Article

The honeymoon effect on marital coitus

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Abstract

To investigate the rate of the decline of marital coital rates with duration of marriage longitudinal recorded data abstracted from diaries and calendars kept by 21 couples were examined. A substantial decline in coital rates during the first year of marriage, at least in couples who had no premarital intercourse, was found. Coital rates were only about half as high after a year of marriage as they were in the first month of marriage. Thereafter, there was a slower rate of decline with increased marriage duration. It seems likely that the rate of decline in the first year is partially dependent on whether premarital intercourse had occurred. It is suggested that the “honeymoon effect” occurs in each marriage contracted by a person. The arrival of a baby seems to depress (perhaps permanently) the coital rate of its parents. A tentative mathematical description of the decline is offered.

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... Some analyses have focused only on women in specific types of relationships (e.g., cohabiting relationships; Caruso et al., 2014), which avoids confounding by relationship type, but limits the generalizability of results. In addition, most of these studies have not statistically accounted for relationship duration, despite the connection between longer relationship duration and lower sexual frequency (James, 1981;Jasso, 1985;Schröder & Schmiedeberg, 2015;Sprecher et al., 2006). In one exception, a small diary study of 43 couples indicated hormonal contraception use (broadly) was associated with lower sexual enjoyment for women and their male partners, and the analyses accounted for relationship satisfaction and duration (Blumenstock & Papp, 2020). ...
... The RDSL's intensive longitudinal design included all intimate relationships, regardless of type, and measured changes in those relationships over time (e.g., cohabitation, engagement, marriage), as well as duration. This allows us to disentangle changes in sexual frequency that occur as a result of initiating or continuing hormonal contraception from changes that may be due to couples transitioning to new relationship stages (e.g., moving in together) or to declines in sexual frequency as a relationship continues (James, 1981;Jasso, 1985;Schröder & Schmiedeberg, 2015;Sprecher et al., 2006). ...
... Indeed, women who used condoms more frequently during the study period had more frequent intercourse, regardless of whether they used hormonal contraception. Our model showing that sexual frequency declines as relationship duration increases echoes others who previously established this association using longitudinal or daily diary research methods (James, 1981;Jasso, 1985;Rao & Demaris, 1995;Schröder & Schmiedeberg, 2015). Our finding that sex was more frequent as relationship commitment (as evidenced by relationship type) increased is in contrast to one study demonstrating no effect of relationship type on sexual frequency (Schröder & Schmiedeberg, 2015). ...
Article
We examined whether hormonal contraception (HC) use predicts sexual frequency throughout and across young women's intimate relationships. From 2008-2012, the Relationships Dynamics and Social Life Study collected weekly surveys over 2.5 years, and included 893 women (aged 18-19 at baseline) who reported 2,547 intimate relationships across 32,736 weeks. Three-level logistic multilevel models assessed the weekly probability of sexual intercourse based on 1) weekly HC use (vs. nonuse) and 2) duration of HC use, both accounting for several relational and individual characteristics, including relationship duration. Women had more frequent sexual intercourse when they were using HC than when they were not (predicted probabilities .65 vs .41). The weekly probability of sexual intercourse increased sharply within the first month of HC initiation (by about 27 percentage points), remained high for several months, then began to slowly decline (yet remained above that of nonuse). When separated by method type, similar trajectories were found for the pill, ring, and IUD/implant; following the initial increase, steeper declines in intercourse frequency were found for the contraceptive injectable, eventually dropping below pre-initiation levels. Findings signify the immediate influence of reduced pregnancy fears in facilitating sexual intercourse among young women, which may decline as HC use continues long-term.
... Christopher and Sprecher (2000) summarized research from the 1990s showing that the frequency of married couples' sexual activity decreased with age and the duration of marriage. A common finding across studies was that sexual activity decreased after the first 2 years of marriage (Christopher & Sprecher, 2000; James, 1981). Some researchers reported a decline even after the first year (James, 1981 ). ...
... A common finding across studies was that sexual activity decreased after the first 2 years of marriage (Christopher & Sprecher, 2000; James, 1981). Some researchers reported a decline even after the first year (James, 1981 ). For example, among married, middleclass , college educated women, the median rate of sexual intercourse declined from 17.5 times per month in the first month of marriage, to 8.5 times per month one year later, specifically among those women who were not pregnant (James, 1981) Greenblat's (1983) study, however, was that participants had been married up to 6 years, and thus most of the data was provided retrospectively. ...
... Some researchers reported a decline even after the first year (James, 1981 ). For example, among married, middleclass , college educated women, the median rate of sexual intercourse declined from 17.5 times per month in the first month of marriage, to 8.5 times per month one year later, specifically among those women who were not pregnant (James, 1981) Greenblat's (1983) study, however, was that participants had been married up to 6 years, and thus most of the data was provided retrospectively. Such decline in sex frequency is nevertheless often referred to as the honeymoon effect (James, 1981; Kumar & Makwana, 1991), in which the novelty of sex with a specific partner lessens over time. ...
... Previous research reports that the frequency of marital sex declines with marital duration (Blumstein & Schwartz, 1983;Call, Sprecher, & Schwartz, 1995;Greenblat, 1983;James, 1981;Jasso, 1985;Kinsey, Pomeroy, & Martin, 1948;Kinsey, Pomeroy, Martin, & Gebhard, 1953;Masters, Johnson, & Kolodny, 1992;Trussell & Westoff, 1980;Udry, Deven, & Coleman, 1982). Al- though aging is correlated with this decline, Blumstein and Schwartz (1983) find empirical ev- idence that the impact of age and duration are ap- proximately equal. ...
... For example, in their studies of the frequency of marital sex, most researchers focus mainly on in- dividual or social characteristics and on social elty, which is often referred to as the "honeymoon effect" or the "Coolidge effect" (Blumstein & Schwartz, 1983;Call et al., 1995;James, 1981;Jasso, 1985). Although these studies have contrib- uted to our knowledge of the patterns of marital sex, they hardly go beyond a description of these patterns to develop a theory of marital sexual be- havior. ...
... Specifically, the DMU explanation generally pre- dicts that the frequency of marital sex decreases at a constant rate (see Appendix). But the previous research shows that, ceteris paribus, the frequency of marital sex decreases less and less steeply (James, 1981;Jasso, 1985). Thus other factors need to be considered to improve this explanation. ...
Article
Why does the frequency of marital sex decrease with marital duration? Does the probability of involvement in extramarital sex increase or decrease with marital duration, and why? I develop a theory to answer these questions. I apply the law of diminishing marginal utility and human capital theory to explain the basic observed decline in the frequency of marital sex with marital duration. Based on the above explanation, I develop a discussion on the relationship between marital duration and extramarital sex, and I derive two hypotheses, which are supported by statistical analyses of the National Health and Social Life Survey data.
... James found that the frequency of sex in the first month of marriage was seventeen times, but by the end of the frrst year it had been reduced to eight times per month. 16 The same research suggested that while the rate is reduced by one half in the frrst year, it then takes another twenty years for it to halve again. ...
... The above description has attempted to enlarge the understanding of these meanings to reflect the experience of loving couples. 16 Embracing Sexuality ...
... Hence, couples who have high frequencies of intercourse (such as briefly reunited soldiers on short leaves and their wives) are more likely to conceive sons. While very plausible on the surface, James' (2003) proximate explanation currently lacks empirical support, including rigorous quantitative evidence for the crucial assumption that coital frequency is higher during wartime and remains high for a few years afterwards [although James (1981, 1983) provides indirect evidence]. Thus the puzzle remains: Why (as opposed to how) are more boys born during and immediately after wars? ...
... This conclusion assumes that surviving and returning soldiers were no more or no less likely to father a child during and immediately after World War I than the rest of the (unmobilized) male population. If, as some (James, 1981,1983) suggest, returning soldiers after many years of separation from their wives are more likely to father a child, then it would have required an even smaller proportion of the British male population to have been mobilized to produce the observed increase in the number of boys. Further, recall that the use of the median height difference (3.33 cm) would also have required a similarly smaller proportion of the British male population to have been mobilized. ...
Article
It is widely known that more boys are born during and immediately after wars, but there has not been any ultimate (evolutionary) explanation for this 'returning soldier effect'. Here, I suggest that the higher sex ratios during and immediately after wars might be a byproduct of the fact that taller soldiers are more likely to survive battle and that taller parents are more likely to have sons. I analyze a large sample of British Army service records during World War I. Surviving soldiers were on average more than one inch (3.33 cm) taller than fallen soldiers. Conservative estimates suggest that the one-inch height advantage alone is more than twice as sufficient to account for all the excess boys born in the UK during and after World War I. While it remains unclear why taller soldiers are more likely to survive battle, I predict that the returning soldier effect will not happen in more recent and future wars.
... First, in contrast to prior samples that have included individuals not currently involved in a relationship (Birnbaum et al., 2006, Study 1;Bogaert & Sadava, 2002;Schachner & Shaver, 2004) or couples with potentially unique experiences with commitment (Birnbaum et al., 2006, Study 2), sampling from newlyweds ensured that these couples were in established relationships and, given the proximity of their wedding, likely to be experiencing high levels of commitment. Second, the frequency of sex appears to decline rapidly over the first year of marriage (James, 1981) and thus may be most closely tied to relationship satisfaction during this time. Third, because 20% of couples divorce within the first 5 years of marriage (Bramlett & Mosher, 2002), studying spouses just after the wedding allows researchers to capture important variance by including responses from couples who divorce early. ...
... Third, although the homogeneity of our samples helped minimize the influence of variables outside the scope of the current research, such homogeneity limits generalizability of these findings. Specifically, in addition to being limited to noncoerced, intimacy-enhancing sex with an established partner, as noted previously, the benefits of sex to insecurely attached intimates may be limited to newer marriages, as sex declines substantially over the first year of marriage (James, 1981) and thus may become less important to the relationship. Future research may benefit by attempting to examine whether relationship status or length of relationship moderates any of the effects that emerged here. ...
Article
Full-text available
Contextual models of relationships and recent theories of attachment system activation suggest that experiences that promote intimacy, such as sexual intercourse, may moderate the negative implications of attachment insecurity. In two independent studies, 207 couples reported their attachment insecurity, the frequency of their sexual intercourse over the past 30 days, their expectancies for their partner's availability, and their marital satisfaction, and in a 7-day diary they reported their daily sexual and relationship satisfaction and their expectancies for how satisfied they would be with their partners' availability the next day. Attachment avoidance was unrelated to marital satisfaction among spouses reporting more frequent sex, and attachment anxiety was unrelated to marital satisfaction among spouses reporting more daily sexual satisfaction. Both effects were mediated by expectancies for partner availability. These findings suggest that the effects of attachment insecurity are not immutable but vary according to the context of the relationship.
... Studies (e.g., James, 1981;Samson, Levy, Dupras, & Tessier, 1991, Brewis & Meyer, 2005 have indicated that sexual behavior decreases significantly after the first or second year of marriage. Research examining communication suggests that some people have more difficulty communicating as the length of their relationship increases (West, 2005). ...
... The presence of children has been shown to decrease the level of sexual activity in romantic relationships (James, 1981). The absence of children has also been linked in some couples with greater expression of affect, and cohesion and they may have more time to give to the relationship in such activities as talking and supporting one another (Callan, 1984). ...
... How- ever, there is evidence that sexual intercourse induces neuroendocrinological changes in humans ( Carmichael et al. 1994;Dabbs and Mohammed 1992;Ferguson 1984;Krü ger et al. 2003), and in well-studied monog- amous voles, frequent copulation causes important neuronal changes at the onset of pair bonding (Insel and Carter 1995). Newlywed human couples generally experience an extremely high coital rate at the begin- ning of cohabitation, as observed in voles; however, the rate decreases to almost half during the first year of marriage (James 1981(James , 1983. Interestingly, the T-level change in men after pair bonding was suggested to follow a similar path, that is, it was heightened around the beginning of the relationship and sagged at the latter half of the 1st year of the relationship ( Gray et al. 2004b). ...
... Therefore, there is a possibility that prolactin also mediates the association between the change in the allocation of reproductive effort in males to parenting behavior and low T levels. The fact that men who became a father experienced both the dra- matic decrease in coital frequency (James 1981) and the decrease in T levels ( Gray et al. 2002Gray et al. , 2006) parallels the observation on newly pair/wed couples (as mentioned in the Introduction) indicates the plausibility of the spec- ulation. A more detailed study of the sexual activity (frequency and number of sexual partners) of the par- ticipants and examination of the longitudinal differences in prolactin and T levels will verify these hypotheses. ...
Article
Full-text available
Pair-bonded males have been suggested to have lower testosterone (T) levels than singles. We examined whether the morning, evening, and diurnal fluctuation (=morning–evening) of salivary T levels of male Japanese students differed when they were in committed romantic relationships (paired) or not (unpaired). Subjects also answered personality inventories which were hypothesized to associate with reproductive strategy difference; the Sensation Seeking Scale, the Self-Monitoring Scale, and the Coronary-Prone Type Scale for Japanese (CTS, Type A behavior pattern measure). The evening T levels were marginally lower in paired men. The Japanese Workaholic subscale of the CTS was marginally lower among paired men. All of the personality scores but the Hostility subscale of the CTS significantly correlated with the T diurnal fluctuation. A multiple regression analysis revealed that relationship status predicted the evening T levels; and the personality traits, the T diurnal fluctuation. However, the sleep duration on the night preceding sample collection exerted a stronger influence on the T levels. The possibility that the Type A behavior pattern and habitual sleep duration mediate the association between relationship status and T levels is discussed.
... In all these studies, the focus is on the influence of one or more factors on the frequency of sexual intercourse. The most commonly discussed factor is the life-time of the couple and the result on which most authors agree is that sexual activities decline over time in the long term, and sometimes increase at the beginning of the life of the couple (see Brewis & Meyer, 2005, Call, Sprecher, & Schwartz, 1995, James, 1981, Schneidewind-Skibbe et al., 2008, Wang & Lin, 1994. This allows one to subdivide in the most general case the life of a couple into two phases: the first starting when the couple is formed and ending when the frequencies of intercourse reaches its maximum, and the second going from that point to the end of the life of the couple. ...
... Thus, if the couple is initially endowed with a too low erotic potential (0) X , i.e., if (6) is not satisfied, then the sexual activity declines from the beginning, while in the opposite case it first increases and then declines (see Fig. 1). As noted earlier, both possibilities are confirmed by data (see Brewis & Meyer, 2005, Call et al., 1995, James, 1981, Schneidewind-Skibbe et al., 2008, Wang & Lin, 1994. All trajectories tend asymptotically toward the segment ( b c/ 0, ) of the X axis. ...
Article
Full-text available
The problem of the frequency of sexual intercourse in couples was investigated for the first time with a purely conceptual model. The model, based on a few axioms involving the notions of sexual appetite and erotic potential, was composed of two ordinary differential equations which turn out to be the same as those proposed almost one century ago in epidemiology. The model can be used to discuss the possibility of estimating strategic parameters from real data, as well as to criticize the rule of "the beans in the jar" proposed by Martin (1970).
... However , there is evidence that sexual intercourse induces neuroendocrinological changes in humans (Carmichael et al. 1994; Dabbs and Mohammed 1992; Ferguson 1984; Krü ger et al. 2003), and in well-studied monogamous voles, frequent copulation causes important neuronal changes at the onset of pair bonding (Insel and Carter 1995). Newlywed human couples generally experience an extremely high coital rate at the beginning of cohabitation, as observed in voles; however, the rate decreases to almost half during the first year of marriage (James 1981, 1983). Interestingly, the T-level change in men after pair bonding was suggested to follow a similar path, that is, it was heightened around the beginning of the relationship and sagged at the latter half of the 1st year of the relationship (Gray et al. 2004b). ...
... Therefore, there is a possibility that prolactin also mediates the association between the change in the allocation of reproductive effort in males to parenting behavior and low T levels. The fact that men who became a father experienced both the dramatic decrease in coital frequency (James 1981) and the decrease in T levels (Gray et al. 2002, 2006) parallels the observation on newly pair/wed couples (as mentioned in the Introduction) indicates the plausibility of the speculation . A more detailed study of the sexual activity (frequency and number of sexual partners) of the participants and examination of the longitudinal differences in prolactin and T levels will verify these hypotheses. ...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the influences of regular sexual activity and marital status on salivary testosterone levels in healthy adult Japanese men. Forty-four men (20–66years) collected their saliva thrice a day (0900–1000, 1300–1400, and 1700–1800). The testosterone levels at each collection time negatively correlated with the ages of the participants; therefore, residual testosterone levels were used for analyses after correcting for age by linear regression. The testosterone-lowering effect of marriage was marginal and the regular sexual activity more strongly associated with lower testosterone levels in morning saliva. The possible neurofeedback systems underlying the phenomenon are discussed.
... A large body of convergent evidence starting with the work of Kinsey and colleagues (Kinsey, Pomeroy, & Martin, 1948;Kinsey, Pomeroy, Martin, & Gebhard, 1953) indicates that the frequency of sexual intercourse among married couples is highest during the early stages of marriage but declines as time progresses (Call, Sprecher, & Schwartz, 1995). This decline is multiply determined by factors including age-related reductions in sexual capacity (Greenblat, 1983;Kinsey et al., 1953;Lindau et al., 2007;Rosen et al., 2004), decreased interest in sex with a long-term partner (i.e., habituation effects; James, 1981), and major life events such as childbirth/infant care (Call et al., 1995). The current research tested the notion that this decline may also be linked to changes in intimacy over a 21-day period. ...
Article
Full-text available
The current research tested a model proposed by Baumeister and Bratslavsky (1999) suggesting that passion’s association with intimacy is best understood as being linked with changes in intimacy over time. Within this framework, when intimacy shows relatively large and rapid increases, levels of passion should be high. When intimacy remains unchanged over time, levels of passionate experience should be low. To test this hypothesis, 67 heterosexual couples involved in long-term relationships completed daily measures of intimacy, passion, and sexual satisfaction for 21 consecutive days. Analyses guided by the actor–partner interdependence model (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) demonstrated that day-to-day changes in intimacy for both partners predicted relationship passion, sexual frequency, and sexual satisfaction in a manner conforming to Baumeister and Bratslavksy’s model. These results represent the first empirical support for this model of intimacy and passionate experience.
... Declines in coital frequency by age and marital duration are attributed to the aging process and include increases in illness and decreases in male physical ability and male and female hormone levels, but cannot adequately explain the pattern of the decline (Greenblat, 1983;Udry, Deven, & Coleman, 1982). For example, research suggests that much of the decline occurs early in marriage (even in the first year) and is attributed to habituation, which is defined as the loss of interest or novelty of a sexual partner (James, 1974(James, , 1981. ...
Article
Full-text available
Prior research found that lower sexual frequency and satisfaction were associated with higher rates of divorce, but little research had examined the role of sexual activity in the dissolution of cohabiting unions. We drew upon social exchange theory to hypothesize why sexual frequency is more important in cohabitation: (a) cohabitors' lower costs of finding sexual alternatives, (b) cohabitors' lower barriers to ending the relationship in the form of union-specific economic and noneconomic capital, and (c) cohabitors' higher expectations for sexual activity. Using the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 5,902), we examined the relationship between sexual frequency and union dissolution. Results indicated that low sexual frequency was associated with significantly higher rates of union dissolution among cohabitors than married couples.
... Among the most important of these is relationship duration. One of the most-discussed phenomena associated with the decline in frequency of marital sex over time is the "honeymoon effect" (James, 1981). Specifically, the honeymoon effect is characterized by a sharp drop in sexual frequency over the first year of marriage. ...
Article
Full-text available
To examine sexual frequency decline among American men and women between the ages of 44 and 72 born from 1933 to 1948. Using data from the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS) and the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), the decline in sexual frequency is decomposed into declines due to changes in marital status, physical health, and happiness. We examine the contribution of both changes in the composition of the population with respect to these factors as well as changes in the association between these factors and sexual frequency by age. For women, change in the proportion widowed is a significant factor in sexual frequency decline, as is change in the association between happiness and sexual frequency. Among men, both poorer physical health at older ages and a decrease in its association with frequency are significant factors in the decline. A change in the association between happiness and frequency is also a significant factor for men. Reverse causality may explain the happiness-frequency findings for both men and women. Results provide evidence for gendered experiences in the sexual life course.
... We believe that one way to explain the Westermarck effect is via the process of habituation. Research indicates that sexual passions often wane as people become increasingly habituated to one another (Call, Sprecher, & Schwartz, 1995;James, 1981). As such, when people grow up, they may come to find that their playmates, siblings, and friends are less sexually appealing than they are relative to other people. ...
Article
Full-text available
Evolutionary psychological theories assume that sexual aversions toward kin are triggered by a nonconscious mechanism that estimates the genetic relatedness between self and other. This article presents an alternative perspective that assumes that incest avoidance arises from consciously acknowledged taboos and that when awareness of the relationship between self and other is bypassed, people find individuals who resemble their kin more sexually appealing. Three experiments demonstrate that people find others more sexually attractive if they have just been subliminally exposed to an image of their opposite-sex parent (Experiment 1) or if the face being rated is a composite image based on the self (Experiment 2). This finding is reversed when people are aware of the implied genetic relationship (Experiment 3). These findings have implications for a century-old debate between E. Westermarck and S. Freud, as well as contemporary research on evolution, mate choice, and sexual imprinting.
... holidays together. Coital rates rapidly decline across time in normal conjugal relationships (James, 1981b, 1983). But it is reasonable to suppose that in these cases of intermittent union, coital rates would be high during the limited times when the couples were re-united. ...
Article
Previous workers have emphasized the possibility that pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is associated with a change of sexual partner. It is noted here that any such association is far weaker than that between PIH and fecundability (the probability of conceiving in a month at risk). This latter association is so strong as to suggest its closeness to a true cause. Of the determinants of fecundability, coital rate seems the most promising to pursue as a possible cause of PIH.
... Fourth, the current study assessed changes in sexual satisfaction during a phase in which such changes are likely to be most critical: the early stages of marriage. This phase of the relationship is likely to be a time when partners experience the most change in their sexual practices and behaviors (James, 1981; Liu, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
This longitudinal study of 72 newlywed couples examined the effects of spouses' expectancies for their sexual satisfaction and changes in their sexual frequency on changes in their sexual satisfaction over 6 months. At Time 1 (baseline), both spouses reported their levels of sexual satisfaction and sexual frequency and completed a 7-day diary of their expectancies for sexual satisfaction. At Time 2 (6 months later), spouses again reported their sexual satisfaction and sexual frequency. Based on evidence that women's sexual satisfaction is more contextually based, wives' initial sexual satisfaction expectancies were expected to predict changes in their reports of sexual satisfaction. Based on evidence that men's sexual satisfaction is more grounded in the physical aspects of sex, in contrast, changes in sexual frequency were expected to predict changes in husbands' sexual satisfaction. Both hypotheses were supported. Specifically, controlling for marital satisfaction, length of marriage, and age, wives', but not husbands', sexual satisfaction expectancies were positively associated with changes in their sexual satisfaction, whereas changes in sexual frequency were positively associated with changes in husbands', but not wives', reports of sexual satisfaction. Gender differences in the strength of both effects were significant. Of note, none of the observed effects differed as a function of whether couples lived together before marriage. Implications for theories of gender differences in sexuality, theories of expectancy confirmation, and models of sex and marital therapy are discussed.
... Biological aging is the most common explanation for this decline. The negative correlation between age and sexual frequency has also been attributed to marital duration and habituation (Blumstein and Schwartz 1983;James 1981). However, marital duration has no significant effect after the first year of marriage in models that control for other time-related variables (Call et al. 1995). ...
Article
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Satisfaction with the division of housework has been shown to affect women's sexual satisfaction, but this relationship has rarely been studied in men. What are the relationships among men's satisfaction with the division of housework, their perception of their emotional intimacy with their partner, their perception of their partner's sexual attractiveness, and their sexual satisfaction? In the autumn of 2011, a self-selected online survey about men's sexual health was carried out in Norway, Croatia, and Portugal. A total of 657 Norwegian men over 18 years of age completed the entire questionnaire. The results from the present study stemmed from 220 healthy and married/cohabiting men, who had completed the questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 44 years and the majority belonged to the upper middle class. Path analysis showed that the association between men's sexual satisfaction and their satisfaction with the division of housework was partially mediated by emotional intimacy. The hypothesized mediating effect of partner's sexual attractiveness on the relationship between sexual satisfaction and satisfaction with housework was not supported. The findings from this study provide new insights into the links between gender roles, intimacy, and male sexual satisfaction.
... Declines in sexual frequency by age and marital duration are attributed to the aging process and include increases in illness and decreases in male physical ability and male and female hormone levels, but cannot 148 Journal of Family Issues 31 (2) adequately explain the pattern of the decline (Greenblat, 1983;Udry et al., 1982). For example, research suggests that much of the decline occurs early in marriage (even in the 1st year) and is attributed to habituation, which is defined as the loss of interest or novelty of a sexual partner (James, 1974(James, , 1981. ...
Article
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Motivated by the trend of women spending more time in paid labor and the general speedup of everyday life, the authors explore whether the resulting time crunch affects sexual frequency among married couples. Although prior research has examined the associations between relationship quality and household labor time, few have examined a dimension of relationship quality that requires time: sexual frequency. This study tests three hypotheses based on time availability, gender ideology, and a new multiple-spheres perspective using the National Survey of Families and Households. The results contradict the hypothesis that time spent on household labor reduces the opportunity for sex. The authors find support for the multiple-spheres hypothesis suggesting that both women and men who “work hard” also “play hard.” Results show that wives and husbands who spend more hours in housework and paid work report more frequent sex.
... Nevertheless, instances in which couple members desire sex consistently throughout a relationship are rare (e.g., Baumeister & Bratslavsky, 1999;Herbenick, Mullinax, & Mark, 2014;Risch, Riley, & Lawler, 2003). Instead, the frequency of sexual intercourse appears to decline sharply over the early years of mixed-sex marriages (Ard, 1977;James, 1981;McNulty et al., 2016). It is possible that such declines reflect circumstances that equally impact both partners' conscious desire for sex, in 1 3 which case they may not result in much resentment or conflict. ...
Article
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Sex is critical to marriage. Yet, there are several reasons to expect spouses to experience declines in the desire for sex over time, and the rates of any declines in sexual desire may differ for men and women. We used two multi-wave, longitudinal studies to test whether male and female members of newlywed couples experienced different rates of change in sexual desire, whether any such changes were accentuated by childbirth, and whether any such changes had implications for marital satisfaction. In both studies, spouses provided multiple reports of sexual desire, marital satisfaction, and childbirth. Results demonstrated that women’s sexual desire declined more steeply over time than did men’s sexual desire, which did not decline on average. Further, childbirth accentuated this sex difference by partially, though not completely, accounting for declines in women’s sexual desire but not men’s. Finally, declines in women’s but not men’s sexual desire predicted declines in both partners’ marital satisfaction. These effects held controlling depressive symptoms and stress, including stress from parenthood. The current findings offer novel longitudinal evidence for sex-differentiated changes in sexual desire and therefore suggest an important source of marital discord.
... The Laki event, for example may have caused women born in, or just before, the 1784 cohort to aggressively seek and secure mates at a relatively young age given the comparatively few males available. This circumstance would, supposedly, lead to relatively early and frequent coitus, as well as greater than expected fertility, all of which may contribute to high sex ratios [65]. We do not find this explanation of our findings compelling for three reasons. ...
Article
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Background and Objectives The sex ratio of human birth cohorts predicts the health and longevity of their members. Much literature invokes natural selection in support of the argument that heritable tendencies to produce male or female offspring induce oscillation in the sex ratio and its sequelae. Tests of the argument remain exceedingly rare because they require vital statistics describing many generations of a population both unaffected by migration and exposed to an exogenous stressor virulent enough to change the sex ratio at birth. We contribute to the literature by using time-series modeling to detect oscillation in the best data currently available for such a test. Methodology We apply rigorous time-series methods to data describing Sweden from 1751 through 1830, a period when the population not only aged in place without migration, but also exhibited the effects of an Icelandic volcanic eruption including an historically low secondary sex ratio. That very low sex ratio should have induced oscillation if heritable mechanisms appear in humans. Results We detected oscillation in the ratio but not that predicted by heritable tendencies to produce males or females. We found peak-to-trough oscillation at 14 rather than the approximately 32 years expected from the heritable-tendencies argument. Conclusions and Implications Our findings suggest that mechanisms other than perturbation of heritable tendencies to produce males or females induce oscillation in the human secondary sex ratio. These other mechanisms may include reproductive suppression and selection in utero. Lay Summary The male to female ratio in human birth cohorts predicts longevity but its variation over time remains unexplained. We test the long-held theory that the ratio oscillates due to heritable tendencies to produce males or females. We find oscillation, but it appears due to social processes rather than heritable mechanisms.
... Actually, how many times a couple in a week or a month or a year will involve in sexual intercourse or coitus depends on couples' biological and marital age cycle, attitude and motivation to sex, physiological fitness, including sociocultural-environmental conditions favorable to engage in sexual activities . Relevant studies [85][86][87] reveal that the couples with lower biological age and lower marital duration and more favorable and endurable socioeconomic and marital status are involved in more frequent sexual coitus and in a certain age, such as 20-40 this frequency will be highest and then with the increasing age and duration of marital life cycle their sexual frequency may gradually decrease or decline. In one study Marshall [19] found that at earlier age average sexual frequency of the couples in the Mangaians was higher than that the couples' at their later age (p.123). ...
Article
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Age and sex are biological terms that are socio-culturally constructed for marriage and marital sexual behavior in every society. Marriage is a universal norm that makes legitimate sexual behavior between a man and a woman in marital life cycle to gain bio-social purposes. Cross-cultural studies reveal that marital sexual frequency as a part of marital sexual behavior not only varies within the couple's life cycle, but also varies between and among couples in diverse cultures. The purpose of the study was to compare marital sexual frequency in association with age status and length of marital relationship between Muslim and Santal couples in rural Bangladesh. For this we assumed that (1) Santal culture compared to Muslim culture preferred earlier age at marriage for meeting marital sexual purposes in rural Bangladesh; (2) Marital duration among the Muslim couples was higher than that among the Santal couples; (3) Sexual frequency among the younger couples in both the ethnic communities was higher than the older couples; (4) Sexual frequency across the Muslim couples' marital life cycle was higher than that the Santal couples' marital life cycle. In so doing, 288 active couples (145 for Muslim and 143 for Santal) selected by cluster random sampling were interviewed with questionnaire method. The findings of Independent Samples T Test on age at marriage, current age, marital duration and sexual frequency independently reveal that there were significant differences in sexual frequency not only across the couples' life cycle but also vary between the Muslim and Santal couples in relation to marital duration. The results of Pearson's Inter-Correlation Coefficients reveal that although age at marriage, current age and marital duration for husband and wife were significantly positive correlated with each other between the communities, there were significantly negative correlation between the age at marriage, current age, marital duration and sexual frequency among the selected couples between the communities.
... Actually, how many times a couple in a week or a month or a year will involve in sexual intercourse or coitus depends on couples' biological and marital age cycle, attitude and motivation to sex, physiological fitness, including sociocultural-environmental conditions favorable to engage in sexual activities . Relevant studies [85][86][87] reveal that the couples with lower biological age and lower marital duration and more favorable and endurable socioeconomic and marital status are involved in more frequent sexual coitus and in a certain age, such as 20-40 this frequency will be highest and then with the increasing age and duration of marital life cycle their sexual frequency may gradually decrease or decline. In one study Marshall [19] found that at earlier age average sexual frequency of the couples in the Mangaians was higher than that the couples' at their later age (p.123). ...
Article
Full-text available
Age and sex are biological terms that are socio-culturally constructed for marriage and marital sexual behavior in every society. Marriage is a universal norm that makes legitimate sexual behavior between a man and a woman in marital life cycle to gain bio-social purposes. Cross-cultural studies reveal that marital sexual frequency as a part of marital sexual behavior not only varies within the couple's life cycle, but also varies between and among couples in diverse cultures. The purpose of the study was to compare marital sexual frequency in association with age status and length of marital relationship between Muslim and Santal couples in rural Bangladesh. For this we assumed that (1) Santal culture compared to Muslim culture preferred earlier age at marriage for meeting marital sexual purposes in rural Bangladesh; (2) Marital duration among the Muslim couples was higher than that among the Santal couples; (3) Sexual frequency among the younger couples in both the ethnic communities was higher than the older couples; (4) Sexual frequency across the Muslim couples' marital life cycle was higher than that the Santal couples' marital life cycle. In so doing, 288 active couples (145 for Muslim and 143 for Santal) selected by cluster random sampling were interviewed with questionnaire method. The findings of Independent Samples T Test on age at marriage, current age, marital duration and sexual frequency independently reveal that there were significant differences in sexual frequency not only across the couples' life cycle but also vary between the Muslim and Santal couples in relation to marital duration. The results of Pearson's Inter-Correlation Coefficients reveal that although age at marriage, current age and marital duration for husband and wife were significantly positive correlated with each other between the communities, there were significantly negative correlation between the age at marriage, current age, marital duration and sexual frequency among the selected couples between the communities.
... It has been shown that coital rates decline with duration of marriage. Roughly speaking, coital rates halve during the first year of marriage and then take another twenty years to halve again [24,25]. In conformity with the present argument, Renkonen [48] found a slight but significant decline in sex ratios at birth of a very large sample of first births by duration of time since marriage. ...
Article
In recent years, scientists have begun to pay serious attention to the hypothesis that human parental coital rates around the time of conception causally influences the sexes of subsequent births. In this paper, the grounds of the argument are outlined. The point is important because, if the hypothesis were credible, it can potentially explain one of the best established (and otherwise unexplained) epidemiological features of sex ratio at birth - its rises during and just after World Wars 1 and 2 insofar as increased coital rates increase the ratio. Moreover, the greater the understanding of the variations of sex ratio at birth, the greater will be the understanding of the causes of those selected diseases associated with unusual sex ratios at birth (testicular cancer, hepatitis B, Toxoplasma gondii, and, perhaps, prostatic cancer).
... Furthermore, imagination and fantasizing must be cultivated and encouraged during this time. Then, through this call of nature and the culmination of their desires, the two individuals will reach a state of absolute satisfaction [71][72][73][74]. This deep satisfaction and happiness come from the acceptance of one-another because one is allowed to enter into the other psychically without resistance and without interference from the mind. ...
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Abstract This review investigates whether sexual desire and arousal decline in response to partner familiarity, increase in response to partner novelty, and show differential responding in men and women. These questions were considered through the perspective of two leading evolutionary theories regarding human mating strategies: Sexual Strategies Theory and Attachment Fertility Theory. The hypotheses emerging from these theories were evaluated through a critical analysis of several areas of research including: habituation of arousal to erotic stimuli, preferences regarding number of sexual partners, the impact of long-term monogamous relationships on sexual arousal and desire, and prevalence and risk factors associated with extra-dyadic behavior. The current literature best supports the predictions made by Sexual Strategies Theory, in that sexual functioning has evolved to promote short-term mating. Sexual arousal and desire appear to decrease in response to partner familiarity and increase in response to partner novelty in both men and women. Evidence to date suggests this effect may be greater in men.
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To build on existing theories about love, we propose that passion is a function of change in intimacy (i.e., the first derivative of intimacy over time). Hence, passion will be low when intimacy is stable (either high or low), but rising intimacy will create a strong sense of passion. This view is able to account for a broad range of evidence, including frequency of sex in long-term relationships, intimate and sexual behavior of extraverts, gender differences in intimate behavior, gain and loss effects of communicated attraction, the biologically atypical human preference for face-to-face coitus, and patterns of distress in romantic breakups. Although this view may provide a good fit to available evidence, the totality of evidence is not yet adequate for a definitive conclusion, and suggestions for further research are offered.
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Does the quality of marital sex increase or decrease with marital duration? Previous research assumes that it decreases; however, there is no empirical evidence of declining quality of marital sex with duration in the literature. This study theoretically and empirically examines how the quality of marital sex changes with duration. Theoretically, two effects may influence the change of quality of marital sex: the effect of diminishing marginal utility (the marginal utility of consuming a good or service diminishes as the consumption of that good or service increases) and the effect of the investment in the marriage-specific human capital (including the "partner specific" skills that enhance the enjoyment of marital sex and the knowledge about the spouse's sexual preferences, desires, and habits). The quality of marital sex could either increase or decrease depending on which effect is dominant. The multivariate analysis of the National Health and Social Life Survey data shows that marital duration has a small and negative effect on the quality of marital sex. The gender difference in the quality of marital sex is discussed.
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Evidence is adduced for the hypothesis that mammalian (including human) sex ratios at birth are partially controlled by the hormone levels of both parents at the time of conception. Sex ratio variation is considered under three main headings viz that identified by Clutton-Brock & Iason (1986); that identified since that paper; and other variation mainly relating to human beings. Some of the evidence is strong.
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In exploring the implications of hormonal influences on sexual behavior for reproduction, we have focused on androgens because of the convincing evidence for androgenic effects on female sexual motivation. We have been guided by the simple idea, based on clinical findings among hyperandrogenic women, that higher testosterone levels will increase female sexual motivation which in turn will result in increased coital frequency. However, careful consideration of the evidence fails to confirm such a role for testosterone in sexual behavior among normal women at any point in the reproductive span. While some amount of testosterone appears to be important in maintaining female sexual motivation, there is little evidence that variation in testosterone within the normal range is associated with variation in sexual motivation. Reported associations between testosterone and sexual behavior among married women cannot be interpreted as resulting from androgenic effects on sexual motivation. Thus we are left with the task of explaining why testosterone does not appear to play the same role in libido among hyperandrogenic and normal women. As mentioned earlier, some of the difference may attributable to the much higher levels of testosterone among hyperandrogenic women. Sherwin points out that the levels of sexual motivation decline with declining testosterone levels even while testosterone is well above normally occurring levels. It is possible that the brain is simply not sensitive to the variation in testosterone levels found in normal women. Other evidence suggests that the presence of intact ovaries may be equally important. A recent study of androgen replacement in naturally post-menopausal women failed to find a dramatic effect of testosterone on sexual motivation and behavior, despite levels similar to those in studies on surgically menopausal women, pointing to the importance of other factors associated with the presence of ovaries. A similar point can be made with regard to hyperandrogenism related to endogenous sources of testosterone, as in the case of PCOS. High levels of testosterone effectively disrupt ovarian function and interfere with other ovarian processes. Among hyperandrogenic women sexual behavior appears to be related to the direct effects of androgens on motivation, while the indirect effects of estrogen and progesterone are essentially eliminated. Among normal women, on the other hand, there is little evidence for such a dominating role of a direct androgenic effect on sexual behavior. Instead, other ovarian hormones, including estrogen and progesterone may also play a demonstrable role, despite the lack of strong evidence at this point.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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It is suggested that the human sex ratio at birth is stabilized only to a minor extent by the direct processes of natural selection. Instead the major factors stabilizing sex ratio seem to be behavioural (coital rates) and psychological (parental perceptions of adult sex ratios). It is suggested that parental hormone levels are (a) a consequence of perceived adult sex ratios, and (b) a cause of sex ratio in the next generation, thus providing the basis for a negative feedback process stabilizing the sex ratio.
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There is a large research literature on the variation of human sex ratio (proportion of males at birth) with (1) time of insemination within the mother's fruitful cycle (TWC), (2) duration of gestation (DOG), (3) coital frequency, here called 'coital rate' (CR) and (4) duration of time taken to achieve conception in a period of risk (viz. in the absence of birth limitation methods) (TTC). The variation of sex ratio with each of these four variables has usually been treated as a discrete topic. Consider the four propositions that each of these sorts of variation exists. Here it is argued that these propositions entail one another to varying degrees, and that, for that reason, empirical failures to detect (at conventional levels of significance) one such form of variation (as e.g. with time to conception) should not justify rejecting the hypothesis that such variation exists until the whole network of propositions has been considered. Evidence that offspring sex ratio varies with time of conception within the cycle is strong. It is argued here that, as a consequence, the available data constitute evidence that sex ratio varies with CR and with time to achieve conception, although this variation is small, difficult to detect and of no clinical significance. Lastly, sex ratio varies substantially with DOG, though the explanation for this is not established: it is suggested that the present treatment provides a testable framework for such an explanation.
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The aim of the paper is to identify psychosomatic evolutionary adaptations of hominids, which direct them at maximizing their reproductive success, and on the basis of which their various social structures are built. Selected features of the hominid last common ancestor were extracted; by reducing the influence of the social structure, they were defined as the hominid “sexual nature”; these considerations were supported by the analysis of sexual jealousy as a function of socio-environmental conditions. The “sexuality core” of a hominid female was defined as “selective polyandry”—the female selects the best males among those available; and of a hominid male as “tolerant promiscuity”—the male strives for multi-male and multi-female copulations with sexually attractive females. The extracted “sexuality cores” condemn hominids to a patriarchal social structure and thus to sexual coercion and jealousy. The source of male sexual jealousy is limited access to females. Hominid female jealousy of the male results mainly from the need for protection and support. Hominids’ social structures are determined by females’ sexual selectivity or opportunism and by their continuous or periodic proceptivity and estrus signaling. Evolutionary functions developed by women: out-estrus sexuality, copulation calls, multiple orgasms, allow them to obtain the best possible spermatozoid. The institution of marriage blocks the influence of sexual selection in the species Homo sapiens.
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Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a highly prevalent sexual health problem but poorly investigated at the primary care level. This article examines the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and its possible risk factors associated with women at high risk of FSD in a hospital-based primary practice. A validated Malay version of the Female Sexual Function Index (MVFSFI) was utilized to determine FSD in a cross-sectional study design, involving 163 married women, aged 18-65 years, in a tertiary hospital-based primary care clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sociodemographic, marital profile, health, and lifestyle for women at high risk of FSD and those who were not at high risk were compared and their risk factors were determined. Prevalence of FSD in Malaysian women based on the MVFSFI, and its risk factors for developing FSD. Some 42 (25.8%) out of 163 women had sexual dysfunction. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction increased significantly with age. Sexual dysfunctions were detected as desire problem (39.3%), arousal problem (25.8%), lubrication problem (21.5%), orgasm problem (16.6%), satisfaction problem (21.5%) and pain problems (16.6%). Women at high risk of FSD were significantly associated with age (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.9 to 9.0), husband's age (OR 4.3 95% C.I 1.9 to 9.3), duration of marriage (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 6.8), medical problems (OR 8.5, 95% CI 3.3 to 21.7), menopausal status (OR 6.6, 95% CI 3.1 to 14.3), and frequency of sexual intercourse (OR 10.7, 95% CI 3.6 to 31.7). Multivariate analysis showed that medical problem (adjusted OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.6 to 14.0) and frequency of sexual intercourse (adjusted OR 7.2, 95% CI 2.1 to 24.0) were associated with increased risk of having FSD. Those who practiced contraception were less likely to have FSD. Sexual health problems are prevalent in women attending primary care clinic where one in four women were at high risk of FSD. Thus, primary care physician should be trained and prepared to address this issue.
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The literature on relationship secrecy suggests that secrecy may have detrimental and beneficial effects on romantic relationships, such as lower relationship satisfaction but higher sexual attraction. Like secrecy, relationship acceptance appears to have inconsistent effects as well; for instance, while a lack of relationship acceptance can be a barrier to commitment, individuals who perceive their relationship to be stigmatized may simultaneously utilize sex as a means of increasing intimacy and closeness to compensate. On this basis, we tested SEM models along with individual multilevel models across three studies (N = 4,271) of monogamous and polyamorous participants. Results suggest that commitment negatively predicts secrecy and secrecy positively predicts time spent on sex, while commitment positively predicts acceptance and acceptance negatively predicts the time spent on sex. Findings suggest that commitment may be driving effects on secrecy and acceptance, while secrecy and acceptance are impacting time spent on sex in relationships.
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I have reviewed 9 original studies and 5 case reports, published since 1977, describing the medical maladies during honeymoon. The databases PubMed, Thomson Reuters' Web of Knowledge, JSTOR, project MUSE and those of commercial publishers Elsevier, SAGE publications and Springer Verlag were used to collect the published literature. Though marginal at best, the low numbers of published reports indicate a logistical difficulty in conducting prospective studies on honeymooners. Maladies of genitourinary system include honeymoon cystitis, honeymoon impotence, honeymoon dyspareunia and penis captivus. Maladies of non-genitourinary systems include honeymoon psychosis, honeymoon rhinitis, travelers' diarrhea, honeymoon malaria, toxic hepatitis, fish poisoning and honeymoon asthma. Premarital sex had shown a remarkable increase in USA and other populous countries like China, India, Japan, Brazil and Indonesia lately. As such, coital rates and coital frequencies precede many honeymoons now. By extrapolation, medical maladies during the 'real' honeymoon period may precede the bonded couple, before they venture into a honeymoon. Nevertheless, many societies in Asia and other non-industrialized countries are very conservative for religious and cultural reasons. Introduction to sexual adventure between couples begins only after solemnization of culturally condoned marriage.
Article
Data on wartime sex ratios (proportions male at birth) are reviewed. Two sorts of variation are empirically well supported viz. (a) rises during and just after both World Wars and (b) a fall in Iran during the Iran–Iraq War. Potential explanations are offered here for these rises and fall. The fall seems plausibly explained by psychological stress causing pregnant women disproportionately to abort male fetuses. The rises may be explained by either or both of two different forms of hypothesis viz. (i) Kanazawa's “returning soldier” hypothesis and (ii) variation in coital rates. The coital rate hypothesis potentially accounts, in slightly different ways, for the rises both during, and just after, some wars. The argument that coital rate affects sex ratio just after wars seems to be supported by evidence that in some combatant countries, dizygotic (DZ) twinning rates (which also reportedly vary with coital rate) peaked after the World Wars. The suggestion that war is associated with rises in sex ratio at birth was first made more than two centuries ago. However, I have been unable to locate direct supporting sex ratio data relating to any conflict before World War One. So it would be useful if historical demographers were to search for such data relating to these earlier wars.
Chapter
Sexual intimacy is a central feature in marital relationships, but the frequency of sexual intercourse peaks during the early years of marriage and declines steadily during the later years of marriage. There are a variety of individual and relational factors that can affect the frequency of sexual relations between romantic partners, such as habituation, age, physical health, psychological well-being, and relationship quality. Declines in sexual frequency can have consequences for the strength of romantic relationships and is predictive of relationship dissatisfaction and dissolution. Promoting open communication, encouraging a communal orientation toward sex, and breaking the cycle of anxiety and avoidance can help strengthen sexual relations for long-term married and cohabiting couples.
Chapter
Sexual behavior is an integral and consequential aspect of intimate relationships. In this chapter, we concentrate on understanding the impact of sexual practices on important components of couple formation, maintenance, and devolution. We review sexuality and relationship literature spanning several decades and disciplines to demonstrate specifically what demographic and other factors influence the quality of sex within relationships, how sexuality influences the quality of couples’ relationships, and whether these patterns are constant within and across different kinds of committed couples. Because the definitions of “commitment” and “relationships” are constantly redefined by both researchers and the couples themselves, we also address the literature that examines intimacy within less “traditional” contexts such as dating and less widely understood semi-committed relationships.
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This study presents data on marital sex based on the 1988 National Survey of Families and Households. With this representative sample of United States adults (n = 7,463), we show how the incidence and frequency of marital sex change over the life course. Consistent with previous research, this study shows a decline in marital sexual incidence and frequency. Several factors contribute to this decline, including biological aging, diminished health, and habituation to sex. In multivariate analyses, age was the single factor most highly associated with marital sexual frequency. Marital happiness was the second most important predictor. Some factors found to be related to sexual frequency are associated with life changes that reduce or increase the opportunity to have sex, including pregnancy, the presence of small children, and sterilization. Controlling for age and many other factors, we found that cohabitors, married individuals who had cohabited before marriage, and those who were in their second or later marriage had more frequent sex than their counterparts who had not experienced these events. The effect of missing responses on the validity of aggregate information on sexual frequency is considered.
Article
Research into the changes in the frequency of sexual intercourse is (with few exceptions) limited to cross-sectional analyses of marital duration. We investigate the frequency of intercourse while taking into account relationship duration as well as the duration of cohabitation and marriage, effects of parenthood, and relationship quality. For the analysis we apply fixed effects regression models using data from the German Family Panel (pairfam), a nationwide randomly sampled German panel survey. Our findings imply that the drop in sex frequency occurs early in the relationship, whereas neither cohabitation nor marriage affects the frequency of intercourse to a significant extent. Sex frequency is reduced during pregnancy and as long as the couple has small children, but becomes revived later on. Relationship quality is found to play a role as well. These results are contrary to the honeymoon effect found in earlier research, but indicate that in times of postponed marriage an analogous effect may be at work in the initial period of the relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
Changes in the nature of marriage have spurred a debate about the consequences of shifts to more egalitarian relationships, and media interest in the debate has crystallized around claims that men who participate in housework get more sex. However, little systematic or representative research supports the claim that women, in essence, exchange sex for men's participation in housework. Although research and theory support the expectation that egalitarian marriages are higher quality, other studies underscore the ongoing importance of traditional gender behavior and gender display in marriage. Using data from Wave II of the National Survey of Families and Households, this study investigates the links between men's participation in core (traditionally female) and non-core (traditionally male) household tasks and sexual frequency. Results show that both husbands and wives in couples with more traditional housework arrangements report higher sexual frequency, suggesting the importance of gender display rather than marital exchange for sex between heterosexual married partners.
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Family scholars have focused on the onset of sexual activity early in the life course, but little is known about the cessation of sexual activity in relationships in later life. We use event‐history analysis techniques and logistic regression to identify the correlates of sexual inactivity among older married men and women. We analyze data for 1,502 married people from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a nationally representative sample of 3,005 noninstitutionalized American men and women ages 57 to 85. We find 29% of the married persons report no sexual activity for the previous 12 months or more. Relationship duration, chronological age, and poor physical health are all independently associated with sexual inactivity. Characteristics such as marital happiness, premarital cohabitation, and remarriage are also associated with levels of inactivity or activity. Analyses also point to gender differences in the correlates of sexual inactivity.
Article
We tested several hypotheses regarding the relationship between marital characteristics and sexual outcomes among 1,656 married adults ages 57-85 years from the 2005-2006 National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Results showed that individuals in their first marriage had more frequent sex than remarried individuals; marital duration had a curvilinear (U-shaped) relationship with frequency of sex; and a linear relationship between marital duration and frequency of sex varied by gender such that men had more frequent sex than women in younger marriages. We speculate that relationship permanency may drive the greater sexual activity in first marriages and sicker men in younger marriages may drive frequency of sex for women in younger marriages.
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There have been several studies in Western societies on the causes and consequences of sexual satisfaction within marriage. Little is known, however about the marital sexual relationship in Chinese societies. Moreover, most published studies used married individuals rather than married couples as participants. The present study examined data from a well-established knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) survey of 1,124 Hong Kong Chinese couples on martial sexual relationship. A conceptual model was tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). Interest in sex was found to be the strongest predictor of both sexual satisfaction and frequency of sex for both husbands and wives. Among the sociodemographic variables, the following two were significantly associated with lower frequencies of sex: for wives, that of having a full-time job; and for husbands, the factor of age. Theoretical implications for research on the interplay among culture, marriage, and sex in non-Western societies are discussed.
Article
In the summer of 1953, a 3% sample of the households in a rural area of Taiwan was enumerated. Special attention was paid to the fertility histories of women and, among other information, dates of births of live-born children to women living at the survey date were obtained. The data were extracted from registration records, occasionally checked by personal interview. Women aged 45-64 had borne an average of 7.1 children. The oldest cohorts (women over 65 at survey) appeared to have a lower fertility. This is in part due to the reduction in the incidence of early widowhood, caused by the improved mortality of men since the beginning of the century. The data are further analysed by parity and age at marriage. Tabulations of the intervals between births of successive order, show that these remain constant with increasing birth order at about 2.7 years. The age at the last confinement was about 40 years.
Article
Data from 387 white and 552 Negro women who were not married when they had the first child were used to characterize the prepregnancy relationship between unwed mothers and the fathers of their children. The universe sampled was those women in selected North Carolina counties recorded on 1960-1961 birth certificates as mothers of illegitimate children. Field interviews were conducted in 1962, with 32 percent of the white and 65 percent of the Negro women sampled providing completed schedules. Only a minority of these women had a liaison unknown to and in isolation from social ties of family and friends. Before becoming pregnant, most of the women had "gone with" their sex partners exclusively for at least six months, were committed to them (indicated by regular dating or planning marriage), and were in love with them. The comparison of the sex partners' social statuses (age, education, and social class) indicates that these couples were similar to courting couples generally. Most of the women had sex partners who were never-married; however, 13 percent of the white women had partners who were married and living with their wives. The data supported the conclusion that, in general, these "courtships" cannot be characterized as deviant, exploitative, or lacking in exposure to the normal social controls. Reasons were discussed for Negroes' less often planning to get married at the time of their pregnancies even though, in comparison to whites, they were more frequently in a long-term courting relationship.
Article
Ejaculation in the deermouse Peromyscus maniculatus gambeli was preceded by a sequence of brief penile penetrations (intromissions). In the sexually rested male the number of intromissions preceding the first ejaculation averaged 7 to 8. Each intromission was preceded by a short
Article
72 male and 77 female Sprague-Dawley rats were used as Ss. Male rats were offered simultaneous access to both unmated estrous and estrous females with which they had just had 3 ejaculations. In general, males did not copulate preferentially with mated or unmated females. The mated female's sexual incentive value was a joint function of the number of prior ejaculations and novelty to the male at the time of the preference test. The results are discussed according to: (1) the function of the male rat's multiple ejaculations, and (2) the reproductive significance of rearousal of copulation that occurs in exhausted males when female partners are changed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The reproductive patterns of an American Anabaptist group with high birth rates and which apparently does not practise deliberate limitation of family size are characterized by short intervals between successive births. The mean intervals tend to increase in length with maternal age (or rising birth order), but they are under two years for the first 10 births. In agreement with conclusions suggested by theoretical models, the data indicate that the high birth rates observed here are due primarily to a relatively short duration of the post-partum period of reduced fecundability. It has been reported that these women customarily nurse their babies until a new pregnancy supervenes. If this is accurate, questions arise whether lactation affects ovulation less in this population than in others, or perhaps whether the supplemental feeding is introduced sooner and this stimulates earlier resumption of ovulation. Since this group enjoys high levels of health and nutrition, it would be of great interest to know whether these women respond to lactation differently than do other populations or whether the difference lies in their practices.
Article
It seems likely that mean marital fecundability increases with the wife's age until about age 21. Thereafter, it declines slowly; there would seem to be no biological reason for assuming a plateau across an appreciable range of wife's ages. Arithmetic mean fecundability at marriage of U.S. nonsterile couples is estimated at about 0.15; it is suggested that this value declines roughly linearly to about 0.04 at age 40. The decline is due to a decline in coital rates and (possibly) to an increase in unrecognized spontaneous abortion.
Article
Ejaculations decreased and mount latencies increased when intact males were paired regularly over a 3.5-year period (3180 tests) with ovariectomized females made constantly receptive by daily injections of estradiol. The deterioration in potency was abruptly and completely reversed by substituting a group of new but similarly treated females for the original ones.
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Twenty-eight Targhee and two Corriedale rams, ranging in age from 3 to 6 years, were observed in 152 copulatory behaviour tests. In each test a ram was permitted to remain with a single ewe for 1 hr or until 20 min had elapsed without a mount. The first female was then removed and replaced by a second fresh receptive ewe. Rams averaged 3·91 ejaculations with the first female and 2·38 with the second. Ejaculation frequencies with the two females were highly correlated. Mounts per ejaculation averaged 3·83 for female 1 and 3·45 for female 2. Ejaculation frequencies were not significantly correlated with the frequencies of mounts per ejaculation. Initial postejaculatory intervals with the second female were significantly less than terminal intervals with the first female, but the restoration of ability to recover from ejaculation was not complete. Initial ejaculation latencies with the two females were essentially identical.
Article
Three waves of panel data from a sample of urban U.S. couples in which the wife was under 30 years of age at the first interview show that frequency of intercourse declined about 25% in a 4-year period. Declines were greatest among those with the shortest length of marriage.
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Observations on the degree of commitment to family planning in a Calcutta city project. Paper read to the I
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