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KOÇAK, E., M. ÖZDEMİR ve V. V. ZLOBİN, “Insects Associated with the Endemic Species Heracleum platytaenium Boiss. (Apiaceae) with New Records for the Turkish Fauna”, Turkish Journal of Zoology, 33 (2): 245–247 (2009).

  • Isparta University of Applied Sciences
Insects Associated with the Endemic Species
Heracleum platytaenium
Boiss. (Apiaceae) with
New Records for the Turkish Fauna
Erhan KOÇAK1,*, Mustafa ÖZDEMİR1, Vladimir V. ZLOBIN2
1Plant Protection Central Research Institute, 06172, Ankara - TURKEY
2Formerly Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg – RUSSIA
Received: 26.06.2008
Abstract: The perennial monocarpic endemic species
Heracleum platytaenium
Boiss. [Apiaceae (=Umbelliferae)] was collected with
associated insects in Kızılcahamam (Ankara) between June and August in 2006-2007. Nine insects, namely Hemipterous
G. semipunctatum
(Fabricius) and
Anoraphis subterranea
(Walker), Coleopterous
Lixus nordmanni
Aethes kasyi
Epinotia thapsiana
(Zeller) and
Epermenia chaerophyllella
(Goeze), Dipterous
Zlobin, and
Lasiambia albidipennis
(Strobl.) (Diptera) were determined on
H. platytaenium
. Among them,
(Agromyzidae) is recorded from Turkey for the first time, and
Lasiambia albidipennis
(Chloropidae) is new as genus and species for
the Turkish fauna. Additionally,
H. platytaenium
is recognized as new host for 5 species:
A. subterranea
A. kasyi
E. thapsiana, E.
Key Words: Apiaceae,
Heracleum platytaenium
, Turkey, insect fauna, new records
Heracleum platytaenium
Boiss. (Apiaceae) Üzerindeki Böcekler ve
Türkiye Faunası için Yeni Kayıtlar
Özet: Çok yıllık, monokarpik ve Türkiye’ye endemik bir bitki türü olan
Heracleum platytaenium
Boiss. [Apiaceae (=Umbelliferae)]
Ankara’nın Kızılcaham ilçesinden 2006-2007 yılları Haziran-Ağustos döneminde toplanmıştır. Bitki üzerinde Hemiptera takımından
Graphosoma lineatum
G. semipunctatum
(Fabricius) ve
Anoraphis subterranea
(Walker), Coleoptera takımından
Lixus nordmanni
Hochhuht, Lepidoptera takımından
Aethes kasyi
Epinotia thapsiana
(Zeller) ve
Epermenia chaerophyllella
(Goeze), Diptera
Melanagromyza heracleana
Zlobin ve
Lasiambia albidipennis
(Strobl.) olmak üzere toplam dokuz böcek türü belirlenmiştir.
Bu türler arasında
(Agromyzidae) tür düzeyinde,
Lasiambia albidipennis
(Chloropidae) ise cins ve tür olarak Türkiye
faunası için yeni kayıt durumundadır. Bunlara ek olarak,
H. platytaenium
A. subterranea
heracleana, A. kasyi
E. thapsiana,
E. chaerophyllella
için yeni konukçu olarak belirlenmiştir.
Anahtar Sözcükler: Apiaceae,
Heracleum platytaenium
, Türkiye, böcek faunası, yeni kayıtlar
Heracleum platytaenium
is a perennial herbaceous and
monocarpic endemic species belonging to the Euxine
phytogeographic region (Davis, 1972). Many studies on
the relationship between
species and insects in
the world, especially on their biology and the biological
control of giant hogweed,
H. mantegazianum
and Levier, and
H. sphondylium
L. with insect fauna in
Europe, the Caucasus, and Canada were carried out
(Bürki and Nentwig, 1997; Jakob et al., 1998; Seier et
al., 2003; Hansen et al., 2006; Hattendorf et al., 2006;
* E-mail:
Turk J Zool
33 (2009) 245-247
Short Communication
Karsholt, 2006; Page et al., 2006). In Turkey, results on
the insects of
were reported by Özdemir et al.
(2006) and Gültekin (2006, 2007). In the present study
the insects associated with
H. platytaenium
were studied.
Heracleum platytaenium
specimens were collected in
the vicinity of Kızılcahamam (32º33´ and 32º38´E, 40º33´
and 40º30´ N, approximately 1000 m a.s.l.) of Ankara, in
June-August 2006-2007. The plants were brought to the
laboratory with insects including the immature stage
except for
spp. (Hemiptera) and kept in
plastic containers. Fresh food was provided as needed to
rear the insects. The stem was kept separately from the
umbel (seeds and flower stalks). Aphids were collected
with a small soft brush and put into a tube with 70%
alcohol. Preparation numbers (GP) of the moth genitalia
are presented in the results.
The material examined, except for the common
G. lineatum
G. semipunctatum
, was deposited
in the collection of Plant Protection Central Research
Institute, Ankara, Turkey and one-half of the flies,
(1Â and 1Î) and
L. albidipennis
(7ÂÂ and 6ÎÎ),
are kept in Zoological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia.
In this study, insects on the endemic species
were as fallows according to order and
Graphosoma lineatum
(Linneaus, 1758)
Material examined. Very common, 5.VII–
20.VIII.2007, Koçak leg and det.
Distribution. Palaearctic.
Graphosoma semipunctatum
(Fabricius, 1775)
Material examined. Common, 5.VII–20.VIII.2007,
Koçak leg and det.
Distribution. Palaearctic.
Anuraphis subterranea
(Walker, 1852) (Aphididae)
Material examined. Numerous, 25.VI-15.VII.2007,
Koçak leg. and Özdemir det.
Distribution. Palaearctic.
Remarks. This aphid was collected from the umbels of
H. platytaenium
that happened new host with this study.
Lixus nordmanni
Hochhuht, 1847 (Curculionidae)
Material examined. 4ÎÎ, 5ÂÂ, 20.VII-15.VIII.2007,
Koçak leg. and and Gültekin det.
Distribution. The Caucasus (Petri, 1904/1905),
Turkey (Gültekin, 2006).
L. nordmanni
is recorded firstly from
Ankara province.
Epermenia chaerophyllella
Material examined. 1Î, 1Â, 16.VII.2006, leg E. Koçak
and det. M. Özdemir (Gp4480, Gp4481).
Distribution. Central Asia, Siberia, Western Europe
(Fal’kovich, 1989).
E. chaerophyllella
is recorded from Ankara
for the first time. It was recorded that the larvae was
feeding on umbels of
H. platytaenium
Aethes kasyi
Razowski, 1962 (Cochylidae)
Material examined. 2ÎÎ, 1Â, 16.VII.2006, leg E.
Koçak and det. M. Özdemir (GP4508).
Distribution. Turkey, North Syria, Slovakia,
Makedonia, Crimea, Iran (Razowski, 1970; Razowski,
Remarks. Larval host plant is recorded here for the
first time.
Epinotia thapsiana
(Zeller, 1847) (Tortricidae)
Material examined. 5ÎÎ, 1Â, 16.VII.2006, leg E.
Koçak and det. M. Özdemir (GP4507).
Distribution. Canary Islands, southern and median belt
of Europe to eastern Europen Russia, Transcaucasia,
Turkey, Iran, southern Siberia, Kazakhstan, Tadzhikistan,
Turkmenia, Korea (Razowski, 2003).
Epinotia thapsiana
is recorded from Ankara
for the first time.
H. platytaenium
is new host for this
Melanagromyza heracleana
Zlobin, 2005
Material examined. 1Î, 2ÂÂ, 15.VI.2007, Koçak leg.
and Zlobin det.
Distribution. Russia (Zlobin, 2005), Turkey (new
Insects Associated with the Endemic Species
Heracleum platytaenium
Boiss. (Apiaceae) with New Records for the Turkish Fauna
Remarks. The pupae of this species were collected in
mid-June in old flower stem of the plant, and the imagos
emerged in early July. This stem borer on
was described by Zlobin (2005) from
the Caucasus.
Lasiambia albidipennis
(Strobl, 1893) (Chloropidae)
Material examined. 14ÎÎ, 12ÂÂ, 14-19.VII.2007,
Koçak leg. and Nartshuk det.
Distribution. Croatia, France, Italy, Russia, Czech
Republic (Kubik, 2006), Turkey (new record).
Remarks. This is a little known and rare species. The
larvae in young and old stems of the plant were collected
in late June, and the imagos emerged in mid-July. This
species is known as saprophage (Nartshuk, 2005). We
also found the larvae were nearby and on the decomposed
stems, which were caused by some larvae of
L. nordmanni
M. heracleana
. Also the larvae were feeding inside of
the dead bodies of
sp. larvae or pupae.
The authors are grateful for identification of chloropid
species to E.P. Nartshuk from Zoological Institute,
Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia, for
weevil to L. Gültekin from Plant Protection Department of
Agricultural Faculty of Atatürk University, Erzurum,
Turkey, and for aphid species to I. Özdemir from Plant
Protection Central Research Institute, Ankara, Turkey.
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Full-text available
In this study, the superfamily Aphidoidea (Homoptera) on wild plants was investigated in Ankara province during 2000-2004. Totally 67 species were determined belonging to 5 subfamily, 37 genus, 20 subgenus. 1 genus was found to be new record for Turkish aphid fauna.
Full-text available
Giant hogweed, Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae), was introduced from the Caucasus into Western Europe more than 150 years ago and later became an invasive weed which created major problems for European authorities. Phytophagous insects were collected in the native range of the giant hogweed (Caucasus) and were compared to those found on plants in the invaded parts of Europe. The list of herbivores was compiled from surveys of 27 localities in nine countries during two seasons. In addition, literature records for herbivores were analysed for a total of 16 Heracleum species. We recorded a total of 265 herbivorous insects on Heracleum species and we analysed them to describe the herbivore assemblages, locate vacant niches, and identify the most host-specific herbivores on H. mantegazzianum. When combining our investigations with similar studies of herbivores on other invasive weeds, all studies show a higher proportion of specialist herbivores in the native habitats compared to the invaded areas, supporting the "enemy release hypothesis" (ERH). When analysing the relative size of the niches (measured as plant organ biomass), we found less herbivore species per biomass on the stem and roots, and more on the leaves (Fig. 5). Most herbivores were polyphagous generalists, some were found to be oligophagous (feeding within the same family of host plants) and a few had only Heracleum species as host plants (monophagous). None were known to feed exclusively on H. mantegazzianum. The oligophagous herbivores were restricted to a few taxonomic groups, especially within the Hemiptera, and were particularly abundant on this weed.
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Agonopterix caucasiella sp. n. is described and compared with its closest relatives, A. ciliella (Stainton, 1849) and A. heracliana (Linnaeus, 1758). Adults and genitalia of these species are fi gured. The life history of A. caucasiella sp. n. in the Caucasus is described. Its larva feeds in the umbels of Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Lévier (Apiaceae) (giant hogweed), an invasive weed in Europe, which is moreover toxic to human skin. The complicated and controversial nomenclature of the related A. heracliana (Linnaeus) (Phalaena (Tortrix)) is discussed, as is that of Depressaria heracliana (Linnaeus) sensu auctt. For the latter the name D. radiella (Goeze, 1783) is valid, whereas D. heraclei (Retzius, 1783) is shown to be invalid. A lectotype is designated for Pyralis applana Fabricius, 1777. Phalaena radiella Goeze, 1783 is fi xed as the type-species of Depressaria Haworth, 1811. Zusammenfassung. Agonopterix caucasiella sp. n. wird beschrieben und mit ihren nächsten Verwandten A. ciliella (Stainton, 1849) und A. heracliana (Linnaeus, 1758) verglichen. Die Falter und die Genitalien dieser Arten werden abgebildet. Die Lebensweise von A. caucasiella sp. n. im Kauskaus wird beschrieben. Ihre Larven fressen an den Dolden von Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Lévier (Apiaceae) (Riesen-bärenklau), ein Neophyt in Europa, welcher für die menschliche Haut giftig ist. Die komplizierte und widersprüchliche Nomenklatur der verwandten A. heracliana (Linnaeus) (Phalaena (Tortrix)) wird dis-kutiert, genauso wie Depressaria heracliana (Linnaeus) sensu auctt. Für letztere ist der Name D. radiella (Goeze, 1783) verfügbar, während D. heraclei (Retzius, 1783) nicht verfügbar ist. Ein Lectotypus wird für Pyralis applana Fabricius, 1777 festgelegt. Phalaena radiella Goeze, 1783 wird als Typusart von Depressaria Haworth, 1811 festgelegt. K e y w o r d s . Biological control, nomenclature of Microlepidoptera, Depressariidae, Agonopterix, Heracleum mantegazzianum, Caucasus.
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Classical biological control is a practice to control alien invasive weeds, but many introduced biological control agents exhibit only a weak negative impact on their targets. One reason is that prerelease impact studies in the natural environment are often difficult to carry out. Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier and Levier (Apiaceae), which is native to the Caucasus, is a perennial noxious weed introduced into Europe and North America. We examined the impact and host size preference of different endophagous insect guilds in the weed's native range. Instead of the commonly used insect exclosure approach, we estimated plant vigor before and after herbivore attack under natural conditions. Endophagous herbivores were dominated by the weevil species Lixus iridis Olivier, Nastus fausti Reitter, and Otiorhynchus tatarchani Reitter (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the fly Melanagromyza heracleana Zlobin (Diptera: Agromyzidae), and an unidentified root-boring agromyzid fly species. Most observed insect species exhibited a strong preference for either big or small plants, but none of them caused serious damage within the study period. Occurrence of root-feeding weevils was associated with weak plants, but because of their long larval development, it was not possible to assign this relationship clearly to either feeding damage or host size preference. A comparison with other studies indicated that mature H. mantegazzianum plants are quite tolerant to herbivory. Insects belonging to the feeding guilds studied here will probably not guarantee successful biological control. Further research should focus on earlier stages in the weed's life cycle.
A new species, Melanagromyza heracleana sp. n., is described from the Caucasus, with larva developing as stem-borer on Heracleum mantegazzianum.
The invertebrate herbivore communities of Heracleum sphondylium, native to Switzerland and Western Europe, and of H mantegazzianum, an introduced invasive weed originating from the Caucasus, were compared at several locations in Bern, Switzerland. The aim of this study was a comparative description of the native fauna of both plants, and an evaluation of that of the native weed for potential species for biological control of the invasive weed. A total of 42 phytophagous arthropod species was found, 34 on H sphondylium and 34 on H mantegazzianum. The arthropod guilds of 26 phytophagous species being common to both plant species were very similar. Nine species (2 mirid bugs, 1 cicadellid, 2 aphids, 1 curculionid beetle, 1 oecophorid moth, 2 agromyzid flies) were specific to Apiaceae, the remaining species were polyphagous. The herbivores attacking above-ground organs did not have a major impact on the growth of H mantegazzianum. The weevil Liophloeus tessulatus, however, causes root damage and deserves further investigations as a potential biological control species.
Tortricidae collected in Kashmir and Ladakh are listed. Two genera (Epelebodina gen.n., Eppihus gen.n.) and 16 species (Archips cantinus sp.n., A. naltarica sp.n., Choristoneura colyma sp.n., Lumaria lotsunica sp.n., Meridemis subbathymorpha sp.n., Pandemis thomasi sp.n., Neocalyptis ladakhana sp.n., N. chlansignum sp.n., Epelebodina concolorata sp.n., Eppihus hippeus sp.n., Lepteucosma srinagara sp.n., L. charassuncus sp.n., Pelochrista frustata sp.n., P. teleopa sp.n., Epiblema lasiovalva sp.n., E. lochmoda sp. n.) are described as new. Eucosma aethopa Diakonoff, 1984 is tranferred to Lepteucosma.
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) is an invasive alien plant of management concern in southern Canada where it has escaped from horticulture and established and spread in natural, ruderal, and agricultural ecosystems. It poses a threat to natural ecosystems and human health, and is also a weed in agricultural and urban areas. It is a member of the Carrot family (Apiaceae) and is closely related to the native species Heracleum maximum Bartram (cow-parsnip). It is a monocarpic perennial, which generally flowers in its 3rd or 4th year. Large size, leaf shape, dark reddish pigments in patches on stems and petioles, and fruit characteristics readily distinguish H. man-tegazzianum from other plants in Canada. It is increasingly common in riparian areas, floodplains, and forest edges in or near urban areas in southwestern British Columbia and southern Ontario. Based on herbarium specimens, H. mantegazzianum was first recorded in Ontario in 1949, British Columbia in 1964, Nova Scotia in 1980, Quebec in 1990, and New Brunswick in 2000. The development of dense stands of H. mantegazzianum can also reduce the richness of native plants. Contact with H. mantegazzianum can cause phytophotodermatitis, a serious skin inflammation caused by UV photo-activation of furanocoumarins present in the sap. Control methods include herbicide application, mechanical cutting, and animal grazing, but strategies to address seed dispersal and re-establishment from dormant seed must also be adopted. Widespread establishment in southern Canada suggests that eradication is unlikely. However, range expansion and rapid population growth can be prevented through strategic management including pub-lic education.