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BADMINTON: SPECIFIC MOVEMENT AGILITY TESTING SYSTEM

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INTRODUCTION: Agility is an important quality in many sports played on court or field. In badminton, agility indicates the ability to move to the approaching shuttle with a correct footwork. There are several agility performance tests that have been developed according to the nature of the different sports namely rugby, netball and football which focuses on the change of direction speed and perceptual/decision making [1-3]. However, specific agility testing for badminton currently available only focuses on the change of direction speed with all tests forgoing the perceptual/decision making aspect [4]. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to present a new methodology for measuring specific movement agility in badminton. Additionally, a second purpose of the research is to investigate if there were differences of agility performance (changes of direction speed and decision time) between pre-planned agility (sequence movement) test and specific movement agility (randomly movement) test using previously developed system i.e. Badminton Agility Training and Testing System. METHODS: Specifically, the agility performance of male players (n=40) when responding to interactive LED lights (Fig. 1) showing the direction shot (randomly) from opponent, was compared to a traditional, pre-planned agility movement where no external stimulus (sequence) was present. Subjects were randomly selected among students enrolled in badminton as their curriculum course. The test was conducted after they have completed 14 weeks of the course. The total change of direction speed of the players was the primary dependent measures of interest. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The results showed that significant differences existed between the two test conditions proving that the system was assessing different types of agility. The pre-planned agility (sequence) was found to be faster compared to the specific movement agility test (random) with significant difference (P < 0.05) between the mean results (25.63 + 1.94 s and 31.66 + 1.66 s). This difference was found to be caused by the presence of decision making (decision time) in the specific movement agility test [5]. CONCLUSION: Therefore, the results suggest that badminton-specific movement agility test system is a better measure of badminton specific agility performance than an equivalent non-specific pre-planned agility test since the nature of the game of badminton requires change of direction speed and decision making. Future research may include elite badminton players to further assess the device's capability.
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... (59). These tests lacks some weak points such as rationing on badminton players, even what have been rationing on badminton players may be for researched objective as a study of Marei & Salem (2016) which is directed to face the drop shot and the main aim in setting tests is footwork agility on the net (38), or aims at comparing the agility tests pre tasks to the performance of the same test without pre movement directions using the light system as in Frederick et al (2014) to recognize the differences the senses decisions in speed of performance (19), or aims at the measurement of functional abilities requiring the performance like aerobic capacity according to Wonisch et al (2013) (63), Hughes & Fullerton (2001) (32), or the functional responses related to the performance such as heart rate, concentration lactic, anaerobic ability and recovery (Chin et al, 1995) (14). So many researchers agree with Serpell et al (2010) (52), Farrow et al (2005) (18), to find a determined measurement of agility according the different performance nature in each sports activity, Hughes & Fullerton (2001) ensure the importance of the developed tests which reflect the requirements of skillphysical performance sustained on the movement pattern applied in competitions, this determines the degree credibility and validity in measuring the specific abilities in sports activity (32), The specific tests applied on participants representing beneficiaries of community sports activity are better than the others from another society ; however similar are the two societies (31: 181). ...
... (59). These tests lacks some weak points such as rationing on badminton players, even what have been rationing on badminton players may be for researched objective as a study of Marei & Salem (2016) which is directed to face the drop shot and the main aim in setting tests is footwork agility on the net (38), or aims at comparing the agility tests pre tasks to the performance of the same test without pre movement directions using the light system as in Frederick et al (2014) to recognize the differences the senses decisions in speed of performance (19), or aims at the measurement of functional abilities requiring the performance like aerobic capacity according to Wonisch et al (2013) (63), Hughes & Fullerton (2001) (32), or the functional responses related to the performance such as heart rate, concentration lactic, anaerobic ability and recovery (Chin et al, 1995) (14). So many researchers agree with Serpell et al (2010) (52), Farrow et al (2005) (18), to find a determined measurement of agility according the different performance nature in each sports activity, Hughes & Fullerton (2001) ensure the importance of the developed tests which reflect the requirements of skillphysical performance sustained on the movement pattern applied in competitions, this determines the degree credibility and validity in measuring the specific abilities in sports activity (32), The specific tests applied on participants representing beneficiaries of community sports activity are better than the others from another society ; however similar are the two societies (31: 181). ...
... recommends it in his study. He ensures the importance of the impervious plan tests like in tests using Shuttlecock shooter machine to measure specific agility for badminton player that agree with the nature of badminton sport which requires speed in changing directions and making decisions according to the badminton movement and the opponent(19).In the light of the sports performance concerned with badminton sport in footwork, speed return whether the player can bend his leg with the striking hand (stabbing by leg or jump). Using the legal descriptions of the court, the stage's duties of proposed and adjusted tests are determined:--Test to measure footwork agility on frontcourt (net) Marei& Salem 2016 (38) -Test to measure footwork agility to backcourt -Test to measure footwork agility in all court (modified from Marei & Salem 2016 (38) -Test to measure the effectiveness of Unsystematic strikes in the frontcourt (net) using Shuttlecock shooter machine -Test to measure the effectiveness of Unsystematic strikes in all court using Shuttlecock shooter machine. ...
Article
Sports training faces a global remarkable decline in training based experience compared to training based measure, which enables trainers to achieve sufficiency of training process through planning for general and specific physical preparation, Controlling and following-up training according to suggested objectives. Rooting the use of specific measurement in modern training planning of badminton, the researchers all agree on the importance of the developed tests which reflect the requirements of the skill-physical sports performance based on the movement pattern actually applied in competitions. This determines the validity of the test to measure the specific abilities of sports performance. Accordingly, the study aims at building and computing the validity of some proposed of specific tests as a base in planning and controlling the specific physical preparation of badminton juniors under 14, which requires: (1) developing a planning methodology for specific preparation of footwork movements for juniors according to the measuring information based on the standardized levels of the measuring tests as a guide for badminton trainers, (2) Studying the effect of suggested methodology application in planning and controlling preparation process for the badminton juniors in training conditions. The study is applied on a random sample of the badminton juniors who are recorded in badminton training centers in Al-Baha and Dammam in Saudi Arabia (80) juniors under 14 years, and the sample characteristics are (age 13.64 ±0.49 years, Height 159.56 ±5.12 cm, Weight 53.84 ±4.72 kg, training age 3.58 ±0.42 years), where it was built and tested the validity of three footwork agility tests (1) on the net, (2) on the backcourt, (3) in all court, in addition to measuring the effective footwork to return shots in random from the shuttlecock shooter machine in front court in 45 sec (4). and in all court in 60 seconds (5) (ratio: 1 shuttlecock/ 3 seconds). There's a survey to root the methodology of the application of the measuring information of the agility developed tests in planning and controlling for specific preparation juniors, which are considered an experimental group included 14 juniors, on the contrary the trainer's experience group, which isn't based on suggested methodology included in planning and controlling the specific preparation process (12 junior) and considered a controller group. The study lasts for 8 weeks applying tests four times (pretest, posttests and in-between tests) applying ratio every 2:3 weeks. The results refer to the confidence of the test of 18 agility footwork movement of juniors, which refers to validity, reliability and objectivity in tests. The employment of measuring information (Standardized Score) in tests recognizes the strength and the weakness points in the training condition, also following of training condition during the training season, , in addition to correct planning and controlling the physical preparation for juniors, which enable trainers to put the training objectives (stage & final) through training period from the current condition, and follow its development up using repetition on the measurement application to modify the training objectives, content and methods to ensure stability. That was confirmed by the condition stability in the direction of the results of the tests applied in parallel with the direction of the training objectives of the experimental group versus volatility in the results of the controller group, as reflected in the significant differences between the two groups of search in favor of the experimental group in in-between tests (1, 2), as well as a posttest. The study recommends the importance of having the juniors' badminton trainers employment methodology of results through the standardized levels of the aimed abilities, in planning and controlling physical preparation including the procedures, which determine that training objectives, content and methods to follow the training process up through the training season to achieve the development of training condition.
... On the other side the experts ensure that command and control training of the direction and the speed of (Ball) Shuttlecock (35), and the training of start and acceleration act important tasks in the physical-skill preparation for racket sports (34). Frederick et al (2014), Hardan & Khalil (2013) ensure that trainers should focus on the agility training and development, that never comes without standardized tests for specific agility of badminton help in the diagnosis process and recognizing the progress level in physical skill which represents a specific importance of the skill performance (19: 10) (28: 232). ...
... (59). These tests lacks some weak points such as rationing on badminton players, even what have been rationing on badminton players may be for researched objective as a study of Marei & Salem (2016) which is directed to face the drop shot and the main aim in setting tests is footwork agility on the net (38), or aims at comparing the agility tests pre tasks to the performance of the same test without pre movement directions using the light system as in Frederick et al (2014) to recognize the differences the senses decisions in speed of performance (19), or aims at the measurement of functional abilities requiring the performance like aerobic capacity according to Wonisch et al (2013) (63), Hughes & Fullerton (2001) (32), or the functional responses related to the performance such as heart rate, concentration lactic, anaerobic ability and recovery (Chin et al, 1995) (14). So many researchers agree with Serpell et al (2010) (52), Farrow et al (2005) (18), to find a determined measurement of agility according the different performance nature in each sports activity, Hughes & Fullerton (2001) ensure the importance of the developed tests which reflect the requirements of skillphysical performance sustained on the movement pattern applied in competitions, this determines the degree credibility and validity in measuring the specific abilities in sports activity (32), The specific tests applied on participants representing beneficiaries of community sports activity are better than the others from another society ; however similar are the two societies (31: 181). ...
... (59). These tests lacks some weak points such as rationing on badminton players, even what have been rationing on badminton players may be for researched objective as a study of Marei & Salem (2016) which is directed to face the drop shot and the main aim in setting tests is footwork agility on the net (38), or aims at comparing the agility tests pre tasks to the performance of the same test without pre movement directions using the light system as in Frederick et al (2014) to recognize the differences the senses decisions in speed of performance (19), or aims at the measurement of functional abilities requiring the performance like aerobic capacity according to Wonisch et al (2013) (63), Hughes & Fullerton (2001) (32), or the functional responses related to the performance such as heart rate, concentration lactic, anaerobic ability and recovery (Chin et al, 1995) (14). So many researchers agree with Serpell et al (2010) (52), Farrow et al (2005) (18), to find a determined measurement of agility according the different performance nature in each sports activity, Hughes & Fullerton (2001) ensure the importance of the developed tests which reflect the requirements of skillphysical performance sustained on the movement pattern applied in competitions, this determines the degree credibility and validity in measuring the specific abilities in sports activity (32), The specific tests applied on participants representing beneficiaries of community sports activity are better than the others from another society ; however similar are the two societies (31: 181). ...
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The researcher into the development process of global sports training notices a remarkable decline in training based experience compared to training based measure, the trainer uses the measure information to determine the training condition of the athlete before the training program, according that base the trainer can guess and estimate the achievable level of the athlete throughout the next training period and the following determination of training objectives and planning (3: 13). Moreover, the role of the measure information about the development frame of training condition is revealed through longitudinal analysis for training plans then taking the needed procedures to word the future training objectives and control the content and methods of training which means a lot for the success of training process (24: 25). Using the measure information enables us to estimate the possibility of athlete to take part in sports competitions if he achieves the demanded sports form, this makes sports training controlling process to develop the athlete level in all different performance through planned factors which makes it more effectively and positively eligible in the future (19: 54). The controlling process becomes one of the most important procedures of the training process to admit that achieving a high sports level can't be made without good controlling process towards the achievement level)3: 13), to cope with the development in sports competition, the struggle about breaking records and promotion of the achievement level which needs developed methods of evaluation and measurement to achieve the highest sport performance (53: 150). It's not condemned that the experts use the measurement as a head coin with training control to point at the integration of these two processes in the modern sports training, thus the effective sports controlling of physical abilities can't stand without the methods of measurement applying (33: 233). Harre (1982), according to the produced results of the correct evaluation of performance using the proper tests, assures that it sets the best base and considered to be a remarkable top for planning, controlling and regulation sports training (29: 244). Bartonietz (1992) ensures that the effective sports training controlling requires trusted measurement results (7: 12). The measurement through training planning process is considered as a necessary and vital factor to control the sports
... Limited studies have been conducted on developing sports tests to assess specific agility in the same field, and except for a few particular cases, no research was found. In the study, Frederick et al. (2014) aimed to develop a specific agility test for badminton. One group performed the developed test as a predetermined agility program, and another group performed the test randomly (18). ...
... In the study, Frederick et al. (2014) aimed to develop a specific agility test for badminton. One group performed the developed test as a predetermined agility program, and another group performed the test randomly (18). According to the results, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of performance. ...
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... Standing footwork [7] It focuses on lower body strengthening, flexibility and core stability. It strengthens the muscles of the legs and pelvis, increased hip flexibility, strengthened the core, and improves balance. ...
... 6. Side plank [7] The subjects sat on the side of his hip with the legs extended slightly in front. They were then instructed to cross the top leg over the bottom, resting on ball of his foot. ...
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... Agility is an important quality in a lot of sports that are played on the field. In badminton, agility demonstrated the ability to move with quick footwork and precise [2]. Linear action such as acceleration and velocity can be influenced by changing the movement mechanism of the arms or legs. ...
... The results of this study suggest that: (1) there is a significant effect of exercise program speed, agility, and quickness (SAQ) to increase speed, (2) there is a significant effect of exercise programs speed, agility, and quickness (SAQ) to increase agility, and (3) there is a significant effect of exercise program speed, agility, and quickness (SAQ) to increase acceleration. ...
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