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Look and tell: using photo-elicitation methods with teenagers

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Abstract

This article reflects on the usefulness of photo elicitation in research with young people. As part of an Economic and Social Research Council-funded project exploring conflict and divisions in contested cities, teenagers living or attending schools in segregated areas of Belfast were presented with 11 photographs depicting the city's traditional ethno religious divisions, the new ‘post conflict’ consumerist city and youth subcultures. In response to each photo, the young people produced individual written comments and their opinions were fleshed out during follow-up focus group interviews. Drawing on these responses, the strengths and weaknesses of using photo elicitation in research with young people and its capacity to generate new insights into teenagers' spatial perceptions and experiences are outlined.

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... Our study encountered several areas in which we felt that cultural forms remained closed to us by using conventional techniques, such as observations and interviews, and that there was a need for further enhancement of the fieldwork experience, thus of the method, though lacking further explanation from mainstream literature. Like others before (Kearney & Hyle, 2004;Leonard & McKnight, 2015;Packard, 2008), we decided to address the problem by including "creative" techniques, such as participant-made drawings and sociograms, tools that were used both in the data gathering process and in the analysis and interpretation of the data. Through this strategy, not only did our research benefit from the use of these techniques as previously reported (Harper, 2012;Pink, 2001Pink, , 2013, producing an alter language that reconstructed and expanded the limits of discourses (Gadamer, 1990); these nonconventional techniques also helped participants become more committed to the research and in the process facilitated the construction of meaning (Holstein & Gubrium, 2008). ...
... Through the drawing, we not only learnt about the participant's expectations, memories, and fears but also experimented with the methodological power of images. The linguistic flexibility enabled a shift away from power imbalances between researcher and researched that verbal representation so often betray (Harper, 2012;Leonard, 2006;Leonard & McKnight, 2015;Pink, 2001Pink, , 2013. ...
... This problem made our data seem nonorthodox, difficult to present as a serious and trustworthy fieldwork outcome, and eventually a piece of data that was open to biased interpretation and problematic to integrate and analyze through a traceable process. In light of recent developments (Leonard & McKnight, 2015;Packard, 2008;Schyns, Tymon, Kiefer, & Kerschreiter, 2013;Tracy, Lutgen-Sandvik & Alberts, 2006) and the present experience, this idea may thus be revisited. In fact, problems may arise because of researchers' lack of familiarity with data sources that are not typically ethnographic, because of how well or how poorly visuals are used, and because of the availability of an appropriate method for a qualitatively oriented analysis. ...
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Although systematic observation and interviews are the most common techniques in ethnography, a deep understanding requires research tools adapted to exploring beyond the observational scope. Nonconventional methods can support ethnography and complement observations and thus refine the construction of meaning. Qualitative research literature deals disproportionately more with some forms of data, typically text, lacking a structured method for visuals. This article arises from a case study using nonconventional methods, such as sociograms and participant-made drawings, and presents a structured method to attain enriched ethnographic analysis. Using this structured method, the research then draws on representation, visualization, and interaction as ports of entry into group dynamics. The aim being to open a way to discovery when visual and interactional representations do not easily translate into words. Spoken language presupposes an ability to capture and convey thought with precision and clarity and to know how the interlocutor may interpret words. A structured method to analyze images can fruitfully assist in the process. Since every research participant has a view on or a way of making sense of the research subject, the method is universal in application.
... In our exploration of TE as a potentially child-friendly method, we were guided by the work on visual and creative methods. These methods are often related to the research aim of addressing possible power imbalances between adults and children (Leonard and McKnight 2015;Gabhainn and Sixsmith 2006;Zartler and Richter 2014). In photo (elicitation) interviewswhich recently have been extensively discussed in childhood studies (among others: Wickenden and Kembhavi 2014; Leonard and McKnight 2015; Zartler and Richter 2014)photographs (often taken by the children) are discussed and analysed by researcher(s) and children within the interview context. ...
... These methods are often related to the research aim of addressing possible power imbalances between adults and children (Leonard and McKnight 2015;Gabhainn and Sixsmith 2006;Zartler and Richter 2014). In photo (elicitation) interviewswhich recently have been extensively discussed in childhood studies (among others: Wickenden and Kembhavi 2014; Leonard and McKnight 2015; Zartler and Richter 2014)photographs (often taken by the children) are discussed and analysed by researcher(s) and children within the interview context. This enabled the atmosphere of a negotiated research process in which adult-child power imbalances were challenged. ...
... Furthermore, there is no predetermined division between performers and audiences in TE. In TE, we combine the show and tell elements of drama with the 'look and tell' components that are successfully applied in photo elicitation (see Leonard and McKnight 2015). The processes of (1) creating a performance, (2) performing and (3) discussing a performance are all part of the ongoing interactive research which, to our knowledge, is a unique combination of features that result in a potentially child-friendly research tool wherein children and adults constantly work together. ...
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This article discusses the growing body of literature published in Children Geographies on the importance of involving children in research processes. Inspired by participatory creative methods such as photo elicitation and popular/forum theatre, we have developed a potentially child-friendly tool referred to as Theatre Elicitation (TE). The objective of TE is to use theatre forms as a means of data collection in the context of a negotiated research process. In a pilot project in which we explore TE, children shared their perceptions of happiness. This was inspired by a UNICEF Report [2007. Child Poverty in Perspective: An Overview of Child Well-being in Rich Countries. Innocenti Report Card 7. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre] that listed ‘Dutch children’ as the happiest of the world. The focus of this article is the development of TE as an interactive research tool. Insights were gained into the meaning of ‘child-friendly’ research, shifting power relations between children, peers and adults, and how children’s own positioning in lived experiences contextualized concepts such as ‘Dutch children’.
... The cases in this study were two groups of girls and young women (age 14-21) engaged in leisure organizations in rural Northern Sweden. The complexity of the phenomenon under investigation required a methodology in which the young people's own experiences, situations, and strategies are central, both in terms of the data collected and the knowledge production itself (Leonard & McKnight, 2015). To capture this complexity, data were comprehensivley collected through participatory observations in addition to focus groups using photo elicitation. ...
... This method allows us to explore how social processes and different topics are elaborated upon, a process which has been termed collective sense-making (Braun & Clarke, 2013). Our decision to include photo elicitation was mainly in line with what Leonard and McKnight (2015) emphasize as the possibility to pave the way for wider dialogue on aspects of social life and to reduce some of the power dynamics between adult researchers and young participants. Participatory observations provided the opportunity to focus not solely on the social processes between the participants but also on the interaction between the contexts of our cases and these social processes (DeWalt & DeWalt, 2011;Guest et al., 2013). ...
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Purpose: Stress and achievement pressure constitute factors affecting young people’s mental health, especially among girls. Leisure participation holds the potential to be a collective space where young people can respond to stressors together. This study explores how girls collectively construct responses to daily stressors within the context of leisure participation. Methods: Nine focus groups were conducted with 16 girls aged 14–21 who were active members in two sport organizations in northern Sweden. Data was collected by using participatory observations and photo-elicited focus group discussions. Results: Our findings from the inductive thematic analysis were interpreted by combining the stress process model with social practice theory, resulting in three subthemes or responses: sharing sites of responsibility, resisting norms related to (gendered) youth and focused distraction. The subthemes were abstracted into the central theme of trustful belonging as a resource for collective responses, representing what pre-conditions need to be in place to make the responses possible. Conclusion: Leisure participation is an important relational space for young people to respond to stressors by making use of everyday routines, and the agency these social practices hold. However, the effort needed to respond to these stressors brought additional pressure in terms of responsibilities, and achievements.
... Participatory photography in a variety of forms e.g. photo elicitation (Harper, 2002;Leonard and McKnight, 2015), photo novella (Wang and Bu rris, 1994), or photovoice (Wang, 1999(Wang, , 2006 Photovoice draws on Freire's (1970) philosophy of problem -posing education, by using photographs to foster critica l analysis of social problems and col lective action (Mikha ilovich et al., 2015). It is based on the idea that photographs can enable and faci litate discussion and can assist people to explore solutions to challenges they may be facing (Mi kha ilovich et al., 2015). ...
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In South Africa, students who are poor, black and come from ru ral commun ities with poorly resourced schools are vu lnerable to being victims of epistemic injustice. This is because they are usually seen as under-appreciated knowers who have low (Eng lish) language proficiency and deficits in academ ic literacy. In an attempt to provide a nuanced characterisation of youth from rural areas, this paper reflects on one student's life-history interviews and his photo-story that form part of data collected since 2017 for M iratho-a project on achieved higher education lea rn ing outcomes for low-income university students. The paper uses a capabili ties approach as an interpretive framework for the qualitative data and theo rises that students' li nguistic capital and narrative capital are epistemic materials that can be mobil ised into the 'capability for epistemic contribution' as conceptua lised by Miranda Fricker. The paper thus makes a case for higher education resea rchers and educators to recogn ise poo r black youth from ru ral communities as both givers and takers of knowledge or 'epistem ic contributors'. It argues that doing so constitutes an eth ica l response to the structura l inequali ties that limit equitable university access and pa rticipation for youth in this demogra phic.
... Enteringthisnewworld,socialscientistsandethnographersseektobetterunderstandphenomena theyobserveandexperience.Therearemanywaystousephotographstobettertheethnographic researchprojectastheyaidinvestigatorstodecentertheresearcherandcentertheparticipantwitha storythatonlythatpersoncantell.Readingtheacademicliteratureusingtypicalethnographyasa method,themethodologicalpatterninvolvesanethnographerlivingamongthepeopleunderstudy whogathersdatathroughatriangulationofobservation,self-reporting,andinterviews (Carspecken, 1996;Creswell,2012;Madison,2012;Patton,2002;).Usingthismethod,however,withoutanykind ofintermediarybetweentheresearcherandtheparticipant,theresearcherrunstheriskofseeing exactlywhatsheorheistheretoseeandnothingmore.Thesemethodscanallbeenhanced,andthe volumeandqualityofdatagreatlyextended,byusingphotosasaconduittogaininsightintothe livedexperiencesoftheparticipants (Bridger,2013;Crilly,Blackwell,&Clarkson,2006;Croghan, Griffin, Hunter, & Phoenix, 2008;Gauntlett & Holzwarth, 2006;Hergenrather, 2009;Jorgenson & Sullivan, 2010;Leonard & McKnight, 2014;Lomax, Fink, Singh, & High, 2011;Mandleco, 2013;Miller,2015;Padgett,etal.,2013;Prosser&Loxley,2007;Richard&Lahman,2014;Shaw, 2013;Wang&Burris,1994;Zartler&Richter,2012).Instudiesthatusephotos,theybecomethat intermediary,releasingtheresearcherfromherorhisowntunnelvisionandallowingtheparticipant toavoidthe'inspectinggaze ',asFoucaultdescribedit(1980,p.155).Forparticipants,talkingabout apicturereleasesthemfromthegazeoftheresearcher,addingtocomfortandpotentiallyeliminating theself-consciousinterviewswheretheresearcherwritesnotesandasksuncomfortablequestions. ...
Article
The use of photographs in ethnographic education research is an emerging method that promises to enable scholars to collect deeper, more meaningful data from individuals who may otherwise be silenced. When used to empower participants, photo methodologies can remove what Foucault (1980) described as the analytical “gaze,” allowing for discussions of difficult or taboo subjects like race, sex, gender, and dis/ability (p. 155). This article discusses the development of photo methods in ethnographic education research, contributes practical suggestions as to their use, and provides successful examples where photos have empowered study participants. To do both science and justice in cooperation with one's participants, empowering communities and individuals and collecting trustworthy data are equal goals. Using photos in the reviewed studies achieved positive results for participants and revealed new understandings of communities, culture, and individuals.
... Research interests have concerned children's experiences of, for example the journey to school, local communities, school, playschool and day care as well as everyday life (see e.g. Barker and Weller 2003;Cook and Hess 2007;Einarsdottir 2005;Leonard and McKnight 2015;Mykkänen and Böök 2013;Punch 2002a;Pyle 2013;White et al. 2010). In photo elicitation, the aim is to use photographs as triggers in the discussion and to facilitate interaction between researcher and child (Cook and Hess 2007;Mykkänen and Böök 2013). ...
Article
In this article, we focus on child perspective methodology when co-researching well-being with children and young people. The paper explores how to produce and analyse data produced with children and young people, and how to further develop the method of co-researching with them? We combined visual and verbal methods by using photo elicitation interviews (N = 16) and drawing group discussions (N = 49) to study the subjective well-being of 2–16-year-olds in their residential areas. We found out that by combining two methods it is possible to achieve a wider view of children’s subjective well-being. However, we must be aware that well-being is a complex entity and that there are barriers to use child perspective methods. Co-researching requires situationality, reciprocity and the researcher’s willingness to hear the perspectives of children.
... We used a photo-elicitation approach specifically to support participants' agency and power in the research given the power differentials between the students and the academic researchers. Rumpf (2017) and other researchers (for example Leonard & McKnight, 2015;Miller, 2016;Richard & Lahman, 2015;Stahl, 2017;Torre & Murphy, 2015) identify participant-generated photo-elicitation as particularly effective in this regard, ensuring "participants have a voice in the research process and generates[ing] a surprising depth of information while responsibly approaching the sensitive nature of such research" (Rumpf, 2017, p. 21). In our approach we asked participants to photograph what was meaningful to them. ...
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Exposing pre-service teachers to international professional experiences through a short-term visiting programme serves to challenge their understandings of good quality practice through disturbing assumptions and expectations previously formed through experiences in their own country/culture. Much of the research in international study focuses on pre-service teachers preparing to teach in primary, secondary or language classes. In this study we present the perceptions of pre-service early childhood students who underwent a short-term international experience. In particular we explore the ways in which their experiences impacted on their understandings of quality early childhood service provision. In the increasingly neoliberal Australian early childhood sector externally imposed standards define quality and this is enacted in relatively homogenous ways in practice, opportunities to observe practice arising from different understandings serves to challenge thinking, potentially leading to different world views (Piaget’s accommodation).
... In photo-elicitation, researchers use photographs, supplied by the researcher or the participants in an interview or focus group context, as a tool to foster discussion (Harper, 2002). For instance, Leonard and McKnight (2015) in their interviews with young participants about navigating certain spaces in Belfast introduced researcher-generated images of these urban spaces into the interview with the goal of deepening the discussion. Researchers have given various names to forms of photoelicitation where the photos are taken by participants rather than researchers and then discussed in an interview or focus group setting, including "auto-driven photo-elicitation" (Mandleco, 2013), "participant-driven photo-elicitation" (Danker, Strnadová, & Cumming, 2017), "photo self-elicitation" (Mizen, 2005), and "participant-generated photo-elicitation (Guillemin & Drew, 2010). ...
Article
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Participant-generated photo-elicitation usually involves inviting participants to take photographs, which are then discussed during a subsequent interview or in a focus group. This approach can provide participants with the opportunity to bring their own content and interests into research. Following other child and youth researchers, we were drawn to the potential of participant-generated photo-elicitation to offer a methodological counterweight to existing inequalities between adult researchers and younger participants. In this article, we reflect on our use of one-on-one, participant-generated photo-elicitation interviews in a Canadian-based research project looking at young people’s earliest paid work. We discuss some of the challenges faced when it came to gaining institutional ethics approval and also report on how the method was unexpectedly but productively altered by participants’ use of publicly accessible Internet images to convey aspects of their work. Overall, we conclude that participant-generated photo-elicitation democratized the research process and deepened our insights into young people’s early work and offer some recommendations for future photo-elicitation research.
... Each of these methods-necessary for including children in research (cf. VanSledright and Brophy 1992; Barton and Levstik 1996;Cappello 2005) yet also used with teenagers and adults (Harper 2002;Barton and McCully 2012;Leonard and McKnight 2015)-are open-ended and aimed at offering participants maximum flexibility in crafting their responses. ...
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Scholars have spent considerable effort to uncover and explain the unique ways that contemporary American Jews think and feel about Israel, yet the voices of American Jewish children have been conspicuously absent from most research. American Jewish children—like the adults in their lives—have beliefs, opinions, and thoughts about Israel and its role in American Jewish life. This article makes two distinct yet interrelated arguments about the role of children in research on contemporary American Jews. The first is that children ought to be included in research about American Judaism. Second, the inclusion of children in research both widens the scope and shifts the focus of understanding American Jewish relationships to Israel. Children’s participation in research demonstrates how American Jews develop relationships with Israel over the course of a lifetime. In addition, the methodological approaches that allow for the inclusion of children in research shift the focus of understanding away from a “deficit model” that measures participants’ knowledge and connection against an existing ledger, and towards an “inventory model” that takes stock of participants’ cognitive and emotional warehouses. This shift is essential for understanding what Israel means in the lives of American Jews of all ages.
... Photo elicitation has been proposed as a participant-driven research methodology that is particularly well-suited for research among the adolescent population in general [54], and SGMY in particular. It reduces power differentials between researcher and participant [55], creating a "comfortable space for discussion" [56], and involving participants in a way that does not limit responses. ...
Article
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Background: The experiences of resilience and intersectionality in the lives of contemporary sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY) are important to explore. SGMY face unique experiences of discrimination in both online and offline environments, yet simultaneously build community and seek support in innovative ways. SGMY who identify as transgender, trans, or gender nonconforming and have experiences with child welfare, homelessness, or immigration have been particularly understudied. A qualitative exploration that leverages technology may derive new understanding of the negotiations of risk, resilience, and identity intersections that impact the well-being of vulnerable SGMY. Objective: The objectives of the QueerVIEW study were to (1) enhance understanding of SGMY identities, both online and offline, (2) identify experiences of intersectionality among culturally, regionally, and racially diverse SGMY in Ontario, Canada, (3) explore online and offline sources of resilience for SGMY, and (4) develop and apply a virtual photo elicitation methodological approach. Methods: This is the first study to pilot a completely virtual approach to a photo elicitation investigation with youth, including data collection, recruitment, interviewing, and analysis. Recruited through social media, SGMY completed a brief screening survey, submitted 10 to 15 digital photos, and then participated in an individual semistructured interview that focused on their photos and related life experiences. Online data collection methods were employed through encrypted online file transfer and secure online interviews. Data is being analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach, with six coders participating in structured online meetings that triangulated photo, video, and textual data. Results: Data collection with 30 participants has been completed and analyses are underway. SGMY expressed appreciation for the photo elicitation and online design of the study and many reported experiencing an emotional catharsis from participating in this process. It is anticipated that results will form a model of how participants work toward integrating their online and offline experiences and identities into developing a sense of themselves as resilient. Conclusions: This protocol presents an innovative, technology-enabled qualitative study that completely digitized a popular arts-based methodology—photo elicitation—that has potential utility for contemporary research with marginalized populations. The research design and triangulated analyses can generate more nuanced conceptualizations of SGMY identities and resilience than more traditional approaches. Considerations for conducting online research may be useful for other qualitative research.
... We therefore decided to undertake more formal and familiar forms of data collection in focus groups that explicitly asked a wider cohort of young people (which did not include our core workshop participants) about their futures. However we sought to do this in a 'linguistically flexible' way (McKnight and Leonard, 2014: 4) using photographs from our workshops for image elicitation. We wanted to stimulate young people to voice and reflect on how they reproduce or are critical of everyday assumptions and public discourses about their futures. ...
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Visual and arts-based methods are now widely used in the social sciences. In youth research they are considered to promote engagement and empowerment. This article contributes to debates on the challenges of using arts-based methods in research with young people. We discuss the experience of a multidisciplinary project investigating how young people imagine their futures - Imagine Sheppey - to critically consider the use of arts-based methods and the kinds of data produced through these practices. We make two sets of arguments. First, that the challenges of participation and collaboration are not overcome by using apparently ‘youth-friendly’ research tools. Second, that the nature of data produced through arts-based methods can leave researchers with significant problems of interpretation. We highlight these issues in relation to the focus of this project on researching the future.
... Photo elicitation has been proposed as a participant-driven research methodology that is particularly well-suited for research among the adolescent population in general [53], and SGMY in particular. It reduces power differentials between researcher and participant [54], creating a "comfortable space for discussion" [55] and involving participants in a way that does not limit responses. ...
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The experiences of resilience and intersectionality in the lives of contemporary sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY) are important to explore. SGMY face unique experiences of discrimination in both online and offline environments, yet simultaneously build community and seek support in innovative ways. SGMY who identify as transgender, trans*, or gender non-conforming, and/or have experiences in child welfare, with homelessness, and/or immigration have been particularly understudied. A qualitative exploration that leverages technology may derive new understandings of the negotiations of risk, resilience, and identity intersections that impact the wellbeing of vulnerable SGMY. The objectives of the QueerVIEW study were to: a) enhance understanding of SGMY identities, both online and offline; b) better understand experiences of intersectionality among culturally, regionally, and racially diverse SGMY in Ontario, Canada; c) explore online and offline sources and processes of resilience for these SGMY; and d) develop and apply a virtual photo elicitation methodological approach. This is the first study to pilot a completely virtual approach to a photo elicitation investigation with youth, including data collection, recruitment, interviewing, and analysis. Recruited through social media, SGMY completed a brief screening survey, submitted 10 to 15 digital photos, and then participated in a semi-structured interview that focused on their submitted photos and life experiences. Online data collection methods were employed through encrypted online file transfer and secure online interviews. Data is being analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach with six coders participating in structured online meetings that triangulated photo, video, and textual data. Data collection with thirty participants is completed, and analyses are underway. SGMY expressed appreciation for the photo elicitation and online design of the study and commonly reported emotional catharsis from participating in this process. It is anticipated that results will form a model of how participants work towards integrating their online and offline experiences and identities into developing a sense of oneself as resilient. This protocol presents an innovative, technology-enabled qualitative study that completely digitized a popular arts-based research method, photo elicitation, which has potential utility for marginalized populations in an online era. The research design and triangulated analyses can generate more nuanced conceptualizations of SGMY identities and resilience than more traditional approaches. Considerations for conducting online research may be useful for other qualitative research.
... Participatory photography in a variety of forms e.g. photo elicitation (Harper, 2002;Leonard and McKnight, 2015), photo novella (Wang and Burris, 1994), or photovoice (Wang, 1999(Wang, , 2006 emerged in the 1990s reflecting the turn from documentary photography to more reflexive approaches (Mikhailovich et al., 2015). ...
... Photo Elicitation. While primarily used in one-to-one interviews, photo elicitation has been used successfully in focus groups (Leonard & McKnight, 2015;Pettinger et al., 2017). Participants were offered the choice of providing a photograph or to use one of 20 photographs taken by Country Kitchens staff on previous travels around rural and regional Queensland. ...
Article
Background. Time insufficiency is frequently cited as a reason for poor dietary habits. This does not adequately explain the variations in how time is perceived as a factor in healthy eating. Aims. This study placed the eating behaviors of rural Australian women within the contexts of their stories to understand the factors that influenced healthy eating and how rural communities could enhance their health and well-being. Method. A three-phase sequential multimode narrative inquiry was used within four communities in rural Queensland, Australia. Each phase used a different mode of data collection: photo elicitation focus groups, narrative interviews, participatory workshops. Data were thematically analyzed iteratively to inform subsequent phases. Results. Nine final themes were identified. This article explored the theme of time and two contrasting perceptions of time sufficiency regarding healthy eating within a rural context during a drought. Discussion. Exploration of “time as a commodity” and “time as a duty” allowed a deeper understanding of time as a social and environmental determinant of health. Conclusion. Time’s influence on healthy eating is much more than the minutes it takes to prepare a meal. To fully appreciate its impact, time should be considered as a social and environmental determinant of health.
... Further impetus was given by applying the concept of geographical imagination and the visual turn in humanities which brought to light visuality and photography as a primary source for examination in cultural and historical studies (Cosgrove 2006;Rose 2001). Photo elicitation methods have proved to be effective in gaining an insight into children's spatial perceptions (Leonard and McKnight 2015;Pyyry 2015). ...
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The paper focuses on the representation of landscapes and the depiction of landscape features in the photographic images of textbooks, the perception, recognition and imagination of landscapes by the school population, and the possible link between both. The empirical element of the study is based on the case of Slovenia and includes quantitative and qualitative analysis of photographs in textbooks and questionnaires completed by primary and secondary school students (aged 10-18 years). The results show that the photographs emphasise natural, rural, and tangible aspects of landscapes, while students' imagination also includes urban, dynamic and, especially, intangible elements. We discuss the relevance of stability, generational gap, image retention, and recognisability. One of the key conclusions is that there is a dichotomy between the representation of landscape in textbooks and in students' imagination, but it is not clear-cut. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Participants were requested to take photographs depicting a typical week as young mothers which were intended as stimulus material for later focus group discussions and not analysed separately. Photo elicitation has been used in other marginalised populations, including young people, to reduce researcher/participant distance (Capello 2005, Leonard and McKnight 2015, Young and Barrett 2001. We used photo elicitation in much the same way as suggested by Brady and Brown (2013, 101) to engage young mothers in research through 'exciting, fun and inclusive' methods which would give our participants a degree of ownership over the project. ...
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Breastfeeding is recognised globally as the optimal method of infant feeding. For Murphy (1999) Sociology of Health & Illness, 21, 187–208 its nutritional superiority positions breastfeeding as a moral imperative where mothers who formula‐feed are open to charges of maternal deviance and must account for their behaviour. We suggest that this moral superiority of breastfeeding is tenuous for mothers from marginalised contexts and competes with discourses which locate breastfeeding, rather than formula feeding, as maternal deviance. We draw on focus group and interview data from 27 adolescent mothers from socio‐economically deprived neighbourhoods in three areas of the UK, and five early years professionals working at a Children’s Centre in the Northeast of England. We argue that breastfeeding is constructed as deviance at three ‘levels’ as (i) a deviation from broad social norms about women’s bodies, (ii) a deviation from local mothering behaviours and (iii) a transgression within micro‐level interpersonal and familial relationships. Given this positioning of breastfeeding as deviant, breastfeeding mothers feel obliged to account for their deviance. In making this argument, we extend and rework Murphy’s (1999) Sociology of Health & Illness, 21, 187–208 framework to encompass diverse experiences of infant feeding. We conclude with reflections on future research directions and potential implications for practice.
... Photo-elicitation interview (PEI) is normally used as a qualitative method in which the researcher probes interviewee to discuss social relationships and other features as apparent in photographs (see Collier, 1987;El Guindi, 2008;Harper, 2002;Leonard & McKnight, 2015). Despite certain merits, PEI has some limitations while researching children. ...
Article
This study explores how children perceive social boundaries in rural Pakistan. It discusses that children develop and navigate their social relationships through their perception of social boundaries, which are shaped by kinship and sociospatial organisation in rural areas. Children's perception of social boundaries is also mediated through the intersectionality of their age and social group affiliation. An ethnographic case study of a village in Southern Punjab, Pakistan, is presented here. It uses a quantifiable photo‐elicitation technique and social mapping to analyse children's everyday mobilities and intersectionality in the cultural context of rural Pakistan to illustrate their perception of social boundaries.
... Although these more ''political'' implications of visual methodologies have recently been subject to critical reflection, in particular questioning their effective inclusivity and capacity to produce social change (Packard 2008;Pauwels 2015;Fairay 2017), there remains strong consensus around the usefulness of these tools in portraying the perceptive, qualitative, multisensorial and emotional dimension of the experience of space and in investigating the sphere of meanings associated with places (Lombard 2013;Leonard and McKnight 2015;Pyyry 2015). For these reasons too, autophotography has proven to be particularly effective and is widely used to explore urban spaces and practices as they are particularly ''dense'' in possible layers of meaning and sense (Hunt 2014). ...
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This work upholds the importance of questioning young people to find out their point of view on urban transformation and grasp their perception and representation of the changes. Hence, the paper presents the methodology and results of an autophotography activity, and more specifically photo-routing organized in March 2018 with a group of young undergraduates at Mandalay University, Myanmar. In the sphere of this activity, the participants were asked to reflect on their relationship with the urban space and to use a camera to capture significant places and situations in their everyday experience of the city, with the goal of exploring their personal point of view on the changes occurring in it, both from a tangible and intangible perspective, in addition to how they are reflected in the everyday practice of the city. The idea at the basis of the research-intervention is that the focus on everyday life through qualitative and visual investigation techniques enables the emergence of some of the—both conscious and not—more-than-representational ways in which people—a group of young adults in this specific case—perceive and live the processual nature of the city. Results show that the photo-route tool proved to be particularly effective in stimulating a critical gaze on the city and the changes underway, to acquire awareness of the constantly in-becoming nature of the places and reflect in an introspective manner on their own life course in relation to the city. Thus, the paper provides a contribution “from below” to the reflections on urban transformations going on in Southeast Asian cities and, more precisely, in Myanmar.
Article
This paper is concerned with how teachers manage homophobia at school. It examines how they deal with homophobia directed at students, and instances when teachers become the recipients of homophobia themselves. This dual focus, on teachers as both the perpetrators and recipients of homophobia, adds complexity to existing studies concerning how homophobia operates in schools. In previous studies, it has been LGBTIQA+ teachers who have provided accounts of homophobia they have experienced. In this research, heterosexual students offer these narratives. Via these accounts, students acknowledge and corroborate teachers’ voices in other studies. Students’ depictions also reveal nuances in homophobia’s operation and that heterosexual teachers can sometimes be its target. In existing literature, LGBTIQA+ students typically provide narratives about whether teachers are effective at addressing homophobia. In the current study, heterosexual students deliver these accounts, confirming their LGBTIQA+ peers’ assessment that teachers often ignore homophobia or respond ineffectually. When heterosexual students identify homophobia, they lift the burden for acknowledging and addressing this discrimination from the LGBTIQA+ community. Retelling incidents in this way, recognizes homophobia is not the sole responsibility of individual perpetrators and recipients, but an issue that implicates the whole school and its culture.
Article
Photo-elicitation is recognised as a visual method which can enhance children’s participation in research and is responsive to childhood experiences. This paper reports on a participatory study which employed photo-elicitation and examines what this method can reveal about research designed to explore children’s identity. Twenty children (6–10 years) were given a digital camera to take pictures ‘all about me’ at home and an after-school club. In addition, parents and practitioners participated in semi-structured interviews. This paper considers the materiality of photo-elicitation and describes the different ways in which children build narratives using photographs as interview prompts. Despite the capacity for photo-elicitation to enable children to take pictures of material things which forge connections to embodied, affective and routine identity processes, this paper critically examines how photographs as material things are made sense of and potentially translated within social practices bounded by power dynamics.
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Children’s geographers have particular interests in children’s embodied experiences of space, and how those experiences are spatially and socially constructed. The theory of affect presents us with a unique way of understanding children’s creative and emotionally engaged interactions with people and places in their community. This chapter introduces affective geovisualization as a qualitative and emotional form of geographic visualization through which children may elicit their own accounts and feelings. Affective geovisualization provides a visual meaning-making process to both researchers and children for building digital deep mapsand an array of visual representations of children’s hybrid experiences of the physical and emotional worlds, as they are experienced between their bodies and environments. I pay particular attention to emerging discussions of emotion and affect across various disciplines and their intersection with geographic visualization, which offers a new way of articulating and representing children’s experiences and their contextualized spatial narratives. This chapter also shows an effort to represent non-representable children’s affective and emotional geographies by contributing to the theory of emotion/affect and children’s geographies in relation to mapping and geovisualization.
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Children’s geographers have particular interests in children’s embodied experiences of space, and how those experiences are spatially and socially constructed. The theory of affect presents us with a unique way of understanding children’s creative and emotionally engaged interactions with people and places in their community. This chapter introduces affective geovisualization as a qualitative and emotional form of geographic visualization through which children may elicit their own accounts and feelings. Affective geovisualization provides a visual meaning-making process to both researchers and children for building digital deep mapsand an array of visual representations of children’s hybrid experiences of the physical and emotional worlds, as they are experienced between their bodies and environments. I pay particular attention to emerging discussions of emotion and affect across various disciplines and their intersection with geographic visualization, which offers a new way of articulating and representing children’s experiences and their contextualized spatial narratives. This chapter also shows an effort to represent non-representable children’s affective and emotional geographies by contributing to the theory of emotion/affect and children’s geographies in relation to mapping and geovisualization.
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This paper argues for reconceptualising how children use technology ‘outdoors’ as a technology-nonhuman-child assemblage, or roaming pathway. Founded in contemporary fears about children’s reduced opportunities to access nature and roam in rural environments, in part due to the ubiquitous presence of technology in their lives, we instead illustrate how the agencies of technologies and plants are folded into children’s outdoor roaming. Combining visual methods, video analysis and qualitative geovisualisation, and in collaboration with the Brecon Beacons National Park Authority, this paper exposes how assemblages are contingently brought into being through the actions of what technologies, plants and children do together. We demonstrate how the agentic capacities of non-humans and technologies are assembled through children’s imaginative interaction with them, and how these imaginative interactions make such agencies visible.
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Most study abroad programmes conclude with debriefing activities emphasizing verbal and written reflection, with the visual image used merely as a supplementary aid. Photographs are used to promote programmes with little integration into tertiary pedagogical strategies. This chapter argues that photo elicitation can be an evocative tool within diverse experiential learning settings. Based on this premise, the visual image can trigger students’ introspection and personal growth when sojourning overseas. Photo elicitation has a twofold benefit. First, photos augment the scope of empirical research, and second, images intensify the reflective learning process. Results indicate that the visual image amplifies the transformative power of study abroad and concretizes deeper learning. Greater focus on visual literacy is recommended for future programmes as a qualitative data technique.
Article
Sense of place is neither linear nor rooted in time. One way for children to voice their sense of place is through location-based stories with plots structured in space, rather than time. Since mobile devices are already ingrained in the everyday lives of many children in the U.S., a mobile application offers a familiar medium to engage children in location-based story making. Here, we present photo-story maps, our approach to leveraging an existing story-map mobile application as a research tool to collect and analyze children’s stories about sense of place. We found that photo-story maps facilitate the organization of nonlinear location-based stories, promote an inclusive story-making process through a mobile application, support triangulation of varied digital story elements, and provide dynamic interview material. We suggest photo-story maps demonstrate the value of location-based story making and the potential of familiar mobile applications for reducing the barriers to including children in research.
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This paper explores some of the challenges of publishing photographs generated as part of sexuality research. It aims to initiate discussion of these issues to enable sexuality researchers to consider and navigate the use of images in their work. Examples highlighting these difficulties are employed from a photo-method project which examined young people, sexuality and schooling. It is argued that existing child-sex-panics rendered these images risky and intensified their scrutiny by gatekeeping forces. The discussion contributes to a broader conversation within the field of sexualities about the constitution of sexuality research as dirty work. Specifically, the paper investigates how some publishing and editing practices might be conceptualised as constituting techniques that construct sexuality research as dirty work. By not publishing photos which form part of sexuality research, the knowledge it is possible for sexuality researchers to generate and circulate is subsequently curtailed. © 2018
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Homophobia is an enduring issue within schooling contexts internationally. This paper attempts to rethinkhomophobia from the perspective of heterosexual students’accounts of bearing witness to it. Within the existing literature it hasbeen LGBTQ students who have held the responsibility for namingand recounting homophobia. This paper re-orients this conventionalaccount by positioning heterosexual students as its narratorsto see what this might reveal about homophobia’s operation atschool. While this strategy does not disrupt the ‘othering’ and‘victimization’ of LGBT youth in these stories, it has other effects.When heterosexual students name homophobia as unjust, it ispossible to see the instability of the victim/perpetrator binary thattypically structures these accounts. Narratives of participants inthis study did not fit neatly into this binary, revealing its inability tocapture the complexity of homophobia’s operation. To have anyhope of effectively addressing homophobia at school, we needto move beyond the victim/perpetrator binary. This is becauseit masks some of homophobia’s more nuanced moves, such astargeting difference, rather than sexual identity exclusively.
Article
Despite labouring for three decades in Singapore, and being connected to the existing Tamil diasporic community there, Tamil migrant construction workers have been left out of state rhetoric and face economic marginalization and social exclusion. In this article, we draw on rich ethnographic data on their everyday experiences of working construction and living in Singapore, and we espouse the distinctive qualities and mission of ethnographically-informed methodologies to enact change in this space. The methods include in-depth interviews with 11 Tamil labourers, and the subsequent use of worker photo diaries, known as auto-photography, with a total of 108 photographs taken. All the participants either worked construction, were on medical leave, or were seeking compensation after workplace injury. The analysis of the interview data develops themes around precarity and discrimination on construction sites (precarity of work), and the exclusory social practices experienced by workers in their offsite world (precarity of place). Following the goals of decolonized research, our innovative methods have enabled Tamil construction workers to present their lives through their own lens. By involving migrant construction workers, we identify new sites of inquiry and knowledge in examining the inequalities and injustices they face.
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This paper explores the tensions between civility and sectarianism in contemporary Belfast. Drawing on interviews with mothers engaged in raising young children in the largely working-class and divided inner city, the paper offers a situated account of the dynamics of social reproduction and change. This is pursued through an analysis of the interplay between expectations of civility and sectarianism in three situations: walking, shopping and playing. The tensions and dilemmas of maternal action as the divided inner city is navigated indicate the gendered character of civility, an important emerging norm facilitating social change in the post-conflict era. The situation of motherhood itself, both at the centre of ethno-national reproduction and at the interface of public and private life, is not insignificant in routinely drawing mothers into the everyday dynamics of post-conflict continuity and change.
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This article explores the research implications of using multi-methods within a broad qualitative approach by drawing on the experience of conducting two childhood obesity-focused qualitative studies of Australian children’s perceptions and experiences of place, space and physical activity. Children described and depicted their physical activities and experiences: in focus group interviews, by mapping their local, social and recreational spaces and by photographing their meaningful places, spaces and activities using a Photovoice approach. The authors describe, reflect on and critique their chosen research approach, discussing the value, utility and pitfalls associated with using multiple methods with children. The article concludes that using multiple methods in researching children’s experiences is a valuable approach that does not merely duplicate data but also offers complementary insights and understandings that may be difficult to access through reliance on a single method of data collection.
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When conducting photo elicitation interviews (PEI), researchers introduce photographs into the interview context. Although PEI has been employed across a wide variety of disciplines and participants, little has been written about the use of photographs in interviews with children. In this article, the authors review the use of PEI in a research study that explored the perspectives on camp of children with cancer. In particular, they review some of the methodological and ethical challenges, including (a) who should take the photographs and (b) how the photographs should be integrated into the interview. Although some limitations exist, PEI in its various forms can challenge participants, trigger memory, lead to new perspectives, and assist with building trust and rapport.
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With the advent of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), there is an increasing requirement that schools ensure children and young people’s views are voiced, listened to and taken seriously on matters of significance. Encouraging these shifts by law is one thing; changing the culture in schools is another. For a significant proportion of schools, actively engaging students’ voices on how they experience education poses a significant challenge, and crucial gaps may exist between the rhetoric espoused and a school’s readiness for genuine student involvement. This ethnographic study illuminates tensions that persist between headteachers’ espoused views of how students are valued and students’ creative images of their actual post-primary schooling experience. If cultures of schooling are to nurture the true spirit of democratic pupil participation implied by changes in the law, there is a need to develop genuine processes of student engagement in which students and staff can collaborate towards greater shared understandings of a school’s priorities.
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This paper examines the experiences of children in post-conflict Belfast as peace and social change afford new opportunities at the same time as they regulate behaviours and spatial practices. Theoretically and empirically it draws on the concept of environmental affordances in order to map the experiences of 11-year-old children in separate inner-city segregated and middle-class communities. Whilst the recession has affected the pace of urban restructuring, children in the expanding mixed and largely middle-class city extract multiple advantages from their area in ways not available to segregated communities. The paper concludes by highlighting the implications for effective listening strategies in the management of divided communities.
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This paper explores seven methodological issues in some detail to illustrate the ways in which aspects of the research process usually considered to be the same for both adults and children can pose particular dilemmas for adult researchers working with children. It argues that research with children is potentially different from research with adults mainly because of adult perceptions of children and children's marginalised position in adult society but least often because children are inherently different. Drawing on classroom-based research carried out in rural Bolivia, the advantages and disadvantages of using five task-based methods (drawings, photographs, PRA techniques, diaries and worksheets) are highlighted in order to illustrate how such research techniques often thought to be suitable for use with children can be problematic as well as beneficial.
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First published in 1967, Visual Anthropology has become a classic in its field, invaluable not only for anthropologists but for anyone using photography, film, and video to understand human behavior and culture. This completely revised and expanded edition brings the technical information up to date and includes the insights the Colliers have gained from nearly thirty-five additional years of collective teaching and research experience since the first edition.
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The purpose of this article is to explore and illuminate teenagers' experiences of, and attitudes to, parades in Belfast. The research draws on responses from 125 teenagers located in interface areas (areas where Catholics and Protestants live side by side but apart) to government supported attempts to rebrand Orangefest (traditional parade associated with Protestant/Unionist/Loyalist community) and St Patrick's Day (traditional parade associated with Catholic/Nationalist/Republican community) as all-inclusive community events. For the most part, young people access these parades in pre-existing, single identity peer groups and view these parades as either inclusive or exclusive calling into question the extent to which Belfast's city centre can be viewed as shared space.
Article
Despite the increased effort to understand resilience processes in the lives of youth, the homogeneity of a largely westernized concept needs to be challenged in studies by incorporating meanings of resilience more relevant to youth around the globe. This requires a reconsideration of the methods used to study youth resilience. This article outlines the interactive dialogical process involved in visual elicitation methods that combine moving and still images, resulting in a broader reflective exploration of research questions. Consideration is given specifically to how the combination of these methods better facilitates exploration of previously unarticulated experiences of marginalized youth populations and the processes they engage in to nurture and sustain resilience.
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This article focuses on our observations of two contentious Orange order parades and nationalist protests that took place in an interface area in Belfast, Northern Ireland. in June 2011 and 2012. we apply a perspective of visual ethnography as place-making (Pink 2009) to our research experience in order to add to understandings of how a place of conflict is experienced (re)produced or challenged through the use of photography and video by marchers, protesters and researchers alike. In doing so. we discuss not only the strengths of visual methods, (how they enable a greater understanding of adversarial perspectives, allow researchers to experience contestation emotionally and compel reflexivity) but also more controversial aspects of their use (the extent to which they limit what researchers notice or omit and legitimate particular versions of conflict). Last, but not least, we suggest that the ubiquitous use of the digital eye in the contentious events we observed has a democratising influence over elements in the performance of conflict challenging the presumed roles of performers and audiences; of researchers and researched; opening contentious events to a wider audience and facilitating the communication of competing narratives.
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This article reviews three visual methods based on drawing that I applied in my research on young people: the arts-based projective technique, the self-portrait, and the graphic elicitation methods of the relational map and the timeline. Examples of these methods are drawn from their application in two studies, the Narratives of Identity and Migration project, exploring young people and identities in England and Italy, and the Young Lives and Times. The article argues that applying these drawing methods in the context of an interview can open up participants’ interpretations of questions, and allow a creative way of interviewing that is responsive to participants’ own meanings and associations. The article discusses the analytical potential of graphic elicitation and arts-based methods, by making reference to the insights that they offered in the contextual analysis with more traditional text-based data. The efficacy of these methods is critically discussed, together with their limitations, and their potential within the context of qualitative longitudinal research.
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In their everyday lives, children largely stay within and relate to three settings – their homes, schools and recreational institutions. These environments have been created by adults and designated by them as ‘places for children’. A more differentiated picture of children’s spatial culture emerges when children discuss and take photographs of settings that are meaningful to them. This article applies the concept ‘children’s places’ to explain the fact that children relate not only to official places provided by adults, but also to informal places, often unnoticed by adults. The analysis sheds light on interfaces and discontinuities between ‘places for children’ and ‘children’s places’ and argues that the concept should not be underestimated in the sociology of childhood.
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The growth and employment of non‐traditional research methods have increased dramatically over the last few decades, especially within the USA and the UK. With the increase of globalisation of research these new methodologies are gaining use and credibility within the human disciplines in Australia. The following paper examines the new methodologies movement from an historical context, funding perspective and as part of the wider, morally oriented ‘culture wars’ that have been playing out on the main arena of Australian socio‐political life over the past decade. In an attempt to gain a deeper understanding of some of the issues, challenges and benefits of these new methodologies the paper proceeds to examine some of the methods involved in arts‐based social inquiry. It argues that regardless of the increased call to employ engaged and innovative research, the constraints of the Australian funding and political environment has resulted in the maintenance and dominance of traditional methodological approaches.
Article
The purpose of this article is to examine children's experiences of territory in one location in Northern Ireland. The research draws on stories, maps and focus group interviews with 80 children aged between 14–15 years of age, living in one of the most contested interface areas in Northern Ireland. Interface areas are locations where Catholics and Protestants live side by side in segregated communities divided by peace walls and other symbolic boundaries. Within these spaces, children made distinctions between place and territory. Place was referred to in relation to physical features of the surrounding landscape but more importantly as spaces where family and friendship ties were paramount. Territory on the other hand was referred to in terms of Protestant and Catholic identity.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present young people's attitudes to peace-walls in Belfast and whether they feel that these peace-walls should be temporary or permanent structures. Design/methodology/approach – The methodology is based on questionnaire responses from 125 young people between the ages of 14 and 15 from six schools located in areas in Belfast where Catholics and Protestants live side by side yet apart. The paper is also based on their responses to photo prompts, focus group discussions and images of peace-walls drawn by some of the young people. Findings – The young people produced six discourses on peace-walls in Belfast and these are outlined in the paper. Research limitations/implications – The paper endorses the necessity of incorporating young people's views of peace-walls in Belfast as a prelude to finding ways in which to challenge taken-for-granted assumptions about the legacy of the conflict in Northern Ireland. Originality/value – The paper is original in that it addresses the neglect of young people's views on peace-walls in Belfast and contributes to further understanding of the importance of capturing young people's spatial strategies in divided cities.
Article
This paper is a definition of photo elicitation and a history of its development in anthropology and sociology. The view of photo elicitation in these disciplines, where the greatest number of photo elicitation studies have taken place, organizes photo elicitation studies by topic and by form. The paper also presents practical considerations from a frequent photo elicitation researcher and concludes that photo elicitation enlarges the possibilities of conventional empirical research. In addition, the paper argues that photo elicitation also produces a different kind of information. Photo elicitation evokes information, feelings, and memories that are due to the photograph's particular form of representation.
Article
Participatory visual research methods have been developed as part of an explicit attempt to decrease the power differential between the researcher and the researched. Methods designed to bring these relationships more in line with one another, ceding power to research participants, have served not only to create a more ethical research situation, but also to generate new forms of knowledge which cannot be developed any other way. While the development of such methods has received significant attention in recent years, there has still not been an adequate exploration of the limitations of these practices. In this article the author draw upon his research experiences with homeless men in order to examine the relationship between power and knowledge creation within participatory visual methodologies. The results presented here help to demarcate the boundaries of effectiveness for these methods and show where future work is needed while at the same time offering insights into the nature of identity construction in marginalized populations.
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This article challenges the absence of young people from Political Geography. It shows how in many parts of the world young people are in an in-between space politically and legally. This article suggests that the geographically divergent liminal positioning of young people within political–legal structures and institutional practices is what makes them extremely interesting political subjects. I argue for a deconstruction of the generally accepted binary of capital P Politics and lower case p politics. Using an illustration from a non-Western geography, I argue that young people can do more than act politically in the interstices of this binary; they can in fact meld and blend both elements. Taking young people seriously may well create new definitions of the political and demonstrate other ways of conceptualising geopolitics and political geographies.
Article
Having taken taking as one of its starting points a concern to avoid fetishising method – or employing any form of method for its own sake – this paper then argues that visual methods of research may be particularly helpful in investigating areas that are difficult otherwise to verbalise or articulate. These include Bourdieu's understanding of habitus; our predisposed ways of being, acting and operating in the social environment that Bourdieu himself suggests are ‘beyond the grasp of consciousness, and hence cannot be touched by voluntary, deliberate transformation, cannot even be made explicit’ (Bourdieu, 1977: 94). Having outlined what Bourdieu means by habitus and considered some of the difficulties surrounding its operationalisation, the paper goes on to consider Bourdieu's own use of photography and understanding of photographic practice. It is then argued that we can move beyond Bourdieu's position by employing visual methods specifically to uncover and illuminate aspects of habitus. Where research participants are directly involved in this process this also means that visual methods can be potentially transformative, allowing for the development of forms of critical self-awareness amongst research participants of the sort that Bourdieu attributes to ‘socioanalysis’ (Bourdieu, 1999: 611).
Article
This article proposes a new way to use photographs in ethnographic research. The method builds on earlier examinations of the unique properties of photographic articulation, interpretation and use, employing the inherent ambiguities of photographic imagery. Responses to ethnographic photographs of a rural farm community were recorded during group interview sessions and analyzed in relation to additional ethnographic data gathered in order to study sociocultural continuity and change across generations in farm families.
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Abstract Through an examination of Bourdieu's Algerian fieldwork the article raises general questions regarding the place of photography in sociological research. In the midst of a colonial war Bourdieu used photography to make visual fieldnotes and record the mixed realities of Algeria under colonialism. Bourdieu also used photography to communicate to the Algerians an ethical and political commitment to their cause and plight. It is argued that his photographs do not simply portrayal or communicate the realities of Algeria. They are, paradoxically, at the same time full of information and mysterious and depthless. In order to read them it is necessary to ethnographically situate them in their social and historical context. It is suggested that the photographs can also be read as an inventory of Bourdieu's attentiveness as a researcher, his curiosity and ultimately his sociological imagination. They betray his concerns as a researcher but also can be used to raise ethical and political questions beyond Bourdieu's own attempts at reflexive self-analysis. The article concludes with a discussion of how Bourdieu's sociological life might contribute to the craft of sociology today.
Fear of an Uncertain Future for Romanian Immigrants
  • Belfast Telegraph
Belfast Telegraph. 2009. Fear of an Uncertain Future for Romanian Immigrants. Belfast: Belfast Telegrapho, 18th June.
Inner-city Children in Sharper Focus
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Clark-Ibanez, M. 2007. "Inner-city Children in Sharper Focus." In Visual Research Methods: Image, Society and Representation, edited by G. Stanczak, 167-196. London: Sage.
Being 'Seen' Being 'Heard': Engaging with Students on the Margins of Education through Participatory Photography
  • I Kaplan
Kaplan, I. 2008. "Being 'Seen' Being 'Heard': Engaging with Students on the Margins of Education through Participatory Photography." In Doing Visual Research with Children and Young People, edited by P. Thomson, 175-191. London and New York: Routledge.
Image-Based Research: A Sourcebook for Qualitative Researchers
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When Words are not Enough: Eliciting Children's Experiences of Buddhist Monastic Life through Photographs
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Samuels, J. 2007. "When Words are not Enough: Eliciting Children's Experiences of Buddhist Monastic Life through Photographs." In Visual Research Methods: Image, Society and Representation, edited by G. Stanczak, 197-224. London: Sage.
Ethno-sectarianism and the Construction of Fear in Belfast, Northern Ireland
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Shirlow, P. 2008. "Ethno-sectarianism and the Construction of Fear in Belfast, Northern Ireland." In Fear: Critical Geopolitics and Everyday Life, edited by R. Pain and S. Smith, 193-212. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Images of Information
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