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Effects of Dietary Mineral Intake on Hair and Serum Mineral Contents of Horses

Authors:
  • Gilan Agriculural and Natural Resources Research and Education center. Rasht, Iran

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary mineral intake on serum and hair mineral contents of healthy horses. Twelve registered horses were used in a balanced change over design with three periods (each period, 56 days; the interval between periods, 7 days), four treatments, nine replicates per treatment, and four blocks (two genders and two age groups, <3 and ≥3 years). Two different levels (0% and 2.2% of the diet) of minerals were added to one of two different levels of daily dry matter intakes (50% and 100% of requirements) to make the dietary treatments. Mane hair and serum samples were collected at the end of each period and measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry method. The mineral contents of serum, except copper and strontium, were not affected by dietary treatments (P > .05). The effect of dietary treatments on hair calcium, cobalt, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, phosphorus, sulfur, selenium, strontium, and zinc concentrations was significant (P ≤ .05), with higher values for mineral-supplemented diets provided at 100% of their requirements. Except for phosphorus, the effect of age on hair calcium, cobalt, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, lead, sulfur, selenium, strontium, and zinc concentrations and calcium-to-potassium, zinc-to-copper, calcium-to-lead, and sulfur-to-lead ratios were not significant (P > .05). For gender, the ratios of calcium to lead, iron to lead, and sulfur to copper in hair were higher in males than females (P ≤ .05). The hair showed to be a better biological indicator for mineral status in horse than the serum.
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... On the other hand, blood analysis indicates the current intake of elements (Jenkins 1979;Ahmad et al. 2013). As blood is prone to fluctuations and homeostatic regulation, hair has been considered a more stable medium for reflecting dietary intake of elements in humans and other animals (Perry et al. 1976;Ghorbani et al. 2015;Kim et al. 2016). During the last decade the interest in hair analysis among canine researchers has increased and it has become evident that not only dietary intake, but also age, sex, hair color, physiological status, health status, living environment, laboratory washing procedures, and in some cases breed, may also affect hair element concentrations in dogs (Chyla and Zyrnicki 2000;Park et al. 2005;So et al. 2016;Davies et al. 2017b;Sgorlon et al. 2019;Chun et al. 2020). ...
... In accordance with previous studies (Tsai et al. 2000;Chyla and Zyrnicki 2000), hair Ca and Mg concentrations were significantly higher in dark-colored compared to lightcolored dogs, highlighting the importance of considering hair color in future research. Hair Ca and Mg concentrations were also affected by diet, being higher in mixed diet fed (Ghorbani et al. 2015;Kim et al. 2016), and as many of the mixed diet fed dogs ate complete dry foods mixed with bone-containing raw foods, the total Ca content of their diets was probably higher. However, other dietary factors such as vitamin D and Mg can also raise hair Ca concentrations (Jeruszka-Bielak and Brzozowska 2011). ...
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Obtaining correct amounts of essential elements, and avoiding toxic metals are key factors in dog health. Through analyzing major and trace elements in hair and blood of 50 healthy companion dogs using ICP-MS, we study their associations with dog characteristics and diet, hypothesizing that eating the same diet long-term results in strong correlations between hair and blood element concentrations, and that dog characteristics and diet affect element status. The correlation between hair and blood was significant for Hg (R = 0.601, p = 0.000) and Pb (R = 0.384, p = 0.010). The following associations were significant (p < 0.05): Dark hair had higher Ca and Mg compared to light hair. Females had higher hair Zn, blood Mn, and blood As compared to males. Blood Mn and Se increased, while blood Pb decreased with age. Raw diet fed dogs had higher hair Zn and Se compared to dry or mixed diet fed dogs, and lower blood Mn compared to dry diet fed dogs. Dry and mixed diet fed dogs had higher blood Cd compared to raw diet fed dogs. Mixed diet fed dogs had higher hair Ca and Mg compared to raw or dry diet fed dogs, and higher hair Pb compared to dry diet fed dogs. Wild game consumption was associated with higher blood Pb, and rice consumption with higher blood As. In conclusion, hair provides an alternative for assessing Hg and Pb exposure, and major and trace elements status is affected by hair color, sex, age, and diet.
... 1,9 Positive correlations were found between dietary intake and horsehair mineral concentrations in a study in which mineral exposure was well-controlled. 7 In another study, weak-positive correlations were found between hair concentrations and age for XXX10.1177/10406387221116069Hair trace minerals in horsesvan der Merwe et al. ...
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Analysis of hair to gain insight into the trace mineral status and exposure to toxic heavy metals of horses is attractive because hair is an easily accessible sample material. To investigate the potential value of hair analysis in horses for determination of trace mineral and heavy metal concentrations, we analyzed mane hair and liver samples from 62 horses presented for slaughter at a facility in the Netherlands that receives horses from all regions of the country. Hair samples were cleaned in warm water. After acid digestion of hair and liver specimens, we quantified, with inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc in the digests. Based on Pearson product moment correlations, we found no statistically significant correlations between concentrations of trace minerals in liver and hair, with the exception of a slight correlation for copper that was too weak to be of clinical relevance. Our results do not support the use of hair to determine trace mineral status and exposure to toxic heavy metals in the horse under field conditions.
... Liver is the primary storage organ best representative of Co and vitamin B12 levels [45,47,51]. Hair can be a good indicator of Co status in horses, with the relationship between dietary Co intake and hair Co concentrations more apparent at higher concentrations [52]. In our study, 93.5% of samples had Co concentrations below the LOQ, which introduced greater variability when assessing correlations. ...
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... The sera were kept at room temperate (25ºC) for 24 h before centrifuged. Sera were centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 15 min and stored in eppendorf tubes 1.5 ml) at -20ºC before being analyzed 33 . ...
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... Determination of mineral and trace element contents in human hair can be successfully used in the diagnosis of many major diseases such as multiple sclerosis [14], oncological diseases [15,16], and metabolic syndrome [17], in the detection of pathologies caused by heavy metals [18]. Hair analysis is also admitted as a suitable method for assessing mineral metabolism and health status of animals: horses [19][20][21][22], goats [23], cats [24], dogs [25], wild animals [26,27], and cattle as well [28][29][30]. This is supported by close connection between the concentration of trace elements in hair and blood of dairy cows [28,29] and by informativeness of cow's hair as an indicator sample for longterm assessment of metabolism [30][31][32]. ...
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... The observed gender difference in mane hair trace element content corresponds to different trace element requirements in male and female horses [17] and nutrient intake (Table 1). It has been demonstrated that dietary intake has a significant effect on hair trace element content in horses [20]. Gender may have a significant impact on trace element metabolism. ...
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