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Representation in the classroom: The effect of own-race teachers on student achievement

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... [24.02] Quotations were also considered 'partly correct' if they missed important nuances, which was the case in the following example: This quotation is incomplete because Egalite et al. (2015) found greater reading gains in elementary grades only; assigning students to race-congruent teachers had no effect in the middle/high school grades. Furthermore, the 0.02 higher gain in mathematics could nowhere be found in Egalite et al. (2015). ...
... Quotations were also considered 'partly correct' if they missed important nuances, which was the case in the following example: This quotation is incomplete because Egalite et al. (2015) found greater reading gains in elementary grades only; assigning students to race-congruent teachers had no effect in the middle/high school grades. Furthermore, the 0.02 higher gain in mathematics could nowhere be found in Egalite et al. (2015). We suspect it might be a typo (0.02 should probably be 0.002-but that SD applied to middle/high school grades). ...
... Egalite et al. (2015) observed a 0.02 standard deviation greater gain in mathematics test scores and a 0.004 standard deviation greater gain in reading test scores for Black students matched to Black teachers in Florida classrooms relative to Black students with a White teacher, all else being equal. [6.14] ...
Article
This study examined to what extent educational research articles are cited in accordance with content. Analysis of 500 randomly selected citations from articles published between 2016 and 2020 and listed in Web of Science Core Collection revealed an overall accuracy rate of 85%. Quotation accuracy was independent of a citation's specificity and bibliometric characteristics. However, the severity of quotation mistakes was associated with how specific the content of a referenced source is described and whether authors quote the work of a colleague or their own. These findings are discussed in light of established accuracy rates in other academic fields and measures to reduce quotation errors are proposed.
... This investigation is motivated by a growing literature documenting the effects of teacher racial and ethnic diversity on student outcomes, and, in particular, the impacts of racially congruent teachers on outcomes from historically marginalized populations (see Grissom et al., 2015). Black and Hispanic students appear to benefit from being taught by racially and/or ethnically similar teachers with respect to a variety of outcomes, including achievement (Dee, 2004;Egalite et al., 2015), likelihood of being assigned to gifted programs , and reductions in exclusionary discipline (Lindsay & Hart, 2017). This growing body of research suggests several reasons that teacher racial or ethnic congruence could inform student course-taking. ...
... Of course, race and ethnicity are not the same concept, and the teacher-student demographic "match" literature has only just begun to examine the extent to which racial congruence and ethnic congruence may behave differently (e.g., Egalite et al., 2015;Grissom et al., 2017). This examination reflects a growing effort to understand the history, and disentangle the conflation, of the labels "race" and "ethnicity" in empirical research (e.g., Laughter, 2018;Li & Koedel, 2018;Prewitt, 2005). ...
... The first is research documenting the important role that teachers play in decisions about which high school courses students take (e.g., Oakes & Guiton, 1995;Thompson, 2017). The second is a growing body of empirical research that demonstrates that the racial or ethnic match between teachers and students affects numerous important school processes and student outcomes (e.g., Dee, 2004;Egalite et al., 2015;Grissom et al., 2015;Lindsay & Hart, 2017). This research suggests several ways that such congruence may impact student course-taking patterns. ...
Article
Research links advanced mathematics course-taking to important later outcomes, including college graduation and earnings, yet many students fail to progress into higher math courses as they move through high school. Black and Hispanic high school students are less likely than their white peers to take advanced math courses. A complex set of factors inform decisions about student course-taking, but teachers play key roles, including providing information about courses, giving students encouragement, helping students form aspirations (e.g., through role modeling), and serving as gatekeepers via grade assignment and formal recommendations. At the same time, growing empirical evidence suggests that students from different racial/ethnic groups benefit from being taught by teachers with similar demographic backgrounds, which motivates an analysis connecting math teacher–student racial or ethnic congruence with progression into higher math courses in high school.
... Race/ethnicity disparities in academic success have been linked to three school-based variables (Hachfeld et al., 2015;Peters et al., 2016;Pezzetti, 2017;Public-Impact, 2018). In particular, the cultural mismatch that hinders the effectiveness of teachers, the bias in the discipline that is perpetuated by school policies such as zero tolerance, and the experience of students of in-school segregation as it relates to classes with a higher concentration of White students than minorities (Colgren & Sappington, 2015;Egalite et al., 2015;Glock, 2017;Mallett, 2015). Students from low-income families are also more likely to have underqualified or ineffective teachers, to be under-recognized for gifted or advanced courses, to be disproportionately diagnosed and represented in special education classes, and to have limited access to supplemental academic services, as a result (Grissom et al., 2017;Peters et al., 2016;Pezzetti, 2017;Public-Impact, 2018). ...
... Further, the current racial makeup of educators does not match that of the student body or the general public. Research findings on the effects of same-race teachers on minority and low-income students' academic achievement and retention rates vary (Banerjee, 2018;Egalite et al., 2015;Gershenson et al., 2018;Holt & Gershenson, 2015;Lindsay & Hart, 2017). A causal-comparative quantitative study conducted in 2015 concluded that an ethno-racial match between teacher and student increases academic achievement/performance in some minority groups in the short-run (Egalite et al., 2015;Holt & Gershenson, 2015). ...
... Research findings on the effects of same-race teachers on minority and low-income students' academic achievement and retention rates vary (Banerjee, 2018;Egalite et al., 2015;Gershenson et al., 2018;Holt & Gershenson, 2015;Lindsay & Hart, 2017). A causal-comparative quantitative study conducted in 2015 concluded that an ethno-racial match between teacher and student increases academic achievement/performance in some minority groups in the short-run (Egalite et al., 2015;Holt & Gershenson, 2015). Using open-source data from a state-mandated standardized test called the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), researchers examined the reading and math test scores for public school students in third through tenth grade against their reported demographics and their teachers (Egalite et al., 2015). ...
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It has been shown that Culturally Relevant Pedagogy is beneficial in schools with a wide range of populations because of its emphasis on academic achievement for all students, cultural competency, and social justice issues. This study focused on teachers’ perceptions about how to use a Culturally Relevant Pedagogy model in the classroom. Interviews with 20 in-service teachers across eight states revealed the following themes: (a) teachers’ ideas about Culturally Relevant Pedagogy and the classroom environment, and (b) school and district support on Culturally Relevant Pedagogy and social community, resources, and teachers’ training to understand Culturally Relevant Pedagogy. This paper explores themes to reveal how in-service teachers perceived their preparedness to teach using CRP strategies in the classroom. In order to close the achievement gap, a paradigm change is required. It is necessary to employ CRP strategies to create this change and integrate students’ everyday life with classroom learning objectives so that achievement disparity in classrooms may be reduced. English Language Learners (ELLs), students with low socio-economic status, and racial/ethnic minorities were the focus of this study.
... Furthermore, Egalite et al. (2015) showed that student value-added on standardized tests improved when there was a match between the teacher and student's race or ethnicity. That is to say, that there is an emerging body of research demonstrating that a teacher who is of the same race/ ethnicity as the students they teach, produces positive outcomes with regard to student attitudes, motivation, and achievement (Egalite & Kisida, 2018;Egalite et al., 2015;Gershenson et al., 2016). ...
... Furthermore, Egalite et al. (2015) showed that student value-added on standardized tests improved when there was a match between the teacher and student's race or ethnicity. That is to say, that there is an emerging body of research demonstrating that a teacher who is of the same race/ ethnicity as the students they teach, produces positive outcomes with regard to student attitudes, motivation, and achievement (Egalite & Kisida, 2018;Egalite et al., 2015;Gershenson et al., 2016). What is more, when teachers of color share a student's ethnic/racial identity, the level of trust in relationships with parents and other family members interested in a student's academic success also increases (Cochran-Smith, 2011;Davidson & Case, 2018;Ladson-Billings, 2011;Poza et al., 2014;Villegas & Irvine, 2010). ...
... which runs counter to many research studies (Ahmed & Boser, 2014;Angrist & Guryan, 2006;Carver-Thomas, 2018;Goodman et al., 2008). This is important in that there is an emerging body of research connecting outcomes associated with teachers of the same race/ethnicity with the students they teach in terms of student attitudes, motivation, and achievement (Egalite & Kisida, 2018;Egalite et al., 2015;Gershenson et al., 2016) as well as increased levels of trust in relationships with parents and other family members interested in a student's academic success (Cochran-Smith, 2011;Davidson & Case, 2018;Ladson-Billings, 2011;Nguyen, 2018;Poza et al., 2014;Villegas & Irvine, 2010). This intervention addressed the lowest scoring competencies in science, physical science as well as the other science content areas of EC-6 life and Earth science. ...
Article
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Although increasing numbers of teachers of color are entering the teacher pipeline, they continue to be in high demand, but short supply. Research shows teachers of color have lower pass rates on certification exams, a single factor that functions as a gatekeeper to teacher licensure. This study explores the impact of a science methods intervention on Hispanic elementary teacher certification scores. Results show the mean score for the post-intervention (241.63) was 17 points higher than the pre-intervention score (224.63) and the results were statistically significant (t = −5.816, df = 18, p = .000). In this study, not only did the Science certification scores improve, the scores for Hispanic and White EPSTs were not statistically significantly different (t = .394, df = 50, p = .695).
... While these initiatives attempt to address inequalities in STEM, these initiatives alone will not provide all Black students or even most Black students with access to a quality science education. Furthermore, a growing body of research has cited the positive impact of Black teachers on student achievement, motivation, and perceptions of Black students (Egalite et al., 2015;Gershenson & Papageorge, 2018). Despite the growing and profound evidence for increasing the number of Black teachers, these findings have been largely ignored by researchers and school administrators, as there have been few significant initiatives which support creating pathways to teaching among diverse communities (D'amico et al., 2017). ...
... According to Workman (2012), "teachers are the single most important in-school factor that affects student achievement" (p.1). In fact, in classrooms where Black teachers instruct students, Black students have experienced positive outcomes, including positive academic attitudes and perceptions among students and higher expectations of Black students among Black teachers (Egalite et al., 2015;Gershenson & Papageorge, 2015). Unfortunately, there are too few Black science teachers in the classroom and too little research published regarding Black science teachers. ...
Thesis
In this study, framed in expectancy-value (EVT) and Factors Influencing Teaching (FIT) Choice model, I employed an explanatory sequential mixed methods research design to explain (1) what factors influence Black novice and pre-service teachers to pursue a career in science education, (2) their perceptions of science teaching, and (3) their satisfaction with their career choice. Drawing from EVT, FIT Choice® theory provided a theoretical framework focused specifically on the antecedent experiences, values, and expectancies of success influencing teaching career choice. Based on the results of this study, Black novice and pre-service teachers are motivated by many factors, including factors of social utility, ability, and career and
... Adding to the complex relationship between students' membership identities and students' mathematical learning experiences, teachers' membership and individual (e.g., mathematical teaching) identities can also play a critical role in shaping this relationship. For example, considerable research has documented the positive effect that matching students with a teacher of the same race or ethnicity as them can have on students' mathematical achievement (e.g., Egalite, Kisida, & Winters, 2015;Redding, 2019). In particular, Egalite, Kisida, and Winters (2015) reported that low-performing Black and White students in grades 3 through 10 appear to benefit academically from being assigned a teacher that matches their racial group. ...
... For example, considerable research has documented the positive effect that matching students with a teacher of the same race or ethnicity as them can have on students' mathematical achievement (e.g., Egalite, Kisida, & Winters, 2015;Redding, 2019). In particular, Egalite, Kisida, and Winters (2015) reported that low-performing Black and White students in grades 3 through 10 appear to benefit academically from being assigned a teacher that matches their racial group. The authors attribute this result to multiple factors, including potentially greater shared cultural understanding that may aid teachers in becoming more effective role models or advocates as well as selecting more culturally relevant tools for teaching, learning, and mentoring students in the same racial group as the teachers. ...
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Chapter to appear in Voigt, M., Hagman, J. E., Gehrtz, J., Ratliff, B., Alexander, N. & Levy, R. (Eds.). (Submitted). Justice through the lens of calculus: Framing new possibilities for diversity, equity, and inclusion. Mathematical Association of America.
... In a study that examined the role of representation in a learning environment, the importance of having common values and morals in the classroom was examined (Egalite et al., 2015). The participants were Florida public school students in the third grade through the tenth grade, and scores were observed from the 2001-02 academic year to the 2008-09 academic year. ...
... Positive differences are found in students' performance when students and teachers shared values and morals. When students felt their values and morals being represented in the classroom, they engaged more leading to positive changes being observed in performance (Egalite et al., 2015). ...
Thesis
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Many factors facilitate greater learning and understanding in a diverse setting. These factors include various cultural backgrounds and ethnicities. Cultural differences include different sets of values, point of views, and sets of rules. A classroom can be a successful medium in bringing all these factors together. When there are different cultural and ethnic backgrounds, bringing these differences together can pose a challenge. This study explored how students of color (SOC, n = 72) and non-students of color (NSOC, n = 56) perceive classroom diversity by examining trustworthiness, equity, sense of belonging, and facilitating relationships through sharing values and morals. Contrary to predictions, no differences were found in rates of these variables. However, when an analysis of variance was performed to examine differences between all of the racial groups presented, it was found that Asian American students (n = 32) reported a significantly greater sense of belonging than did Black students (n = 20). Correlational analyses showed all variables: trust, sense of belonging, shared values and morals, equity, and facilitating relationships were positively significantly related to each other for the NSOC; however equity and sense of belonging were not significantly correlated for SOC. Overall SOC and NSOC seem to have a similar experience in the classroom; however, differences between Asian American and Black students may be explained by model minority myth.
... Adding to the complex relationship between students' membership identities and students' mathematical learning experiences, teachers' membership and individual (e.g., mathematical teaching) identities can also play a critical role in shaping this relationship. For example, considerable research has documented the positive effect that matching students with a teacher of the same race or ethnicity as them can have on students' mathematical achievement (e.g., Egalite, Kisida, & Winters, 2015;Redding, 2019). In particular, Egalite, Kisida, and Winters (2015) reported that low-performing Black and White students in grades 3 through 10 appear to benefit academically from being assigned a teacher that matches their racial group. ...
... For example, considerable research has documented the positive effect that matching students with a teacher of the same race or ethnicity as them can have on students' mathematical achievement (e.g., Egalite, Kisida, & Winters, 2015;Redding, 2019). In particular, Egalite, Kisida, and Winters (2015) reported that low-performing Black and White students in grades 3 through 10 appear to benefit academically from being assigned a teacher that matches their racial group. The authors attribute this result to multiple factors, including potentially greater shared cultural understanding that may aid teachers in becoming more effective role models or advocates as well as selecting more culturally relevant tools for teaching, learning, and mentoring students in the same racial group as the teachers. ...
Preprint
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In this volume, we encouraged a broad array of submissions that highlight issues of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) in introductory mathematics programs with special attention to precalculus, differential calculus, and integral calculus and surrounding departmental programs to support students in these courses. The volume features illustrative case studies that showcase ways in which departments and instructors are attending to promoting diverse introductory mathematics programs, achieving, or monitoring equitable student outcomes and experiences, and promoting inclusive teaching practices. Achieving and promoting DEI issues in introductory mathematics programs is not an easy undertaking so we encouraged submissions of models in progress, discussions of potential obstacles, challenges, and what departments and instructors have done to overcome barriers to address these issues. The volume also features thematic chapters that create a vision for DEI based on the illustrative case studies and known literature.
... The importance of role models has been supported by previous research showing that students receive higher grades when taught by people that physically resemble them (e.g., Dee, 2004 ;Egalite et al., 2015 ). There is also evidence in the literature that role models can be influential in overcoming the impact of stereotype threat. ...
... There is evidence in economics and other fields that supports the idea that black students at HBCUs may benefit from this type of environment. For example, HBCUs are known for having a diverse faculty, and studies like Egalite et al. (2015) show that young black students have higher reading and math test scores when they have a black teacher. At an HBCU, black professors could serve as a valuable presence for students who are coping with the effects of negative stereotypes about their intelligence or academic motivation. ...
Article
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We conducted lab experiments at a historically black university (HBCU), replicating the design and procedure, but not the results, of previous stereotype threat studies. The experimental design has two factors: stereotype salience (priming) and the identity of the experimenter (a less-threatening black woman vs. a more-threatening white man). Unlike previous studies, we found no effect of stereotype threat on student performance. We find little evidence that black students at the HBCU are affected by stereotype threat, regardless of the identity of the experimenter. We found no significant difference in the number of questions answered correctly by subjects in the control and treatment conditions in either the white male or the black female experimenter sessions. Finally, we found little evidence to support our prediction that subjects would respond differently to the identity of the ex-perimenter. Having a black female experimenter, as opposed to a white male experimenter, had no effect on the number of questions answered correctly.
... In addition to an updated understanding of the structural risk factors associated with elementary school grade retention, I extend the literature on student-teacher and studentprincipal racial/ethnic matching in three important ways. First, this literature has examined the relationship between student-teacher racial/ethnic matching and a variety of student outcomes, including achievement (Dee, 2004;Egalite et al., 2015;Joshi et al., 2018;Yarnell & Bohrnstedt, 2018), disciplinary infractions (Lindsay & Hart, 2017), assignment to gifted and talented programs (Grissom & Redding, 2016), and graduation rates (Gershenson et al., 2017). Evidence of how student-teacher or student-principal racial/ethnic matching is associated with differences in elementary grade retention among students of color would provide an important addition to this literature, given that elementary students likely to be retained are some of the most academically vulnerable children. ...
... A shared cultural understanding could also shape other classroom decisions made by the teacher, including the adoption of culturally relevant pedagogy, pushing students to work harder in class, and the formation of caring, protective relationships with students (Easton-Brooks, 2019; Egalite & Kisida, 2018;McKinney de Royston et al., 2020;Redding, 2019). Same-race teachers can also serve as role models for their students, which has the potential to increase motivation and engagement with their coursework (Egalite et al., 2015;Egalite & Kisida, 2018). To the extent to which these changes result in higher levels of student performance, student-teacher racial/ethnic matching might decrease grade retention rates among Black and Latino/a students. ...
Article
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This study uses data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, 2010–2011 to better understand the rates of grade retention during elementary school and the factors associated with this grade retention. Using matched student–teacher and student–principal data, I examine the student-, teacher-, and school-level factors associated with a student’s probability of being retained. I then apply within-student comparisons to examine the extent to which students with a teacher or principal of the same race/ethnicity had a lower probability of being retained. No evidence of a relationship is found between student–teacher and student–principal racial/ethnic matching and reduced grade retention for Black, Latinx, or White students.
... benefits for Black students (Cholewa et al., 2014;Decker et al., 2007;Harrell-Levy et al., 2016;Egalite, & Kisida, 2017;Egalite et al., 2015). Black teachers, who share an ethnoracial identity with their students, are often equipped to support students' socioemotional development from a culturally-informed lens (Henderson et al., 2018;Jackson et al., 2014;Goings & Bianco, 2016). ...
... We find this concept, the absence of Blackness in a powered position supporting the perception that Blackness cannot successfully exist within that space. However, in contrast, perspectives regarding the power in having Black teachers (or leaders) within educational spaces as symbolic figures alone were impactful (Bristol & Martin-Fernandez, 2019;Egalite et al., 2015). ...
Article
Black students’ experiences in math and science courses in urban high schools were investigated. A critical race theoretical framing of qualitative data revealed teacher characteristics that encouraged and discouraged students. Teacher characteristics that encouraged students’ interests included (1) shared racial/cultural background with students, (2) passion for students and subject matter, and (3) a caring and understanding approach to student engagement. Characteristics that discouraged student engagement included (1) lack of racial representation, (2) differential treatment of students based on race, (3) condescension and assumed incompetence, and (4) technology as a replacement for instruction. We offer recommendations to improve Black students’ experience and increase interest in pursuing future STEM careers.
... Researchers have linked teacher and child race to a range of child outcomes, both academic and non-academic, with the majority of this research focused on elementary school grades and above. Research on K-12 students indicates that being randomly assigned to a same-race teacher improves academic achievement (Dee, 2004;Egalite et al., 2015;Gershenson et al., 2018). However, few studies have examined outcomes in preschool students as it relates to race. ...
Article
In preschool, Black children are overrepresented in percentages of children suspended or expelled. Teachers' perceptions of and responses to children displaying disruptive behavior may be different depending on the race of the teacher and child. Although teacher-child race match is associated with a number of outcomes in K-12 students, research examining these links in preschool is limited. This study examined whether teachers' reported trajectories of children's disruptive behavior and use of discipline practices varied depending on teacher and child race in a sample of 349 preschoolers and their 144 teachers. Results indicated that teacher and child race were associated with teachers' ratings of children's disruptive behavior and reported use of exclusionary discipline practices.
... The survey results showed that current SHL teachers are mostly native speakers of the language (56% of respondents), often entering the teaching profession opportunistically-being recruited only because they speak Spanish (Gironzetti & Belpoliti, 2018), while only 5% of the respondents identified themselves as SHL speakers. This finding highlights the lack of representation of heritage speakers in the SHL teacher pool, which may impact students' motivation, engagement, and achievement (Egalite et al., 2015;González Darriba et al., 2021;Guzman, 2020). Early engagement programs dedicated to fostering interest in language teaching among SHL speakers at the high school level could result in a relevant shift, with larger number of SHL learners becoming the future practitioners in the field, thus serving the trifold purpose of helping them and their students to maintain, value, and expand their use of the language (Bustamante & Novella, 2019;Guzman, 2020). ...
Article
In response to the growth of Spanish heritage language (SHL) learners in the United States, researchers and instructors in the field of SHL teaching proposed a set of goals and pedagogical approaches to meet these learners’ needs. However, because few studies focused on SHL teachers’ professional preparation and practice, it is unclear whether these developments have reached language teacher preparation and professionalization, or how SHL teachers are implementing these pedagogies. This study seeks to better understand the experiences, practices, and needs of teachers of SHL to inform and improve professional development models. By analyzing data from a nationwide online survey and exploring individual experiences through scripted interviews, we offer a snapshot of the realities of these educators working in different educational contexts in the United States. The analysis highlights the challenges faced by SHL instructors, the gaps in their teacher education, and the need for additional resources and targeted support. The implications of these results for SHL teacher preparation are discussed considering feasible options to foster their professional growth.
... Previous studies find evidence of positive student-teacher interactions by race at the elementary, middle, and high school educational levels (e.g. Dee, 2004Dee, , 2005Egalite et al., 2015;Ehrenberg et al., 1995;Gershenson et al., 2016Gershenson et al., , 2018. In higher education, Fairlie et al. (2014) find that minority instructors have positive effects on academic outcomes of minority students in community colleges, and Birdsall et al. (2020) find that having a same-race instructor, especially among non-white students, increases the likelihood of receiving a good grade at a top-ranked law school. ...
... Specifically my data allows me to investigate the effect of labour market conditions at entry on the sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and educational attainment (degree subject, classification and the quality of institution attended) of the new trainees. As empirical evidence shows that teacher characteristics can affect pupil outcomes (Carrell et al., 2010, Dee 2004, 2007, Egalite et al., 2015, Gershenson et al., 2016, my analysis speaks to the literature which indicates teacher composition is likely to be welfare improving for students (Bietenbeck et al., 2018, Dee 2005, Gershenson et al., 2018, Marcenaro-Gutierrez and Lopez-Agudo 2020. A unique feature of my analysis is that I am able to construct a measure of teacher demand to control for demand-side effects. ...
Thesis
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This PhD thesis consists of three chapters in the topic of applied labour economics. The first chapter investigates the determinants of higher education (HE) participation using new data on university-related subjective expectations elicited from parents and young people in the Innovation Panel of the UK Household Longitudinal Study. We find that differences in HE aspirations can, partially, be explained by differences in the expected returns to a degree and that individuals adjust their university-related beliefs and subjective expectation in response to a light touch information treatment. The second chapter estimates the determinants of occupational choice after graduation. Specifically we look at the effect that labour market conditions have on a graduate’s decision to enrol onto an initial teacher training programme (TTP). We find that labour market conditions have no effect on the probability that a graduate will go into a TTP, but heterogeneity analysis suggests that periods of high unemployment impact the composition of graduates who enter the teaching profession. Graduating during a period of low labour demand has an effect on diversity (more male graduates and more ethnic minority graduates), subject specific shortages (more physics graduates) and composition of graduates from different Higher Education institutions. The third chapter analyses whether higher relative wages can motivate teachers to work harder, or more productively, in any way that affects pupil outcomes. Consistent with the predictions of the efficiency wage model, we find that teachers’ relative wages have a positive effect on their pupils’ cognitive outcomes (measured by test scores), with an effect size similar to a one pupil reduction in class sizes or an additional hour of weekly tuition for a 10 percentage change in relative wages. In addition, we find that relative wages have a positive effect on pupils’ enjoyment of learning.
... That German-origin students learned more with the German-origin teacher is in line with studies showing that a match between student and teacher ethnicity can be beneficial for student outcomes, as teachers can be expected to evaluate and treat students of their ethnic ingroup more advantageously than students of ethnic outgroups (e.g., Egalite et al., 2015;Kleen et al., 2019). The empirical evidence for positive effects of ethnic match is, however, ambiguous (see Driessen, 2015, for a review). ...
Article
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Lower vocabulary in German is repeatedly reported for students with Turkish migration background attending school in Germany. We investigated whether in students of Turkish descent (a) learning vocabulary is impaired when the teacher activates the negative stereotype that students with Turkish family language learn less well and (b) whether a Turkish-origin teacher, as an ingroup expert model, can mitigate negative effects of the activation of the stereotype. In an experimental study, Turkish- and German-origin students (N = 182) living in Germany worked individually on a tablet on a vocabulary learning task instructed by a teacher in a video tutorial who introduced herself with either a Turkish or German name. Before the task, the teacher either mentioned that students in general (no stereotype activation) or students who speak Turkish in their families (stereotype activation) often have difficulties acquiring new vocabulary. A multiple-group regression analysis showed that Turkish-origin students learned significantly more under stereotype activation with the Turkish-origin teacher than in all other conditions. Results suggest that students are particularly motivated to learn when the teacher represents their ingroup targeted by negative stereotypes and openly addresses potential difficulties students of the stigmatized ingroup may encounter. We discuss the findings in light of the literature on stereotype threat and on the role of ingroup expert models.
... Despite increased efforts to recruit Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) into teacher education programs in the United States, BIPOC educators compose approximately 20% of the workforce (Hussar et al., 2020) and leave at a higher rate than their White colleagues (Achinstein et al., 2010;Easton-Brooks, 2014). BIPOC educators are vital to the educational workforce; they uniquely contribute to the success of BIPOC students, as evidenced by an increase in key indicators of academic performance including test scores and identification for gifted programs (Carver-Thomas, 2018;Egalite et al., 2015;Joshi et al., 2018;Yarnell & Bohrnstedt, 2018). As public school enrollment becomes more racially diverse (Hussar et al., 2020), recruitment and retention efforts must be informed by their major concerns, including race-related stress in the workplace and negative school climates (Decuir-Gunby & Gunby, 2016;Grooms, Mahatmya, & Johnson, 2021;Krull & Robicheau, 2020). ...
Article
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Understanding how best to recruit and retain Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) in the education workforce is critical for human resource practice and scholarship. BIPOC educators are consistently shown to positively influence student outcomes, but leave the workforce at a rate 25% higher than their White colleagues. Emerging research points to school climate as a reason that BIPOC educators leave. Relatedly, researchers find that race-based and gender-based discrimination impact job burnout. Guided by the intersectionality scholarship that acknowledges how women of color experience marginalization across multiple identities, the current study examines how race-based stressors, both in daily life and in the work environment, are associated with job burnout for BIPOC women K–12 educators. Multivariate analyses of data disaggregated from an original survey distributed to BIPOC educators in a predominantly White and rural state ( n = 145, 54.6% women) consistently isolate the effect of a racialized school climate on the burnout of BIPOC women educators. Specifically, when BIPOC women educators perceive their schools to be less open to discussing racial conflict, they report greater job burnout. Although there were no differences in the amount of burnout reported across racial groups, there were differences in the levels of daily racial microaggressions experienced. Notably, only school-based racial stressors emerged as a significant predictor of burnout. We discuss implications for organizational policies on diversity, equity, and inclusion as well as the hiring, retention, and promotion of women of color.
... Researchers including Gershenson, Holt, and Papageorge (2015) concluded that White teachers were less likely to believe Black students would graduate from high school. The statistic is consistent with other research that suggests the Black-White, student-teacher relationship can correlate to lower student outcomes (Boykin & Noguera, 2011;Kisida & Winters, 2015). Thus, determining how to recruit and retain Black male educators is imperative. ...
Article
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Nationally Black males comprise less than 2% of public school teachers. The startling figure is not sustainable in a diverse society. Increasingly researchers have focused on the experiences of Black male inservice teachers. However, there is scant research that investigates the role school administrators in urban, suburban, and rural districts play in creating supportive environments for Black male preservice teachers. This article fills in a gap in the research by examining the barriers Black male preservice teachers encounter and provides actionable steps school administrators in urban, suburban, and rural districts should take to create healthy ecosystems for Black male preservice teachers.
... Numerous studies have found that elementary and middle school students tend to perform better on reading and math tests when their teachers are the same race or ethnicity as them (e.g. Dee, 2004;Egalite et al., 2015). Racial matching between teachers and students has also been linked to lesser absenteeism and fewer major disciplinary actions (Holt and Gershenson, 2015;Lindsay and Hart, 2017). ...
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Despite growing calls for greater inclusivity and cultural responsiveness, little is known about how environmental education (EE) may differentially affect diverse audiences. As part of a national study of 334 environmentally focused day field trips for adolescent youth in the United States in 2018, we examined how outcomes differed for students of different grade levels, racial backgrounds, and socioeconomic status. Participants who were younger, Hispanic, and from lower socioeconomic classes exhibited more positive outcomes than older, non-Hispanic, and wealthier participants. Differences in Hispanic populations are likely at least partially attributable to known survey response biases. We also found that programs with non-White instructors tended to yield higher levels of satisfaction in groups where the student majority was not White. We discuss potential explanations for these trends and call for further research on culturally responsive and age-appropriate approaches to EE. Supplemental data for this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2021.1990865 .
... Diversifying the teacher workforce has been a well-documented strategy to close the opportunity gap of students of color (Bates & Glick, 2013;Bristol & Martin-Fernandez, 2019;Egalite et al., 2015). A growing body of literature suggests that promoting teacher racial diversity can contribute to closing the opportunity gap for three reasons (Egalite & Kisida, 2018). ...
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Teacher racial diversity has been widely considered important in education. However, it remains unclear to what extent and how teacher racial diversity has been addressed at the federal, state, and district levels. In this study, we employed text mining to collect and analyze over three million documents at the federal, state, and district levels. We found that while students of color had disproportionately less access to racially diverse teachers, the documents under our analysis insufficiently discussed the recruitment and retention of racially diverse teachers. Our findings also reveal that education agencies at the federal, state, and district levels paid scant attention to recruiting and retaining Hispanic teachers. For the states and districts that discussed the recruitment of racially diverse teachers, they primarily recruited teachers from institutions and organizations that primarily serve people of color, such as Historically Black Colleges and Universities, the Columbia Latino/a Law Student Association, the National Association of Asian American Professionals, and the National Black MBA Association. Given the findings and the projected growth of Black and Hispanic student enrollment in the United States, we provide five policy recommendations for policymakers and leaders to racially diversify the teacher workforce amid shifting student demographics, particularly Hispanic students.
... There is an increasing amount of research literature demonstrating the importance of a diverse teaching workforce, specifically one that is aligned to local student demographic characteristics. Studies have shown that students, especially African American students, score higher on educational achievement tests when they are randomly assigned to same-race teachers (Dee, 2004;Dee, 2007;Egalite, Kisida, & Winters, 2015). These studies also indicate that a teacher's race can be a useful predictor of teachers' abilities to reduce gaps not only in educational achievement but also in other important areas such as levels of student attendance and disciplinary actions. ...
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... In California, 72% of students enrolled in public schools are racially and ethnically diverse, and 77% of students who receive special education services are from culturally and ethnically diverse backgrounds (California Department of Education, 2021). A growing body of research suggests that students benefit from having educators at their school who are the same race or ethnicity, including increased student achievement (Egalite & Kisida, 2018;Egalite et al., 2015), higher teacher expectations (Gershenson et al., 2016), and reduced rates of exclusionary discipline practices (Lindsay & Hart, 2017). Unfortunately, only 21% of educators in the U.S. and 34% of those in California are from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds (California Department of Education, 2021; National Center for Education Statistics, 2019). ...
... The recruitment and retention of TOCs is a relevant issue for students of color and anyone interested in engaging all learners in an increasingly multicultural, multi-pluralistic, and dynamic society. Research indicates that TOCs not only boost the academic performance of students of color, but also support the learning and development of students beyond racial borders (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017;Egalite et al., 2015). Educators and lawmakers need to recognize that diversity within the educational system itself will benefit entire communities and their student populations. ...
... Interactions between students, teachers, parents, and administrators, along with teacher training, reinforce these patterns of racial segregation. This happens through pervasive stereotyping by school administrators in which Black and Latinx students are assumed to be "trouble makers, " while white and Asian students are assumed to be academically driven (Alvaré, 2018;Calarco, 2018;Collins, 2009;Downey & Pribesh, 2004;Egalite et al., 2015;Escayg, 2020;Ferguson, 2000;Flores, 2017;Hagerman, 2018;Lareau, 2011;Ochoa, 2013;Ramey, 2015;Skiba et al., 2002). Although Asian students often attend well-resourced schools, scholars find that teachers and administrators construct Asian students as perpetual foreigners and ethnically homogenous within these spaces (Kao & Thompson, 2003;Nozaki, 2000;Ochoa, 2013). ...
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In this paper we examine schooling inequalities through drawing from the contributions of racialized organizations. We apply the components of this racial theory to offer a new framework for examining racial inequalities in US K‐12 schools. We analyze case studies to demonstrate how the four tenants of racialized organizations operate in three schools. In particular, we highlight how these tenants surface through schools' policies (school rules around discipline, language, and tracking) and practices (interactions between students, teachers and staff). We offer a framework for understanding how schools are shaped by the racial hierarchy at the organizational level. We close by considering implications and suggestions for future research.
... Moreover, the combination of gender-matching and subject-matching has been shown to further improve motivation and performance: women attain better on a maths test when it is administered by an experienced female mathematician rather than by a genderor subject-unmatched person (Marx & Roman, 2002). Similarly, students from Black, White, and Asian backgrounds showed increased maths attainment when taught by an ethnicitymatched teacher, independently from their teaching quality (Egalite et al., 2015). ...
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Exposure to inspirational and relatable role models is crucial towards fostering engagement of learners with scientific disciplines. However, the representation of scientists in popular culture is still far from being adequately gender-and race-inclusive. This study evaluated the gender balance and impact of scientific role models using a two-pronged experimental approach. The gender balance was investigated in search engines, online databases, and school curricula. A survey was used to investigate English secondary students' awareness of role models and intentions to pursue further scientific studies. Our findings revealed a widespread female underrepresentation amongst scientific role models in all the analysed online sources and in high school curricula provided by the three main English exam boards. The survey (= 356) revealed that students were considerably more likely to identify famous male than female scientists. While awareness of female role models was significantly associated with students' gender, this was not the case for male role models. A statistically significant correlation was also observed between the number of identified role models and intentions to pursue scientific studies in Key Stage 4 girls. This study reinforces the urgency of ensuring school curricula and online resources provide a more modern and inclusive representation of scientists.
... Another reason for variability between the course-instructor pairs may be due to varying demographics of the course staff and students [51][52][53]. For example, having a PEER teaching assistant may increase belonging and decrease imposter syndrome. ...
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It is well established that there is a national problem surrounding the equitable participation in and completion of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) higher education programs. Persons excluded because of their ethnicity or race (PEERs) experience lower course performance, major retention, sense of belonging, and degree completion. It is unclear though how pervasive these issues are across an institution, from the individual instructor, course, and discipline perspectives. Examining over six years of institutional data from a large-enrollment, research-intensive, minority-serving university, we present an analysis of racial opportunity gaps between PEERs and non-PEERs to identify the consistency of these issues. From this analysis, we find that there is considerable variability as to whether a given course section taught by a single instructor does or does not exhibit opportunity gaps, although encouragingly we did identify exemplar instructors, course-instructor pairs, courses, and departments that consistently had no significant gaps observed. We also identified significant variation across course-instructor pairs within a department, and found that certain STEM disciplines were much more likely to have courses that exhibited opportunity gaps relative to others. Across nearly all disciplines though, it is clear that these gaps are more pervasive in the lower division curriculum. This work highlights a means to identify the extent of inequity in STEM success across a university by leveraging institutional data. These findings also lay the groundwork for future studies that will enable the intentional design of STEM education reform by leveraging beneficial practices used by instructors and departments assigning equitable grades.
... Figure 1 illustrates our theorized structural model connecting students' personal characteristics, interactions with high school teachers, interactions with college faculty, and validation with students' reported mattering to campus. We included students' demographic characteristics, including race/ethnicity and sex, as predictors of their interactions with their high school teachers because of a large and growing body of research indicating that teachers' expectations of students, reactions to student behavior, and evaluation of student work vary systematically based on the interaction of student and teacher demographics (Dee, 2005;Egalite et al., 2015;Gershenson et al., 2016;Lindsay & Hart, 2017;Robinson-Cimpian et al., 2014). We included students' prior achievement in the model because, intuitively, students with different levels of academic achievement may feel differing amounts of pressure to interact with their teachers about coursework and feel more or less positively about those interactions. ...
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We use survey data from three four-year campuses to explore the relationship between academic validation and student outcomes during students’ first 3 years in college using structural equation modeling. We examine both a psychosocial outcome (mattering to campus) and an academic outcome (cumulative GPA). We find that both frequency of interactions with faculty and feelings of academic validation from faculty are positively related to students’ feelings of mattering to campus and cumulative GPA in their third year. Our results suggest that academic validation, beyond the frequency of faculty–student interactions, is an important predictor of students’ psychosocial and academic success.
... A growing body of research has cited the positive impact of Black and minority teachers on student achievement, motivation, and perceptions of Black students and all students in general (Downey & Pribesh, 2004;Egalite, Kisida, & Winters, 2015;Gershenson & Papageorge, 2018). ...
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In this study, framed in Expectancy Value Theory (EVT) and Factors Influencing Teaching (FIT) Choice model, I employed an explanatory sequential mixed methods research design to explain which factors influence Black novice and pre-service teachers (NPSTs) to pursue a career in science education. Drawing from EVT, FIT Choice® theory provided a theoretical framework focused specifically on the antecedent experiences, values, and expectancies of success influencing teaching career choice. Based on the results of this study, Black NPSTs are motivated by many factors, including factors of social utility, ability, and career and subject area interest. These factors are primarily influenced through prior teaching and learning experiences, such as informal summer camp experiences and tutoring. Understanding the factors that influence Black novice and pre-service teachers to pursue science teaching can help to address future recruiting and retention efforts in primary and secondary schools.
... Numerous studies have found that elementary and middle school students tend to perform better on reading and math tests when their teachers are the same race or ethnicity as them (e.g. Dee, 2004;Egalite et al., 2015). Racial matching between teachers and students has also been linked to lesser absenteeism and fewer major disciplinary actions (Holt and Gershenson, 2015;Lindsay and Hart, 2017). ...
... While Black, Latinx, and White students compose the three largest racial/ethnic groups in U.S. schools, Black and Latinx teachers are underrepresented in the teaching workforce (The Education Trust, 2020; U.S. Department of Education, 2016). Research suggests that students benefit from having demographically congruent teachers, in ways including higher student achievement (Egalite et al., 2015;Joshi et al., 2018), more equitable disciplinary outcomes (Lindsay & Hart, 2017), and increased postsecondary attendance rates (Gershenson et al., 2018). Thus, closing representational gaps by hiring and retaining more Black and Latinx teachers is one way to improve educational experiences for Black and Latinx students. ...
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Educational leaders throughout the United States have repeatedly emphasized the importance of increasing the number of Black and Latinx teachers in American schools. Prior qualitative work suggests that Black and Latinx teachers who are demographically isolated in their schools often report negative experiences. Drawing on theories of proportional representation in organizations, we use Tennessee statewide survey and administrative data to examine whether self-reported professional experiences of Black and Latinx teachers are different when they are demographically isolated. We estimate models using two measures of demographic isolation: a continuous measure and a theoretically generated ordinal measure. We find that, for Black teachers, the percentage of Black teachers in the school is positively associated with teachers’ perceived satisfaction and support and with the frequency of collaboration. There is also some evidence of threshold effects of demographic isolation for Black teachers, as Black teachers in schools in which at least 60% of fellow teachers are Black report significantly higher satisfaction and support than other Black teachers. Our models do not find any associations between isolation and professional experience for Latinx teachers, but a small sample size and lack of variation in demographic isolation among Latinx teachers makes it difficult to estimate these associations. Our findings suggest that both ordinal and continuous measures of demographic isolation may be useful when examining relationships between demographic isolation and workplace experiences. Because we study factors linked to turnover in prior research, these analyses can contribute to the broader discussion about the retention of Black and Latinx teachers.
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This article examines the trajectory of a research programme focused on Black women’s language through the lived experiences of the investigator. Using rivers as a metaphor to structure the account, the article mines key incidents in the researcher’s life that have shaped her understanding of and approach to analysing Black women’s discourse. Cet article examine la trajectoire d’un programme de recherche axé sur le langage des femmes noires à travers les expériences vécues de l’enquêteur. Utilisant les rivières comme métaphore pour structurer le récit, l’article explore des incidents clés dans la vie de la chercheuse qui ont façonné sa compréhension et son approche de l’analyse du discours des femmes noires.
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Context Ongoing teacher diversity campaigns will not increase the net number of teachers of color if policymakers fail to address the disproportionate rate at which teachers of color leave the profession when compared to White teachers. Purpose The purpose of this article is to fill the empirical gap about the mechanisms that influence Black male teacher turnover. Specifically, this study explores the perceived school-based experiences of Black male teachers, with particular attention to comparing the experiences of Black men who are the only Black male teachers in their schools to those of Black men in schools with multiple Black male teachers. Research Questions 1. In what ways do the school-based experiences differ for Loners (Black male teachers in schools employing only one Black male teacher) versus Groupers (Black male teachers in schools with larger numbers of Black male teachers)? 2. How does a school's organizational context, such as relationships with colleagues and school administration, affect the decisions of Loners and Groupers to stay in their schools or in the teaching profession? Research Design This study employed a qualitative method, phenomenology. Two waves of semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with Black male teachers (N = 27) across 14 schools. Seven schools had three or more Black male teachers on the faculty (n = 20), and seven schools had one Black male teacher on the faculty (n = 7). Each semistructured interview lasted approximately 60 minutes. Findings/Results Groupers cited challenging working conditions (such as weak administrative leadership) as their primary reason for wanting to leave. The following academic year, almost half of these teachers (9 out of 20) did not return to their schools in the positions they had held the previous year. Counterintuitively, Loners, despite sometimes having hostile interactions with their White colleagues, stayed. While Simon and Johnson theorized that the absence of positive collegial relationships increases turnover, this phenomenon proved less true for Loners’ decisions to remain at their schools. Recommendations Given that Groupers were more likely to leave when compared to Loners, policymakers who are interested in increasing the number of Black male teachers must also give attention to retention. Future research should compare the school-based experiences and influences of turnover of Black male Loners and Groupers to other ethnoracial minorities, such as Latinx and Asian teachers. Practitioners, or specifically principals, may also want to become more attentive to interpersonal relationships in schools, particularly between Black male teachers and their White colleagues.
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Latino Critical Theory (LatCrit) posits that the invisibility of the Latinx identity in conversations surrounding race and ethnicity leads to an inability for Latinxs to identify, conceptualize, and verbalize their unique experience. This article explores Latinx youth’s experiences in Ontario’s education system and their invisibility throughout their educational journey. Based on qualitative interviews and focus groups with a total of 60 Latinx youth (aged 16 to 26), this study found that Latinx students do not see themselves represented by teachers and peers. Latinx youth struggled with situating their sense of community within the education system and the broader Canadian context, which impacted their identity as Latinx-Canadians. The findings also showed that a lack of exposure and widespread recognition of the Latinx community by peers, teachers, and other stakeholders in positions of power create racially insensitive environments for students. Youth shared that they experienced a sense of placelessness, wherein they could not fully belong in a single space.
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Purpose: While previous research has examined the impact of school turnaround models, less is known about the principals who lead these turnaround schools. This study examines the personal demographics, experience, educational background, prior school performance, salaries, and turnover of principals who led two turnaround models in Tennessee's lowest performing schools: a state-run Achievement School District (ASD) that has not yielded positive nor negative effects and local Innovation Zones (iZones) that averaged positive effects on student achievement over six years. Methods: We analyze longitudinal, administrative data from the Tennessee Department of Education from 2006–2007 to 2017–2018 to compare pre- and post-reform means and trends in principal characteristics between ASD, iZone, and similarly low-performing comparison schools. Results: ASD schools had higher principal turnover rates and lost principals whose schools performed higher while iZone schools retained more principals and lost principals whose schools performed lower. Moreover, iZone schools employed more experienced principals, more Black principals, and principals with higher graduate degree attainment and paid their principals more than ASD schools. Salary differences between ASD and iZone schools were not explained by principals’ characteristics, such as years of experience. Implications: Our findings reveal differences in leadership characteristics between iZone and ASD schools that were consistent with differences in the effectiveness of the two turnaround approaches.
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We examined the characteristics of 77 high school participants from four school districts who participated in the Teaching and Learning Career Pathway (TLCP) at the University of Louisville during the 2018–2019 school year. The program seeks to support the recruitment of a diverse and effective educator workforce by recruiting high school students as potential teachers for dual-credit courses that explore the teaching profession. Utilizing descriptive and inferential analysis (χ ² tests) of closed-ended item responses as well as qualitative analysis of program documents, Web sites, and students’ open-ended item responses, we compared the characteristics of the participants with those of their home school districts and examined their perceptions of the program. When considering gender and race/ethnicity, our analysis revealed the program was unsuccessful in its first year, reaching predominantly white female high school students who were already interested in teaching. Respondents reported learning about the TLCP from school personnel, specifically, guidance counselors (39%), non-TCLP teachers (25%), or TLCP teachers (20%). We found that the TLCP program has not defined diversity in a measurable way and the lack of an explicit program theory hinders the evaluation and improvement of TLCP. Program recruitment and outcomes are the result of luck or idiosyncratic personnel recommendations rather than intentional processes. We identified a need for qualitative exploration of in-school recruitment processes and statewide longitudinal studies to track participant outcomes in college and in the teacher labor market.
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Teachers of Color experience isolation due to racial microaggressions and institutional racism throughout their careers, leading to trauma and higher levels of teacher turnover in the profession. In this study, we use the ‘pedagogy of activism’and scholarship on microaggressionsto explore how activist teachers of Color seek support to combat isolation and harm through participation in teacher activist networks. Using qualitative methods, we investigated the experiences of 26 activist teachers of Color from across the United States. We found that teacher activist networks were key to creating healing spaces for coping with the effects of microaggressions, and that the pedagogy of activism fostered agency to push back against racist policies and institutions. These findings have implications for sustaining diversity in the teacher workforce.
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Research suggests that work environments are associated with turnover patterns for teachers of Color. This study investigates variation in work environments using longitudinal administrative data from 20 large urban and suburban K-12 school districts. Results indicate that teachers of Color are more often employed in “hard-to-staff” work environments compared to their White colleagues. Despite this, findings demonstrate high relative levels of teacher experience in schools where teachers of Color, specifically Latinx educators, represent a majority of the teaching staff. These results have implications for educational policy and practice, specifically in the areas of teacher preparation, recruitment, hiring, and retention.
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In this paper we examine the gender matching effects in learning outcomes by studying the sorting behaviour of teachers and students by gender across private and public schools.We develop a theoretical framework behind the selection mechanism process which is grounded in the economic framework of systematic gender norms. Using contextual gender norms that are relevant to a developing country context, our theoretical model of matching behaviour predicts that the relative gain in learning outcomes is higher for female students under female teachers. We find support for our theoretical predictions when we test them using Young Lives Survey (YLS) data collected from Andhra Pradesh.
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Developmental researchers are well aware that children behave differently around different people. Nevertheless, researchers rarely consider (and report on) who is running their studies. Indeed, in a survey of articles published in the last 3 years in 4 top developmental journals, we find that the vast majority of studies fail to report any information about experimenter identity, despite the fact that child–adult interactions may be strongly influenced by the social inferences that individuals draw from one another. We argue that developmental researchers need to acknowledge how experimenter identity could be acting as an invisible, lurking variable, influencing the outcome and generalizability of studies. We provide simple suggestions for how researchers and journals can begin to address this issue, thereby improving the quality and depth of the work in our field.
Little is known about the extent to which expansions of K-12 computer science (CS) have been equitable for students of different racial backgrounds and gender identities. Using longitudinal course-level data from all high schools in California between the 2003–2004 and 2018–2019 school years we find that 79% of high school students in California, including majorities of all racial groups, are enrolled in schools that offer CS, up from 45% in 2003. However, while male and female students are equally likely to attend schools that offer CS courses, CS courses represent a much smaller share of course enrollments for female students than for male students. Non-Asian students enroll in relatively few CS courses, and this is particularly true for Black, Hispanic, and Native American students. Race gaps in CS participation are to a substantial degree explicable in terms of access gaps, but gender gaps in CS participation are not. Different groups of students have access to CS teachers with similar observable qualifications, but CS teachers remain predominantly white and male. Consequently, white and male CS students are much more likely than other students to have same-race or same-gender instructors. Our findings and the implications we draw for practice will be of interest to administrators and policymakers who, over and above needing to ensure equitable access to CS courses for students, need to attend carefully to equity-related course participation and staffing considerations.
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To meet the needs of an increasingly diverse student population, leadership preparation programs must tackle the mutually-reinforcing goals of increasing the development of leaders from under-represented populations and cultivating culturally responsive leadership. This paper adds to the discussion of how best to improve leadership preparation by drawing on the literature related to equity in the leadership pipeline, and social justice and culturally responsive leadership frameworks, to examine one university-based leadership preparation program, highlighting the program’s recent external partnership focused on increasing Black and Latinx administrators across the state and improving school leaders’ cultural responsiveness.
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Embedded in “common sense” and state-mandated reforms to close “the achievement gap,” the urban school, especially those sites with a no-excuses orientation to learning, can produce and reproduce the carceral state in students’ lives. The seemingly innocuous policies and processes limit access to educational opportunities and create disproportionate out-of-class time, which can emerge as the connective tissue for criminalization and the school-to-prison nexus that disproportionately affects Black males in the United States. The objective of the study was to illuminate the more unspoken mechanisms of disproportionality in school while concurrently raising awareness of how everyday practices, like school-imposed mis/labeling, contribute to the symbolic violence and dehumanization of Black and Latinx boys in school. https://www.tcrecord.org/PrintContent.asp?ContentID=23974
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Large racial differences persist in college enrollment and major choice, which may be exacerbated by the racial distribution of high school teachers. In this paper, I present the first evidence that matching high school students with same-race teachers improves the students’ college enrollment. To address selection and the sorting of students and teachers, I use detailed Texas administrative data on classroom assignment, exploiting variation in student and teacher race within the same course, year, and school, eliminating 99% of observed same-race sorting. Race-matching raises minority students’ course performance as well as improves longer-term outcomes like high school graduation and college enrollment. Black and Hispanic students matching with a same-race teacher in a given subject also become more likely to major in that subject in college with strong effects for STEM majors. Finally, I find much smaller race-matching for White students, suggesting policies to make the teaching population more representative would benefit minority students with minimal negative spillovers to the White student population.
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Research has found that teachers of color contribute to better academic, behavioral, and socioemotional outcomes for diverse students. Despite these benefits, the diversity of the teacher workforce in the United States has not kept pace with increases in student diversity. States have adopted aspirational legislation aimed at increasing teaching diversity, but have fallen short of diversity targets. This qualitative study examines barriers to increasing teacher diversity by presenting the efforts to do so at 28 diverse-by-design charter schools across five locales. Despite a range of approaches, these schools struggled to meet teacher diversity targets, suggesting a need for states to adopt alternate policy instruments rather than relying on legislative mandates.
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Consistent evidence indicates the importance of teachers of color for experiences and outcomes of students of color. Fortunately, extant studies consistently indicate special education teachers (SETs) teaching students with EBD are more likely to be people of color than other SETs. These SETs require supportive working conditions, but, to our knowledge, no studies have examined the experiences of SETs of color serving students with EBD. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the experiences of SETs of color who teach students with EBD, investigating how SETs of color rate their working conditions and intent to continue teaching students with EBD. Analyzing two extant data sets, we found that SETs of color experienced strong support from administrators and paraprofessionals, ratings of many working conditions did not differ by race/ethnicity, and SETs of color on average intended to stay in their jobs. However, of great concern, we found significant differences in experiences of school culture, colleague emotional support, and autonomy, with SETs of color rating school culture and colleague emotional support significantly lower and autonomy significantly higher than white SETs.
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While social interaction is claimed to help reduce racial bias, the evidence is mixed. We argue that not only interaction, but familiarity among agents may help reduce race bias. We use new data from MasterChef, a nationally syndicated television competition that cover 10 years. We find that familiarity does not help reduce race bias. When judges are all Caucasian they appear to favor Caucasian contestants and set back minority contestants in the final placements. Interestingly, we find an analogous finding with minority judges. Female judges are the only ones who show no bias.
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Existing research examines whether studying with teachers of the same race/ethnicity affects student achievement, but little is known about whether those effects vary by timing and frequency. We use 7 years of administrative data from third through eighth graders in Indiana to estimate the heterogenous links between same race/ethnicity teachers and achievement by school level (i.e., elementary vs. middle schools) and self-contained classroom (i.e., self-contained vs. departmentalized classrooms). We find that the positive links between same race/ethnicity teachers and improved achievement are stronger for elementary school students and students in self-contained classrooms, particularly for Black students. Our findings highlight the importance of timing and frequent exposure to same race/ethnicity teachers in academic trajectories.
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This paper explores the role of teacher race/ethnicity in the teacher‐perceived relationships with kindergarten and early elementary school students. Employing a model with both student and teacher fixed effects, we discover a positive link between the racial/ethnic match and the teacher‐reported relationships with students. Specifically, minority students tend to have closer relationships with their teachers when they are taught by a minority teacher. Our analyses also provide suggestive evidence that the effects on the teacher–student relationships could not be driven by differential racial discrimination between white and minority teachers. Particularly, white and minority teachers are not differentially biased in judging their relationships with minority students, implying that the source of the racial/ethnic interaction effects is likely to come from the role modeling of behaviors. Given the importance of the relationships between young children and nonparental adults in their early stages of life, these findings have crucial policy implications.
Research
Classrooms have become increasingly diverse places where students from various backgrounds share their learning experiences. To promote inclusive school settings for all, building teacher capacity for inclusive teaching represents a key policy area. Education systems need to ensure that teachers are adequately prepared for inclusive teaching and supported throughout their career. Mechanisms to attract and retain a more diverse teaching body as well as to monitor and evaluate teacher preparation and work with respect to diversity and inclusion should also be developed. While teacher policies have increasingly addressed some of these areas, most education systems lack comprehensive capacity-building frameworks for inclusive teaching. This paper maps policies and practices to build teacher capacity for inclusive teaching across OECD countries. It then presents core elements and competences to design and implement inclusive teaching strategies. Finally, the paper reviews some of the evidence available on teacher diversity and interventions for inclusive teaching.
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Using nationally representative data, this study empirically grounds the debate over minority teacher shortages by examining trends in recruitment, employment and retention of minority teachers. The study’s findings reveal that a gap continues to persist between the percentage of minority students and the percentage of minority teachers in U.S. schools, but contrary to widespread belief this gap is not due to a failure to recruit new minority teachers. The data show that efforts over recent decades to recruit more minority teachers, and place them in disadvantaged schools, have been very successful. But, these efforts have also been undermined because minority teachers have lower retention — largely because of poor working conditions in their schools. The research presented in this report was co-sponsored by CPRE and the Center for Educational Research in the Interest of Underserved Students at the University of California-Santa Cruz.
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This article presents findings from an ongoing study of urban teachers' efforts to embrace mathematics reform with student populations that are culturally, linguistically, and socioeconomically diverse (CLSD). We investigate the teacher's role in providing accessible and valuable mathematical learning opportunities to diverse students. Through narrative vignettes of practice and analyses of the personal and intellectual resources teachers draw on in CLSD contexts, we examine the challenges and possibilities two third-grade teachers face as they attempt such reform. One teacher's strengths were in making cultural connections with her students; the other's strengths were in pursuing complex and meaningful mathematics with her students. Building on our analysis, we offer a framework for examining the work of attending to mathematical and cultural issues simultaneously. Our findings suggest that such work is complex; however, teachers are seldom supported in their efforts to integrate these two perspectives. Our aim is to examine the dimensions of culturally relevant mathematics teaching and explore where the fields of mathematics and bilingual-bicultural education need to speak to one another.
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Research on representative bureaucracy has failed to deal with whether or not representative bureaucracies produce minority gains at the expense of nonminorities. Using a pooled time-series analysis of 350 school districts over six years, this study examines the relationship between representative bureaucracy and organizational outputs for minorities and nonminorities. Far from finding that representative bureaucracy produces minority gains at the expense of nonminorities, this study finds both minority and nonminority students perform better in the presence of a representative bureaucracy. This finding suggests an alternative hypothesis to guide research: that representative bureaucracies are more effective than their nonrepresentative counterparts.
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This article explores how teachers perceived and interacted with white students in a predominately racial/ethnic minority school in Texas. On the basis of ethnographic data, the author found that different teachers expressed different views of the family and class backgrounds of white students in this setting, which ranged from “middle class” to “trailer trash.” These views of social class stemmed from how teachers interpreted the whiteness of students in this predominately minority context and influenced how they reacted to these students academically. An interesting finding was that the black teachers and the white teachers had different perceptions of these white students. The black teachers typically saw the white students as middle class and good students, whereas the white teachers tended to view the students as low income and unremarkable students. The results of this study clarify the processes of teachers' perceptions and white advantage.
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This article examines minority teacher recruitment policies and programs of the past two decades and explores their influence on the racial/ethnic makeup of the teaching force in elementary and secondary public schools. The results show that while important progress has been made toward increasing the overall number and proportion of minority teachers in the public schools, those gains have been eclipsed by the rapid growth of the minority student population. As a result, the racial/ethnic gap between students of color and their teachers has actually increased over the years. The authors provide an overview of current minority teacher recruitment state policies and introduce the Teacher-Student Parity Index, a new metric for comparing the proportions of teachers and students from different racial/ethnic groups to gain a more textured understanding of the demographic reality of today's schools than is presently found in the literature. The authors conclude with recommendations for policy and research.
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Scholars have documented that Black students enter kindergarten with weaker reading skills than their White counterparts and that this disparity sometimes persists through secondary school. This Black-White performance gap is even more evident when comparing students whose parents have equal years of schooling. This article evaluates how schools can positively affect this disparity by examining two potential sources for this difference: teachers and students. It provides evidence for the proposition that teachers' perceptions, expectations, and behaviors interact with students' beliefs, behaviors, and work habits in ways that help to perpetuate the Black-White test score gap.
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Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group. Studies 1 and 2 varied the stereotype vulnerability of Black participants taking a difficult verbal test by varying whether or not their performance was ostensibly diagnostic of ability, and thus, whether or not they were at risk of fulfilling the racial stereotype about their intellectual ability. Reflecting the pressure of this vulnerability, Blacks underperformed in relation to Whites in the ability-diagnostic condition but not in the nondiagnostic condition (with Scholastic Aptitude Tests controlled). Study 3 validated that ability-diagnosticity cognitively activated the racial stereotype in these participants and motivated them not to conform to it, or to be judged by it. Study 4 showed that mere salience of the stereotype could impair Blacks' performance even when the test was not ability diagnostic. The role of stereotype vulnerability in the standardized test performance of ability-stigmatized groups is discussed.
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One potential method to increase the success of female graduate students in economics may be to encourage mentoring relationships between these students and female faculty members. Increased hiring of female faculty is viewed as one way to promote such mentoring relationships, perhaps because of role-model effects. A more direct method of promoting such relationships may be for female graduate students to have female faculty serve as dissertation chairs. The evidence in this paper addresses the question of whether either of these strategies results in more successful outcomes for female graduate students. The evidence is based on survey information on female graduate students and faculties of Ph.D.-producing economics departments, covering the mid-1970s to the early 1990s. With respect to characteristics of the institutions at which students are first placed when leaving graduate school, the empirical evidence provides no support for the hypothesis that outcomes for female graduate students are improved by adding female faculty members, or by having a female dissertation chair. However, with respect to time to complete graduate school, and the completion rate, there is some limited evidence of beneficial effects of female faculty members.
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In this article, we present for the first rime systematic evidence that the percentage of minority faculty has a significant positive relationship with overall college matriculation rates in urban school districts across the nation. Although there is little discussion in the education literature of how minority teachers might influence achievement by students of all races, there is a widespread assumption that minority teachers improve the performance of minority students. Our data support this assumption, but they also suggest an important caveat. We will explain why this finding could mean that systemic school district behaviors cause the higher rates of college attendance, while the ethnic makeup of faculty acts as a proxy for these behaviors. This finding has important policy implications, as focusing only on the role-modeling hypothesis might lead to incomplete or incorrect reform remedies for urban school districts.
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Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS), the authors find that the match between teachers' race, gender, and ethnicity and those of their students had little association with how much the students learned, but in several instances it seems to have been a significant determinant of teachers' subjective evaluations of their students. For example, test scores of white female students in mathematics and science did not increase more rapidly when the teacher was a white woman than when the teacher was a white man, but white female teachers evaluated their white female students more highly than did white male teachers.
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The priority attached to inner city student desegregation has often become diminished with the onset of mandatory faculty desegregation. Consequently, students tend to be substantially more segregated than teachers in urban schools. Moreover, faculties in predominately minority schools typically have higher turnover and less experience than faculties in other schools. In the largest district initially placed under court-ordered faculty desegregation, we examined how these circumstances may have influenced academic attainment among elementary students. Achievement among black students was negatively related to the extent to which their teachers were racially isolated. Also, achievement was lower for black students assigned teachers who were involuntarily transferred for faculty desegregation purposes. The achievement of black, Hispanic, and white students was positively associated with teaching experience and negatively related to faculty turnover. These findings suggest that poorly planned desegregation policies can have undesirable consequences.
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The limited presence of talented African Americans in the teaching profession has been and continues to be a serious problem confronting the education profession and the African-American community in the United States. This review summarizes what is known from the research literature. It explores the reasons that African-American teachers are important as well as overall demographic, entry, and retention trends and the distinctive factors that influence the limited presence of African-American teachers. Finally, a suggested research agenda is presented.
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Demographic changes in the United States have led to challenges for public organizations that are tasked to serve shifting target populations. Many arguments exist for including greater numbers of ethnic minorities among an organization's personnel, under the guise that greater ethnic representation will result in greater competitiveness in the market or effectiveness in governance. This article tests this proposition empirically, using data from the public education policy setting. Results show that representativeness along ethnic lines leads to gains for the organization as a whole, but some segments of the target population appear to respond more positively to representativeness than others.
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Many states have implemented high-stakes testing since the enactment of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Yet the question remains whether high-stakes tests effectively measure student proficiency. This report describes a study that compared results on high-stakes tests with results on other standardized tests not used for accountability purposes and thus considered low-stakes tests. Data for the comparisons were gathered from test scores from 5,587 schools in 9 school systems in 8 states. Scores were compared on each test given in the same subject in the same school year. When possible, the results of high-stakes and low-stakes tests given at the same grade levels were also compared. For all the school systems examined in the study, high correlations between score levels on high-stakes and low-stakes tests were found. Also found were some high correlations for year-to-year gains in scores on high-stakes and low-stakes tests. But the correlations of score gains were not as consistently high, and in some places were quite low. The report concludes that stakes of the tests do not distort information about the general level at which students are performing. (Contains 10 tables and 23 references.) (WFA)
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Our paper reanalyzes data from the classic 1966 study Equality of Educational Opportunity, or Coleman Report. It addresses whether teacher characteristics, including verbal ability and race, influenced “synthetic gain scores” of students (mean test scores of upper grade students in a school minus mean test scores of lower grade students in a school), in the context of an econometric model that allows for the possibility that teacher characteristics in a school are endogenously determined.We find that verbal aptitude scores of teachers influenced synthetic grain scores for both black and white students. Verbal aptitude mattered as much for black teachers as it did for white teachers. Finally, holding teacher characteristics other than race constant, in some specifications black teachers were associated with higher gain scores for black high school students, but lower gain scores for white elementary and secondary students. Because these findings are for American schools in the mid-1960s, they do not directly apply to our contemporary experience. However, they do raise issues that should be addressed in discussions of hiring policies in American education.
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This paper tests a cultural resources/social interaction model of gatekeeping by school teachers using data for seventh- and eighth-grade students in a city school district. Where previous investigations of "cultural capital" have focused on the rewards accruing to highbrow music and arts activities, we examine the informal academic standards by which teachers reward more general skills, habits, and styles. The result is a recursive causal model including the following blocks of variables: (a) student and teacher background characteristics, (b) student basic skills, absenteeism, and teacher judgments of student work habits, disruptiveness, and appearance; (c) coursework mastery; and (d) course grades. This model fits the data quite well, and almost completely accounts for the course-grade differentials observed for gender, ethnicity, and poverty groups. The most important predictor variable is the teacher's judgment of student work habits, followed by cognitive performance on both basic skills and coursework mastery. The results suggest that the standard (Wisconsin) status attainment model be modified to include cultural/social-interactional-based measures of individual and gatekeeper behaviors and perceptions.
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One potential method to increase the success of female graduate students in economics is to encourage mentoring relationships between these students and female faculty members, via increased hiring of female faculty, or having female faculty serve as dissertation chairs for female students. This paper examines whether either of these strategies results in more successful outcomes for female graduate students, using survey information on female graduate students and faculties of Ph.D.-producing economics departments. The empirical evidence provides virtually no support for the hypothesis that initial job placements for female graduate students are improved by adding female faculty members, or by having a female dissertation chair. However, female faculty members appear to reduce time spent in graduate school by female students.
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Recommendations for the aggressive recruitment of minority teachers are based on hypothesized role-model effects for minority students as well as evidence of racial biases among nonminority teachers. However, prior empirical studies have found little or no association between exposure to an own-race teacher and student achievement. This paper presents new evidence on this question by examining the test score data from Tennessee's Project STAR class-size experiment, which randomly matched students and teachers within participating schools. Specification checks confirm that the racial pairings of students and teachers in this experiment were unrelated to other student traits. Models of student achievement indicate that assignment to an own-race teacher significantly increased the math and reading achievement of both black and white students. Copyright (c) 2004 President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
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Within the education literature, a controversy exists with respect to the issue of matching student and teacher race in an effort to improve student performance. Ehrenberg et al. (1995) finds very little support for this issue, while more recently Dee (2004) finds that there are significant educational gains when students are assigned to an own-race teacher. Dee's result is found after confirming that there was no association between assignment of an own-race teacher and student characteristics, i.e., sorting of students did not transpire. We extend Dee's work by including the effects of student innate ability and teacher gender on student achievement. Our findings indicate that once these two variables are taken into consideration, sorting of students does transpire, and matching students and teachers of similar race has no statistically significant affect on student achievement.
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We used a random-assignment experiment in Los Angeles Unified School District to evaluate various non-experimental methods for estimating teacher effects on student test scores. Having estimated teacher effects during a pre-experimental period, we used these estimates to predict student achievement following random assignment of teachers to classrooms. While all of the teacher effect estimates we considered were significant predictors of student achievement under random assignment, those that controlled for prior student test scores yielded unbiased predictions and those that further controlled for mean classroom characteristics yielded the best prediction accuracy. In both the experimental and non-experimental data, we found that teacher effects faded out by roughly 50 percent per year in the two years following teacher assignment.
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A general theory of domain identification is used to describe achievement barriers still faced by women in advanced quantitative areas and by African Americans in school. The theory assumes that sustained school success requires identification with school and its subdomains; that societal pressures on these groups (e.g., economic disadvantage, gender roles) can frustrate this identification; and that in school domains where these groups are negatively stereotyped, those who have become domain identified face the further barrier of stereotype threat, the threat that others' judgments or their own actions will negatively stereotype them in the domain. Research shows that this threat dramatically depresses the standardized test performance of women and African Americans who are in the academic vanguard of their groups (offering a new interpretation of group differences in standardized test performance), that it causes disidentification with school, and that practices that reduce this threat can reduce these negative effects.
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Recent research consistently reports that persistent poverty has more detrimental effects on IQ, school achievement, and socioemotional functioning than transitory poverty, with children experiencing both types of poverty generally doing less well than never-poor children. Higher rates of perinatal complications, reduced access to resources that buffer the negative effects of perinatal complications, increased exposure to lead, and less home-based cognitive stimulation partly account for diminished cognitive functioning in poor children. These factors, along with lower teacher expectancies and poorer academic-readiness skills, also appear to contribute to lower levels of school achievement among poor children. The link between socioeconomic disadvantage and children's socioemotional functioning appears to be mediated partly by harsh, inconsistent parenting and elevated exposure to acute and chronic stressors. The implications of research findings for practice and policy are considered.
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We study dominant strategy implementation in a variant of the canonical public good provision model, as proposed by Borgers and Postl (2009). In this set up, we fully characterize the set of budget-balanced dominant strategy deterministric mechanisms, which are simple threshold rules. For probabilistic mechanisms that are continuously differentiable we provide a necessary and sufficient condition for dominant strategy implementation. When allowing for discontinuities in the mechanism, our necessary condition remains valid, but additional requirements must be met in order to ensure sufficiency.
Desegregation: The illusion of black progress Mapping state proficiency standards onto the NAEP Scales: Variation and change in state standards for reading and mathematics
  • A V Adair
  • Bandeira
  • V Mello
Adair, A. V. (1984). Desegregation: The illusion of black progress. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. Bandeira de Mello, V. (2011). Mapping state proficiency standards onto the NAEP Scales: Variation and change in state standards for reading and mathematics, 2005–2009 (NCES 2011-458). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington DC: Government Printing Office.
Social class, race, and teacher expectations
  • R M Baron
  • D Tom
  • H M Cooper
Baron, R. M., Tom, D., & Cooper, H. M. (1985). Social class, race, and teacher expectations. In J. Dusek (Ed.), Teacher expectancies (pp. 251-270). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.