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The Critical Role of School Climate in Effective Bullying Prevention

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Abstract

Research has shown a negative association between positive school climate and bullying behavior. This article reviews research on school climate and bullying behavior and proposes that an unhealthy and unsupportive school climate (e.g., negative relationship between teachers and students, positive attitudes towards bullying) provides a social context that allows bullying behavior to occur. We provide information on how to evaluate the school climate and intervene to promote a more positive school climate and to reduce bullying behavior. Although there has been an increased interest among school personnel, parents, and students to reduce bullying behavior, the issue of how to assess the myriad of factors that may cause and maintain bullying behaviors, and to select evidence-based prevention and intervention programs, remains a challenge for many educators. This article seeks to address these two issues by highlighting the importance of school climate in bullying prevention and reviewing some school climate evaluations and intervention programs.
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The Critical Role of School Climate in
Effective Bullying Prevention
Cixin Wang a , Brandi Berry b & Susan M. Swearer c
a University of California Riverside
b University of Nebraska
c University of Nebraska–Lincoln
Published online: 04 Oct 2013.
To cite this article: Cixin Wang , Brandi Berry & Susan M. Swearer (2013) The Critical Role
of School Climate in Effective Bullying Prevention, Theory Into Practice, 52:4, 296-302, DOI:
10.1080/00405841.2013.829735
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00405841.2013.829735
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Theory Into Practice, 52:296–302, 2013
Copyright © The College of Education and Human Ecology, The Ohio State University
ISSN: 0040-5841 print/1543-0421 online
DOI: 10.1080/00405841.2013.829735
Cixin Wang
Brandi Berry
Susan M. Swearer
The Critical Role of School Climate
in Effective Bullying Prevention
Research has shown a negative association be-
tween positive school climate and bullying be-
havior. This article reviews research on school
climate and bullying behavior and proposes that
an unhealthy and unsupportive school climate
(e.g., negative relationship between teachers and
students, positive attitudes towards bullying) pro-
vides a social context that allows bullying be-
havior to occur. We provide information on how
to evaluate the school climate and intervene to
promote a more positive school climate and to re-
duce bullying behavior. Although there has been
an increased interest among school personnel,
Cixin Wang is an assistant professor at the University
of California Riverside; Brandi Berry is a doctoral
candidate at the University of Nebraska; Susan M.
Swearer is a professor at the University of Nebraska
Lincoln.
Correspondence should be addressed to Susan
M. Swearer, 40 Teachers College Hall, Department
of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska–
Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0345. E-mail: sswearer@
unl.edu.
parents, and students to reduce bullying behavior,
the issue of how to assess the myriad of factors
that may cause and maintain bullying behav-
iors, and to select evidence-based prevention and
intervention programs, remains a challenge for
many educators. This article seeks to address
these two issues by highlighting the importance
of school climate in bullying prevention and
reviewing some school climate evaluations and
intervention programs.
Relationship Between Bullying and
School Climate
ALTHO UG H T HE RE HA S B EE N an increased
interest in studying school climate, its def-
inition is still murky among researchers and
educators. Among the researchers who defined
school climate in their studies, Emmons’s (1993)
definition of school climate as “the quality and
frequency of interactions among and between
296
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Wang, Berry, Swearer The Critical Role of School Climate in Effective Bullying Prevention
adults and students” at school (Kuperminc, Lead-
beater, Emmons, & Blatt, 1997, p. 77) has been
accepted as an important component of school
climate. Similarly, the National School Climate
Council (NSCC, 2012) referred to school climate
as “the quality and character of school life”
and “is based on patterns of students’, parents’,
and school personnel’s experience of school life
and reflects norms, goals, values, interpersonal
relationships, teaching and learning practices,
and organizational structures” (How do we define
school climate section, para. 1). How to measure
school climate is also unclear. Researchers have
identified multiple dimensions of school climate,
such as school organizational structure and ex-
ternal environment (e.g., class and school size,
utilization of resources, and physical surround-
ings), social milieu (background characteristics
of the students, teachers, and staff, and physical
location of the school), cultural variables (e.g.,
beliefs, values, attitudes, rules, and whether staff
are caring, supportive, and fair), and relationships
(NSCC, 2012; Stewart, 2003). In this article,
we define school climate as the milieu created
by interactions among and between adults and
students and individuals’ beliefs and attitudes
(e.g., feelings about school, approval/disapproval
of bullying). Using this definition, we discuss the
links between bullying prevention programs and
the aforementioned elements of school climate
(e.g., relationship, beliefs, and attitudes) and
specific programs to improve school climate and
prevent bullying.
Two social theories can be used to conceptual-
ize the relationship between bullying and school
climate. Social disorganization theory (Shaw &
McKay, 1942) suggests that youths acquire delin-
quent behaviors (e.g., bullying) because the eco-
nomic difficulties and social environment limit
the community’s (e.g., parents’, school’s) ability
to control or supervise adolescent behavior (Es-
pelage & Swearer, 2009). Social control theory
(Hirschi, 1969) suggests that “delinquent acts
occur when an individual’s bond to society is
weak or broken” (p. 16), meaning that weak
bonds with important people and institutions in
adolescents’ lives put them at-risk for engaging in
delinquent behaviors (Friedman & Rosenbaum,
1998). According to these theories, bullying be-
haviors are discouraged when social organization
and control are present in a school. Thus, these
theories support the need to improve school
climate in order to effectively prevent bullying
behaviors.
Research has shown that students are more
likely to participate in bullying when the school
climate is unhealthy. For example, when students
perceive their school environment as high in
conflict, unfair, unfriendly, and nonsupportive
(Gendron, Williams, & Guerra, 2011) and when
positive attitudes supporting aggression and bul-
lying become the norm at school (Unnever &
Cornell, 2003). On the other hand, students are
more likely to have a positive attitude toward
help-seeking behavior for bullying when they
perceive the school staff and teachers as support-
ive and caring (Eliot, Cornell, Gregory, & Fan,
2010). It is likely that when students perceive
their school as unfriendly and nonsupportive,
their bond to school is weak or broken, and, as a
result, they are less likely to follow school rules
(e.g., rules against bullying). In addition, when
students perceive bullying behavior as normally
approved by peers and teachers, they tend to be-
lieve that school’s ability to control or supervise
their behavior is diminished, and they are more
likely to engage in bullying behavior and less
likely to engage in helpful bystanding behavior.
In general, these findings suggest that an un-
healthy school climate (e.g., negative relationship
between teachers and students, positive attitude
towards bullying) provides a social context that
allows bullying behavior to occur. Thus, it is
critical to evaluate school climate and, in cases in
which the school climate is negative, effectively
improve the school climate as an important strat-
egy to preventing bullying behaviors.
School Climate Evaluation
A key first step toward improving school
climate is to assess the school climate (Cohen,
2006). Although many measures of school cli-
mate have been developed, only a few (e.g., The
Comprehensive School Climate Inventory, Co-
297
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Emerging Issues in School Bullying Research and Prevention Science
hen, 2006; The ClassMaps Survey or CMS, Doll
& Spies, 2007) have proven to be scientifically
sound and seek to gain information from stu-
dents, staff members, and parents to yield a more
comprehensive picture of the school/classroom
climate.
The Comprehensive School Climate Inventory
(CSCI; Center for Social and Emotional Edu-
cation, 2003) assesses students’, parents’, and
school staff members’ perceptions of various as-
pects of school climate. Specifically, it measures
four constructs: safety (i.e., rules and norms,
sense of physical security, and sense of social-
emotional security), teaching and learning (i.e.,
support for learners and social and civic learn-
ing), interpersonal relationships (i.e., respect for
diversity, social support from adults, and social
support for students), and institutional environ-
ment (i.e., school connectedness/engagement and
physical surroundings; Haggerty, Elgin, & Wool-
ley, 2010). Additionally, school staff members
assess two additional constructs: leadership and
professional relationships. There are four ver-
sions of the student survey: lower elementary, up-
per elementary, middle, and high school versions.
All items are positively worded and students
answer each statement on a 5-point Likert scale
where 1 means strongly disagree and 5 means
strongly agree. The CSCI can be completed via
paper survey or online and results can be con-
solidated for school improvement purposes. The
CSCI has shown strong internal consistency and
good construct validity across the various stu-
dent, parent, and school personnel forms (Guo,
Choe, & Higgins-D’Alessandro, 2011).
The CMS (Doll & Spies, 2007) is an
assessment that queries students about teacher–
student relationships, peer friendships, peer
conflicts, worries about peer aggression, home–
school relationships, academic self-efficacy,
self-determination, and behavioral self-control.
Together, these subscales yield a wealth of infor-
mation on students’ perceptions of the classroom
and are meant to shed light on classroom supports
for students’ autonomy and interpersonal
relationships (Doll, Spies, LeClair, Kurien, &
Foley, 2010). Each subscale contains five to eight
items with the full survey of 47 items. Students
respond to each item using a 4-point Likert scale
where 0 means never and 3 means always. The
CMS has been studied using samples of upper
elementary and middle school students, and has
been found to be psychometrically sound in
terms of factor structure, internal consistency,
and construct validity (Doll et al., 2010).
School Climate and
Bullying Interventions
To improve school climate, researchers have
suggested that it is important to incorporate inter-
ventions into the school curriculum, involve the
entire school community in the intervention, and
focus on building positive relationships among
everyone in the school community (Cohen &
Geier, 2010). For example, schools can improve
relationships by reducing school size, build-
ing smaller learning communities within larger
schools, and implementing schoolwide violence-
prevention programs (e.g., Cotton, 2001; Loukas,
2007). In addition, providing students with a
social, emotional, ethical, and academic educa-
tion, as well as safe, caring school environments,
helps to build a positive school climate (Cohen,
2006).
During the past 2 decades, several programs
have been developed to shift the school climate
from less supportive to warm/caring in an ef-
fort to decrease school bullying. Research has
shown some evidence for the following programs
in the United States: Bully Busters (Newman,
Horne, & Bartolomucci, 2000), Bully-Proofing
Your School (BPYS; Garrity, Jens, Porter, Sager,
& Short-Camilli, 1994), Creating a Peaceful
School Learning Environment (CAPSLE; Fonagy
et al., 2009), Cooperative Learning Community
(CLC, Johnson & Johnson, 1981; 1991), Second
Step (Committee for Children, 2002), Shifting
Boundaries (Taylor, Stein, Woods, & Mumford,
2011), and Steps to Respect (Committee for
Children, 2001). Most of those programs (e.g.,
CAPSLE) theorize that all individuals within a
school, including teachers, students, and other
staff members, played a role in causing and/or
maintaining bullying behaviors (Fonagy et al.,
298
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Wang, Berry, Swearer The Critical Role of School Climate in Effective Bullying Prevention
2009). Thus, by helping individuals to empathize
with others and involving all members of the
school community in changing the school cli-
mate, students are less prone to bullying and/or to
support bullying. The aforementioned programs
share similar common elements, including (a) de-
veloping a caring school climate by fostering
empathy and kindness among students; (b) pro-
moting students’ and staff’s awareness and
knowledge of bullying; (c) using consistent
language to enforce school wide rules and
consequence for bullying; (d) increasing su-
pervision; (e) providing training to promote
skills/competences for students (e.g., conflict
resolution, self-regulation, problem solving) and
teachers (e.g., how to handle bullying behavior);
(f) increasing adults’ role modeling of appropri-
ate and prosocial behavior; and (g) encouraging
bystanders to intervene in bullying situations.
Some programs also include a parent training
component and group work that can be tailored
to classwork. Those elements are consistent with
the important elements of bullying interventions
identified by Ttofi and Farrington in their meta-
analysis study (2011), including parent train-
ing/meetings, playground supervision, intensity
and duration of the program for both children
and teachers, classroom management, teacher
training, classroom rules, whole-school policy,
school conferences, information for parents, and
cooperative group work.
Research has shown that these programs have
been successful in several key areas. First, several
programs decrease bullying and other aggressive
behaviors at school (Bully Busters, Newman-
Carlson & Horne, 2004; BPYS, Epstein, Plog,
& Porter, 2002; CAPSLE, Fonagy et al., 2009;
Second Step, Taub, 2001; Shifting Boundaries,
Taylor et al., 2011; Steps to Respect, Frey,
Hirschstein, Edstrom, & Snell, 2009). Second,
many of the programs promote positive school
climate (e.g., perception of school safety, de-
creased acceptance of bull ying, perceived respon-
sibility to intervene in bullying situations, and
positive teacher-student relationship) including
Bully Busters, Bell, Raczynski, & Horne, 2010;
BPYS, Menard, Grotpeter, Gianola, & O’Neal,
2008; CAPSLE, Twemlow, Fonagy, & Sacco,
2001; CLC, Johnson & Johnson, 1983; Second
Step, Cooke et al., 2007; Shifting Boundaries,
Taylor et al., 2011; Steps to Respect, Frey
et al., 2005). Finally, several programs address
students’ and teachers’ knowledge and skills
in handling bullying situations (Bully Busters,
Newman-Carlson & Horne, 2004; Second Step,
Cooke et al., 2007; Shifting Boundaries, Taylor
et al., 2011).
Following the Positive Behavior Interventions
and Supports (PBiS) framework, school person-
nel can create primary (schoolwide), secondary
(classroom or group level), and tertiary (indi-
vidual) systems of support to improve school
safety and prevent bullying behavior by mak-
ing bullying behaviors less effective, efficient,
and relevant, and making prosocial behavior
more rewarding (Sugai, Horner, & Algozzine,
2011). Taking a prevention and responsive-
to-intervention approach, Sugai and colleagues
(2011) suggested that Tier I (primary level,
schoolwide prevention) programs should focus
on teaching and encouraging appropriate behav-
iors, positive social skills, and prosocial traits
among all students. Almost all students respond
to the Tier I supports, impacting close to 80% of a
typical student body. Tier II supports (secondary
level, small group prevention and intervention)
are directed toward the 15% of students who do
not respond to Tier I supports (possibly due to
other risk factors), such as more specific social
skills training, more adult supervision and posi-
tive attention, and specific behavioral feedback.
Tier III supports (tertiary, individual intervention)
are directed toward the approximate 5% of stu-
dents who do not respond to Tier I and Tier II
supports. Tier III supports include individualized
behavior intervention planning, mental health
supports, and other comprehensive, individual-
ized interventions. While implementing PBiS for
bullying prevention and school climate, it is
important for school personnel to collect data and
make decisions based on their data, implement
the program with high fidelity, monitor the on-
going progress, and receive on-going training
and support from the school systems in order
to make the bullying prevention more effective
(Sugai et al., 2011).
299
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Emerging Issues in School Bullying Research and Prevention Science
Summary
A positive school climate is necessary to ef-
fectively prevent bullying behaviors. Therefore, it
is critical that educators (a) understand what con-
stitutes a positive school climate, (b) use reliable
measures to evaluate school climates, and (c) use
effective prevention and intervention programs
to improve the climates in schools. Positive
relationships among students and teachers, and
negative attitudes toward inappropriate behavior
(e.g., bullying), are two key elements of a positive
school climate. In addition to evaluating school
climate and implementing evidence-based pre-
vention and intervention programs (such as the
ones mentioned above), a positive school com-
munity exists only when all the students, parents,
and school staff members work collaboratively to
improve school climate (Lodge & Frydenberg,
2005). To promote a positive relationship, teach-
ers and other adults (e.g., supportive staff, vol-
unteers) need to promote and model appropriate
attitudes and behaviors, such as caring, empathy,
and appropriate interactions among and between
teachers and students. To foster attitudes against
bullying, in addition to promoting knowledge
and awareness of bullying, teachers need to take
reports of any bullying incident seriously and
intervene consistently according to school wide
rules instead of ignoring/minimizing bullying
behavior.
Adult behavior is a critical foundation for
healthy school climate. Adults should refrain
from bullying students and other adults (i.e., col-
leagues, parents) at school (Graham & Bellmore,
2007). In addition, teachers also need to incorpo-
rate school climate interventions into the regular
curriculum and use teachable moments to openly
discuss difficult topics (e.g., popularity, power,
social ostracism) related to bullying (Cohen &
Geier, 2010; Graham & Bellmore, 2007). Last but
not least, bullying is not only a behavior problem,
but also a mental health problem. Research has
shown that students involved in bullying expe-
rience more mental health difficulties (such as
depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation) and display
higher levels of cognitive distortions (Swearer,
Wang, Collins, Strawhun, & Fluke, in press).
Thus, it is important for educators to seek pro-
fessional help from psychologists, mental health
practitioners, and counselors for students who
are involved in bullying and experiencing mental
health difficulties.
Future Directions
Future research should rigorously examine the
relationship between school climate and bullying
behaviors, given that a positive school climate
may be a necessary, but not sufficient, factor
for effective bullying prevention and intervention.
Other factors like positive leadership, healthy
teacher functioning, school-based mental health
programs, and effective home-school communi-
cation are all factors that contribute to a healthy
school climate. Therefore, future research should
include component studies where the different
elements of school climate and bullying preven-
tion and intervention programs are tested to better
understand which elements are robust and affect
positive, lasting change.
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... Furthermore, overall learning environment did not influence those bullying victim"s engaging in serious crimes, but insensitive and callous teacher"s attitude toward his/her students increased the likelihood of committing nonserious crimes among the group of young Asian American bullying victims. Thus, it did not fully support the findings of previous studies that mainly acknowledged the role of school environment on adolescents" behavioral development leading to engaging in any forms of criminal activity (Wang, Berry, & Swearer, 2013;Bauman & Del Rio, 2006;Richard et al., 2011). Based on the results of this study, therefore, it is assumed that having inadequate learning environment is more likely to influence adolescents" committing nonserious crimes rather than felony crimes. ...
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Despite a great deal of research on Asian American students that mainly highlight the eccentric academic performance, previous research has not deeply shed light on the obstacles that Asian American students face in their life path. One of them that those previous studies pay less attention to is bullying victimization many Asian American students experience due to their racial and ethnic status in the U.S. Using the data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) targeting Asian American students aged between 12 and 18, this research aims to examine (1) how serious it is for Asian American adolescents to commit delinquent activities due to bullying victimization and (2) how much impact each social institution makes on young Asian Americans’ potential criminal activities after being victimized by bullying. The results suggest that bullying experience makes its victims having a higher risk of engaging in criminal activities. Especially, physical bullying makes a considerable impact on the future delinquent behavior of Asian American adolescents that leads to commit various crimes ranged from serious violent crime to nonserious misdemeanor crime. In addition, certain institutional conditions also increase the risk of criminal offense committed after being victimized by bullying, such as a consistent interaction with delinquent peers but decrease the chance of engaging in criminal activities despite having bullying victimization, such as a tight parental supervision.
... School climate is strongly related to bullying rates [54,55]. Scholars posit that the quality of school climate explains differences in teachers' perceptions of collective efficacy to obtain school goals [21,56]. ...
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Abstract: Collective efficacy is a promising theoretical construct that has been used to explain bullying rates in school. The development of school collective efficacy scales has increased in bullying research in recent years; however, gaps remain in measuring collective efficacy to handle bullying. This research assessed the psychometric properties of a new scale to evaluate collective efficacy against bullying. This first-order one-dimensional scale is called the teachers’ perceptions of collective efficacy to handle bullying (TCEB) scale. A sample of 804 Mexican primary teachers completed questionnaires. The sample was randomly split into two subsamples for calibration (n = 402) and cross-validation analysis (n = 402). The factor structure was supported by confirmatory factorial analysis. Measurement equivalence was confirmed by gender. The latent means differences showed no statistically significant differences by teachers’ gender. The TCEB correlation with school environment factors (e.g., principal support, school climate, and bullying) confirms the scale’s discriminant and concurrent validity. Our findings suggest that TCEB is a suitable instrument to assess teachers’ perceptions of collective efficacy to handle bullying, a construct that has proved to help predict a positive whole-school context and student bullying involvement.
... Educators and schools are vital participants in promoting the positive development of teenagers and guarding them against cyberbullying and mitigating its negative outcomes among teens (Hinduja & Patchin, 2013). Measures taken by schools do reduce in-school traditional bullying (Wang et al., 2013). Merrell et al. (2008) found that cyberbullying intervention measures taken by schools cannot lead to a significant influence. ...
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The debate over teenagers’ exposure to cyberbullying has aroused broad public concern, but there are few nationwide empirical studies on teen cyberbullying in China. Based on social cognitive theory, this study analyzes the current state of cyberbullying among Chinese teenagers using a questionnaire survey ( N = 1,538) distributed to teenagers in eastern, central, and western regions of China. The results suggest that 18.1% ( N = 279) of respondents reported having bullied someone and 54.6% ( N = 839) reported having been bullied online, and that age, gender, individual school performance, and risky online behaviors may predict different cyberbullying behaviors. Enhancing teenagers’ awareness of the importance of protecting their personal information is critical, along with implementing social protective measures to contain cyberbullying.
... Scholars report (see Aladenusi & Ayodele, 2014;Bellibas & Liu, 2018;Gülşen & Gülenay, 2014;Leithwood & Seashore-Louis, 2012) that positive school climate incites the commitment of teachers to the school's vision. Additionally, empirical evidence shows that positive school social climates encourage teacher effort to comply with school social norms, which has related to successful school bullying prevention Konishi et al., 2017;Low & Van Ryzin, 2014;Malinen & Savolainen, 2016;Valdés-Cuervo & Carlos-Martínez, 2014;Wang et al., 2013). ...
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Differences in bullying rates between schools could be explained by school efficacy. This study examined the relationships among teachers’ perceptions of principals’ practices, school climate, and school collective efficacy to prevent bullying. The sample comprises 403 Mexican elementary-school teachers; 35% were male, and 65% were female. The teaching experience ranged from 2 to 35years (M=13.2years, SD=9.1). Teachers answered self-report measures. A latent variable structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used. SEM model indicated that principal’s bullying prevention was directly related to a positive school climate, but they did not influence teachers’ perceptions of school collective efficacy. Also, principals’ support for teachers’ antibullying practices positively affected school climate and school collective efficacy. Both principal involvement and support had an indirect relationship with school collective efficacy. Overall, findings suggest that the principal has a critical role in promoting teachers’ perceptions of school collective efficacy in bullying prevention.
... 182). According to Wang et al. (2013) school climate encompasses most of the school experience, including the school organization (the school environment's institutional and structural features) and the quality of teaching and learning. Therefore, students' school environments can either facilitate or hinder student adjustment, academic achievement, and skill development. ...
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This study analyzed the effectiveness of an elementary school Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) program during middle school transition in Portugal, and the influence of gender, classroom size and student's perception of two school climate dimensions (student-student relationships and teacher-student relationships) upon its effectiveness. One-thousand-sixty-three students (M age = 9.14; SD = 0.64; 51.2% were boys) participated: 702 in the intervention group and 361 in the control group, assessed at pretest, post-test, and follow-up 10 months later (after middle school transition). Multilevel analyses identified that the program was effective in enhancing social awareness, self-control, and self-esteem, even after middle school transition. Results also showed that there no differential gains by gender, and that intervention group students who had more positive perceptions of student-student relationships and teacher-student relationships displayed more positive trajectories in self-esteem. Students from smaller fourth-grade classrooms displayed lower social awareness than students from larger fourth-grade classrooms, but a more positive trajectory in that competence than students from medium and larger fourth-grade classrooms. This study highlights the importance of analyzing the differential effectiveness of SEL programs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Zorbalıkla baş etmede öğretmen, ebeveyn ve diğer yetişkinlerin de yer alması öğrencilere sosyal destek sağlaması açısından önemlidir (Wang, Berry and Swearer, 2013). Okul personeli, ebeveynler ve öğrenciler arasında zorbalık davranışlarını azaltma konusunda ilgi artmış olsa da zorbalık davranışına neden olan ve sürdüren faktörlerin nasıl değerlendirileceği ve kanıt temelli önleme ve müdahale programının seçilmesi birçok eğitimci için zor bir durumdur. ...
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Özet Okullardaki akran zorbalığının sebepleri ve etkileri konusunda kapsamlı ilk araştırmalar, 1970'lerde Olweus tarafından yapılmaya başlamıştır. Günümüzde de halen kabul gören tanımıyla zorbalık; bir kişinin, diğer bir kişi veya kişiler tarafından kasıtlı, tekrarlı ve en azından bir süre devam eden olumsuz davranışlarla karşı karşıya bırakılması durumudur. Akran zorbalığı ve zorbalığı önleyici programlar dünyada uzun süredir tartışılıyor olmasına rağmen, Türkiye’de son yıllarda önem kazanmaya başlayan bir konudur. Araştırmalar öğrencilerin yarısına yakınının en az ayda bir defa zorbalığa maruz kaldıklarını ortaya koymaktadır. Önleyici programlarla, akran zorbalığının ve mağduriyetin erken yaşlarda azaltılabileceğini kanıtlayan pek çok çalışma bulunmaktadır. Finlandiya, Norveç ve Amerika başta olmak üzere birçok ülkede devlet okullarında zorbalığı önlemek için çeşitli programlar uygulanmaktadır. Türkiye’de zorbalığı önlemek için bazı girişimler olmasına rağmen, alan yazında ilkokul öğrencilerine yönelik etkili bir eylem planına ve önleyici programa rastlanmamıştır. Eğitimcilerin zorbalık önleme programlarının etkisini fark etmeleri, bu konuda adım atmalarını teşvik edebilir. Bu çalışmanın amacı alan yazında geçen önemli zorbalığı önleme programlarının eleştirel bir analizini yapmak ve başarılı programların özelliklerini tespit etmektir. Anahtar Sözcükler: Akran zorbalığı, zorbalığı önleyici programlar, çatışma çözümü. Abstract Comprehensive early research into the causes and effects of peer bullying in schools began in the 1970s by Olweus. Today, bullying is still defined as a person is exposed to deliberate, repetitive, and at least for some time negative behavior by another person or persons. Although bullying and bullying prevention programs has long been debated in the world, the issue began to gain importance in recent years in Turkey. Research reveals that nearly half of the students have been bullied at least once a month. There are many studies proving that peer bullying and victimization can be reduced at an early age through preventive programs. In many countries, especially in Finland, Norway and the United States, various programs are implemented to prevent bullying in public schools. Despite some initiatives to prevent bullying in Turkey, no study was seen in the literature on an effective preventive action plans and programs for elementary school students. Recognizing the impact of bullying prevention programs can encourage educators to take steps. The aim of this study is to make a critical analysis of the major bullying prevention programs in the literature and to determine the characteristics of successful programs Keywords: Peer bullying, bullying prevention programs, conflict resolution.
... Zorbalıkla baş etmede öğretmen, ebeveyn ve diğer yetişkinlerin de yer alması öğrencilere sosyal destek sağlaması açısından önemlidir (Wang, Berry and Swearer, 2013). Okul personeli, ebeveynler ve öğrenciler arasında zorbalık davranışlarını azaltma konusunda ilgi artmış olsa da zorbalık davranışına neden olan ve sürdüren faktörlerin nasıl değerlendirileceği ve kanıt temelli önleme ve müdahale programının seçilmesi birçok eğitimci için zor bir durumdur. ...
Conference Paper
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in their classrooms as positive and enriching factors and to differentiate their teaching strategies according to the needs of the students. As the success of student groups with different cultural backgrounds and individual characteristics depends on teachers 'assumptions, expectations and prejudices about them, it is important to examine both the link between cultural diversity and learning styles, and teachers' cross-cultural sensitivity levels. In this context, intercultural sensitivity levels of teachers and prospective teachers were examined in this 1232 study. The data of the study was obtained by using the ‘Intercultural Sensitivity Scale’ developed by Chen and Starosta (2000) and adaptation study conducted by Üstün (2011). The scale consists of 23 items and one factor. The study was conducted on a total of 610 prospective teachers studying Pedagogical Formation at Çankırı Karatekin University and studying at Guidance and Psychological Counseling Department at Erciyes University. One-way analysis of variance and t-test were used to analyze the data. It is thought that the findings of this study will lead to differentiated teaching practices based on the acceptance that 'every student learns in different ways and every student has the right to receive education', by revealing the importance of adopting a comprehensive approach in teacher education programs. Key Words: Respect for differences, inclusive education, teacher education, cultural sensitivity, egalitarian education.
... School environments and contexts are important to consider when examining bullying behavior (Hong & Espelage, 2012;Wang et al., 2013). The current sample involved data from five middle schools and two high schools, and multigroup analyses were conducted to compare results across schools. ...
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Although some research has evidenced a negative association between involvement in bullying and academic performance, more work is needed to understand the associations between academic performance and involvement in a more comprehensive range of bully role behaviors. The goals of the current study were to determine (a) the associations among a broader range of bully role behaviors (i.e., bullying, assisting, victimization, defending, and outsider behavior) and academic performance (i.e., grade point average; GPA), and (b) gender differences within these associations. The current study investigated these issues over the course of an academic year with 7794 students in middle through high school. Bullying behaviors were assessed in the fall and GPA data were gathered from school records from the spring of the same academic year. The results identified significant negative associations between bullying (b = −0.07, p = .001), assisting (b = −0.16, p < .001), victimization (b = −0.06, p < .001), and defending (b = −0.04, p < .001) with student GPA, whereas no significant association emerged for outsider behavior and GPA (b = −0.02, p = .13). In addition, several gender differences were found in these associations, including a stronger negative association between assisting and GPA for girls (b = −0.23, p = .001) than for boys (b = −0.08, p = .014) and a significant negative association between victimization and GPA for girls (b = −0.09, p < .001), but not boys (b = −0.02, p = .117). Differences in results across schools were also examined in an exploratory manner. The educational impact associated with bullying behaviors, limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future research are discussed.
... Research indicates that bullying should be understood within a social-ecological framework (Swearer Napolitano, Espelage, Vaillancourt, & Hymel, 2010). Rates in bullying vary as a function of the school climate (Wang, Berry, & Swearer, 2013) with students more likely to participate in bullying when the school climate is perceived as negative (Gendron, Williams & Nancy, & Guerra, 2011) and norms promote bullying (Unnever & Cornell, 2003). Bullying, therefore, is not only influenced by the social dynamics of the immediate and wider peer group but also the school system and the ethics of the wider community (Fredrickson & Cameron, 1999). ...
Article
Cooperative Learning (CL) is a peer-mediated, instructional intervention with students working together to accomplish shared learning goals (Johnson & Johnson, 2000). The study aimed to build upon existing CL and Peer Acceptance (PA) research and extend this by looking more specifically at whether CL, through the promotion of positive interdependence, could have beneficial outcomes for bullying and associated factors such as empathy. A quasi-experimental pre-test post-test non-equivalent groups design was used. Data was collected from three classes in two schools (intervention n=78; control n=79). Teachers delivered CL in Year 4/5 classes over an 11-week period, which included one week of social skills training. The Social Inclusion Survey (SIS) was used to measure PA (Fredrickson and Furnham, 1998). Empathy was measured using an adapted questionnaire from the Emotional Literacy Scales (Faupel, 2003) and the My Life in School Checklist was used to measure pupils’ experience of bullying (Arora & Thompson, 1987). No overall significant differences were found between the intervention and control group for PA in work and play contexts across same and different genders. Although, there were significant differences between the intervention and control group in some individual classes, this represented a decrease in overall PA. There also appeared to be a differential impact, in some contexts, in favour of pupils with initially low levels of PA. The study highlighted difficulties associated with measuring empathy and provided some justification for further research to explore the links between CL and bullying, with anecdotal staff data suggesting a decrease in bullying and formal data indicating that CL may have at least a stabilising effect on bullying. Findings varied across individual classes and schools, indicating caution needs to be taken when interpreting results. The study highlights the importance of intervention fidelity, illustrating the complexity involved in understanding implementation aspects, in evidence-informed approaches.
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The purpose of this study was to assess the nature and extent of student attitudes toward bullying. We investigated the consistency and prevalence of student attitudes across gender, race, socioeco-nomic status, and grade level. We also assessed whether students with positive attitudes toward peer aggression and students with higher trait anger were especially prone to support a normative structure that encourages bullying. Based on a data set including 6 middle schools and over 2,400 students, our results indicate that a culture of bullying is a pervasive phenomenon among middle school students and should be an important consideration in bullying prevention efforts.
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In this study, a structural equations model representing the causal relationships among the variables researched in James Comer's School Development Program (1981, 1986, 1988) was proposed, and a modified subset of the model was estimated and tested using structural equations modeling (Joreskog & Sorbom, 1989). Developed through synthesis of the writings of Comer and his colleagues, this model postulates that school climate has a direct influence on classroom climate, social behavior, student self-concept, and student achievement. The modified model suggests that in addition to the direct paths, the influence of school climate on student achievement and social behavior is mediated by classroom climate and self-concept. Classroom climate directly affects self-concept, and behavior directly affects achievement. Data used were obtained through the Yale Child Study Center. The responses of 127 students from eleven inner-city, elementary schools in Norfolk, Virginia, were used to test the proposed structural model.^ Initial evaluation of the measurement model showed lack of construct distinction between school and classroom climate. These two variables were collapsed into one: classroom climate, because analysis of the variance composition of the climate measures showed variation of climate by class within school, but little variation across schools. Estimation and testing of the just-identified model using LISREL VII, and $\chi\sp2$ difference tests, resulted in significant paths from classroom climate to self-concept, from self-concept to behavior, and from behavior to achievement. These results suggest that the effect of classroom climate on achievement is mediated by self-concept and behavior, and that the effect of self-concept on achievement is mediated by student behavior. This three-path model accounted for about 40% of the variance in self-concept, 62% of the variance in behavior, and 22% of the variance in achievement. A Tucker-Lewis index of.97 signified a good fit of this trimmed model to the data. The hypothesized model based on Comer's School Development Program was therefore supported in part by the data, strengthening the theory that climate and self-concept influence student achievement.
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The purpose of this study was to describe the means, variability, internal consistency reliability, and structural validity evidence of the ClassMaps Survey, a measure of student perceptions of classroom learning environments. The ClassMaps Survey is a 55-item student rating scale of eight important classroom characteristics. The survey provides a brief, relevant, and conceptually simple appraisal of students' perceptions of the classroom conditions that contribute to academic engagement. Participants were 345 third- fourth-, and fifth-grade students drawn from a public school in the Midwest and a second in the Northeast. Results demonstrated that 53 of the 55 survey items loaded onto their predicted subscale, subscale alphas were at or above .75, and the survey means were relatively consistent across grade and gender. Results suggest that the ClassMaps Survey is a promising measure that captures students' perspectives of classroom environments so they can be used to plan and implement classwide interventions.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the issue of bullying, which has grown as a significant concern among school personnel, students, and parents in the past few decades. The literature on school disciplinary procedures, social-emotional learning approaches, positive behavioral interventions and supports, and cognitive-behavioral treatment for aggressive behavior are reviewed and form the foundation for an individualized mental health assessment and treatment approach for working with students who bully others. This chapter provides a framework for bullying as a mental health issue and emphasizes the importance of schools, communities, and families working together in order to create a culture where bullying is not rewarded, supported, nor accepted. We describe the Target Bullying Intervention Program (T-BIP), which was designed to evaluate and address the mental health issues that may be underlying bullying behaviors.
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School environments vary greatly. Whereas some schools feel friendly, inviting, and supportive, others feel exclusionary, unwelcoming, and even unsafe. The feelings and attitudes that are elicited by a school's environment are referred to as school climate. Although it is difficult to provide a concise definition for school climate, most researchers agree that it is a multidimensional construct that includes physical, social, and academic dimensions. The physical dimension includes: Appearance of the school building and its classrooms; School size and ratio of students to teachers in the classroom; Order and organization of classrooms in the school; Availability of resources; and Safety and comfort. The social dimension includes: Quality of interpersonal relationships between and among students, teachers, and staff; Equitable and fair treatment of students by teachers and staff; Degree of competition and social comparison between students; and Degree to which students, teachers, and staff contribute to decision-making at the school. The academic dimension includes: Quality of instruction; Teacher expectations for student achievement; and Monitoring student progress and promptly reporting results to students and parents. Rating School Climate How students, teachers, and staff feel about their school climate underlies individual attitudes, behaviors, and group norms. Schools that feel safe, for instance, foster high-quality relationships among students and teachers while decreasing the probability of violence. However, it is important to note that the climate of a school is not necessarily experienced in the same way by all of its members. Rather, there is variability in individual perceptions of a school's climate, and researchers propose that it is the subjective perception of the environment that influences individual student outcomes. Thus, if a student feels that a teacher does not care about her, this perception will impact the student's behavior in the classroom. Moreover, individual characteristics may impact these perceptions so that students who are aggressive may perceive their school climate more negatively than those who are not. Because of the importance of individual perceptions, schools often assess how students feel about their school. A number of assessment instruments are available for examining student perceptions of school climate, including the Elementary and Middle School Climate Survey (Haynes, Emmons, & Comer, 1993), the Quality of School Life Scale (Epstein & McPartland, 1976), and the Elementary School Environment Scale (Sinclair, 1970). Schools may use these instruments as-is, but may also modify them to create their own. No instrument assesses every aspect of school climate. Nonetheless, findings from such surveys provide a glimpse into how students feel about certain dimensions of the school's climate and allow school personnel to take the initial steps to improving their quality.
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The present study examined the effectiveness of a bully prevention program counselors may use to modify teachers' knowledge/use of bullying intervention skills, teachers' self‐efficacy, and students' classroom bullying behaviors. Participants attended 3 training sessions and participated on a support team. The findings indicated that the treatment program effectively increased teachers' knowledge/use of intervention skills, teachers' personal self‐efficacy, and self‐efficacy related to working with specific types of children and reduced classroom bullying as measured by disciplinary referrals.
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This study examined factors that influence a student's willingness to seek help for a threat of violence. The sample consisted of 542 middle school students who completed an anonymous survey that asked students how likely they would be to seek help in response to being bullied or threatened. The survey also included measures of type of bullying, attitudes toward aggressive behavior, and perceptions of teacher tolerance for bullying. Stepwise multiple regression analyses indicated that willingness to seek help is lower in higher grade levels and among males. Students who hold aggressive attitudes and perceive the school climate to be tolerant of bullying were less likely to report a willingness to seek help. Implications for improving student willingness to seek help are discussed.