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A new hadrosaurid from the Upper Cedar Mountain Formation (Albian-Cenomanian: Cretaceous) of Eastern Utah-the oldest known hadrosaurid (lambeosaurine?)

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... Eolambia caroljonesa Kirkland, 1998 is a large hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of the United States, described based on specimens from the Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah State (Kirkland, 1998). The species is known by copious fossil material, including adult and juvenile skeletal remains, eggshell fragments, and tracks, indicating that it was one of the most abundant large herbivores of the Upper Cretaceous of Southwestern United States (Kirkland, 1998). ...
... is a large hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of the United States, described based on specimens from the Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah State (Kirkland, 1998). The species is known by copious fossil material, including adult and juvenile skeletal remains, eggshell fragments, and tracks, indicating that it was one of the most abundant large herbivores of the Upper Cretaceous of Southwestern United States (Kirkland, 1998). ...
... is a large hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of the United States, described based on specimens from the Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah State (Kirkland, 1998). The species is known by copious fossil material, including adult and juvenile skeletal remains, eggshell fragments, and tracks, indicating that it was one of the most abundant large herbivores of the Upper Cretaceous of Southwestern United States (Kirkland, 1998). It was originally described as a basal member of Hadrosauridae, but subsequent studies found it to be a basal hadrosauroid outside of that family (Head, 2001;Normand 2002;Normand, 2004;McDonald et al., 2010). ...
... This represents the highest number of dentary alveolar positions recorded in any hadrosauriform taxon that possesses one active and one replacement crown per alveolar position and alveolar septa shaped by the teeth (Supplementary material, Table S2), in contrast to more deeply nested taxa with higher numbers of replacement teeth. Other non-hadrosaurid hadrosauriforms with similar alveolar counts first appeared in the Cenomanian with 30 in Eolambia caroljonesa (Kirkland 1998;McDonald et al. 2012b) and 28 in Protohadros byrdi (Head 1998), although both of these taxa possess more hadrosaurid-like dentaries with parallel-sided alveolar septa as well as more teeth in each tooth position (two active and two replacement teeth for each alveolar position in the former ] and at least three and possibly four teeth per tooth file in the latter [Head 1998]). In dorsal view the alveolar row forms a slight sigmoid curve but is essentially straight for most of its length, except posteriorly where it curves laterally to meet the base of the coronoid process. ...
... The number of dentary tooth positions in hadrosauriforms Although the majority of non-hadrosaurid hadrosauriform taxa are represented by single specimens or lack relevant cranial material, there is evidence to support an increase in the number of tooth positions in this clade during ontogeny. Examples where data are available include Eolambia caroljonesa (Kirkland 1998;McDonald et al. 2012b), Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus (Weishampel et al. 1993) and Bolong yixianensis (Wu et al. 2010;Zheng et al. 2014), although these largely compare very immature juveniles and perinates with mature specimens. The perinates of Iguanodon galvensis were also noted to have relatively low tooth counts compared to a mature Iguanodon bernissartensis (Verd u et al. 2015). ...
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A new genus and species of non-hadrosaurid hadrosauriform dinosaur, Brighstoneus simmondsi gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Lower Cretaceous Wessex Formation of the Isle of Wight. The new taxon has two autapomorphies, a nasal having a modest nasal bulla with convex sides, and primary and accessory ridges on the lingual aspect of the maxillary crown. The dentary has at least 28 alveolar positions, which is the highest number recorded in an ornithopod with non-parallel sided alveoli, creating a character combination that is unique within Iguanodontia. The hadrosauriform fauna of the Barremian–Aptian Wealden Group on both the Isle of Wight and mainland England has been represented for almost a century by just two taxa, the robust Iguanodon bernissartensis and the more gracile Mantellisaurus atherfieldensis, with referred material often being fragmentary or based on unassociated elements. This discovery increases the known hadrosauriform diversity in England and, together with recent discoveries in Spain, suggests that their diversity in the upper Wealden of Europe was considerably wider than initially realized. This find also has important implications for the validity of the Mantellisaurus atherfieldensis hypodigm, and a reassessment of existing material is suggested. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:31F0D48F-C1DA-406E-A811-1F5937ED19F4
... The prezygapophyses are triangular in cross-section and situated dorsally on the transverse processes; they extend posterolaterally beyond the posterior articular surfaces when viewed in dorsal aspect. A horizontal ridge extends across the lateral surfaces of some centra, which is similar to the cervicals of Bactrosaurus johnsoni (Godefroit et al., 1998) and Eolambia caroljonesa Kirkland, 1998(McDonald et al., 2012a; this ridge becomes more pronounced in the posterior cervicals, but is accentuated by crushing. ...
... Alternatively, the posterior fusion of the medial and lateral distal condyles to form an enclosed flexor tunnel constitutes a unique character state for T. sinensis, which was also noticed by Wiman (1929:55), who described it as "Zwischen den beiden Condyli liegen zwei Löcher" (literally translated to "between the two condyli, two holes are situated"). Although perhaps ontogenetically related (Grigorescu and Csiki, 2006), a fully enclosed flexor tunnel contrasts with the usual hadrosaurid condition of having only the anterior extremities of the lateral and medial femoral condyles fused together (Horner et al., 2004;Juárez Valieri et al., 2010); this condition is also present in T. transylvanicus (Weishampel et al., 1993), B. johnsoni (Godefroit et al., 1998), Gobihadros mongoliensis (Tsogtbaatar et al., 2019), and the iguanodontians O. nigerensis (Taquet, 1976) and Proa valdearinnoensis McDonald, Espílez, Mampel, Kirkland andAlcalá, 2012b (McDonald et al., 2012b). Importantly, posterior elongation of the flexor tunnel occurs in Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus and Shantungosaurus giganteus (Young, 1958;Hu et al., 2001), but this can be discriminated from the autapomorphically complete enclosure found in T. sinensis. ...
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Tanius sinensis was one of the first dinosaur species to be named from China. It was established on a partial skeleton recovered by a joint Sino-Swedish expedition in 1923. The fossils were excavated from Upper Cretaceous strata of the Jiangjunding Formation (Wangshi Group) in Shandong Province, and although their discovery dates back almost 100 years, they have not been reassessed in detail since their initial description in 1929. This omission is critical because T. sinensis is now recognized as one of the stratigraphically youngest non-hadrosaurid hadrosauroid taxa. Here, we re-evaluate the postcranial osteology of T. sinensis as a prelude to an anatomical and phylogenetic revision of the species. We examined the holotype and all currently referred specimens of T. sinensis first-hand, and identified a unique postcranial character state combination incorporating tall dorsal neural spines, a reduced postacetabular ridge on the ilium, a fully enclosed flexor tunnel formed by the distal condyles of the femur, and a lunate proximal end on metatarsal III. Comparisons with other species of Tanius confirm that: (1) T. chingkankouensis is a nomen dubium erected on non-diagnostic composite material; (2) T. laiyangensis was established on indeterminate hadrosaurid remains that are not attributable to Tanius; and (3) the anecdotal assignments of Bactrosaurus prynadai and Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus to Tanius cannot be substantiated. Close inspection of the holotype caudal vertebra further reveals a possible healed bite trace consistent with a prey-predator interaction. Lastly, our calculated average body mass estimate for T. sinensis of between 2091-3533 kg suggests that it was one of the largest non-hadrosaurid hadrosauroids.
... ORNITHOPODA Marsh, 1881 HADROSAUROIDEA Cope, 1863 NCSM 33320, NCSM 33321, andNCSM 33323 (Figs. 13A-13O) are hadrosauroid teeth possibly referable to Eolambia caroljonesa, the only hadrosauroid yet described from the Mussentuchit Member Kirkland, 1998;McDonald et al., 2017). The teeth show considerable wear and are marked by linear and branched tubule ridges along the transverse cross section. ...
... Several morphotypes of ornithischian teeth are represented at COI, suggesting a large diversity of herbivorous dinosaurs, most of which are already documented via published or undescribed macrovertebrate remains (Kirkland, 1998;Carpenter et al., 1999;Makovicky, Zanno & Gates, 2015;Zanno & Makovicky, 2016). A quantitative morphological analysis coupled with publication of these specimens will aid in producing more refined identifications. ...
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The vertebrate fauna of the Late Cretaceous Mussentuchit Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation has been studied for nearly three decades, yet the fossil-rich unit continues to produce new information about life in western North America approximately 97 million years ago. Here we report on the composition of the Cliffs of Insanity (COI) microvertebrate locality, a newly sampled site containing perhaps one of the densest concentrations of microvertebrate fossils yet discovered in the Mussentuchit Member. The COI locality preserves osteichthyan, lissamphibian, testudinatan, mesoeucrocodylian, dinosaurian, metatherian, and trace fossil remains and is among the most taxonomically rich microvertebrate localities in the Mussentuchit Member. To better refine taxonomic identifications of isolated theropod dinosaur teeth, we used quantitative analyses of taxonomically comprehensive databases of theropod tooth measurements, adding new data on theropod tooth morphodiversity in this poorly understood interval. We further provide the first descriptions of tyrannosauroid premaxillary teeth and document the earliest North American record of adocid remains, extending the appearance of this ancestrally Asian clade by 5 million years in western North America and supporting studies of pre-Cenomaninan Laurasian faunal exchange across Beringia. The overabundance of mesoeucrocodylian remains at the COI locality produces a comparatively low measure of relative biodiversity when compared to other microvertebrate sites in the Mussentuchit Member using both raw and subsampling methods. Much more microvertebrate research is necessary to understand the roles of changing ecology and taphonomy that may be linked to transgression of the Western Interior Seaway or microhabitat variation.
... En Iguanocolossus fortis (McDonald et al., 2010) está parcialmente cubierto y no se ve externamente. En Ludusaurus arenatus (Taquet & Russell, 1999), Ouranosaurus nigeriensis (Taquet, 1976) y Eolambia caroljonesa (Kirkland, 1998), el foramen obturador está totalmente cerrado. ...
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A nearly complete right dentary originally noted by Mantell in 1848 is redescribed. The specimen, NHMUK 28660, was discovered in a quarry near Cuckfield, West Sussex, from the same formation as the original teeth of Iguanodon anglicus. Fresh examination reveals that NHMUK 28660 exhibits a single autapomorphy (a row of foramina extending from the ventral surface of the symphysis onto the lateral surface of the dentary) and a unique combination of characters that distinguish it from all other iguanodontian dentaries. In light of this and because I. anglicus is regarded as a nomen dubium to which additional material cannot be unambiguously referred, NHMUK 28660 is made the holotype of the new genus and species Kukufeldia tilgatensis.
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