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This study investigates the relationship between gender diversity and financial performance at the business-unit level and whether employee engagement moderates this relationship. Using more than 800 business units from two companies belonging to two different industries, we found that employee engagement and gender diversity independently predict financial performance at the business-unit level. One implication is that making diversity an organizational priority and creating an engaged culture for the workforce may result in cumulative financial benefits.
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... Similarly, Reinert, et al. (2016) found a positive correlation between (a) corporate return on investment and (b) gender-diverse management. Badal and Harter (2014) also found a relationship between gender diversity and positive organizational performance at the business-unit level. Not all work fields, however, are gender-diverse, which may specifically be affecting the organizational performance of male-dominated industries. ...
... In 2014, the BLS (2014) indicated approximately 1,400,000 women were employed in motor vehicle-related manufacturing, which was just 27% of all motor vehicle-related manufacturing employees. If automotive industry organizations became more gender-balanced, there might be more women in senior leadership positions and the pipeline (Appelbaum et al., 2013;Badal & Harter, 2014;Kim & Starks, 2016;Reinert et al., 2016). Devillard et al. (2014) wrote that closing the gender gap requires senior leadership engagement. ...
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Nationhood is not an a priori entity, if not a symbolic and communicative device around which people imagine themselves to be. Hence the concept of identity does not refer to a universal, fixed identity, but to a contingent, historically and culturally specific social construction. Fragmented, cross-cultural, multiple identities may be generated in the relationship between cultural identities and globalisation. Globalisation has increased the range of (re)sources available for identity construction, allowing for the production of hybrid identities in the context of a global society. The widespread “cut ’ n’ mix” of cultural forms in the context of globalisation will be illustrated in the paper by the Bhutanese community. The ensuing changes will be analysed as leading not only to the fragmentation of the ‘self’ and the formation of multiple personal identities, closely followed by the fragmentation and differentiation of culture, but also to the destruction or undermining of the older bases of political and social identity. This process of fragmentation and multiplication is symptomatic of an erosion of national identity, a dissolving of it in the onslaught of globalisation.
... Research into the impact of diversity in organisations has become a core focus within the academic community in recent times, driven by increased attention from both directors and shareholders. The association of diversity with enhanced financial performance has become prioritised, featuring as a topic of significant financial importance (Badal and Harter, 2014;Fernandez and Thams, 2019;Roberson and Park, 2007). Thus, diversity applied in a top-down manner, from the board and top management teams, has become increasingly influential in organisational futures (Aggarwal et al., 2019;Miller and del Carmen Triana, 2009;Talke et al., 2011). ...
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The healthcare supply chain plays a fundamental role in addressing the healthcare needs of local and global communities. The composition of the healthcare sector, particularly regarding cultural and gender diversity, is an antecedent to effective medical healthcare management, and achieving organisational performance. Following an appraisal of the selected literature, six themes emerged in the research area of diversity in healthcare. These were cultural diversity management, gender diversity management, governance and leadership, board management, Indigenous healthcare, and healthcare workers and teamwork. Findings from the study suggest the advancement of critical elements of organisational diversity research in the agile medical supply chain, including aspects of the influences of workforce heterogeneity on board governance practices, organisational culture and climate-specific studies, organisational performance and non-performance outcomes, and diversity disparities in senior and executive-level leadership roles. This study can influence regulatory decision-making, strategic policy origination, and operational diversity management programs
... Research into the impact of diversity in organisations has become a core focus within the academic community in recent times, driven by increased attention from both directors and shareholders. The association of diversity with enhanced financial performance has become prioritised, featuring as a topic of significant financial importance (Badal and Harter, 2014;Fernandez and Thams, 2019;Roberson and Park, 2007). Thus, diversity applied in a top-down manner, from the board and top management teams, has become increasingly influential in organisational futures (Aggarwal et al., 2019;Miller and del Carmen Triana, 2009;Talke et al., 2011). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the gender and ethnic diversity–performance relationship in Malaysia from two angles: (1) the impact of political regimes; and (2) a possible nonlinear relationship – at the boardroom and employee level. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a sample of firms listed in Bursa Malaysia during a sample period that spans two political regimes. Two-stage least squares controlling for firm-specific effects, corporate governance and lagged variables to account for endogeneity issues is used to test the relationship. Findings Findings show that the political alignment of the ruling government affects the significance of the gender/ethnic diversity–performance relationship. The relationship between board gender/ethnic diversity and firm performance is curvilinear while the relationship between employee gender/ethnic diversity is linear and positive. Research limitations/implications First, promoting gender/ethnic diversity not only requires strong policy but also political will to lead by example. Political regimes that provide lip-service without effective implementation threaten to derail any efforts in furthering the diversity agenda. Second, the presumption of a linear diversity–performance relationship is fallacious. Further studies, especially in pluralistic societies, must not discount the subtleties of intergroup conflicts. Third, in light of allegations of prejudicial hiring policies, Malaysian firms should embrace diversity, not only in the boardroom, but also among its workforce as employee diversity improves firm performance. Originality/value Prior studies on gender/ethnic diversity in Malaysia have returned mixed results but thus far, there has been no satisfactory explanation for this phenomenon. This study attributes it to lack of political will and cultural subgroup conflicts – two pertinent issues that were never considered in the literature. Prior studies have also exclusively focused on boardroom diversity. This study goes further by examining employee diversity – particularly important since most empowerment and diversity initiatives are targeted at lower level employees. This study is also the first to provide an objective benchmark for gender diversity (30–35% female directors) and ethnic diversity (less than 40% from one ethnicity) to achieve optimal performance.
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Background: Although there has been a considerable increase in the representation of women in medicine, a gender gap still exists with regard to leadership positions. This gender discrepancy has been identified in the field of anesthesiology, in terms of first and senior authorship, as well as in general composition of editorial boards in Anesthesiology and Anesthesia & Analgesia. The goal of this study is to examine the current representation of women in editorial boards of anesthesia journals with respect to the hierarchy of different editorial positions and to assess whether there has been improvement toward equity in recent years. Methods: A comprehensive search was performed for anesthesiology journals indexed in the Scimago Journal and Country Rank in May 2020. The editorial boards of the top 20 journals by impact factor were analyzed. Editorial board members were categorized based on their title. Gender was assigned using images or pronouns on research databases or hospital-affiliated websites. The percentage of women within each category was calculated. When available, the year the editors obtained their medical degree was collected. A binomial proportion test was used to analyze the distribution of women overall and among editorial roles, compared to the proportion of women anesthesiologists (26%). A Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare time since medical degree between genders. Additionally, women representation in anesthesiology editorial boards in 2020 was compared to 2010. Results: A total of 19 journals were included in this study, as 1 journal did not disclose editorial board membership. Overall, women occupied 18% of all editorial board positions. All editors-in-chief and assistant/associate/deputy editors-in-chief were men. Women consisted of 17.1% of executive/section/senior editors, 17.9% of editors, and 20.6% of associate/assistant editors. There were significantly fewer women editorial board members than the percentage of women anesthesiologists (18% vs 26%; P < .001). Editorial boards from 2010 were available for 14 journals, and of these journals, women comprised 12% of editorial board members in 2010 compared to 19% in 2020 (P = .001). Conclusions: These findings suggest that in anesthesiology journals, women are underrepresented at all editorial levels, especially at higher levels. As editorial boards have a significant impact on which articles are published by a journal and thereby significant influence on the specialty as a whole, the lack of gender equity in editorial boards should be addressed.
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The interaction processes of culturally homogeneous and culturally diverse groups were studied for 17 weeks. Initially, homogeneous groups scored higher on both process and performance effectiveness. Over time, both homogeneous and heterogeneous groups showed improvement on process and performance, and between-group differences converged. By week 17, there were no differences in process or overall performance, but the heterogeneous groups scored higher on two task performance measures. Implications for management and future research are given.
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Careful review of extant research addressing the relationships between board composition, board leadership structure, and firm financial performance demonstrates little consistency in results. In general, neither board composition nor board leadership structure has been consistently linked to firm financial performance. In response to these findings, we provide meta-analyses of 54 empirical studies of board composition (159 samples, n=40,160) and 31 empirical studies of board leadership structure (69 samples, n=12,915) and their relationships to firm financial performance. These-and moderator analyses relying on firm size, the nature of the financial performance indicator and various operationalizations of board composition-provide little evidence of systematic governance structure/financial performance relationships. (C) 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Understanding sources of sustained competitive advantage has become a major area of research in strategic management. Building on the assumptions that strategic resources are heterogeneously distributed across firms and that these differences are stable over time, this article examines the link between firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Four empirical indicators of the potential of firm resources to generate sustained competitive advantage-value, rareness, imitability, and substitutability are discussed. The model is applied by analyzing the potential of several firm resources for generating sustained competitive advantages. The article concludes by examining implications of this firm resource model of sustained competitive advantage for other business disciplines.