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The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology

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Abstract

In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.

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... Meta-analytic findings based on studies across sub-developmental stages of adolescence (early, middle, and late adolescence) showed that the evidence for these mediating factors is mixed [8], and thus it is important to consider other potential mechanisms. Fredrickson's broaden-and-build theory [22,23] asserts that positive traits, like gratitude and forgiveness, broaden children's repertoire of problem-solving strategies and other adaptive social cognitive behaviors (i.e., increasing prosociality and using adaptive coping skills), which might enhance overall well-being and decrease the levels of dysfunctional negative emotions [22]. Gratitude and forgiveness are fostered by positive interpersonal experiences [24,25] and therefore could be enhanced in the context of secure parent-child relationships. ...
... Meta-analytic findings based on studies across sub-developmental stages of adolescence (early, middle, and late adolescence) showed that the evidence for these mediating factors is mixed [8], and thus it is important to consider other potential mechanisms. Fredrickson's broaden-and-build theory [22,23] asserts that positive traits, like gratitude and forgiveness, broaden children's repertoire of problem-solving strategies and other adaptive social cognitive behaviors (i.e., increasing prosociality and using adaptive coping skills), which might enhance overall well-being and decrease the levels of dysfunctional negative emotions [22]. Gratitude and forgiveness are fostered by positive interpersonal experiences [24,25] and therefore could be enhanced in the context of secure parent-child relationships. ...
... Results revealed that The mean of dispositional gratitude is based on aggregated z-scores Consistent with previous work [26,28], early adolescents with greater dispositional gratitude reported lower levels of depressive symptoms. These findings lend support to the broaden-and-build theory [22,23], which asserts that positive traits such as gratitude and forgiveness may contribute to increased well-being and a reduction in dysfunctional negative emotions that are characteristic of depression. Further, Obeldobel and Kerns [26] proposed that children with more gratitude may experience more positive emotion, higher quality friendships, and positive perceptions of the self and others that might mitigate against depressive symptomology. ...
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Although greater parent-child attachment security is linked with children’s lower levels of depressive symptoms, little research has evaluated potential explanatory mechanisms. We investigated whether dispositional gratitude and interpersonal forgiveness explain the relation between attachment security with parents and early adolescents’ depressive symptoms. Early adolescents (N = 105; M age = 12.3 years; 51% girls) completed questionnaires assessing their attachment security to mother and father figures, depressive symptoms, and dispositional gratitude, and an interview assessing interpersonal forgiveness. Results revealed that greater attachment security to mothers and fathers was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and greater levels of dispositional gratitude and interpersonal forgiveness. Further, dispositional gratitude and interpersonal forgiveness were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Dispositional gratitude emerged as a mediator between attachment security with each parent and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that greater parent-child security may promote early adolescents’ appreciation of positive events, which in turn may relate to fewer depressive symptoms.
... Achievement emotions are emotions that are related to achievement activities as well as their success and failure outcomes (Pekrun, 2006). These emotions are closely associated with one's thoughts, behaviors, expressions, arousal, and general day-to-day functioning (Fredrickson, 2001;Pekrun et al., 2017). They are a central component of identity, well-being, and health. ...
... Academic enjoyment (henceforth "enjoyment") represents a key positive emotion that activates cognitive resources for learning, leads to adaptive school outcomes like student engagement (Goetz et al., 2008;Pekrun, 2006), and sustains prolonged goal-oriented behaviors that optimize academic achievement (Camacho-Morles et al. 2021;Fredrickson, 2001;Pekrun et al., 2017). Positive activating emotions like enjoyment can help preserve cognitive resources, facilitate focus of one's attention on the learning task, support interest and intrinsic motivation, while also supporting use of deep learning strategies and promoting students' self-regulation of learning (Pekrun et al., 2017). ...
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Achievement emotions are important educational constructs. They predict outcomes such as students’ achievement, persistence, and drop-out intentions. Thus, it is crucial to examine the factors that determine these emotions. In this study, we focus specifically on the positive emotion of enjoyment as past research has largely focused on negative emotions such as test anxiety. We explore two potential predictors of enjoyment: individual-student achievement and class-average achievement. Past research has shown student achievement to be a positive predictor of enjoyment, with preliminary evidence suggesting class-average achievement to be a negative predictor of enjoyment (Happy-Fish-Little-Pond Effect; HFLPE). However, research has largely been restricted to single-country or single-domain examinations with samples of secondary school students, limiting the generalizability of findings. To bridge this gap, we utilize combined data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011. This sample consisted of 180,084 4th-grade students from 37 countries, with all students responding to items in the math, science, and reading domains. Through multilevel modeling, we demonstrate that the effect of student achievement on enjoyment is positive in all three domains, while the effect of class achievement is negative—confirming the HFLPE. We also demonstrate the relative universality of these results across the 37 countries; while there was variation in the size of the effects, results were largely consistent in direction. Our findings add to the literature on achievement emotions by highlighting two important predictors of enjoyment that operate across domains and cross-nationally.
... As such, it can be argued that emotions play a critical role in emotional and social engagement of FL teachers. Consistent with the broad-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 2001), positive emotions can potentially promote work engagement (Burić & Macuka, 2018). Arguably, particular positive emotions can broaden teachers' 7 thought action ranges and build personal resources, which in turn promotes adaptive functioning and work engagement. ...
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Foreign language teaching enjoyment (FLTE) has recently been introduced as a broad positive emotion experienced by foreign language (FL) teachers, despite obstacles embedded in FL teaching. However, identifying its psychological outcomes - and the cultural specificity of these outcomes - has received scant research attention across different contexts. The present cross-cultural study aims to investigate whether teachers’ FLTE can predict and influence engagement and well-being in the English as a foreign language (EFL) context of Iran and China. A series of structural equation models (SEM) indicated that EFL teachers’ FLTE affected their work engagement and well-being in both Iranian and Chinese samples, with structural invariance tests confirming the group-level differences between Iranian and Chinese EFL teachers in the light of FLTE outcomes. The study provides insight into the positive outcomes of positive emotions in FL teaching as framed by the lens of Positive Psychology. In addition, a rare non-Western cross-cultural comparison contributes to the ongoing discussions in literature regarding the influence of cultural contexts on the experience and outcome manifestation of positive emotions.
... Our results also show that recognition of team performance may have helped trigger the emergence of shared leadership. Hence, future research could explore this phenomenon through a positive psychological lens [94], to study how recognition of performance influences the emergence of shared leadership. Future studies could also explore the emergence of distributed leadership through the lens of change management, and from the standpoint of performance improvement. ...
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Background Performance management systems have been introduced in health and social services institutions to improve organizational performance, supporting the emergence of new management behaviors that are more rooted in collaborative management practices. This study aims to understand how different leadership styles emerge through the implementation of a performance management system and its related tools, and how these can foster distributed leadership. Methods Over two years, the implementation of an integrated performance management system supporting the integration of social services for children, youth, and families was studied at a recently merged Canadian healthcare organization. Qualitative analysis of data collected from 15 interviews, 3 focus groups, and over 350 h of non-participant observation was conducted. Results The results show that leadership evolved to adapt to the context of organizational integration and was no longer confined to a single manager. Transformational leadership was needed to encourage the emergence of a new integrated performance management system and new behaviors among middle managers and team members. Transactional leadership was legitimized through the use of a status sheet when the integration project did not deliver the expected results. Both transformational and transactional leadership paved the way to distributed leadership, which in turn promoted collaborative practices associated with activities in control rooms and dialogue stemming from the status sheets. Distributed leadership among team members made a difference in the outcome of the integration project, which became a driver of collaboration. Conclusions The integrated performance management system and the use of its tools can help renew leadership in health and social service organizations. The results lend credence to the importance of distributed leadership in promoting collaborative practices to improve services for children, youth, and families. The results also highlight how various leadership styles can contribute to the emergence of distributed leadership over time.
... Results of an analysis of the Apache Software Foundation issue tracking show that developers do express emotion while discussing technical issues. Although these studies focus on a specific human aspect (i.e., emotion) from a developer's perspective, they indicate that a rational view of the software development process is insufficient; human aspects such as emotions can negatively or positively affect the development process and be propagated into the resulting software artefact, e.g., happiness, a positive emotion, increases creativity [69], which is good for a successful software design [70]. ...
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Failure to consider the characteristics, limitations, and abilities of diverse end-users during mobile apps development may lead to problems for end-users such as accessibility and usability issues. We refer to this class of problems as human-centric issues. Despite their importance, there is a limited understanding of the types of human-centric issues that are encountered by end-users and taken into account by the developers of mobile apps. In this paper, we examine what human-centric issues end-users report through Google App Store reviews, which human-centric issues are a topic of discussion for developers on GitHub, and whether end-users and developers discuss the same human-centric issues. We then investigate whether an automated tool might help detect such human-centric issues and whether developers would find such a tool useful. To do this, we conducted an empirical study by extracting and manually analysing a random sample of 1,200 app reviews and 1,200 issue comments from 12 diverse projects that exist on both Google App Store and GitHub. Our analysis led to a taxonomy of human-centric issues that categorises human-centric issues into three-high levels: App Usage, Inclusiveness, and User Reaction. We then developed machine learning and deep learning models that are promising in automatically identifying and classifying human-centric issues from app reviews and developer discussions. A survey of mobile app developers shows that the automated detection of human-centric issues has practical applications. Guided by our findings, we highlight some implications and possible future work to further understand and incorporate human-centric issues in mobile apps development.
... Das Evozieren positiver Emotionen ist generell zu bevorzugen, da durch sie die Aufmerksamkeit und das Denk-und Handlungsrepertoire erweitert wird (vgl. Broaden-and-Build-Theorie von Fredrickson, 2001). Obwohl negative Emotionen situationsbezogen positiv genutzt werden können (z. ...
Chapter
Emotionen im inklusiven Unterricht wurden bislang noch selten untersucht. Erste Untersuchungen weisen darauf hin, dass Binnendifferenzierung, Individualisierung und kooperatives Lernen – als zentrale Merkmale eines inklusiven Unterrichts – sich positiv auf das emotionale Erleben von Schüler*innen auswirken. Implikationen für die Praxis werden aufgezeigt und weiterführend diskutiert.
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Introduction: Adolescents are susceptible to exhibiting internalizing and externalizing symptoms following natural disasters. However, little is known regarding factors that may influence these symptoms from the perspective of positive psychology. The current study examined whether and how social support and resilience mediated the association between gratitude and adolescents' internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Method: The participants were 765 Chinese adolescents exposed to the Wenchuan earthquake (41.8% male, mean age 17.46 years), who were enrolled in a three-wave longitudinal study with data spanning 1 year. All adolescents completed self-report questionnaires on gratitude at 18 months postearthquake (T18m ), social support and resilience at 24 months (T24m ), and internalizing and externalizing symptoms at 18 months (T18m ) and 30 months (T30m ). Results: The results showed that social support (T24m ) and resilience (T24m ) serially mediate the relationship between gratitude (T18m ) and internalizing (β = -.003, 95% confidence interval [CI]= -0.006, -0.001) or externalizing (T30m ) symptoms (β = -.004, 95% CI= -0.004, -0.001). Social support (T24m ) acts as a mediator only between gratitude (T18m ) and internalizing symptoms (T30m ) (β = -.021, 95% CI = -0.044, -0.004), while not being a significant predictor for externalizing symptoms (T30m ). Conclusion: By highlighting the mechanisms by which gratitude longitudinally attenuates adolescents' internalizing, externalizing, and total symptoms, our findings may provide clinical practitioners with important information regarding intervention design.
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As an important factor promoting students’ learning behavior and achievement, teacher engagement has been largely neglected in the research literature on English as a foreign language (EFL) and applied linguistics. Moreover, the few studies have focused more on conventional classrooms rather than online learning contexts and failed to reveal how teacher engagement in the online foreign language classroom affected students’ achievement. The present study assessed 546 university students in China using self-report questionnaires to examine the relationship between teacher engagement and students’ achievement in an online EFL course over an 18-week semester, taking into account the possible mediating effects of autonomous motivation and positive academic emotions. The results showed that teacher engagement exerted a direct and positive impact on students’ English achievement. Students’ autonomous motivation and enjoyment mediated the association between teacher engagement and English achievement, but the mediating effects of relief were not significant. Additionally, teacher engagement affected students’ English achievement through the chain mediation of autonomous motivation and positive academic emotions (enjoyment and relief). Relief displayed a smaller effect on students’ English achievement than enjoyment did. These findings elucidate the impact of teacher engagement on students’ English achievement in the online environment and support the utility of self-determination theory and control-value theory in explaining foreign language learning. Directions for future research and implications for education are also presented.
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Objective : Automatic detection of auditory stimuli, represented by the mismatch negativity (MMN), facilitates rapid processing of salient stimuli in the environment. The amplitude of MMN declines with ageing. However, whether automatic detection of auditory stimuli is affected by visually perceived negative emotions with normal ageing remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate how fearful facial expressions affect the MMN amplitude under ageing. Methods : We used a modified oddball paradigm to analyze the amplitude of N100 (N1) and MMN in 22 young adults and 21 middle-aged adults. Results : We found that the amplitude of N1 elicited by standard tones was smaller under fearful facial expressions than neutral facial expressions and was more negative for young adults than middle-aged adults. The MMN amplitude under fearful facial expressions was greater than neutral facial expressions, but the amplitude in middle-aged adults was smaller than in young adults. Conclusion : Visually perceived negative emotion promotes the extraction of auditory features. Additionally, it enhances the effect of auditory change detection in middle-aged adults but fails to compensate for this decline with normal ageing. Significance : The study may help to understand how visually perceived emotion affects the early stage of auditory information processing from an event process perspective.
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This study explored the mediation role of social comparison and cognitive reappraisal in the influence of social support on social well-being in older adults. A total of 336 older adults completed this study. Results showed that: (1) social support, cognitive reappraisal, and social comparison affect the social well-being in older adults; (2) cognitive reappraisal and social comparison are mediators between social support and social well-being; (3) social support influenced the social well-being in older adults through the sequential intermediary of “cognitive reappraisal -- social comparison”. This study confirmed the psychological mechanism of social support affecting social well-being, providing suggestions for improving the mental health of older adults.
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Background The COVID-19 pandemic has had substantial impacts on lives across the globe. Job losses have been widespread, and individuals have experienced significant restrictions on their usual activities, including extended isolation from family and friends. While studies suggest population mental health worsened from before the pandemic, not all individuals appear to have experienced poorer mental health. This raises the question of how people managed to cope during the pandemic. Methods To understand the coping strategies individuals employed during the COVID-19 pandemic, we used structural topic modelling, a text mining technique, to extract themes from free-text data on coping from over 11,000 UK adults, collected between 14 October and 26 November 2020. Results We identified 16 topics. The most discussed coping strategy was ‘thinking positively’ and involved themes of gratefulness and positivity. Other strategies included engaging in activities and hobbies (such as doing DIY, exercising, walking and spending time in nature), keeping routines, and focusing on one day at a time. Some participants reported more avoidant coping strategies, such as drinking alcohol and binge eating. Coping strategies varied by respondent characteristics including age, personality traits and sociodemographic characteristics and some coping strategies, such as engaging in creative activities, were associated with more positive lockdown experiences. Conclusion A variety of coping strategies were employed by individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. The coping strategy an individual adopted was related to their overall lockdown experiences. This may be useful for helping individuals prepare for future lockdowns or other events resulting in self-isolation.
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Purpose: COVID-19 has been exerting tremendous influence on an individual's physical behavior and mental health. In China, prolonged isolation may lead to depression among college students during the recurrent outbreak of COVID-19. We conducted this study to explore the relationship among stressful life events, grit, gratitude, and depression in college students during the recurrent outbreak of COVID-19. Methods: We investigated 953 college students from across China, with an average age of 20.38 (SD=1.39) years. Participants completed four scales (Stressful Life Events Scale, Oviedo Grit Scale, Gratitude Questionnaire, and Patients' Health Questionnaire Depression Scale-9 item). Results: The present study found that (1) stressful life events were positively correlated with depression in college students; (2) grit mediated the positive relationship between stressful life events and depression; (3) gratitude moderated the relationship between grit and depression, and such that there was a stronger association between grit and depression for college students with high gratitude. Conclusion: This study was of great significance for studying the relationship between stressful life events and depression in Chinese college students during the recurrent outbreak of COVID-19. Results indicated that grit and gratitude of college students may be the main targets of depression prevention and intervention. The research conclusion has theoretical and reference value for solving and preventing depression in college students during the recurrent outbreak of COVID-19.
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This study aimed to explore the mechanism of college students’ meaning of life. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, the Gratitude Questionnaire Six-Item Form, the General Wellbeing Schedule, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire were used as measurement instruments. In total, 1,312 valid responses were obtained. The results showed that the cognitive reappraisal and expression suppression strategies were significantly positively and negatively correlated with gratitude, subjective wellbeing, and the sense of life meaning, respectively. Further, Emotion regulation strategies can affect college students’ sense of life meaning through three paths: the mediating effect of gratitude; the mediating effect of subjective wellbeing; the chain mediating effect of gratitude and subjective wellbeing. This study illuminated the roles of gratitude, and subjective wellbeing in influencing the sense of life meaning among the Chinese college students. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.
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Two studies were carried out on a Spanish population to explore the extent to which different self-efficacy beliefs in managing positive emotions are associated with common indicators of wellbeing, such as positive and negative affect or life satisfaction. The first study was conducted on 483 participants and attested to the factorial structure of three different self-efficacy beliefs: (a) perceived self-efficacy in expressing positive emotions; (b) perceived self-efficacy in retrieving memories of positive emotional experiences; and (c) perceived self-efficacy in using humor. The second study was carried out on 1,087 individuals between 19 and 80 years of age, and it provided evidence of the factorial invariance of the scales across age and gender. Furthermore, this latter study showed the association of self-efficacy in managing positive affect (SEMPA) with high chronic positive and low negative affect, and with high life satisfaction, controlling for gender and age. In younger participants, stronger associations were found between perceived self-efficacy in using humor and life satisfaction compared to older subjects. These findings may guide the design of interventions aimed at enhancing the potential benefits that could be drawn from the proper management of positive emotions.
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Purpose The objectives of the study are to assess the application of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in three hotel companies of similar standing by interviewing the unit general managers and to analyse the well-being of the three general managers and explore if their CSR initiatives align with the dimensions of quality of life and well-being. The article concludes with a review of the likely impact of employee well-being on the concept of the circular economy and overall sustainability. Design/methodology/approach Explores the potential relationship between the well-being of hotel general managers and its impact on the CSR initiatives of their hotels, three luxury hotels located in Dubai, Portugal and India provide case study examples. The hotels are similar in size and scale of operations and are positioned as leisure hotels. All three hotels have a workforce of 300–400 employees on permanent contracts with an additional 150–200 on temporary contracts. This is indicative of the significant responsibilities of general managers in fostering well-being in the workplace. Findings Findings suggest that a hotel general manager’s own well-being does not necessarily translate into high levels of CSR activity at the unit level. However, case study analysis of the three hotels seems to indicate a correlation between enhanced sustainable initiatives and competitive advantage that is advantageous for the businesses. Originality/value Using a combination of the positive emotion, engagement, relationships, meaning, achievement (PERMA) well-being profiler and three in-depth interviews, this study examines the relationship between well-being, as measured by PERMA, CSR practices, and awareness of CSR implementation. In addition, the potential role of the circular economy is considered in fostering hospitality for employee well-being.
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A rich variety of concepts are used in the field of happiness research. Happiness often overlaps with concepts such as subjective well-being (SWB) and life satisfaction. These concepts are measured by countless different metrics. Comparing the results of studies is complicated by differences in both conceptual and empirical measurement. According to many theories and studies, the most important factors in the estimation of life satisfaction are affect and contentment. However, the relationship of these components to happiness or life satisfaction is not clear. This article evaluates the relationships of these components with life satisfaction. The data have been collected over the last ten years from Finland in different ways and in different populations. There are seven datasets ( N = 20,855). Based on the results, affect systematically explains more about the variance of life satisfaction than contentment, but the difference between these correlations is small.
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PurposeThe aim of the present study was to confirm the original factor structure of the Multicultural Quality of Life Index (MQLI) and analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of caregivers of people with borderline personality disorder (BPD).Methods The MQLI was administered to 233 relatives of people with BPD. Participants completed the MQLI, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC).ResultsFactor analysis of the relatives indicated that the MQLI generated a one-factor solution. The MQLI showed good internal consistency, ϖ = 0.91 [95% CI (0.90, 0.93)] and correlated significantly and positively with the CD-RISC (rs = 0.576) and negatively with the DASS-21 (rs = −0.583).Conclusion Consistent with other studies, the MQLI demonstrated feasibility, strong internal consistency, and good convergent and discriminant validity, which means it is a psychometrically robust measure for the assessment of quality of life in relatives of people with BPD. Along with other validation studies, this measure will be a useful tool for assessing quality of life in relatives of people with mental disorders.
Chapter
In this chapter, 26 Finnish children between 4 and 4 years old described how they learned self-regulation skills after participating in the Kids’ Skills programme in an early childhood education (ECE) setting. Kids’ Skills is a programme aimed at developing children’s self-regulation skills in a solution-focused and narrative way (Furman, Muksuopin lumous. Luova tapa valita lapsia voittaa psyykkiset ongelmat. [The enchantment of the Kids’ Skills. A creative way to choose children to overcome mental problems]. Lyhytterapiainstituutti, 2016). The participating children were diagnosed as having difficulties in their self-regulation. Following the Kids’ Skills intervention, the children described their learning in the form of narratives and drawings. The data were analysed using a thematic content analysis framed by Hicks’ (Contextual inquires: a discourse-oriented study of classroom learning. In: D. Hicks (ed) Discourse, learning and schooling (pp 104–141). Cambridge University Press, 1996) sociocultural model. The findings show how the children described how learning self-regulation skills created new opportunities to have playmates. The children described learning as regulating their behaviour so that their previous challenging behaviour could turn into a strength, such as their bullying behaviour turning into friendship. In addition, the children described a change in their group membership when they were accepted to participate in joint action, and they learned to express themselves more courageously. The results indicate that learning self-regulation skills is relevant to the child, and interventions to promote the child’s self-regulation skills are recommended.
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Previous research suggest that gratitude interventions are effective in improving mental well‐being, which might be beneficial to university students during the COVID‐19 pandemic. This quasi‐experimental study sought to investigate if a gratitude intervention will lead to higher mental well‐being of university students during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Participants (N = 47) mental well‐being was assessed before and after 10 weekly gratitude reflection journals and statistically compared with a control group (N = 40). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyze the data. The treatment group showed significantly higher well‐being after the gratitude intervention compared with the control group (Cohen's d = 0.74). The treatment group significantly increased (Cohen's d = 0.35) and the control group significantly decreased (Cohen's d = −0.41). Gratitude interventions may be effective in improving the mental well‐being of university students even during a crisis such as the COVID‐19 pandemic. Gratitude interventions seem suitable for improving mental well‐being for temporary mental challenges of university students such as a pandemic or other forms of crisis.
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Studies have shown that teachers’ wellbeing has a positive effect on teachers’ learning quality and learners’ performance. Nevertheless, teaching is a stressful and exhausting profession at all academic level with special difficulties about the nature of language education. Tension and fear are still classic challenges in learning, though the concepts such as hope and optimism are core issues in assisting teachers to feel happy during instruction and work longer. The present review makes efforts to provide the most current confirmation on the interface of hope and optimism with educational issues since they are progressively documented as significant emotional capitals for educational success, job growth, and presentation. It is worth mentioning that the current review of research can benefit educational administrations, and other stakeholders and officials in the educational community to contemplate the functions of constructive emotions in the process of learning to decrease and even diminish stress and apprehension that consequently lead to flourishing.
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The present study examined the mediating effect of organizational identification on the relationship between psychological capital and job satisfaction, and whether the mediation was moderated by income level. A total of 310 Chinese residents were surveyed using the Psychological Capital Scale, Organizational Identification Scale, Job Satisfaction Scale, and a demographic questionnaire. The findings showed a significant positive correlation between psychological capital and job satisfaction of residents, and this relationship was partially mediated by organizational identification. Moreover, income level played a moderating role in the relationship between organizational identification and job satisfaction. For residents with more income, their organizational identification influenced their job satisfaction more strongly than those with less income. The current study contributes to a better understanding of the relationship between psychological capital and job satisfaction. Implications for resident management and policymaking are discussed.
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Positive emotions are hypothesized to undo the cardiovascular aftereffects of negative emotions. Study 1 tests this undoing effect. Participants (n = 170) experiencing anxiety-induced cardiovascular reactivity viewed a film that elicited (a) contentment, (b) amusement, (c) neutrality, or (d) sadness. Contentment-eliciting and amusing films produced faster cardiovascular recovery than neutral or sad films did. Participants in Study 2 (n = 185) viewed these same films following a neutral state. Results disconfirm the alternative explanation that the undoing effect reflects a simple replacement process. Findings are contextualized by Fredrickson's broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions (B. L. Fredrickson, 1998).
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Life history theory predicts that animals whose activities impose time, energy or survivorship costs at one stage of their lives will subsequently suffer incremental decreases in fitness unless there are compensatory benefits. Play, a widespread activity among juvenile mammals and several orders of birds' appears costly, yet its adaptive significance is poorly understood despite over 15 years of detailed study. Four issues have plagued understanding of the function of play: lack of a consensus on its definition, difficulties in selectively depriving animals of play opportunities and in meeting the challenge of interpreting negative results, paucity of empirical data on the costs of play, and failure to pay sufficient attention to field and naturalistic studies. Despite these problems, sex differences in play and partner preferences of participants now suggest that play serves to improve future adult motor skills in a number of species.
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We tested the short-term efficacy and feasibility of two stress education approaches toe the treatment of mild hypertension in older African Americans. This was a randomized, controlled, single-blind trial with 3 months of follow-up in primary care, inner-city health center. Of 213 African American men and women screened, 127 individuals (aged 55 to 85 years with initial diastolic pressure of 90 to 109 mm Hg, systolic pressure of < or = 189 mm Hg, and final baseline blood pressure of < or = 179/104 mm Hg) were selected. Of these, 16 did not complete follow-up blood pressure measurements. Mental and physical stress reduction approaches (Transcendental Meditation and progressive muscle relaxation) were compared with a lifestyle modification education control program and with each other. The primary outcome measures were changes in clinic diastolic and systolic pressures from baseline to final follow-up, measured by blinded observers. The secondary measures were linear blood pressure trends, changes in home blood pressure, and intervention compliance. Adjusted for significant baseline differences and compared with control, Transcendental Meditation reduced systolic pressure by 10.7 mm Hg (P < .0003) and diastolic pressure by 6.4 mm Hg (P <.00005). Progressive muscle relaxation lowered systolic pressure by 4.7 mm Hg (P = 0054) and diastolic pressure by 3.3 mm Hg (P <.02). The reductions in the Transcendental Meditation group were significantly greater than in the progressive muscle relaxation group for both systolic blood pressure (P = .02) and diastolic blood pressure (P = .03). Linear trend analysis confirmed these patterns.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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The constructs of intelligence and ego-resiliency are discussed. The personality implications of "pure intelligence" and "pure ego-resilience" were identified. Intelligence (IQ) was indexed by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and ego-resiliency by an inventory scale. Residual scores measuring "pure intelligence" and "pure ego-resilience" were correlated with the items of the observer-based California Q-sort, used to describe participants. Persons relatively high on ego-resilience tend to be more competent and comfortable in the "fuzzier" interpersonal world; persons defined primary by raw IQ tend to be effective in the "clearer" world of structured work but tend also to be uneasy with affect and less able to realize satisfying human connections. Gender differences exist in the relations of ego-resilience and intelligence and in their adaptive relevance.
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The common assumption that emotional expression mediates the course of bereavement is tested. Competing hypotheses about the direction of mediation were formulated from the grief work and social-functional accounts of emotional expression. Facial expressions of emotion in conjugally bereaved adults were coded at 6 months post-loss as they described their relationship with the deceased; grief and perceived health were measured at 6, 14, and 25 months. Facial expressions of negative emotion, in particular anger, predicted increased grief at 14 months and poorer perceived health through 25 months. Facial expressions of positive emotion predicted decreased grief through 25 months and a positive but nonsignificant relation to perceived health. Predictive relations between negative and positive emotional expression persisted when initial levels of self-reported emotion, grief, and health were statistically controlled, demonstrating the mediating role of facial expressions of emotion in adjustment to conjugal loss. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.
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Positive affect systematically influences performance on many cognitive tasks. A new neuropsychological theory is proposed that accounts for many of these effects by assuming that positive affect is associated with increased brain dopamine levels. The theory predicts or accounts for influences of positive affect on olfaction, the consolidation of long-term (i.e., episodic) memories, working memory, and creative problem solving. For example, the theory assumes that creative problem solving is improved, in part, because increased dopamine release in the anterior cingulate improves cognitive flexibility and facilitates the selection of cognitive perspective.
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Two studies tested the hypothesis that certain positive emotions speed recovery from the cardiovascular sequelae of negative emotions. In Study 1, 60 subjects (Ss) viewed an initial fear-eliciting film, and were randomly assigned to view a secondary film that elicited: (a) contentment; (b) amusement; (c) neutrality; or (d) sadness. Compared to Ss who viewed the neutral and sad secondary films, those who viewed the positive films exhibited more rapid returns to pre-film levels of cardiovascular activation. In Study 2, 72 Ss viewed a film known to elicit sadness. Fifty Ss spontaneously smiled at least once while viewing this film. Compared to Ss who did not smile, those who smiled exhibited more rapid returns to pre-film levels of cardiovascular activation. We discuss these findings in terms of emotion theory and possible health-promoting functions of positive emotions.
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This study investigated the influence of positive affect, induced by report of success on an anagram task, on medical decision making among third-year medical students. The subjects were asked to decide which one of six hypothetical patients, each of whom had a solitary pulmonary nodule, was most likely to have lung cancer. They were asked to verbalize their clinical reasoning as they solved the problem. The positive-affect and control groups did not differ in the tendency to make a correct choice, but subjects in the positive-affect condition were significantly earlier in identifying their choices. These subjects were also significantly more likely to go beyond the assigned task, expressing interesting in the cases of the other patients and trying to think about their diagnosis, even though that task was not assigned. The positive-affect subjects also showed evidence of configural or integrative consideration of the material to a reliably greater extent than did control subjects, and there was significantly less evidence of confusion or disorganization in their protocols than in those of controls. These findings are compatible with earlier work suggesting a different organizational process and greater efficiency in decision making among people in whom positive affect had been induced, and with recent work suggesting that positive affect facilitates flexibility and integration in problem solving. They also indicate that these effects may apply to the problem-solving strategies of professionals in clinical problem-solving situations.
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Four experiments indicated that positive affect, induced by means of seeing a few minutes of a comedy film or by means of receiving a small bag of candy, improved performance on two tasks that are generally regarded as requiring creative ingenuity: Duncker's (1945) candle task and M. T. Mednick, S. A. Mednick, and E. V. Mednick's (1964) Remote Associates Test. One condition in which negative affect was induced and two in which subjects engaged in physical exercise (intended to represent affectless arousal) failed to produce comparable improvements in creative performance. The influence of positive affect on creativity was discussed in terms of a broader theory of the impact of positive affect on cognitive organization.
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A pilot study and two experiments investigated the influence of positive affect, induced in three differing ways, on the uniqueness of word associations. Persons in the positive-affect conditions gave more unusual first-associates to neutral words, according to the Palermo & Jenkins (1964) norms, than did subjects in the control conditions. In Study 3, where word type (positive, neutral, negative) was a second factor along with affect, in a between-subjects design, associates to positive words were also more unusual and diverse than were those to other words. These results were related to those of studies suggesting that positive affect may facilitate creative problem solving and to other work suggesting an impact of positive feelings on cognitive organization.
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Describes a new theory of motivation and its applications to addiction and aversion. It assumes that many hedonic, affective, or emotional states are automatically opposed by CNS mechanisms which reduce the intensity of hedonic feelings, both pleasant and aversive. Opponent processes for most hedonic states are strengthened by use and weakened by disuse. These assumptions lead to deductions of many known facts about acquired motivation. The theory also suggests several new lines of research on motivation. It argues that the establishment of some types of acquired motivation does not depend on conditioning and is nonassociative in nature. Relationships between conditioning processes and postulated opponent processes are discussed. It is argued that the data on several types of acquired motivation, arising from either pleasurable or aversive stimulation, can be fruitfully reorganized and understood within the framework provided by the opponent-process model. (34 ref)
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The attributional reformulation of the learned helplessness model as outlined by L. Y. Abramson et al (see record 1979-00305-001) claims that an explanatory style in which bad events are explained by internal, stable, and global causes is associated with depressive symptoms. This style is claimed to be a risk factor for subsequent depression when bad events are encountered. A variety of new investigations of the helplessness reformulation are described that have employed 5 research strategies: cross-sectional correlational studies, longitudinal studies, experiments of nature, laboratory experiments, and case studies. Ss in these investigations included children, college students, poor women, depressed patients, and prisoners. Most of these studies involved the use of the Attributional Style Questionnaire and measures such as the Beck Depression Inventory and Multiple Affect Adjective Check List. These studies converge in their support for the learned helplessness reformulation. (120 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The vagus, the 10th cranial nerve, contains pathways that contribute to the regulation of the internal viscera, including the heart. Vagal efferent fibers do not originate in a common brainstem structure. The Polyvagal Theory is introduced to explain the different functions of the two primary medullary source nuclei of the vagus: the nucleus ambiguus (NA) and the dorsal motor nucleus (DMNX). Although vagal pathways from both nuclei terminate on the sinoatrial node, it is argued that the fibers originating in NA are uniquely responsible for respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Divergent shifts in RSA and heart rate are explained by independent actions of DMNX and NA. The theory emphasizes a phylogenetic perspective and speculates that mammalian, but not reptilian, brainstem organization is characterized by a ventral vagal complex (including NA) related to processes associated with attention, motion, emotion, and communication. Various clinical disorders, such as sudden infant death syndrome and asthma, may be related to the competition between DMNX and NA.
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On the basis of the assumption that positive experiences enhance perceived ability to cope with the discomfort associated with negative performance feedback (NF), it was hypothesized that (a) positive experiences increase willingness to accept negative but useful feedback and that (b) individuals seek positive experiences before accepting NF. Experiment 1 found that past success increased Ss' interest in unrelated NF. Experiment 2 found that positive mood increased Ss' interest in NF. Experiment 3 investigated the amount of time Ss spent reading about their past success while waiting for new feedback. When the new feedback was mandatory, the time Ss spent reading about their past success increased with the anticipated negativity of the new feedback. However, when the new feedback was optional, the time Ss spent reading about their past success was an inverted-U function of the anticipated negativity of the new feedback. Results are discussed in terms of self-control processes.
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The discovery of benefits from living with adversity has been implicated in psychological well-being in numerous investigations, is pivotal to several prominent theories of cognitive adaptation to threat, and can be predicted by personality differences. This article summarizes the prevalence and adaptive significance of finding benefits from major medical problems, locates the place of benefit-finding in stress and coping theories, and examines how it may be shaped by specific psychological dispositions such as optimism and hope and by broader personality traits such as Extraversion and Openness to Experience. The distinction between beliefs about benefits from adversity (benefit-finding) and the use of such knowledge as a deliberate strategy of coping with the problem (benefit-reminding) is underscored and illustrated by daily process research on coping with chronic pain.
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In a conceptual and temporal framework, derived from research on social cognition, social interaction, and stress and coping, the authors analyze the processes through which people anticipate or detect potential stressors and act in advance to prevent them or to mute their impact (proactive coping). The framework specifies five stages in proactive coping: (1) resource accumulation, (2) recognition of potential stressors, (3) initial appraisal, (4) preliminary coping efforts, and (5) elicitation and use of feedback concerning initial efforts. The authors detail the role of individual differences skills, and resources at each stage. They highlight the unique predictions afforded by a focus on proactive coping and the importance of understanding how people avoid and offset potential stressors.
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Providing care to a spouse or partner who is dying and then losing that person are among the most stressful of human experiences. A longitudinal study of the caregiving partners of men with AIDS showed that in addition to intense negative psychological states, these men also experienced positive psychological state states throughout caregiving and bereavement. The co-occurrence of positive and negative psychological states in the midst of enduring and profoundly stressful circumstances has important implications for our understanding of the coping process. Coping theory had traditionally focused on the management of distress. This article describes coping processes that are associated with positive psychological states in the context of intense distress and discusses the theoretical implications of positive psychological states in the coping process.
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This section is devoted to articles about the structure of affect, the patterned interrelations of moods and emotions. Structural features of affect, such as a bipolar pleasantness-unpleasantness dimension, a circumplex ordering, prototypical discrete emotions, and separable positive and negative emotion clusters, are discussed. It is proposed that positive and negative affect systems create the conditions for the co-occurrence of discrete positive emotions with each other and of discrete negative emotions with each other. The experience of affect tends to be felt along a bipolar pleasantness-unpleasantness dimension because pleasant emotions and unpleasant emotions tend not to be experienced together at intense levels. To move beyond current knowledge, future research in the area must more often use non-self-report measures, more sophisticated statistical and measurement methods, dynamic as well as static data, systematically varied response formats, and experimental manipulations.
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Although research on coping over the past 30 years has produced convergent evidence about the functions of coping and the factors that influence it, psychologists still have a great deal to learn about how coping mechanisms affect diverse outcomes. One of the reasons more progress has not been made is the almost exclusive focus on negative outcomes in the stress process. Coping theory and research need to consider positive outcomes as well. The authors focus on one such outcome, positive affect, and review findings about the co-occurrence of positive affect with negative affect during chronic stress, the adaptive functions of positive affect during chronic stress, and a special class of meaning-based coping processes that support positive affect during chronic stress.
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Positive emotional states may promote healthy perceptions, beliefs, and physical well-being itself. To explore potential mechanisms linking pleasant feelings and good health, the authors consider several lines of research, including (a) direct effects of positive affect on physiology, especially the immune system, (b) the information value of emotional experiences, (c) the psychological resources engendered by positive feeling states, (d) the ways in which mood can motivate health-relevant behaviors, and (e) the elicitation of social support. As anticipated by the Greek physician Hippocrates, positive emotions and healthy outcomes may be linked through multiple pathways.