system of medicine not only deals with treating the diseases but also aims to prevention
the disease. Vyadhikshamatva (Immunity) is described in Ayurveda and this concept is considered
equivalent to immunity. Hence an attempt has been made to present Ayurvedic concepts of immunity
and immunization.
Key words: Vyadhikshamatva; Bala; Agni; Rasayana; Lehana.
………………………………………………………………………………….….……………………………...
*Address for correspondence:
Dr. Pravin Masram,
Ph.D. Scholar, Dept. of Kaumarbhritya,
IPGT & RA, Gujarat Ayurved University,
Jamnagar, Gujarat, India 361008.
E-mail: pravinmasram15@gmail.com
Cite This Article
Pravin Masram, Suhas Chaudhary, Patel KS,Kori VK,Rajagopala S. A brief review on
Ayurvedic concept of immunity and immunization. Ayurpharm Int J Ayur Alli Sci.
2014;3(8):230-240.
Ayurpharm Int J Ayur Alli Sci., Vol.3, No.8 (2014) Pages 230 - 240
www.ayurpharm.com
ISSN: 2278-4772
Ayurpharm - International Journal of Ayurveda and Allied Sciences
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INTRODUCTION
Charaka defined Ayus (life) as combination of
the body, sense organs, mind and soul.[1] In
other word, Ayurveda has given much priority
to live healthy and joyful long life. Concepts
related to health and diseases are discussed
with detail in nearly all classical texts of
Ayurveda. These concepts include knowledge
of etiology, symptomology, therapeutics,
various measures to maintain healthy status
and reasons behind falling sick.[2]
Many people prone to disease due to breaking
their dietary habit (Aharaja), change in
climate, on the other hand, some people
remain healthy in spite of breaking dietary
rules or change in climate and do not get
affected by any disease. Many micro-
organisms enter the human body through air
and water, but fail to create disease due to
immune response present in the living body.
The most important thing in relation to health
and disease is immunity of the body. Concept
of Vyadhikshamatva (Immunity) described in
the classical texts of Ayurveda is similar to
immunity. It is not exaggeration to mention
that, Ayurveda described Vyadhikshamatva in
more detail and magnificent way which can be
considered equivalent to modern concepts of
immunity. Till date some works have been
found published on Ayurvedic concepts of
Vyadhikshamatva, but there are some more
detail has remained to be highlighted. Present
work is aimed to fulfill this gap and will serve
as a torch bearer in understanding immunity
with Ayurvedic view.
Concept of Vyadhikshamatva
In Sanskrita, the word Vyadhikshamatva‟ is
made up of two words; Vyadhi (disease) and
Kshamatva (suppress or overcome).
According to Ayurveda, Vyadhi is conditions
which come into existence as consequence of
non-equilibrium between Doshas
(physiological factors i.e vata, pitta & kapha),
Dhatus (tissues systems) and Malas (excretory
products of body). These factors, in their
normal status are responsible in maintaining
the physical and psychological health. The
other word, Kshamatva‟ is derived from,
„Kshamus sahane‟ which means to be patient
or composed to suppress anger, to keep quite
or to resist. Therefore Vyadhikshamatwa
means the factor which limits the pathogenesis
and opposes the strength of disease.[3]
Chakrapani Datta, while commenting on
Charaka Samhita, gave his view on the term
Vyadhikshamatva and explained the term in
two divisions, viz:[4]
(I) Vyadhi-balavirodhitvam: It is the capacity
to restrain or withstand the strength (severity)
of the diseases i.e. strength to resist the
progress of disease.
(II) Vyadhi-utpadakapratibandhakatva: The
resisting power of the body competent enough
to prevent the occurrence and re-occurrence of
the disease.
These sub-types of Vyadhikshamatva
commutatively form the resistance which now
a day known as Immunity.
There are nine factors mentioned in Ayurveda
which promotes body towards incapability to
resist the disease manifestation i.e. factors
responsible for decreasing immunity.[5]
1) Ati- Sthoola (Excessively obese persons)
2) Ati-Krisha (Excessively emaciated person)
3) Anivista-Mamsa (Individual having
improper musculature)
4) Anivista-Asthi (persons having defective
bone tissues)
5) Anivista-Shonita (persons with defective
blood)
6) Durbala (Constantly weak person)
7) Asatmya-Aaharopachita (Those nourished
with unwholesome food)
8) Alpa-Aaharopachita (Those taking diet in
small quantity)
9) Alpa-Sattva (Individuals with feeble mind)
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Relation of Vyadhikshamatva with various
factors
1. Sleshma
Kapha is one of the Tridosha (three humors-
Vata, Pitta and Kapha-which are said to be
responsible for maintenance of homeostasis or
equilibrium in the body), which possesses
properties such as Snigdha (unctousness), Sita
(cold, producing coldness), Guru (heavy)
Manda (slow in action), Slaksna (smooth),
Mrtsna (slimy) and Sthira (stable/static).[6]
Sleshma in normal state considered as Bala
and Oja while in abnormal state it is Mala
(waste) and Papma (diseases)[7] Function of
normal Kapha is like that of Ojas. Kapha in
normal state provides compactness, stability,
heaviness, virility, immunity, resistance,
courage and gracelessness.[8]
2. Hita and Ahita food
Some food substances are wholesome and
suitable for the body as the body can
inheritably transfer those substances into its
own by virtue of Jatisatmya. These are called
as Satmya or Hita substances. Water, ghee
milk and rice are few examples of general
wholesome food as these are completely
suitable for every human. On the other
contrary some substance do not suit to the
body and cause some adverse reaction. These
are known as Ahita or Asatmya substances.
Fire-burns, alkalis-cauterize, toxin-kills these
are the examples of Ahita substance. There are
three reasons seen for the ill-effects being
present in Ahita substance i.e. natural inherent
feature, physical or chemical combination and
refinement.[9]
Hita, Ahita Substance and
Vyadhikshamatva
Hita ahara is responsible to developed healthy
Dhatus and final product of Dhatus i.e. Ojus.
So increases in Ojus or Bala ultimately
increase Vyadhikshmatva. On the other hand,
Ahita substance if taken continuously then
leads to improper nourishment of Dhatus
which result in decreasing Ojus and
Vyadhikshmatva.
3. Relation of Bala and Vyadhikshamatva
Health of an individual depends upon good
strength of the body tissues. It is difficult to
treat the disease occurred in one whose body
strength is low[10] and hence Acharya Charaka
prefers the Bala (strength) examination of an
individual before starting the treatment.
Acharya Sushrutha mentioned that the final
and excellent essence of Dhatus begins with
Rasa to Shukra is Ojus and this Ojus is said to
be Bala. Dalhana has commented on this as
Ojus is the cause for predominance of Bala of
whole body.[11] Acharya Vagbhata also
supported view of Acharya Sushruta and
mentioned similar concept which clearly
indicates the close relation between Oja and
Vyadhikshamatva.[12]
Types of Bala
It is of three types Sahaja (constitutional),
Kalaja (temporal) and Yuktikrutajabala
(acquired).[13]
Sahaja Bala
Constitutional strength is the one which exists
in the mind and body from the very birth.
Kalaja Bala
Temporal strength is the one which is based
on division of seasons and age of the person.
In Adana kala (late winter, spring and
summers) Bala of individual will be less and
in Visarga kala (rainy seasons, autumn and
winter) it will be more. Bala will be Alpa
(minimum) in child and old age, Uttama
(maximum) in young age.
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Yuktikrutaja Bala
Acquired strength is the one which is achieved
by the combination of diet and physical
activities.
Factors responsible for promotion of
strength
There are 12 factors responsible for increasing
Bala (strength) of the body.[14]
1. Birth in a country where people are
naturally strong.
2. Birth at a time when people naturally
gain strength i.e. Hemanta (November
to January) and Shisira (January to
March)
3. Favorable deposition of time (pleasant
and moderate climate)
4. Excellence in the qualities of seed i.e.
sperm and ovum, and Asaya i.e. proper
anatomical and physiological status of
uterus of mother
5. Excellence of the ingested food
6. Excellence of the physique
7. Excellence of the Satmya
(wholesomeness of various factors
responsible for maintenance of the
body)
8. Excellence of the mind
9. Favorable deposition of the nature
10. Young age of both the parents i.e. they
should not be over aged
11. Habitual performance of exercise
12. Cheerful disposition and immense love
for each other.
The individuals possessing most of these
factors are naturally immune i.e.
Vyadhikshamatva for diseases.
4. Relation between Agni (food
assimilation power of body) and
Vyadhikshama
Acharya Charaka in the context of functions of
Agni narrated that, Dehagni or Jatharagni
(digestive power of stomach) is responsible
for life, color (luster of the skin), strength,
health, enthusiasm, plumpness, complexion,
Ojas (energy), Tejas ( gleam of the body),
other varieties of Agni and Prana (vitality).
Extinction of this Jatharagni leads to death. Its
proper maintenance helps a person to live a
long life and its impairment gives rise to
diseases. Therefore Jatharagni is considered to
be the root or the most important sustaining
factor of living beings.[15]
In this way immunity is influenced by the
power of Agni, digestive fire and our ability to
digest, assimilate and absorb nutrients in
human bodies. In a healthy, strong and
immune body, invaders get neutralized or
destroyed and expelled out of body. If Agni is
impaired by an imbalance within, the Tridosha
then metabolism will get affected, immune
response and natural resistance will also be
lowered.
5. Relation between Oja and
Vyadhikshamatva
According to Acharya Charaka, oja appeared
foremost in the human body during
embryogenesis.[16] The essence of Saptadhatus
(seven bodily tissues as from Rasa to Shukra
Dhatu), i.e. Rasa (plasma and lymph), Rakta
(blood cells), Mansa (connective and muscular
tissue), Meda (body fats e.g. adipose tissue),
Asthi (bones), Majja (bone marrow) and
Shukra (reproductive systems) is called Oja
and it is the seat for strength, hence called
Bala.[17] Ojas is Sara (essence) of Dhatus
ending with Sukra; through located in the
heart, it pervades all over body and control the
working of the body. It is viscous, unctuous,
greasy, Somatmaka (preponderant in watery
principal), clear (transparent) and slight
reddish yellow in color. By its loss
(destruction, absence) death will occur and by
its presence the body (and life) sure to survive.
Oja is the reason for different condition and
activities related with the body.[18]
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Ojakshaya (decrease or loss of Ojas)
Ojas undergoes decrease (in quantity) by
anger, hunger, worry, grief and exertion. With
such decrease, the person becomes fretful,
debilitated, worries much again (without
apparent reason), feels discomfort in the sense
organ, develop bad complexion, bad mention
and dryness of skin.[19]
6. Rasayana (Rejuvenation therapy) and
Vyadhikshamatva
Rasayana means the way for attaining
excellence in all body tissue through some
special measures and medicines. [20]Rasayana
therapy is one of eight major specialties of
Ayurveda. The concepts of immunity and
immunomodulation are extensively explored
and used in Ayurveda, particularly in the form
of Rasayana therapy.[21] According to
Ayurveda, Rasayana helps in strengthening
Oja, Bala and thus increases
Vyadhikshamatva.
Benefits of Rasayana therapy
Long life (good), memory, great intelligence,
perfect health, youthfulness, bright
complexion and color bold voice and
magnanimity, increase strength, of the body
and sense organ, perfection in speech, sexual
power and brilliance are all obtained from
proper Rasayana therapy.[22]
Classification of Rasayana[23]
According to method of use
1) Kutipraveshika Rasayana (indoor
Regimen)
2) Vatatapika Rasayana (outdoor
Regimen)
According to purpose
1) Aajasrika Rasayana (promoter of
health by some drug regimen and can
be consumed in all conditions)
2) Naimittika Rasayana (promoter of
specific vitality in specific disease)
3) Kamya Rasayana (promoter of health
in specific way in normal individual)
Concept of improving Vyadhikshamatva
(Immunization)
The following are looking to be the
immunization measures in Ayurveda.
1. Rasayana
2. Lehana (Lickables or Electuaries)
Taking Rasayana is helpful to increase the
immunity of the person to keep him away
from opportunistic diseases. The possible
mechanisms by which action of Rasayana can
be interpreted with modern aspects are;
nutritive function, immunomodulatory action,
antioxidant action, anti-aging effect, neuro-
protective action, haemopoietic effect etc. In
recent years numerous researches have been
done to explore Ayurvedic treasure for benefit
of common people to improve health by using
different Ayurvedic drugs. Some examples
are:
1. Immunostimulatory effect of
Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.[24]
2. Macrophage activation property of
Tinospora cordifolia Willd.[25]
3. Effect of some Indian herbs
(Asparagus racemosus Willd,
Tinospora cordifolia Willd., Withania
somnifera Daul and Picrorhiza
kurrooa Royle ex Benth.) on
macrophage functions in mice.[26]
4. Immunoprotection by Withania
somnifera Dunal, Tinospora cordifolia
Willd. and Asparagus racemosus
Willd. during cancer chemotherapy.[27]
5. Immunopotentiating property of
Tinospora cordifolia Willd.[28]
6. Augmentation of non-specific
immunity by gold preparations.[29]
7. Anti-cataleptic, anti-anxiety and anti-
depressant activity of gold.[30]
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8. Antioxidant activity of Momardica
charantia Linn, Glycyrrhiza glabra L,
Acacia catechu Willd. And Terminalia
chebula Retz.[31]
9. Antioxidative effect of triphala
(combination of Terminalia chebula
Retz,Terminalia belerica Roxb. and
Emblica officinalis Gaertn)[32]
10. Antibacterial activities of Emblica
officinalis Gaertn. and Coriandrum
sativum L.[33]
11. Antifungal activity of Curcuma longa
L.[34]
12. Haridradi Ghrita (Polyherbal
medicated ghruta) shows the
Immunomodulatory activity
(preferential stimulation of the
components of cell-mediated
immunity) in rats during a trail.[35]
13. Immunomodulatory activity of
Triphala (combination of fruit pulp of
Terminalia chebula Retz, Terminalia
belerica Roxb. and Emblica officinalis
Gaertn).[36]
14. Antioxidant activity of tannoid
principles of Emblica officinalis
Gaertn. (Amalaki).[37]
15. Anti-oxidant effect of Withania
somnifera Dunal. glycowithanolides in
rat.[38]
There are number of such studies through
which Ayurvedic single or multiple
formulations tested by experimental studies on
albino mice/rats etc. or reported the beneficial
effect of human trails, So these studies reveals
that there are wide range of possibilities
improving immunity and treatment in various
disease.
The selection of Rasayana
According to need, Rasayana drugs can be
administered by considering various factors
such as Age, Dhatu Deha Prakruti, Kala,
Disease,[39] to enhance memory.[40] And
Srotas,[41] (Table 1 to 7) Medhya Rasayana
drugs are life-promoting, disease-alleviating,
promoters of strength, and power of intellect.
Level of action of Rasayana drugs
Rasayana act at three levels such as at the
level of Poshaka Rasa (increases nutrition), at
the level of Agni (increases digestion and
assimilation of food) and at the level of Srotas
(increases absorption of food from serum to
various parts of body)[41]
Lehana
In Ayurvedic texts, various Acharays have
described countless useful formulations and
mode of conduct for children. Acharya
Kashyapa describes a special formulation by
the name of “Lehana”.[42]
The facts stated about Lehana are as under
Purposes of Lehana
1. To enhances growth & development by
providing sufficient nutrition.
2. Promote health, complexion and strength
(immunity).
3. Protect from various infections along with
improving intellect and speech (delayed
milestone).
Indication of Lehana
The children of a mother who are having no
breast milk, deficient milk, or vitiated milk of
parturient women (mother) or of a wet nurse
of similar condition who have predominance
of Vata and Pitta but not Kapha, who do not
get satisfied with the breast milk and cry
inspite of repeated sucking, children who do
not sleep at night, eat too much, pass scanty
urine and feces; children who have increased
digestive power, though free from disease yet
scraggy, have delicate body part and
emaciated, do not pass urine and feces even
for three days; such type of children should be
prescribed lehana ( electuaries).[43]
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Table 1: Rasayana drugs according to age
Decade of life (In years)
Loss of impact
Desirable Rasayanas
1-10
Balya
Vacha, Svarna
11-20
Vruddhi
Kashmari, Bala
21-30
Chhavi
Aamalaki, Lauha
31-40
Medha
Shankhapushpi
41-50
Twak
Jyotishmati
51-60
Drushti
Jyotishmati
61-70
Shukra
Aatmagupta, Ashwagandha
71-80
Vikrama
Aamalaki, Bala
81-90
Buddhi
Brahmi
91-100
Karmendriya
Bala Rasayana
Table 2: Rasayana according to Dhatu
Draksha, Kharjura, Kashmari
Aamalaki, Palandu, Lauha
Haritaki, Guggulu, Guduchi
Laksha, Shukti, Shankha
Aswagandha,Bala
Lauha, Majja, Vasa
Aatmagupta, Pippali, Nagabala
Table 3: Rasayana according to Deha Prakruti
Rasayana dravyas
Bala, Ghrita
Aamalaki, Shatavari
Bhallataka, Guggulu, Pippali
Table 4: Rasayana according to Kala
Rasyana dravyas
Shita Virya Laghu Guna- Aamalaki
Ushna Virya Guru Guna Bhallataka
Table 5: Rasayana according to Disease
Rasayana dravyas
Shilajatu, Haridra, Aamalaki
Bhallataka
Guggulu, Haritaki
Bhallataka
Tuvaraka
Lauha
Medhya Rasayana
Table 6: Medhya Rasayana (Nootropics drugs)
Drug
Part use
Mandukaparni
Swarasa (juice)
Yashtimadhu
Churna (powder)
Guduchi
Swarasa (juice)
Shankhapushpi
Kalka (paste)
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Table 7: Rasayana according to Srotas
Srotas
Rasatana dravyas
Pranavaha Srotas
Pippali, Bhallataka, Aamalaki, Maricha, Kasturi
Udakavaha Srotas
Panchakola, Kapardika, Shankha bhasma, Hingu, Nagakeshar
Rasavaha Srotas
Kharjura Manth, Laja Manda, Guduchi
Raktavaha Srotas
Loha bhasma, Go-Ghrita, Gorochana, Kushthaghna dravya
Mamsavaha Srotas
Karaskar, Svarna bhasma
Medovaha Srotas
Guggulu, Shilajatu, Kumbha
Asthivaha Srotas
Aabha
Majjavaha Srotas
Vacha, Markava, Raupya bhasma
Sukravaha srotas
Cow milk, vang bhasma
Mutravaha Srotas
Shilajatu,Gokshura,Punarnava
Purishvaha srotas
Kutaj,Bilwa,Haritaki
Swedavah srotas
Vang bhasma
Contraindications of Lehana
Conditions such as children having poor
digestive power, sleepy, passing excessive (in
quantity and number) amounts of urine and
stool, have indigestion, receive Guru (heavy)
breast milk, the mother consuming all Rasas,
suffer from disease of head and neck, in
Amaroga (disease of metabolism), fever,
diarrhea, Shotha (edema), jaundice, anemia,
cardiac disease, dyspnea, cough, disease of
rectum, urinary bladder and abdomen,
flatulence, Ganda (enlarged thyroid),
erysipelas, vomiting, anorexia, all Graha
disease and Alasaka should not be prescribed
lehana. Various compound and formulations
for lehana mentioned by Acharyas to increase
digestive and metabolic power, strength is
summarized below in brief: [43]
A. Acharya Kashyapa
1. Svaran Prasana - Pure gold (in small
quantity) is rubbed in water on a clean
stone and given with honey and Ghrita,
be given to child for licking. Licking
of gold increase intellect, digestive
power and metabolic power, strength,
gives long life, is auspicious, virtuous,
aphrodisiac, increase complexion and
elimination the (evil effect of)
Graha.[43]
2. Samvardhan ghrit
3. Brahmi ghrita
B. Acharya Charaka
1. Panchagavya ghrita[44] (Ghrita means
clarified butter made from cow‟s milk)
2. Brahmi ghrita[45]
3. Kalyanaka ghrit[46]
C. Acharya Sushruta
Sushruta has mentioned 4 recipes (containing
gold) which provide general immunity, body
resistance, helpful in growth and development
and enhancing the intelligence.[47] These are:
1. Svarna bhasm with Kustha (Saussurea
lappa C.B,Clarke), Vacha (Acorus
calamus Linn), Madhu (honey) &
ghee.
2. Svarna bhasm with paste of Brahmi
(Bacopa monnieri Linn), Sankhapuspi
(Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois.), with
honey & ghee.
3. Svarna bhasm, Arkpushpi
(Holostemma annularium Roxb.),
Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn), honey
& ghee.
4. Svarna bhasm, Khaidarya (Murraya
koenigii Linn), Sweta Durva (Cynodon
dactylon Linn.) ghee.
D. Acharya Vagbhata
1. Ashtanga ghrita
2. Sarshvata ghrita
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3. Vachadi ghrita
4. Combination of gold
a) Svarna (Gold), Vacha (Acorus
Calamus Linn ), Kushta
(Saussurea lappa C.B.Clarke)
b) Svarna (Gold), Arkapushpi
(Holostemma annularium Roxb.)
c) Svarna (Gold), Matsyakhyaka
(Alternanthera sessilis Linn.),
Shankhapushpi (Convolvulus
pluricaulis Chois.)
d) Svarna (Gold), Kaidarya (Murraya
koenigii Linn), Vacha (Acorus
Calamus Linn.) [48]
DISCUSSION
Vyadhikshamatva - resistance to diseases or
immunity against diseases is of two kinds i.e.
the one which attenuate the manifested disease
and other variety prevents the manifestation of
diseases. Sleshma in normal state considered
as Bala and Oja and function of normal Kapha
like that of Ojas. Agni (food assimilation
power of body) is important for proper
digestion of diet. Proper nourishment of
Dhatus will be depends on wholesome and
unwholesome food. Doshas are vitiated due to
continue taking unwholesome food ultimately
production of excellent essence of Dhatus i.e
Ojas is not done. Final and excellent essence
of Dhatus beginning with Rasa to Shukra is
Ojus and that Ojus is said to be Bala. The
concept of Vyadhikshamatva is related with
Kapha, Bala, Agni and Ojas. Ayurvedic
Rasayana therapy in light of the concepts of
modern immunology, particularly the
immunomodulation will be quite rewarding.
Many research works on the Rasarana drugs
are effective in improving immunity and
prevent the disease as antibacterial and
antifungal. Lehana is also helpful for the
strength, intelligence and ultimately improve
the immunity. Such attempts might bring
about much needed integration of traditional
Indian Ayurveda and modern scientific
medicine and help in the development of a
holistic approach towards human health.
CONCLUSION
Ayurvedic concept of Vyadhikshamatva is
simillar as normal condition of the Kapha,
Bala and Oja. Oja is final and excellence of
the product Dhatu and Vyadhikshamatva
depends on it. Production of excellence of
Dhatu depends on the Hita and Ahita Ahara
and Agni. Rasayana therapy help in produce
excellence Dhatu and lastly it convert into
Oja, ultimetaly increase in Oja and similarly
increase in immunity. Many researches proved
immunomodulatary effect of drugs which are
used in Rasayana therapy. Medhya Rasayana
(Nootropics drugs) is life-promoting, disease-
alleviating, promoters of strength, Agni,
complexion, voice and intellect-promoting.
Lehana will be also helpful in the improve
immunity. Hence, for attaining good
Vyadhikshamatva, we should use various
regimens and follow conducts as described in
Ayurvedic texts for the same.
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Source of Support: Nil
Conflict of Interest: None Declared
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The active principles of Tinospora cordifolia a traditional Indian plant were found to possess anticomplementary and immunomodulatory activities. Syringin (TC-4) and cordiol (TC-7) inhibited the in vitro immunohaemolysis of antibody-coated sheep erythrocytes by guinea pig serum. The reduced immunohaemolysis was found to be due to inhibition of the C3-convertase of the classical complement pathway. However, higher concentrations showed constant inhibitory effects. The compounds also gave rise to significant increases in IgG antibodies in serum. Humoral and cell-mediated immunity were also dose-dependently enhanced. Macrophage activation was reported for cordioside (TC-2), cordiofolioside A (TC-5) and cordiol (TC-7) and this activation was more pronounced with increasing incubation times.
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The antioxidant activity of Withania somnifera (WS) glycowithanolides was assessed in chronic footshock stress induced changes in rat brain frontal cortex and striatum. The stress procedure, given once daily for 21 days, induced an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) activity, with concomitant decrease in catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities in both the brain regions. WS glycowithanolides (WSG), administered orally 1 h prior to the stress procedure for 21 days, in the doses of 10, 20 and 50 mg/kg, induced a dose-related reversal of the stress effects. Thus, WSG tended to normalise the augmented SOD and LPO activities and enhanced the activities of CAT and GPX. The results indicate that, at least part of chronic stress-induced pathology may be due to oxidative stress, which is mitigated by WSG, lending support to the clinical use of the plant as an antistress adaptogen.
Article
Gold preparations are highly valued in Indian systems of medicine and extensively used for tonic and rejuvenating properties. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of Ayurvedic gold preparation Swarna Bhasma (SB) and Unani preparation Kushta Tila Kalan (KTK) on non-specific immunity in mice. A gold-containing drug auranofin (AN) used in modern medicine was studied for comparison. Male mice were administered with the incremental doses of these drugs orally for 10 days. Parameters of study included body weight, organ weight, peritoneal exudate cell (PEC) counts and phagocytic activity of PEC. Both test drugs (KTK and SB) significantly (P < 0.001) increased counts of peritoneal macrophages and stimulated phagocytic index of macrophages. AN elicited a suppressive action on these parameters. Traditional preparations of gold exhibited immunostimulant activity on macrophage functions in contrast to immunosuppressive effects of AN. This is an interesting observation and gives a rational basis to the claims of efficacy and safety of gold when used in calcined forms.
Article
Most of the synthetic chemotherapeutic agents available today are immunosuppressants, cytotoxic, and exert variety of side effects that are particularly evident in cancer chemotherapy. Botanical based immunomodulators are often employed as supportive or adjuvant therapy to overcome the undesired effects of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents and to restore normal health. Total extract, polar and non-polar extracts, and their formulations, prepared from medicinal plants mentioned in Ayurveda, namely, Withania somnifera (Linn Dunal) (Solanaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Miers) (Menispermaceae), and Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) (Liliaceae), exhibited various immunopharmacological activities in cyclophosphamide (CP)-treated mouse ascitic sarcoma. Treatment of ascitic sarcoma-bearing mice with a formulation of total extracts of Withania somnifera and Tinospora cordifolia (80:20) and alkaloid-free polar fraction of Withania somnifera resulted in protection towards CP-induced myelo- and immunoprotection as evident by significant increase in white cell counts and hemagglutinating and hemolytic antibody titers. Treatment with these candidate drugs will be important in development of supportive treatment with cancer chemotherapy.
Article
Effect of tannoid principles emblicanin A, emblicanin B, punigluconin, and pedunculagin of E. officinalis was assessed on chronic unpredictable footshock-induced stress-induced perturbations in oxidative free radical scavanging enzymes in rat brain frontal cortex and striatum. Chronic stress, administered over a period of 21 days, induced significant increase in rat brain frontal cortical and striatal superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, concomitant with significant reduction in catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity. The changes in the enzyme activities was accompanied by an increase in lipid peroxidation, in terms of augmented thiobarbituric acid-reactive products. Administration of Emblica tannoids (10 and 20 mg, po) for 21 days, concomitant with the stress procedure, induced a dose-related alteration in the stress effects. Thus, a tendency towards normalization of the activities of SOD, CAT and GPX was noted in both the brain areas, together, with reduction in lipid peroxidation. The results indicate that the reported antistress rasayana activity of E. officinalis may be, at least partly due to its tendency to normalize stress-induced perturbations in oxidative free radical scavenging activity, in view of the postulate that several stress-induced diseases, including the process of aging, may be related to accumulation of oxidative free radicals in different tissues.
Article
Four aqueous extracts from different parts of medicinal plants used in Ayurveda (an ancient Indian Medicine) viz., Momardica charantia Linn (AP1), Glycyrrhiza glabra (AP2), Acacia catechu (AP3), and Terminalia chebula (AP4) were examined for their potential as antioxidants. The antioxidant activity of these extracts was tested by studying the inhibition of radiation induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes at different doses in the range of 100-600 Gy as estimated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Of all these extracts, AP4 showed maximum inhibition in the TBARS formation and hence is considered the best antioxidant among these four extracts. The extracts were found to restore antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the radiation induced damage. The antioxidant capacities were also evaluated in terms of ascorbate equivalents by different methods such as cyclic voltammetry, decay of ABTS(.-) radical by pulse radiolysis and decrease in the absorbance of DPPH radicals. The results were found to be in agreement with the lipid peroxidation data and AP4 showed maximum value of ascorbate equivalents. Therefore AP4, with high antioxidant activity, is considered as the best among these four extracts.