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Does Being Bored Make Us More Creative?

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Abstract

Boredom has traditionally been associated with a range of negative outcomes, both within the workplace and outside it. More recently, however, it has been suggested that boredom can have positive outcomes, one of which might be increased creativity. This study addressed this proposition by examining the relationship between boredom and creative potential on a range of tasks. Two studies were carried out; the first involved 80 participants taking part in either a boring writing activity or not (control group) followed by a creative task. The second study involved a further 90 participants who varied in the type of boring activity they undertook (either a boring written activity, a boring reading activity, or a control) and the type of creative task that followed. Results suggested that boring activities resulted in increased creativity and that boring reading activities lead to more creativity in some circumstances (such as convergent tasks) than boring written activities. The role of daydreaming as a mediator between boredom and creativity is discussed and implications are outlined.

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... In addition to the relevance of boredom due to its high prevalence in the classroom, boredom matters as this emotion functions as an important signal that something should be changed (Bornstein, Kale, & Cornell, 1990;Gaylin, 1979;Harris, 2000;Mann & Cadman, 2014;Mugon et al., 2019;Pekrun, 2006). Boredom at school results in specific motivational, cognitive, and self-regulative consequences, which affect students' learning and performance (Pekrun, 2006; see also Goetz et al., 2019). ...
... This is an aspect of boredom often considered in philosophical (especially from Nietzsche), literary (especially from Goethe) and some psychological discourses (Bench & Lench, 2013;Brodsky, 2000;Burton, 1621Burton, /1995Elpidorou, 2014;Kast, 2001;Kern, 2008;Mugon et al., 2019;Shands, 1967;Völker, 1975). Nevertheless, empirical results in general and especially in educational psychology regarding the effects of boredom on students' creativity are scarce and ambiguous (Gasper & Middlewood, 2014;Haager et al., 2016;Mann & Cadman, 2014). Both potential consequences of boredom on students' career aspirations and creativity are closely connected to a mismatch of the environmental stimuli and the students' need. ...
... The second stream of research focuses on the empirical investigation of potentially positive effects of boredom at school on students' creativity. Whereas theoretical work (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975(Csikszentmihalyi, /2000Elpidorou, 2014;Gasper & Middlewood, 2014;Kasof, 1997;Mann & Cadman, 2014;Mugon et al., 2019;van Tilburg & Igou, 2012;Vodanovich, 2003) points to this positive effect of boredom, empirical investigations linking boredom and creativity are scarce, and moreover, show contradictory results patterns (Gasper & Middlewood, 2014;Haager et al., 2016;Mann & Cadman, 2014;Schubert, 1977Schubert, , 1978. Research Paper III presents the first investigation of the effects of students' boredom on creativity dependent on the combination of either over-or underchallenge. ...
... Again, higher levels of optimism were assumed to be associated with higher well-being (e.g., [40]). Given prior work showing that boredom proneness was associated with rule-breaking in the pandemic [5,41], and the oft cited association between state boredom and creativity [42,43] (although, see [44] for a counterargument to this association), we also included responses on the shortened Boredom Proneness Scale (SBPS) [45]. That is, a handful of studies have suggested that state boredom leads to increased creativity [42,43]. ...
... Given prior work showing that boredom proneness was associated with rule-breaking in the pandemic [5,41], and the oft cited association between state boredom and creativity [42,43] (although, see [44] for a counterargument to this association), we also included responses on the shortened Boredom Proneness Scale (SBPS) [45]. That is, a handful of studies have suggested that state boredom leads to increased creativity [42,43]. Although we do not have a measure of state boredom, work has shown that boredom proneness is associated with increased frequency and intensity of experiencing the state [46]. ...
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Throughout the course of the pandemic, it has become clear that the strictures of social isolation and various levels of lockdown constraints have impacted people’s well-being. Here, our aim was to explore relations between trait dispositions associated with boredom proneness, self-regulation and well-being using data collected early in the pandemic. Specifically, we explored whether the tendency to engage in everyday creative pursuits (e.g., making your own greeting cards) would act as a prophylactic against poor well-being. Results showed that well-being was higher for those individuals who increased engagement with creative pursuits during the early stages of the pandemic. That is, people who engaged more in everyday creative activities also reported higher levels of self-esteem, optimism, and positive affect. In contrast, those who pursued fewer creative outlets had higher levels of depression and anxiety, were higher in boredom proneness, and reported experiencing more negative affect. As we emerge from the pandemic, these data provide a clue as to how people might plan to cope adaptively with the restrictive circumstances this extreme world event engendered. More generally, these data provide support for the notion that everyday creativity (and not necessarily creative expertise) has positive associations for well-being.
... Empirische Studien zu den Zusammenhängen zwischen Langeweile und Kreativität lassen jedoch keinen eindeutigen Schluss zu. Die Ergebnisse der vereinzelten Arbeiten in diesem Bereich sind widersprüchlich und unterstützen sowohl die Annahme von negativen, positiven, als auch keinen Zusammenhängen zwischen den beiden Konstrukten (Gasper & Middlewood, 2014;Haager, Kuhbandner, & Pekrun, 2016;Larson, 1990;Mann & Cadman, 2014). Ein möglicher Ansatz, um diese widersprüchliche Befundlage aufzuklären, besteht darin, Zusammenhänge von Langeweile und Kreativität nicht isoliert, sondern in Verbindung mit Unter-beziehungsweise Überforderung zu betrachten. ...
... Anschließend folgte die Messung von divergentem Denken als Maß für Kreativität, operationalisiert durch eine Aufgabe angelehnt an Guilford (1950), bei welcher möglichst viele Verwendungsmöglichkeiten für eine Tasse aufgelistet und die zwei kreativsten Antworten markiert werden mussten. In einem zweiten Experiment mussten die Versuchspersonen die Telefonnummern nur vorlesen und zwei weitere Kreativitätsaufgaben bearbeiten, welche konvergentes als auch divergentes Denken erfassten (Mann & Cadman, 2014;vgl. auch Furnham, Crump, Batey, & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2009;Isen, Daubman, & Nowicki, 1987). ...
... Like solitude, boredom has been associated with a range of negative outcomes (for a review, see Vodanovich, 2003). However, recent research has also demonstrated that boredom could be beneficial to creativity (e.g., Mann and Cadman, 2014), as it is "an alerting phenomenon that all is not well and something must be done" (Gaylin, 1979, p. 129). Creativity could thus be viewed as a way to cope with boredom, for example, to explore new ways to conduct a boring task, in an attempt to make it more engaging or interesting (Toohey, 2011). ...
... Additionally, we found an interesting significant negative correlation between the differences of everyday creativity and state boredom. Prior to analysis, we hypothesized that more boredom should lead to increased creativity, thus considering boredom as an antecedent of creativity, as has been conceptualized in the literature (Gasper and Middlewood, 2014;Mann and Cadman, 2014). However, our results show the opposite result and might warrant an alternative interpretation; individuals who displayed more creativity during lockdown were less bored by these circumstances. ...
Article
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In many countries, the COVID-19 pandemic led to a period of lockdown that impacted individuals’ lifestyles, in both professional and personal spheres. New problems and challenges arose, as well as opportunities. Numerous studies have examined the negative effects of lockdown measures, but few have attempted to shine light on the potential positive effects that may come out of these measures. We focused on one particular positive outcome that might have emerged from lockdown: creativity. To this end, this paper compared self-reported professional creativity (Pro-C) and everyday creativity (little-c) before and during lockdown, using a questionnaire-based study conducted on a French sample ( N = 1266). We expected participants to be more creative during than prior to lockdown, in both professional and everyday spheres. Regarding Pro-C, we did not see any significant differences between the two comparison points, before and during lockdown. Regarding everyday creativity, we observed a significant increase during lockdown. Furthermore, our results suggest that participants with a lower baseline creativity (before lockdown) benefited more from the situation than those with a higher initial baseline creativity. Our results provide new insights on the impact of lockdown and its positive outcomes. These measures may have inarguably negative consequences on the physical and mental health of many, but their positive impact exists as well.
... L'ennui peut être associé à une puissante motivation à se mettre en action (Elpidorou, 2018). Il inciterait à la créativité (Mann et Cadman, 2014), aux interactions sociales (Barbalet, 1999 ;Bench et Lench, 2013) ou encore à s'investir dans de nouveaux projets de manière générale (Bench et Lench, 2019). Malgré cette facette positive, soutenue par des études réalisées en milieu expérimental (Bench et Lench, 2019 ;Mann et Cadman, 2014), d'autres auteurs relèvent de nombreux effets néfastes de l'ennui sur la santé (Marshall, McIntosh et al., 2019 ;Sommers et Vodanovich, 2000). ...
... Il inciterait à la créativité (Mann et Cadman, 2014), aux interactions sociales (Barbalet, 1999 ;Bench et Lench, 2013) ou encore à s'investir dans de nouveaux projets de manière générale (Bench et Lench, 2019). Malgré cette facette positive, soutenue par des études réalisées en milieu expérimental (Bench et Lench, 2019 ;Mann et Cadman, 2014), d'autres auteurs relèvent de nombreux effets néfastes de l'ennui sur la santé (Marshall, McIntosh et al., 2019 ;Sommers et Vodanovich, 2000). Ainsi, l'ennui a pu être corrélé avec des ressentis négatifs tels que l'anxiété (Martin et al., 2006), le manque de sens perçu dans la vie (Fahlman et al., 2009), l'état dépressif (Constant, Val-Laillet et al., 2021 ;Sommers et Vodanovich, 2000), avec le développement de conduites auto-agressives, avec la consommation des substances ou encore avec la dépendance au jeu (Constant et al., 2019 ;Dal Mas et Wittmann, 2017 ;Sommers et Vodanovich, 2000). ...
Article
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L’ennui est un ressenti complexe qui peut avoir des effets délétères sur la santé physique et psychique. Les personnes y sont particulièrement vulnérables lors d’une hospitalisation en établissement psychiatrique. La problématique de l’ennui est toutefois peu considérée dans la prise en charge hospitalière. Les ergothérapeutes, en leur qualité de professionnels de l’occupation, souhaitent le prendre davantage en compte dans leurs interventions.
... This coping function of creativity has shown to help relieve anxiety (Grossman, 1981), trauma (Forgeard, 2013), and emotion regulation (Fancourt et al., 2019). Furthermore, Mann and Cadman (2014) showed that boredom, which many people faced during the COVID-19 lockdown, can help people foster their creativity. ...
Article
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For much of 2020, countries around the world fought against the COVID-19 pandemic. Many countries went into lockdown to control the fast spread of the virus. The unusual restrictions and confinement of the lockdown brought about new challenges for people’s everyday lives. With flexibility, adaptability, and problem-solving at the core of its nature, creativity has the potential to help people cope with harsh and uncertain circumstances. Were people more, the same, or less creative in their everyday life during the period of lockdown, and in which ways? What are the emotions and motivations underlying their creative or non-creative behaviors? The current study aims to explore these questions from a cross-cultural perspective. A total of 754 comparable employee samples from three Chinese and three German cities were asked about their moods during the lockdown period, their self-rated level of creativity in daily lives before and during the lockdown, and their motivations behind their creative activities. Significant increases in creativity were observed in all everyday activities in both countries with only two exceptions in the German sample. Despite minor differences, a common pattern was found across cultures: whereas the activating positive mood could directly lead to the increase in creativity in some everyday activities, such a direct Mood-Creativity link was limited in the activating negative mood circumstances. In such circumstances, motivation intervened to enable the link to creativity. It was also found that this indirect effect of motivation between mood and creativity was more pronounced with the German participants.
... From the perspective of scientific research, a large body of evidence states that sustainable productivity, motivation and creative thinking also require sufficient rest (e.g. Amabile, 1998;Mann & Cadman, 2014;Zacher, Brailsford & Parker, 2014;Zijlstra & Sonnentag, 2006). The work culture may play a part in this pictureengagement does not need to jeopardize a balanced approach to work by default; but in working life, the culture may sometimes suggest that engagement cannot co-exist with setting boundaries for work or overachieving being the norm (e.g. on Finland, Hyvärinen, 2019). ...
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Doctoral dissertation. The Doctoral Programme in Psychology, Learning and Communication, University of Helsinki.
... To także uwarunkowanie sytuacyjne, które bezpośrednio wpływa na jakość tego, co człowiek robi. Poniższy opis to próba scharakteryzowania nudy kreatywnej, obecnej także w innych badaniach (Mann, Cadman 2014). ...
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The books attempts to show the changeable and ambiguous notion of professional certainty of teachers, from the building experience gained from personal self-efficacy, which gives confidence in professional activity, to the state of ambivalence caused by the duality of their own experiences and conflicts in pedagogical work. The authors pay heed to the special relation of the described competence to COVID-19 pandemic and new challenges for teachers in this connection.
... Perceived stress may influence emotional distress through boredom proneness 26 . People who are quarantined should be advised to stave off boredom and provided with practical advice on coping and stress management techniques 3 , such as mindfulness training 27 or engaging in creative behaviors 28 . People should also be encouraged to regularly practice a physical activity that reduces boredom and the feeling of time slowing down during a lockdown 29 . ...
Article
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Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, evidence shows the negative psychological impact of lockdown measures in the general population. It is also important to identify predictors of psychological distress in vulnerable people, particularly patients with history of depressive episodes (the most prevalent psychiatric disorder), in order to adapt mental health strategies for future lockdown measures. This study aim was to (1) compare in 69 healthy controls (HC) and 346 patients with a major depressive episode in the two previous years (PP) self-reported psychological symptoms (depression, anxiety, insomnia, suicidal ideation, traumatic stress, anger) and living conditions during the first national French lockdown, and (2) identify predictors of significant psychological distress in PP. The levels of psychological symptoms were very low in HC compared with PP, independently of the living conditions. Half of PP had no psychiatric contact during the lockdown. Loneliness and boredom were independent predictors of depression, anxiety and insomnia, whereas daily physical activity was a protective factor. Virtual contacts protected against suicidal ideation. Our results highlight the need of specific strategies to target loneliness and boredom and to improve care access, including telepsychiatry. Longitudinal studies must investigate the COVID-19 pandemic psychological impact in clinical samples.
... And ADHD has been proven to be positively related to daydreaming (Franklin et al., 2017). Furthermore, studies about boredom and creativity also supported a positive relationship between inattention and creativity, and daydreaming may play a key role in this relationship (Mann & Cadman, 2014). Meanwhile, daydreaming, which has traditionally been deemed as an outcome of inattention (Kane & Mcvay, 2012;Mcvay & Kane, 2010), has long been argued to be a source of creativity (Fox & Beaty, 2019;McMillan et al., 2013). ...
Article
For decades, a growing body of literature has suggested that inattention is related to creativity (positively, perhaps), and this relationship is probably mediated by daydreaming or mind-wandering. However, given the heterogeneity of daydreaming and the complexity of creativity, this relationship can be perplexing. The goal of the present study was to explore the mediation roles of types of daydreaming (i.e., positive and negative) and processes of creative thinking (i.e., idea generation and idea selection) simultaneously in the relationship between inattention and real-life creativity by testing a theorized multiple mediation model. Our findings from a sample of 555 undergraduate students showed that: (a) positive daydreaming (i.e., positive-constructive daydreaming), followed by idea generation, mediated the negative relationship between inattention and real-life creativity; and (b) positive daydreaming, followed by the idea selection, also mediated the negative relationship between the inattention and real-life creativity. However, negative daydreaming (i.e., guilty-dysphoric daydreaming) did not play any mediation role in this relationship. We further found that (c) idea selection, as a single mediator, mediated the negative relationship between inattention and real-life creativity. Our results demonstrated the positive relationships between positive daydreaming and both bottom-up and top-down processes of creative thinking. The current study might contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between inattention and creativity and highlight the heterogeneity of daydreaming.
... People want to do other things to escape a boring situation; at this point, boredom turns into a power that helps get out of unsatisfactory, meaningless, or stereotyped situations (Elpidorou, 2018). Boredom can urge to be more creative (Mann & Cadman, 2014; Toohey, 2019, pp. 1-10). ...
Article
This research is focused on the subject of boredom in the families during the stay-at-home process forced by coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The literature on boredom was reviewed, and then the qualitative research was designed with the open-ended questions appropriate for the subject and purpose. The research was conducted between April 20 and 29, 2020, in Istanbul, Turkey, with the participation of 264 families. The most significant findings of the research showed that family members accustomed to active life experienced boredom more during the stay-at-home process, they utilized information technologies very often to overcome boredom, the importance of time spent at home increased, involuntary behaviors such as overeating and snacking became common, the livelihood difficulties and fear of unemployment increased boredom, nevertheless, no conflict occurred between the family members, and the process taught to be patient and strong.
... Bench and Lench (2013) posit boredom as a discrete functional emotion and a valuable adaptive function, driving people to seek out new goals and experiences; they also call for further experimental boredom research. Moreover, Mann and Cadman (2014) tried to dissociate the effects of mind wandering on creativity during a given activity. They found that boring reading and writing tasks increased both the number of creative answers and the level of creativity in terms of usefulness compared to a control group. ...
Article
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Researchers have recently turned their focus to a specific area: the links between altered states of consciousness and creativity. A spectrum of attentional states of consciousness exists, from hypnagogia and mind wandering to mindfulness and flow. These attentional states of consciousness are present during a variety of activities (e.g., sports, music, painting, writing, video games, theater, and meditation) as well as in situations characterized by boredom. They are also present in many professional fields and practices (e.g., education and teaching). Moreover, researchers and educators focus sometimes on only one state of consciousness (such as mind wandering) or only on attention, and do not question relationships with others (such as mindfulness or flow) or the links with intention, the different levels of consciousness involved and the changes in perception of time, self and space. Additionally, as we know that a state of consciousness rarely occurs alone or that it can have two forms (such as spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering), we propose a global approach allowing to grasp the stakes and perspectives of what we call attentional states of consciousness. Thus, to our knowledge, this is the first theoretical review highlighting the historical, empirical, theorical and conceptual relationships between creativity, attention, mind wandering, mindfulness and flow by offering concrete and empirical avenues and bases for reflection about educating for creativity and developing creative potential.
... Boredom has been shown to be a powerful motivator for both negative and positive behaviors alike (Bench & Lench, 2019). In contrast to the extensive empirical evidence of negative boredom-associated consequences (e.g., Sommers & Vodanovich, 2000), few studies have highlighted its positive consequences (e.g., Mann & Cadman, 2014). Intriguingly, Hunter et al. (2016) investigated the link between the proposed concepts on a trait level. ...
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The Short Boredom Proneness Scale (SBPS) has recently been developed. Using a standard confirmatory factor analysis, we report on the structural validation of the French SBPS, which provided support for the original construct. A network analysis (n = 490) revealed the structure of the relationships of the SBPS and of the two facets of the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II (CEI-II). The analysis revealed positive connections between the boredom and curiosity items, whereas the connections between the boredom and exploration items were negative. To evaluate measurement invariance, we compared the French-speaking sample (n = 490) with an English-speaking sample (n = 364). Full configural, metric, and scalar invariance was established; thus, we provide a valid French translation of a widely used measure of boredom that may advantage future research.
... First of all, the realization of creative approach assumes a particular significance. It is attracting increasing interest with good reason [19]- [23]. ...
... Considering the different experiences of solitude, social isolation may allow individuals to grow, develop deeper connections and insight, and become more creative . As solitude affords freedom of spirit, and is often associated with a state of boredom conducive to creativity (Farmer & Sundberg, 1986;Mann & Cadman, 2014), it may facilitate self-reflection and contemplation (Koch, 1994) and foster creative thinking in various domains (Simonton, 2000(Simonton, , 2004. Many great works of art, philosophy, literature, science have emerged from solitude (Banerjee & Rai, 2020), and one part of the personality of creators refers to a preference for solitude originating in childhood, and often leading to a deliberate attempt to seek solitude (Ochse, 1990). ...
Article
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With the COVID-19 outbreak, the population was suddenly forced to "stay at home". Although research suggests that social isolation affects health and wellbeing, reactions may vary depending on individuals. The current study assessed the relationships between personality variables (preference for solitude and Big Five personality), mental health (anxiety, stress, loneliness), and creativity, and tried to determine whether the identified personality profiles affect individuals' mental health and creativity. French respondents (N = 430) filled in an online questionnaire during the first lockdown in Spring 2020. The results showed that the preference for solitude and personality variables of the Big Five predicted individuals' mental health and creativity. Moreover, a cluster analysis revealed three profiles of individuals: "Affiliation", "Emotionally Stable Lonely" and "Emotionally Unstable Lonely". Results showed that individuals with "Affiliation" and "Emotionally Unstable Lonely" profiles expressed higher stress and anxiety, and the latter performed better on a divergent creative thinking task. By contrast, those with an "Emotionally Stable Lonely" profile expressed a lower level of loneliness, and performed better on a creative insight task. These findings reveal the importance of personality profiles in psychological reactions during lockdowns. With this knowledge, health professionals could develop appropriate interventions to accompany high-risk individuals in situations of social isolation. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-021-01885-3.
... Interestingly, several studies have suggested that boredom may have positive impacts [3,[55][56][57]. Notably, as boredom may act as a signal for individuals to make changes [7], it may foster creativity [58]. Future studies should dig deeper into the positive impact of boredom on academic outcomes and in order to distinguish which personal or situational characteristics may foster positive (vs. ...
Article
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Boredom is an emotion that often arises in an educational context. Past research suggests that boredom depends on specific cognitive appraisals, such as how people can control the task and how much they value it. Research further suggests that boredom is related to negative academic outcomes such as lower grades and a higher risk of dropping out. Here, we tested a mediation model on 324 pre-service teachers during the first lockdown of 2020 in Switzerland to assess (1) how control and value predicted boredom, and (2) how boredom was related to the intention to persist at university. We hypothesized that (1) the more participants felt lacking in control and low in value, the higher their boredom and (2) the more intense their boredom, the lower their intention to persist. We further hypothesized that both control and value would be positively related to the intention to persist, and this link may be mediated by boredom. Our results provide partial support for our mediation model as we found a significant indirect link between control and intention to persist through boredom. More specifically, the more participants lost control over their studies, the more they felt bored, which in turn was negatively related to their intention to persist.
... In one very practical application, Mann and Rebekah Cadman (2014) engaged students in boring tasks, such as mechanically copying telephone numbers, and then compared their performance in creative problem-solving exercises. The rationale of the study builds on previous research, according to which boredom, as disinterest towards the situation that one is facing, and possibly trapped in, involves the shifting of attention "from an external focus on the task, to a more internal focus on inner thoughts, feelings, and experiences" allowing for stimulation (Mann and Cadman 2014, 166). ...
... From a positive education perspective, Ari's boredom could signal an opportunity to explore what was associated with feeling bored. This exploration could foster self-awareness (Bench & Lench, 2013), clarify values, and even spark creativity (Mann & Cadman, 2014); this frame is a way to recast boredom positively because it can provoke motivational introspection (Park et al., 2019). ...
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Students’ experiences of boredom at school are receiving increased research attention. Most inquiries to date have focused on how often students experience boredom in classroom situations and in specific subject areas. Despite its frequency, limited research efforts have explored how students’ boredom experiences might inform positive education initiatives. This paper examines students’ school boredom experiences from a positive education lens through which school mental health professionals can evaluate students’ school boredom experiences systematically. We introduce the School Boredom Mindset (SBM) concept that identifies a subset of high-risk students expressing unfavorable school attitudes. A preliminary analysis of 2,331 California secondary (Grades 7-12) students’ responses on well-being indicators explored the SBM’s viability. The findings show that students with the strongest SBM reported substantially lower well-being than their peers. The discussion offers suggestions for future research needed to evaluate the SBM concept’s meaning and the value of its contribution to positive education. While this research moves forward, we provide practitioners with resources to better evaluate students’ boring feelings at school and consider its meaning within the broader effort of fostering thriving well-being
... On account of that, boredom might contribute to eudaimonic well-being insofar as it propels us into situations that are more in line with our interests and which we find meaningful and important to us (Elpidorou 2018b(Elpidorou , 2020a. Others have suggested that boredom can lead to creative outcomes (Gasper and Middlewood 2014;Hunter et al. 2016;Mann and Cadman 2014) and provide important epistemic benefits (Bortolotti and Aliffi this volume). However, it bears repeating that both the range of available responses to boredom and whether or not those would be beneficial to oneself heavily depend on the type of resources that one possesses (Todman this volume). ...
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This is the introductory chapter to The Moral Psychology of Boredom (Rowman & Littlefield, 2021). It discusses the various ways in which boredom is morally significant and offers a summary of the experiential profile of boredom.
... creative usefulness"(Mann & Cadman, 2014).The above list of creativity metrics is based on the author's review and perusal of the literature over three years of doctoral studies. While the list is by no means a representative and complete survey of the literature, it highlights the "criterion problem endemic to much of the literature(Amabile, 1983b). ...
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This article-based doctoral thesis explores the stakeholder perspectives and experiences of crowdsourced creative work on two of the leading crowdsourcing platforms. The thesis has two parts. In the first part, we explore creative work from the perspective of the crowd worker. In the second part, we explore and study the requester's perspective in different contexts and several case studies. The research is exploratory and we contribute empirical insights using survey-based and artefact-based approaches common in the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In the former approach, we explore the key issues that may limit creative work on paid crowdsourcing platforms. In the latter approach, we create computational artefacts to elicit authentic experiences from both crowd workers and requesters of crowdsourced creative work. The thesis contributes a classification of crowd workers into five archetypal profiles, based on the crowd workers' demographics, disposition, and preferences for creative work. We propose a three-part classification of creative work on crowdsourcing platforms: creative tasks, creativity tests, and creativity judgements (also referred to as creative feedback). The thesis further investigates the emerging research topic of how requesters can be supported in interpreting and evaluating complex creative work. Last, we discuss the design implications for research and practice and contribute a vision of creative work on future crowdsourcing platforms with the aim of empowering crowd workers and fostering an ecosystem around tailored platforms for creative microwork. Keywords: creative work, creativity, creativity support tools, crowdsourcing
... Feeling bored is linked to better performance on tasks accessing associative thought, a key component of creativity (Gasper & Middlewood, 2014), and boredom is related to mind-wandering, a kind of attention deficit conducive to creative problem-solving (Mooneyham & Schooler, 2013). For instance, people who completed a boredom induction (followed by a creative task) came up with a higher number of uses for a pair of polystyrene cups than participants who completed the creative task first (Mann & Cadman, 2014). Although many of these studies rely on small sample sizes, they suggest that positive outcomes of boredom may be possible. ...
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Why do people experience unpleasant, aversive emotions? Boredom is associated with a wide range of mental and physical health problems, including binge eating, substance use, anxiety, and depression. Nor does boredom feel good; many people are willing to shock themselves or even view upsetting images rather than be bored. Given such evidence, is it possible that boredom has adaptive value? We argue that it does; boredom provides an important evolutionary solution to minimizing prediction error by incentivizing learning. Reducing prediction error, it has been argued, is a core organizing principle underlying cognition; however, one way to reduce error is to isolate one’s self in extremely predictable environments (i.e., the “Dark Room Problem”). We argue that boredom evolved, at least in part, to prevent this. Specifically, boredom makes such a solution affectively undesirable, by aversively signaling a lack of successful attentional engagement in a valued goal-congruent activity. To reduce this aversive state, people are motivated to re-engage in meaningful activities and reallocate attentional resources. We review evidence from behavioral science and computational modeling supporting the role of boredom in maximizing learning and reducing prediction error. Furthermore, we suggest that these functions of boredom are not only present in modern humans, but have been conserved across species. We review evidence for boredom-like states in non-human animals and argue that animals likely experience boredom due to sharing many of the same psychological and physiological components of emotion as humans. For instance, animals in under-stimulated environments, such as cages or zoos, exhibit stereotyped behavior and other responses analogous to boredom in humans, including novelty seeking and play. In doing so, we address the adaptive value of boredom and its origins and prevalence in both human and non-human animals.
... There has been research to suggest that mind-wandering can be essential to the creative process, and that boredom, in fact, can be essential for a creative person (Mann & Cadman, 2014). This presents a complex paradox for those untangling the relationship between creativity and mindfulness. ...
... The greater the deviation is between an individual's actual stimulation level and his/her optimal level, the greater the extent to which he/she will engage in exploratory behaviours, either towards familiarity or novelty. For instance, boredom can promote mind-wandering and creativity, which may be considered as strategies to cope when the environment only provides very few affordances (Forster & Lavie, 2009;Gustafsson, 2022;Mann & Cadman, 2014). In contrast, environmental overstimulation may drive our attention towards more familiar stimuli. ...
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Phenomena such as engagement, attention and curiosity rely heavily on the “optimal-level of stimulation (or arousal)” model, which suggests they are driven by stimuli being neither too simple nor too complex. Two points often overlooked in psychology are that each stimulus is simultaneously processed with its context, and that a stimulus complexity is relative to an individual’s cognitive resources to process it. According to the “optimal-level of stimulation” model, while familiar contexts may decrease the overall stimulation and favour exploration of novelty, a novel context may increase the overall stimulation and favour preference for familiarity. In order to stay closer to their optimum when stimulation is getting too high or too low, individuals can explore other stimuli, adopt a different processing style or be creative. The need and the ability to adopt such strategies will depend upon the cognitive resources available, which can be affected by contextual stimulation and by other factors such as age, mood or arousability. Drawing on empirical research in cognitive and developmental psychology, we provide here an updated “optimal-level of stimulation” model, which is holistic and coherent with previous literature. Once taken into account the role of contextual stimulation as well as the diverse factors influencing internal cognitive resources, such model fits with and enriches other existing theories related to exploratory behaviors. By doing so, it provides a useful framework to investigate proximate explanations underlying learning and cognitive development, and to develop future interventions related, for example, to eating, and learning disorders.
... Although there have been beneficial effects detected in being bored, like becoming more creative after being exposed to this emotion (Haager, Kuhbandner, & Pekrun, 2016;Hunter, Abraham, Hunter, Goldberg, & Eastwood, 2016;Mann & Cadman, 2014;van Tilburg & Igou, 2017), boredom is considered mainly unpleasant and deactivating (Acee et al., 2010;Nett et al., 2010Nett et al., , 2011Pekrun & Perry, 2014;Pekrun et al., 2010;Tze et al., 2015), because it disturbs the students' ability to concentrate and focus on the activity that they are doing. Boredom has also been associated with school dissatisfaction (Gjesne, 1977), academic dropout (Bearden et al., 1989;Dow, 2007;Farmer & Sundberg, 1986), school absenteeism (Sharp et al., 2016), temporary or permanent abandonment (Farmer & Sundberg, 1986), avoidance coping strategies (Goetz & Nett, 2008;Sánchez Rosas & Bedis, 2015), negative emotions (Goetz, Ludtke, Nett, Keller, & Lipnevich, 2013;Pekrun et al., 2011;Sánchez Rosas, 2015) and low academic performance (Daniels et al., 2009;Mann & Robinson, 2009;Pekrun, Elliot, & Maier, 2009;Pekrun et al., 2010). ...
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Instructional teaching quality facilitates learning and promotes affective, motivational, behavioral and cognitive development of students. It was analyzed the role that instructional teaching quality, task value, self-efficacy and boredom on attention in class have. Argentinian university students (N = 454, 84% women) completed self-reports that measured the variables under study. The path analysis showed that only one of the four models analyzed showed a good fit to the data and explained 54% of attention in class variance. It was found that instructional teaching quality predicts task value, academic self-efficacy and boredom in class; task value and academic self-efficacy affect boredom and attention in class, while academic self-efficacy influences on task value; and boredom is the strongest predictor of attention in class. Instructional teaching quality, task value and academic self-efficacy added indirect effects on boredom and attention in class. In this way teacher’s behavior and student motivation are fundamental in reducing boredom and increasing attention in class.
... Boredom is interpreted as the communication of an intention of withdrawal from a situation/interaction and/or lack of interest in it. It may also serve as an excuse or justification for non-involvement, and mask laziness or insufficient cognitive abilities (Mann and Cadman, 2014). Boredom may be a demonstration of disagreement, resistance against values, beliefs or actions of others. ...
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This article aims at providing concise but thorough presentation of the state of art in the emerging field of boredom studies evidencing the significance of boredom. The premise of the significance of boredom is to be expounded by documenting its widespread, social consequences, functions and positive outcomes. Boredom has been found prevalent irrespectively of age, gender, culture or social class. It affects all main spheres of human life-work, leisure, education, romantic relationships, and even religious life. It has also been evidenced that boredom has many significant consequences. It has been associated with, among others, risk-taking behaviours, overeating, impulse shopping, or (self-)destructive and violent behaviours. Yet, boredom may serve numerous significant functions as well. As an emotion, it is important for cognition, motivation and communication and has had evolutionary meaning for human beings. In society nowadays, it serves as a defensive mechanism against overload of stimuli, but somehow to the contrary is also found to be a basic mechanism animating current consumerism. Boredom is also conceived to be a catalyst for reflection, self-cognition, creativity, and as a consequence a rudimentary element of culture production and its advances.
... Perhaps offering a faint light in darkness, boredomprone individuals show elevated curiosity [66]. In addition, boredom seems to encourage original thinking [85], prosocial commitments [86], and self-soothing nostalgic reverie [87]. ...
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Boredom is an established cause and correlate of eating behavior. Yet, existing work offers a scattered range of plausible motivations for why this is. We examined among 302 people representative of the adult UK population what motivations they had for selecting food during the COVID-19 pandemic and how this related to boredom. As predicted, bored people choose food less for health reasons and more for convenience. Boredom reduced ethical and ‘natural content’ motivations for selecting food and was not associated with choosing food to regulate one’s mood or to experience unfamiliarity. Boredom was also associated with greater absolute changes in weight over the course of the pandemic. Boredom did not predict weight gains or losses overall. These findings offer insights into the role that boredom plays in eating motivations in particular and health-relevant outcomes in general.
... If we do consider creativity as a way to produce our own stimulation to stay closer to our optimal level of arousal, low arousal, favoring diversive curiosity, should also favor divergent thinking since it is aimed at complexifying one's environment. For instance, boredom allegedly promote mind wandering and divergent thinking, which may be required when the external environment only provides low levels of stimulation (Forster & Lavie, 2009;Mann & Cadman, 2014). ...
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More and more research is showing how different environments can lead to greater or lower creative skills. The purpose of this concept paper is to introduce a novel application of the optimal‐level of arousal model that could address inconsistencies present in the literature. After introducing possible definitions of creativity, I discuss the optimal‐level of arousal theory and how considering the “arousal” and “mood changing” potentials of contexts could enlighten findings related to inter‐individual differences, domain‐specificities, developmental aspects, and gender differences. Among other things, this model will clarify the factors influencing motivation to display creative skills which could improve the external validity of creativity studies. Examples of the kinds of hypotheses that can be tested by applying this model in future creative studies will also be proposed.
... A recent randomized controlled trial showed that a layperson-delivered, empathy-oriented short telephone call programme reduces loneliness, depression, and anxiety within 4 weeks (Kahlon et al., 2021). People who are in quarantine should be advised to stave off boredom and offered practical advice on stress management techniques (Brooks et al., 2020), such as mindfulness (LePera, 2011) and creative behaviors (Mann and Cadman, 2014). ...
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Background In 2020–2021, many European countries put in place temporary lockdown measures due to the increase in COVID-19 cases, although such measures have negative psychological effects. As pre-existing mental disorders are a risk factor of negative psychological consequences during pandemics, it is important to identify specific predictors of psychological distress caused by restrictive measures in patients with history of depressive episodes. The aims of this study were i) to determine whether depressive, anxious symptomatology and suicidal ideation (i.e. mental health outcomes) were influenced by stay-at-home orders, and ii) to identify the psychosocial dimensions that influenced these mental health outcomes in patients with pre-existing depression during/after COVID-19-related restrictions. Methods This study concerned 296 psychiatric patients with history of depressive episode in the 2 years before the COVID-19 outbreak. Participants received a computerized form to self-measure depression, suicidal ideation, and anxiety (5 times during 2020–2021, two lockdown periods and three non- lockdown periods). Loneliness, boredom, habits, substance consumption, and access to psychiatric care also were self-reported. Results Loneliness and boredom were independent risk factors of anxiety and depression, and their changes dynamically affected the psychological state. Suicidal ideation was mostly driven by depressive symptomatology. Conclusions Our results highlight the need to target these dimensions in the most vulnerable patients in order to prevent the psychological consequences of the repeated COVID-19-related restrictions.
... Although the connections between boredom and psychological harm have been well documented, an increasing number of researchers have argued that boredom may serve important psychological and educational functions as well. Recent work in psychology, for example, has suggested that boredom may encourage creative thinking (Gasper & Middlewood, 2014;Mann & Cadman, 2014;cf. Elpidorou, 2018b) as well as certain 'prosocial' actions, such as giving to charity (van Tilburg & Igou, 2017). ...
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Although the educational and psychological hazards of boredom are well documented, an increasing number of researchers have argued that boredom may be a helpful, rather than harmful, emotion for the growing individual. In this paper, we engage with this re‐conception of boredom and explore its implications for contemporary education: Can boredom enhance student learning, or support certain forms of it? Can it be put to use in the classroom? What are the risks involved? In addressing these questions, we show that boredom can fulfil several important psychological functions under certain special conditions. At the same time, we argue that careful attention to the moral psychology of boredom reveals that it has significant disadvantages for helping students to develop a meaningful and fulfilling relationship to subject matter in the classroom. Against the backdrop of this analysis, we discuss the concept and experience of aspiration as a potential way of tempering and eventually obviating the psychological pitfalls of boredom. In the final section, we draw out several principles of an aspirational approach to grappling with boredom in education.
... Hunter et al., 2016). In particular, it is associated with curiosity which in turn gives rise to innovation (Mann and Cadman, 2014). Likewise, in the literature on art and architecture, boredom is considered a 'very creative state' (Richardson, 2013) and one of 'potential richness' (O'Doherty, 1967). ...
Article
In the context of management and organisational literature, boredom has largely been seen in individual, psychological and negative terms, both for those experiencing it and for organisational outcomes. Through selective references to a wider sociological, historical and philosophical set of perspectives, we make a case here for refiguring boredom at work as a more relational and political notion. Rather than being seen as negative or trivial, we suggest that it is central to the concerns of organisation studies (and more widely) as a ambivalent everyday condition and experience. In particular, boredom is intimately linked to the project and promises of modernity and its associated effects on time, from factory industrialisation to contemporary work platforms. Both in terms of philosophical argument and applied fields such as art, literature, architecture and design, we suggest that boredom is both emancipatory/productive and alienating. Such an understanding establishes opportunities for research which would be central to the experience of contemporary paid employment and wider experience.
... This fact assumes relevant to the discussion in the present chapter, taking into consideration that such an uncertain, stressful, anxious, solitary, boring, and frustrating context has been broadly experienced throughout state-imposed lockdowns all around the globe in the current times, as a result of the governmental responses to the impacts derived from the Covid-19 pandemic (Brodeur et al., 2020). The key issue here is that not disregarding that empirical research and theoretical debates have commonly been associating boredom (just as solitude) with a series of negative outcomes (the work of Vodanovich, 2003 provides a fruitful review on the topic), recent research has also increasingly been confirming that boredom could derive into beneficial impacts to creativity (Mann & Cadman, 2014), thus conceiving creativity as a personal response to boredom in the sense that it develops alternative approaches to situations so that the individual or the organization can explore new ways to conduct and overcome boring tasks and/or rigid processes, via an attempt to make it more interesting, stimulating and/or engaging (Toohey, 2011). This way, it may be arguable that Creativity highlights into contexts marked by uncertainty, stress, anxiety, solitude, boredom, and frustration, if we defend that it consists, at its very essence, into "an alerting phenomenon" which calls our attention that "all is not well and something must be done" (Gaylin, 1979: 129). ...
Chapter
Football coaches often play a differentiating role for the clubs, helping them to survive in a demanding mediatic, changing, and competitive environment where innovation may arise regarding leadership. This chapter seeks to unveil the perceptions of football coaches as leaders and the role of the football clubs' organizational culture in affirming this leadership. Studies on leadership constitute a broad field of organizational and management theories, highlighting the role of personality traits, as well as the organizational and social contexts surrounding the leaders' actions. As there is no significant academic literature on football coaches and leadership, it was sought to explore the coaches' perceptions as leaders, as well as the influence of the clubs' organizational culture in which they developed their activity. Based on 22 interviews with football coaches of reference clubs, this chapter highlights their difficulties, demands, and needs to deal with their professional context.
... On the one hand, a substantial body of literature has shown the adverse effects of boredom on student outcomes as it undermines attention, effort, motivation, and engagement during achievement activities as well as resulting task performance (Camacho-Morles et al. 2019a;Craig et al. 2004;Haager et al. 2018;Pekrun et al. 2010;Pekrun et al. 2017a;Perry et al. 2001;Putwain et al. 2018a;Tze et al. 2016). On the other hand, there is evidence suggesting potential benefits of boredom for academic performance as it can lead students to initiate creative processes and greater self-reflection (Mann and Cadman 2014;Seib and Vodanovich 1998) and can also create an urge to make changes to the current achievement situation as it may be perceived as demotivating (Bench and Lench 2013). ...
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Achievement emotions are emotions linked to academic, work, or sports achievement activities (activity emotions) and their success and failure outcomes (outcome emotions). Recent evidence suggests that achievement emotions are linked to motivational, self-regulatory, and cognitive processes that are crucial for academic success. Despite the importance of these emotions, syntheses of empirical findings investigating their relation with student achievement are scarce. We broadly review the literature on achievement emotions with a focus on activity-related emotions including enjoyment, anger, frustration, and boredom, and their links to educational outcomes with two specific aims: to aggregate all studies and determine how strongly related those emotions are to academic performance, and to examine moderators of those effects. A meta-analytical review was conducted using a systematic database of 68 studies. The 68 studies included 57 independent samples for enjoyment (N = 31,868), 25 for anger (N = 11,153), 9 for frustration (N = 1418), and 66 for boredom (N = 28,410). Results indicated a positive relation between enjoyment of learning and academic performance (ρ = .27), whereas the relations were negative for both anger (ρ = − .35) and boredom (ρ = − .25). For frustration, the relation with performance was near zero (ρ = − .02). Moderator tests revealed that relations of activity emotions with academic performance are stronger when (a) students are in secondary school compared with both primary school and college, and (b) the emotions are measured by the Achievement Emotions Questionnaires – Mathematics (AEQ-M). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Se ha empezado a identificar que en ciertas circunstancias el aburrimiento puede fomentar la creatividad (Mann & Cadman, 2014), así como facilitar algunos procesos, como la autorregulación, la búsqueda de mejoras para la realización de las tareas, incremento de las intenciones de ayuda social, y promoción de mejores h�bitos alimenticios Moynihan et al., 2015), e intervenir como un activador para la búsqueda de significado (Coughlan, Igou, van Tilburg, �insella, & Ritchie, 2017). ...
Article
Resumen El presente trabajo está relacionado a la experiencia de aburrimiento del personal en los centros de trabajo, así como sus consecuencias. Se resalta los aportes de la investigación empírica, la cual recientemente se ha incrementado frente a la evidencia de un continuo aumento de dicho estado. El texto incluye aspectos como: definición, características, medición, análisis del proceso. Seguidamente se encuentran algunas sugerencias para la realización de futuras investigaciones sobre el tema. Finalmente se presentan orientaciones prácticas para su prevención o disminución. Palabras clave: Aburrimiento laboral, roles del psicólogo organizacional, bienestar psicológico, gestión de recursos humanos Abstract This paper is related to the experience of boredom of personnel in workplaces, as well as its consequences. The contributions of empirical research, which has recently increased against the evidence of a continuous rise of that state, are emphasized The text includes aspects such as: definition, characteristics, measurement, and process analysis. Then, there are some suggestions to carry out future researches on the subject. Finally,practical guidelines are presented for its prevention or diminution.
... Boredom is the unpleasant state of emotion that generally happens in the situation that is unoccupied meaningless, unchallenging and inactive (Eastwood et al., 2012;Chan et al., 2018;Van Tilburg & Igou, 2011Van Tilburg & Igou, 2012). The transitory experience of boredom arises frequently that can have both positive and negative consequences (Chin et al., 2017;Kılıç et al., 2019;Pekrun et al., 2014;Mann & Cadman, 2014;Van Tilburg et al., 2013;Fahlman et al., 2009;Goldberg et al., 2011). Although boredom is the one of most negative emotions yet it is the amongst the most understudy construct and only 4751 published research were on boredom from 1864 to 2020(Clarivate Analytics, 2020). ...
Article
This study was conducted to inspect the relationship between Boredom and Body Focused Repetitive Behavior Disorders among adolescents (excoriation, trichotillomania, nail biting). The sample(n=130) of this study was comprised of adolescents including both educated males and females. The scales that were used in the current study are The Trichotillomania Scale for Children/adolescents (Tolin et al., 2008), The skin picking scale (Snorrosam et al., 2012) and Nail -Biting Scale (Claes & Vandereycken, 2007). The scales that were used in the current study are Short Boredom Proneness Scale (SBPS) (Struk et al., 2016) The Trichotillomania Scale for Children/adolescents (Tolin et al., 2008), The skin picking scale (Snorrosam et al., 2012) and Nail -Biting Scale (Claes & Vandereycken, 2007). The study concluded the positive relationship of anxiety with BFRBD. The findings of study will increase the understanding of the knowledge of critical age period of adolescence with respect to Body focused repetitive disorders. The findings of this study will help the psychologists, counsellors, psychiatrists and therapists to design and plan the therapeutic interventions for BFRBD. Keywords: Body focused repetitive behavior disorder, Trichotillomania, Excoriation, Adolescents
... Both Hadfield and Cristoforetti's examples highlight the role of creativity as a powerful side-effect of boredom, a hypothesis that has been confirmed by recent psychological research. In addition to the direct relation between boredom and creativity described by Mann & Cadman's findings on this subject, there is also a progressive increase in the levels of creative output the longer the experience of profound boredom lasts [29]. Gasper & Middlewood were also able to identify the intensity of the feeling of boredom as being directly proportional to how creative the response to it becomes [30]. ...
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Psychological health is seriously impacted when humans are in isolated environments for long periods of time; monotony and boredom have been identified as serious stressors that can compromise the safety of space travel. This paper explores the potential of creativity and affective computation as future countermeasures to deep boredom in space, while also evaluating current countermeasures and highlighting their lack of flexibility. Responsiveness is required in order to address psychological health in space. The success of long-duration missions requires that major psycho-physiological challenges such as profound boredom be properly taken into account in the design of space habitats. By applying recent psychological research findings that assign a positive potential to boredom experiences, we reconsider the role of monotony and boredom in space travel. We propose the integration of artificial empathy systems within space habitats as a way to leverage this positive potential, by outlining tentative first steps towards ‘Affective Computing Environments’ (ACE) for space-flight. Through this process, space environments could potentially be imbued with the ability to perceive and respond to human emotional states. We conclude with a reflection on the importance of flexibility and responsiveness in strategies to mitigate monotony in deep space settings.
... Previous studies brought quite equivocal conclusions about the role of boredom in creativity. While some researchers demonstrated that feeling bored may facilitate creativity (Gasper & Middlewood, 2014;Mann & Cadman, 2014), others found a detrimental effect of boredom on creative task performance (Haager et al., 2018). In this investigation, we obtained significant, albeit weak, negative links between negative passive emotions and creativity. ...
... Although people reported that they should engage in novel rather than familiar activities when bored, they also reported that they were not likely to do so and, generally, did not display greater intention to engage in novel activities when primed with relational boredom. This fits with research outside the relational domain that suggests that although boredom can serve as a signal to prompt constructive action (e.g., Fishbach et al., 2011;Harris, 2000;Mann & Cadman, 2014), boredom has been primarily associated with disengaging, and avoidance qualities (see Vodanovich & Watt, 2016 for review). More specifically, scholars have argued that boredom prompts the pursuit of alternative goals rather than treating it as a signal to work on the goal at hand (Bench & Lench, 2013). ...
Article
Although engaging in exciting, shared activities with a partner is one strategy for warding off relational boredom , people might be less likely to pursue these activities when they are bored, which could have implications for the maintenance of passion in romantic relationships. In the current study, we assessed couple members' (N = 122 couples) daily experiences of relational boredom, the occurrence and quality of exciting , shared activities, and passion in a 21-day daily diary study and followed up with participants 3 months later. Overall, there was evidence that relational boredom obstructed the occurrence and quality of exciting, shared activities. In turn, less enjoyable shared activities were associated with lower daily passion, and engaging in fewer exciting, shared activities accounted for declines in passion over time. Implications of the findings for passion decay are discussed. K E Y W O R D S relational boredom, relationship maintenance, self-expansion, shared leisure Statement of Relevance: The benefits of exciting, shared activities for promoting passion in intimate relationships are well-documented, however, less is known about what challenges couples face when engaging in such activities in their daily lives. In the current study, we demonstrate that relational boredom impeded exciting, shared activities in couples' daily lives, which was associated with a lower passion that day, as well as declines in passion over time.
Article
The benefits that consumer innovators create for their environment are well established, unlike the benefits that they gain from it. This quantitative empirical study investigates how job-related resources (i.e., knowledge, energy and inspiration acquired at work) spill over into household-sector (HHS) innovations. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, the study (1) sheds light on how job innovativeness and job boredom, as two examples of high vs. low job requirements, may contribute to the acquisition of job-related resources, and (2) explores how the job-related resources affect the outcomes of HHS innovation efforts developed during leisure time. Whereas being confronted with innovativeness at work increases the acquisition of job-related resources, experiencing boredom at work only benefits consumer innovators who have longer organizational tenures. Furthermore, the job-related resources positively affect HHS innovation outcomes in terms of novelty, general use value, and technical feasibility. Thus, results indicate that consumer innovators’ work environment can enhance the development of HHS innovations by fostering innovativeness but also ensuring realization. These insights underscore the importance of studying consumer innovators’ work environment to find ways to encourage HHS innovation activities.
Article
Objective Boredom proneness is associated with various problematic behaviors and mental health issues. Despite its wide‐ranging implication, boredom proneness as a trait‐like construct suffers from conceptual ambiguity and measurement issues. We examined whether boredom proneness represents individual differences in (a) the frequency of getting bored, (b) the intensity of boredom, and/or (c) a holistic perception of life being boring (perceived life boredom). Method Across Study 1 (US Sample, N = 495; HK Sample, N = 231) and Study 2 (N = 608), we tested the construct validity of boredom proneness by estimating its association with measures of the three possible characterizations (convergent validity), and examined to what extent associations between boredom proneness and variables relevant to well‐being (e.g., life satisfaction, psychological distress) could be reproduced with the three potential characterizations (concurrent validity). Results Results suggest that each of the three characterizations represents some aspect of boredom proneness, and they generally reproduced boredom proneness’ associations with other variables. Among them, perceived life boredom had the strongest convergent and concurrent validity. Conclusion Our findings provide novel insights into the characterization of boredom proneness and its hitherto poorly understood relationship with psychological well‐being.
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Boredom has been defined as ""a state of weariness or ennui resulting from a lack of engagement with stimuli in the environment" (Vanden-Bos, 2007). Research suggests that students bring a variety of positive and negative emotions to classroom such as pride, enjoyment, anxiety, anger and boredom and Commerce students. For this purpose, 120 students were randomly selected from various departments of DAV college, Chandigarh. Of the 120 students, 60 students were from Arts department and 60 were from Commerce department. The data were collected with a set of questionnaires composed of a demographic form and three research instruments: Boredom Proneness Scale (Farmer & Sundberg, 1986), Academic Boredom Scale (Acee et al., 2010), and Mood Awareness Scale (Swinkels et. al., 1995). The results indicate significant differences between Commerce and Arts students for boredom proneness, academic boredom and mood labelling. Similarly, significant correlations were observed among the variables under study. Future research suggestions and implications have been discussed.
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The books attempts to show the changeable and ambiguous notion of professional certainty of teachers, from the building experience gained from personal self-efficacy, which gives confidence in professional activity, to the state of ambivalence caused by the duality of their own experiences and conflicts in pedagogical work. The authors pay heed to the special relation of the described competence to COVID-19 pandemic and new challenges for teachers in this connection.
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In the studies, it has been found that historical empathy has a supporting role in developing historical thinking. However, there are few studies in which historical empathy is conceptualized with an instructional model and integrated into classroom practices. In this context, the aim of the study is to understand the effects of historical empathy model on academic achievement and attitude towards the course in the Revolution History and Kemalism course, and the reactions and views formed in the historical empathy process. In the study, design of embedded mixed method was used. In the quantitative stage of the study, socio-economic questionnaire, academic achievement, historical knowledge and interpretation tests and attitude scale towards the course were used as data collection tools and in qualitative stage, field notes, semi-structured interview forms and open-ended questionnaires were used. Quantitative data of the study were analyzed with t tests, Manova and one-way covariance analysis, and qualitative data with content and descriptive analysis. As a result of the analysis of quantitative data, the historical empathy model has a statistically significant effect on students' academic achievement level; and it was determined that the students in the experimental group, where historical empathy was applied, had higher mean of historical interpretation and attitude towards the course. As a result of the analysis of qualitative data, it has been concluded that historical empathy reveals emotional feelings such as enthusiasm, anger and boredom and cognitive reactions such as document review, asking questions, starting and maintaining discussions, and contributes to various things such as academic and skill development. (Yapılan çalışmalarda, tarihsel düşünmeyi geliştirme konusunda tarihsel empatinin destekleyici rolünün olduğu saptanmıştır. Buna rağmen tarihsel empatinin öğretimsel bir modelle kavramsallaştırılarak sınıf içi uygulamalarla bütünleştirildiği çalışmalar azdır. Bu nedenle araştırma için “T.C. İnkılap Tarihi ve Atatürkçülük dersinde, tarihsel empati modelinin, akademik başarı ve derse yönelik tutum üzerindeki etkileri ve tarihsel empati sürecinde şekillenen tepki ve görüşleri anlamak” amacı benimsenmiştir. Araştırmada, iç içe karma yöntem deseni kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın nicel aşamasında veri toplama araçları olarak, sosyo-ekonomik (sed) anket, akademik başarı, tarihsel bilgi ve yorum testleri ve derse yönelik tutum ölçeği; nitel aşamasında alan notları, yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formları ve açık uçlu anket kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın nicel verileri, t testleri, Manova ve Tek Yönlü Kovaryans Analizi ile nitel verileri içerik ve betimsel analizlerle çözümlenmiştir. Nicel verilerin analizi sonucunda, tarihsel empati modelinin öğrencilerin akademik başarı düzeyine istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir etkisinin olduğu; tarihsel empatinin uygulandığı deney grubundaki öğrencilerin, tarihsel yorum ve derse yönelik tutum ortalamalarının daha yüksek olduğu saptanmıştır. Nitel verilerin analizi sonucunda, tarihsel empatinin coşku duyma, öfkelenme ve sıkılma gibi duygusal; belge inceleme, soru sorma, tartışma başlatma ve sürdürme gibi bilişsel tepkileri ortaya çıkardığı, akademik ile beceri gelişimine yönelik çeşitli katkılarının olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.)
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We synthesize established and emerging research to propose a feedback process model that explicates key antecedents, experiences, and consequences of the emotion boredom. The proposed Boredom Feedback Model posits that the dynamic process of boredom resembles a feedback loop that centers on attention-shifts instigated by inadequate attentional engagement. Inadequate attentional engagement is a discrepancy between desired and actual levels of attentional engagement and is a product of external and internal influences, reflected in objective resources and cognitive appraisals. The model sheds light on several essential yet unresolved puzzles in the literature, including how people learn to cope with boredom, how to understand the relation between self-control and boredom, how the roles of attention and meaning in boredom can be integrated, why boredom is associated with both high and low-arousal negative emotions, and what contributes to chronic boredom. The model offers testable hypotheses for future research.
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Bernard Williams has famously argued that an immortal life would necessarily be boring. Despite the obvious importance that boredom occupies in Williams’s argument, he says very little about the nature of boredom. In this paper, I argue that attention to the empirical literature on boredom reveals a serious flaw in Williams’s argument. Specifically, I show that there is no available explication of boredom that is supported by the empirical research and which at the same time establishes Williams’s conclusions.
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We examine the cognitive processes that underpin emotion regulation strategies and their associations with creativity. Building on theories of emotion regulation and creative cognition, we theorize that cognitive reappraisal of emotion-eliciting events is positively associated with creativity because both involve considering new approaches or perspectives. We also predict that reappraisal experience boosts creativity for people prone to thinking conventionally. Three studies support our theory by demonstrating that reappraisal improves cognitive flexibility and enhances creativity for individuals low in openness to experience, independent from the effects of emotions on creativity. Therefore, reappraisal is an effective tool to foster creativity among conventional thinkers. More broadly, the results indicate that emotion regulation processes have downstream consequences on behavior, above and beyond their effects on emotions.
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Whereas the COVID-19 pandemic tested the solidity, agility, and resilience of organizations, it as well enhanced a refined debate on the conceptual frameworks that have traditionally been guiding the managerial decisions and organizational structures, policies, and practices. This chapter aims at exploring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on knowledge, technology, creativity, and innovation management research, highlighting creativity as the core vector to understand the reconfiguration of the renewed corporate structures and processes. By literature review, it identifies key concepts, assumptions, and theoretical constructs, aiming at highlighting creativity as the core asset to understand how the worldwide organizations have been able to overcome the twofold challenges and opportunities of the recent environmental conditions, defending that creativity hence emerged as the core asset so that organizations could test and reinforce their resilience, boosting overall performance via transversal dynamics to all the organization's structure, stakeholders, policies, and practices.
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Boredom and burnout are suggested to develop from opposite conditions: Whereas boredom is associated with low job stressors, burnout is driven by high job stressors. However, little empirical research exists on the relations between different types of stressors and boredom at work vis-à-vis burnout. Moreover, the direction of these relations has not been previously examined. Drawing from control – value theory and the challenge – hindrance stressor framework we used two-wave panel data from 1730 employees to examine cross-lagged relations between two types of job stressors (i.e., workload and red-tape), boredom and burnout. Results of structural equation modelling revealed that both workload and red-tape positively predicted burnout, while only red-tape positively predicted job boredom over the follow-up period. Furthermore, we found that while burnout positively predicted both perceived workload and red-tape, boredom negatively predicted both types of stressors. We also found a positive reciprocal relation between boredom at work and burnout. These results imply that boredom and burnout may have partly distinct antecedents and outcomes, but they may also fuel each other in a way that requires further research. Implications for practice are discussed.
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Tujuan penelitian ini ingin mengetahui hubungan pengaruh antara pelatihan job crafting dan penurunan tingkat kebosanan kerja. Hipotesis yang diajukan adalah terdapat perbedaan tingkat kebosanan kerja kelompok eksperimen-kontrol. Rancangan penelitian menggunakan desain kelompok kontrol prates-pascates. Konsep kebosanan kerja diukur menggunakan alat tes Dutch Boredom Scale (DUBS) diadaptasi dari Reijseger, et al. Pengukuran job crafting menggunakan Job Crafting Scale (JCS) diadaptasi dari Tims, et.al. Analisis data menggunakan Mann Whitney U. Hasil analisis menyebutkan nilai Z= -2,067 dan p = 0,039 (p < 0,05). Hasil ini menunjukkan adanya perbedaan skor secara signifikan tingkat kebosanan kerja kelompok eksperimen dan kontrol, setelah diberi pelatihan. Artinya, pelatihan job crafting merupakan alternatif penting dalam mengatasi kebosanan kerja.
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A classical test for accessing the potential creativity of an individual is based on ideational fluency, where a person is asked to generate all possible uses for a familiar item like apiece of paper. In scoring the results, it is intuitive that the suggested uses should not be weighted equally. Those suggested in radically different categories are "worth more" than those suggested within the same category only. We used information theory to derive a simple mathematical expression for a more objective measure of ideational fluency. We call this the creativity quotient (CQ). This innovative measure was examined using a small sample of participants, and is illustrated by the responses of two typical individuals from an ideational fluency task. The CQ accounts for the number of ideas (fluency), plus the number of categories (flexibility). Ongoing research will examine the independence of CQ from established measures of intelligence and personality.
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Examined the effects of race and gender on boredom proneness (BP) among 381 undergraduates (aged 17–55 yrs) asked to indicate their proneness to boredom. There were 202 Blacks and 176 Whites and 266 females and 115 males. Blacks were significantly more boredom-prone than Whites. Black females had the highest levels of BP, followed by Black males, White males, and White females. The effects of gender and the interaction of race and gender on BP were nonsignificant. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Divergent thinking is central to the study of individual differences in creativity, but the traditional scoring systems (assigning points for infrequent responses and summing the points) face well-known problems. After critically reviewing past scoring methods, this article describes a new approach to assessing divergent thinking and appraises its reliability and validity. In our new Top 2 scoring method, participants complete a divergent thinking task and then circle the 2 responses that they think are their most creative responses. Raters then evaluate the responses on a 5-point scale. Regarding reliability, a generalizability analysis showed that subjective ratings of unusual-uses tasks and instances tasks yield dependable scores with only 2 or 3 raters. Regarding validity, a latent-variable study (n=226) predicted divergent thinking from the Big Five factors and their higher-order traits (Plasticity and Stability). Over half of the variance in divergent thinking could be explained by dimensions of personality. The article presents instructions for measuring divergent thinking with the new method. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Note taking and note reviewing are essential college student learning activities. A large number of carefully controlled studies have evaluated student effectiveness in implementing each of these skills and have found that both can be improved by providing instructor notes. While the Internet now offers a practical method for providing notes, some instructors are reluctant to offer notes because they fear that students will use these notes as an alternative to class attendance. This study used data collected by the server and questionnaires to describe voluntary use of online lecture notes, to search for correlates of individual patterns of note use, and to investigate student use of notes as an alternative to class attendance. Students primarily printed notes and used these notes during class presentations. There was some evidence that note users performed better on examinations than students who did not use notes. Some students did admit to using notes as an alternative to class attendance, but a comparison between the examination scores of those who admitted to this practice and those who claimed never to use notes for this purpose showed no significant differences in performance.
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Nearly everyone experiences episodes of boredom at work from time to time, regardless of the nature of their job. Previous research on vigilance and industrial monotony is unable to explain boredom on any but the simplest of tasks. A broader view of the causes of boredom, including attributes of the task, environment, person, and person-environment fit, is proposed. Likely consequences of boredom are considered, and research needs and implications are discussed.
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This article reports the development, validation, and correlates of a self-report measure of boredom proneness. The 28-item Boredom Proneness (BP) Scale demonstrates satisfactory levels of internal consistency (coefficient alpha = .79) and test-retest reliability (r = .83) over a 1-week interval. Evidence of validity for the BP is supported by correlations with other boredom measures and from a set of studies evaluating interest and attention in the classroom. Other hypothesized relationships with boredom were tested, with significant positive associations found with depression, hopelessness, perceived effort, loneliness, and amotivational orientation. Additional findings indicate boredom proneness to be negatively related to life satisfaction and autonomy orientation. The relationship of boredom to other affective states is discussed, and directions for future research are outlined.
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Although talk is the fundamental material of human relations, the sociology of talk remains undeveloped. This article presents an analysis of one kind of talk, the employment of accounts--statements made to explain untoward behavior and bridge the gap between actions and expectations. Accounts may be classified by content as excuses and justifications, each with its own subtypes. Excuses and justifications are socially approved vocabularies which neutralize an act or its consequences when one or both are called into question. The honoring of an account represents the restoration of equilibrium. There are also strategies for avoiding accounts. More broadly, accounts are manifestations of the underlying negotiation of identities within speech communities.
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This article reviews the hypothesis that mind wandering can be integrated into executive models of attention. Evidence suggests that mind wandering shares many similarities with traditional notions of executive control. When mind wandering occurs, the executive components of attention appear to shift away from the primary task, leading to failures in task performance and superficial representations of the external environment. One challenge for incorporating mind wandering into standard executive models is that it often occurs in the absence of explicit intention--a hallmark of controlled processing. However, mind wandering, like other goal-related processes, can be engaged without explicit awareness; thus, mind wandering can be seen as a goal-driven process, albeit one that is not directed toward the primary task.
Article
This study investigated the relationships between boredom proneness, mood monitoring, mood labeling, and tendency to experience flow; and explored some qualitative, phenomenological aspects of boredom. College students (N = 170) responded to an anonymous questionnaire containing the Boredom Proneness Scale (Farmer & Sundberg, 1986), the Mood Awareness Scale (Swinkels & Giuliano, 1995), a measure of flow proneness, and questions about the experience of boredom. As predicted, Boredom Proneness was positively correlated with mood monitoring, negatively correlated with mood labeling, and negatively correlated with flow. Respondents provided interesting information about their perceptions of boredom, its causes, and their strategies for coping with and planning for boring situations. A majority of participants described positive aspects of boredom, and 10% volunteered that they were never bored.
Book
How cognitive psychology explains human creativity Conventional wisdom holds that creativity is a mysterious quality present in a select few individuals. The rest of us, the common view goes, can only stand in awe of great creative achievements: we could never paint Guernica or devise the structure of the DNA molecule because we lack access to the rarified thoughts and inspirations that bless geniuses like Picasso or Watson and Crick. Presented with this view, today's cognitive psychologists largely differ finding instead that "ordinary" people employ the same creative thought processes as the greats. Though used and developed differently by different people, creativity can and should be studied as a positive psychological feature shared by all humans. Creativity: Understanding Innovation in Problem Solving, Science, Invention, and the Arts presents the major psychological theories of creativity and illustrates important concepts with vibrant and detailed case studies that exemplify how to study creative acts with scientific rigor. Creativity includes: Two in-depth case studies—Watson and Crick's modeling of the DNA structure and Picasso's painting of Guernica— serve as examples throughout the text Methods used by psychologists to study the multiple facets of creativity The "ordinary thinking" or cognitive view of creativity and its challengers How problem–solving and experience relate to creative thinking Genius and madness and the relationship between creativity and psychopathology The possible role of the unconscious in creativity Psychometrics—testing for creativity and how personality factors affect creativity Confluence theories that use cognitive, personality, environmental, and other components to describe creativity Clearly and engagingly written by noted creativity expert Robert Weisberg, Creativity: Understanding Innovation in Problem Solving, Science, Invention, and the Arts takes both students and lay readers on an in-depth journey through contemporary cognitive psychology, showing how the discipline understands one of the most fundamental and fascinating human abilities. "This book will be a hit. It fills a large gap in the literature. It is a well-written, scholarly, balanced, and engaging book that will be enjoyed by students and faculty alike." —David Goldstein, University of Toronto
Article
Student engagement is considered an important predictor of student achievement, but few researchers have attempted to derive a valid and reliable measure of college student engagement in particular courses. In 2 studies, we developed and explored the validity of a measure of student engagement, the Student Course Engagement Questionnaire (SCEQ). Exploratory factor analysis revealed 4 dimensions of college student engagement that were distinct and reliable: skills engagement, participation/interaction engagement, emotional engagement, and performance engagement. We reported evidence of the convergent and discriminant validity of the measure. In particular, we found relationships between factors on the SCEQ and self-report measures of engagement, endorsement of self-theories, goal preferences, and grades.
Article
Significant changes in both the capacity and the content of attention emerge during adolescence. Part II of this two-part article argues that a central task of adolescence is to utilize increased information-processing capacities in order to develop attentional habits which shape interests, provide enjoyment, and avoid boredom. Reports of chronic boredom or of extreme efforts to escape from boredom during adolescence may signify substantial difficulty in forming the attentional habits required for developing a separate identity. When adolescents are bored, they may resort to habits of attention and enjoyment which have deleterious personal, social, and ecological consequences. Further study of attention in adolescence may help to explore preventive educational approaches to the problem of boredom and of "pathological" solutions to boredom.
Article
The first part of this two-part article argues that significant changes in both the capacity and the content of attention emerge in adolescence. Part I reviews evidence from behavioral and biological studies that the capacity for interested attention develops from late childhood into adolescence.
Article
Although theoretically proposed in the literature, the direct associations between political attitudes, religion, and creativity have been scarcely explored. A convenience sample of 123 adults working in Israel filled out questionnaires assessing political-social attitudes, religiosity, and background factors (e.g., age, gender, education, and parents’ education) associated with the aforementioned. The How Do You Think test was used to assess creativity in various life areas. Regressions and SEM analysis revealed associations between religiosity, political, and social attitudes, mother’s and father’s education, and creativity. A preliminary discussion of the result patterns as well as direction for future research follow.
Article
This article examines the experience and meaning of boredom in modern society. Boredom is understood as an experience of a lack of momentum or flow in a person's life. Boredom is conceptualized as an interactional phenomenon that is inextricably connected to social rhythm. The communication of boredom is examined with respect to its consequences in self and motive presentation. The article also describes those features of contemporary American life that appear to facilitate the experience and communication of boredom.
Article
Boredom remains a poorly understood phenomenon despite its evident association with dysfunctional behavior and mental health problems. However, little research has been devoted to the topic, and the bulk of studies have almost exclusively been quantitative in design. For this reason, a qualitative, interpretive phenomenological study was carried out, during which ten participants were asked for their accounts of the experience of boredom. These people were sampled from the general population. The aims of the study were to find out more about the antecedents to boredom, the experience itself, any stages in its development, and methods used to deal with it.Findings indicated that boredom is an extremely unpleasant and distressing experience. Situations giving rise to the sensation varied between specific external factors, to a general propensity to boredom proneness, although, according to the participants of the study, these could change throughout their lifetime. Feelings comprising the experience of boredom were almost consistently those of restlessness combined with lethargy. No stages in the development of the experience were identified. Strategies used to overcome the problem varied greatly, but generally involved trying to find interesting things to do. These strategies tended to be unsuccessful.Traditional methods of dealing with boredom have focused on increasing stimulation and choice in the environment. The authors propose that a more effective strategy might be to focus more on internal causes of boredom, such as an inability to sustain attention, although further research is required to support this interpretation of the data.
Four hundred and twenty-seven reported accidents in the course of repetitive, self-paced work in the machine shop of a light engineering factory were analysed for time of occurrence. Four critical peak periods were found. During these periods observational studies of variability of speed of operation were conducted, particularly on lathes, which revealed thai machine loading times varied more than cutting times. This was followed by a case study of variability of accuracy of hand movements. Unsuccessful Hand Movements (UHMs) were found to occur more often during the critical periods than at other times of the day. The data are interpreted in terms of rate of gain of information, fatigue and boredom.
Article
Derived from the psychometric tradition of creativity research, divergent thinking (DT) tests are the major instrument for measuring people's creative potential. Although still prevalent, DT testing has received substantial criticism of its validity and practical value. This article focuses on the issue of how to reliably and validly assess and predict people's real-world creative potential. Based on reviews of the literatures on the concept of creativity, creative thinking process, the psychometric approach, and DT tests, we examine 6 major weaknesses of traditional DT instruments: lack of construct validity; not testing the integrated general creative process; neglect of domain specificity and expertise; and poor predictive, ecological, and discriminant validities. This evaluation calls for development of improved psychometric instruments to better capture people's creativity in specific professional domains of interest. Broadening the conceptions of creativity and assessment instruments should allow development of more realistic models and theories and enable the psychometric approach to studying creativity to thrive.
Article
Examines the nature of daydreaming, emphasizing the patterns it takes through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood; its constructive powers of releasing tension, making boredom tolerable, and increasing creativity; and the ways in which people can be encouraged to increase their fantasy and imagery potential. Topics also include daydreaming and psychotherapy, and daydreaming for child training, education, and self-development. (7 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Explores imagination through the armchair, self-reflective procedures of Enlightenment philosophers, Romantic poets, and by the literary genre of the stream of consciousness. Although W. James (1890) put it at the center of psychology, it was Freud's development of the psychoanalytic method that opened the way for a more systematic consideration of ongoing thought and waking fantasy processes. After a hiatus during the period of behaviorist domination, the exploration of the functions and dimensions of imaginative thought through increasingly precise psychometric and laboratory procedures has again become a major task for psychology. Specific research questions relating to imagery and styles of imagination as well as clinical applications of imaginative thought are reviewed. (65 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Previous research found a relationship between daydreaming and sensation seeking, which implied that individuals use daydreaming to regulate boredom-induced tension to a level optimal for the individual. In other studies both daydreaming and sensation seeking were found to relate to measures of originality or divergent thinking. The present hypothesis suggested that boredom, presumed to be arousal, and daydreaming would interact to induce a set for divergent thinking. 40 male undergraduates, preselected on the Boredom Susceptibility subscales of the Sensation-Seeking Scale and a composite scale from 8 subscales of the Imaginal Process Inventory were tested on 2 measures of divergent thinking before and after experiencing a condition of stimulus invariance. State measures of boredom and daydreaming were also administered. A behavioral scale of daydreaming was employed to rate ongoing mentation. Results show that trait and state measures were not predictive; ratings of free fantasy were successful in predicting unstructured creativity where retrospective self-report measures had failed. (21 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study investigated the relationships between boredom proneness, mood monitoring, mood labeling, and tendency to experience flow; and explored some qualitative, phenomenological aspects of boredom. College students (N= 170) responded to an anonymous questionnaire containing the Boredom Proneness Scale (Farmer & Sundberg, 1986), the Mood Awareness Scale (Swinkels & Giuliano, 1995), a measure of flow proneness, and questions about the experience of boredom. As predicted, Boredom Proneness was positively correlated with mood monitoring, negatively correlated with mood labeling, and negatively correlated with flow. Respondents provided interesting information about their perceptions of boredom, its causes, and their strategies for coping with and planning for boring situations. A majority of participants described positive aspects of boredom, and 10% volunteered that they were never bored.
Article
The present study was concerned with the relationships between boredom at work, personal characteristics and performance. Data on individual characteristics, work effectiveness and experienced boredom at work was collected from a sample of 93 heavy truck drivers by means of questionnaires and personnel file records.The results suggest that boredom while driving through a monotonous desert road was moderately, yet systematically, associated negatively with higher mental and physical individual capacity. Boredom was also negatively associated with effectiveness. The relationship between boredom and work effectiveness was significantly moderated by personal characteristics. It was found that boredom was more strongly related to work effectiveness at the lower levels of individual capacity. The results are discussed in terms of possible implications for personnel selection and placement decisions.
Article
The study employs time-sampling data to examine age differences in the quantity and quality of children's and young adolescents daily experience with their families, friends, and alone. Participants (ages 9–15) carried electronic pagers for 1 week and reported their companionship, location, and affect at random times when signaled by the pagers. Findings show a dramatic decline in amount of time spent with family, with older students reporting half as much time with their families as younger students. Among boys, this family time was replaced by time spent alone; among girls, by time alone and with friends. Affect reported when with family became less positive between the fifth and seventh grade, but was more positive again in the ninth grade for boys. Affect with friends became more favorable across this age period; affect when alone did not vary. These age differences suggest changes in adolescents' daily opportunities for cognitive growth, emotional development, and social support.
Article
Doodling is a way of passing the time when bored by a lecture or telephone call. Does it improve or hinder attention to the primary task? To answer this question, 40 participants monitored a monotonous mock telephone message for the names of people coming to a party. Half of the group was randomly assigned to a ‘doodling’ condition where they shaded printed shapes while listening to the telephone call. The doodling group performed better on the monitoring task and recalled 29% more information on a surprise memory test. Unlike many dual task situations, doodling while working can be beneficial. Future research could test whether doodling aids cognitive performance by reducing daydreaming. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Over 3000 adult managers attending an assessment centre completed a battery of tests including three personality trait inventories (NEO-PIR; MBTI; and HDS), two ability tests (GMA, WG) and a well established measure of divergent thinking (the Consequences Test) used as the criterion variable for creativity. Regressions showed the NEO-PIR Big Five at facet and domain level accounted for around ten percent of the variance in divergent thinking. The MBTI, Big Four, accounted for only five percent of the total variance. Both intelligence tests were modestly correlated with creativity. Together sex, intelligence and personality accounted for 12% of the variance. Bright, stable, open, extraverted males scored most highly on the measure of creative thinking. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
In addition to divergent ideation, creative cognition requires specific evaluative strategies. Two evaluative skills were compared in this investigation, and the correlations of each with divergent thinking, critical thinking, and a measure of ‘preference for ideation’ were examined. One evaluative skill involved interpersonal judgments, and the other intrapersonal judgments. Correlational analyses indicated that there was a significant canonical correlation between inter- and intrapersonal evaluative scores (Rc = 0.63). There was also a significant correlation between intrapersonal evaluative accuracy and divergent thinking (Rc = 0.45), and a significant correlation between interpersonal evaluative accuracy and the preference for ideation (R = 0.31). Importantly, examinees were significantly more accurate when evaluating the uniqueness rather than the popularity of their own ideas, but significantly more accurate when evaluating the popularity rather than the uniqueness of ideas given by others. The highest percentage of correct identifications was for interpersonal evaluations, where 42% of the popular ideas were correctly identified. The lowest category was intrapersonal evaluations, where only 21% of the popular ideas were correctly identified. Finally, both inter- and intrapersonal evaluative scores had discriminant validity, being unrelated to standardized measures of critical thinking. These results are discussed in the context of current theories of creative thinking.
Article
When the mind wanders to unrelated thoughts and feelings while reading, the eyes often continue to scan the words without due attention to their meaning. This mindless reading, similar to states such as daydreaming or absentminded lapses, is a state of decoupled processing in which attention to ongoing perceptual information is reduced often in favor of the active consideration of internally generated thoughts and feelings. Normal reading involves a complex interaction between bottom-up representations of the text that is being read and top-down representations of the more general context that help to keep the readers mind on what they are doing. Since states of decoupling involve a reduced processing of sensory information, the coupling between the reader and the text breaks down during mindless reading. This reduced external coupling is one reason why mind-wandering during reading has significant implications for reading comprehension. Following the presentation of a model of the decoupled state and a specific consideration of mind-wandering during reading, five key unresolved issues for future research in mindless reading are identified.
Article
Student boredom within the school system has been widely studied and shown to be linked to various negative consequences such as diminished academic achievement, school dissatisfaction and truancy. However, little attention has been given to the issue of boredom within higher education and the current study aims to redress this balance. Two hundred and eleven university students completed questionnaires aimed at assessing contributors, moderators and consequences of their boredom. Results reveal that 59% of students find their lectures boring half the time and 30% find most or all of their lectures to be boring. The consequences of being bored included students missing future lectures and there was also a significant association between level of boredom and grade point average. The most important teaching factor contributing to student boredom is the use of PowerPoint slides, whilst the personality trait Boredom Proneness was the most important factor moderating the experience of boredom. Implications for future research and for teaching staff are outlined.
Article
The study employs time-sampling data to examine age differences in the quantity and quality of children's and young adolescents' daily experience with their families, friends, and alone. Participants (ages 9-15) carried electronic pagers for 1 week and reported their companionship, location, and affect at random times when signaled by the pagers. Findings show a dramatic decline in amount of time spent with family, with older students reporting half as much time with their families as younger students. Among boys, this family time was replaced by time spent alone; among girls, by time alone and with friends. Affect reported when with family became less positive between the fifth and seventh grade, but was more positive again in the ninth grade for boys. Affect with friends became more favorable across this age period; affect when alone did not vary. These age differences suggest changes in adolescents' daily opportunities for cognitive growth, emotional development, and social support.
Article
Four experiments indicated that positive affect, induced by means of seeing a few minutes of a comedy film or by means of receiving a small bag of candy, improved performance on two tasks that are generally regarded as requiring creative ingenuity: Duncker's (1945) candle task and M. T. Mednick, S. A. Mednick, and E. V. Mednick's (1964) Remote Associates Test. One condition in which negative affect was induced and two in which subjects engaged in physical exercise (intended to represent affectless arousal) failed to produce comparable improvements in creative performance. The influence of positive affect on creativity was discussed in terms of a broader theory of the impact of positive affect on cognitive organization.
Article
The relations among shyness, boredom, and grade point average were studied with 223 college students during an Interim at Texas Lutheran College. A positive relationship between shyness and boredom was noted for women and an inverse one between boredom and grade point average for men. However, no correlation was found between shyness and grade point average for women or men. As expected, the multiple correlations (.17, .16) were not significant for either group. Further research seems warranted, and several variables are specified for consideration.
Article
Psychological and psychiatric studies of boredom from 1926 to the present are reviewed. Articles concerning boredom averaged less than one paper per year during the review period. The most consistent finding has been that extroverts apparently constitute a group especially susceptible to this state, although this has not often been tested directly. Stimulus factors such as repetitiousness, lack of novelty, and monotony have been found to generate boredom. Coping strategies have been found to include daydreaming, motor restlessness, exploration, response variability, and withdrawal from the boring situation. Experimental approaches to the problem have generally been traditional. Attempts have consistently been made to relate boredom to altered or characteristic physiological states, but they have not resulted in a consensus concerning these biological variables.
Article
The project was designed to test the assumption that certain psychosocial characteristics of occupational groups are associated with elevated myocardial infarction risk. All cases of myocardial infarction below the age of 65 in men living in the region of greater Stockholm during the years 1974-1976 were identified (deaths as well as survivals) in the official registries of hospitalizations and deaths. For each case two controls without infarction (in younger ages four) matched for age, area of residence and sex were selected randomly from the parish registries. For each case and control (n = 334 and 882, respectively) information was available regarding occupation. The psychosocial characteristics of each one of the 118 occupations were recorded by means of a nation wide interview survey (3876 working men) in 1977. Relative age-adjusted risks of developing a myocardial infarction were calculated for occupations in which many vs occupations in which few subjects reported a given characteristic (50% with most vs 50% with least). Shift work and monotony were associated with significant excess risk. Hectic work was not associated with excess risk by itself but in combination with variables associated with low decision latitude and/or few possibilities for growth it was associated with significant excess risk.
Article
Boredom is defined as a unique psychophysiological state possessing interrelated and inseparable emotional, motivational, perceptual and cognitive concomitants. Practical consequences of boredom are reviewed, including diminished performance efficiency, general life satisfaction and health. Finally, the outline of a theoretical model is presented.
Article
This research presents a review of the psychometric measures on boredom that have been developed over the past 25 years. Specifically, the author examined the Boredom Proneness Scale (BPS; R. Farmer & N. D. Sundberg, 1986), the job boredom scales by E. A. Grubb (1975) and T. W. Lee (1986), a boredom coping measure (J. A. Hamilton, R. J. Haier, & M. S. Buchsbaum, 1984), 2 scales that assess leisure and free-time boredom (S. E. Iso-Ahola & E. Weissinger, 1990; M. G. Ragheb & S. P. Merydith, 2001), the Sexual Boredom Scale (SBS; J. D. Watt & J. E. Ewing, 1996), and the Boredom Susceptibility (BS) subscale of the Sensation Seeking Scale (M. Zuckerman, 1979a). Particular attention is devoted to discussing the literature regarding the psychometric properties of the BPS because it is the only full-scale measure on the construct of boredom.
The value of boredom
  • G Bell
Bell, G. (2011). The value of boredom. TEDxSydney Conference. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ps_YUElM2EQ
Coping with boredom in the cockpit before it's too late
  • V L Grose
Grose, V. L. (1989). Coping with boredom in the cockpit before it's too late. Professional Safety, 34(7), 24-26.
Overload and boredom
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Klapp, O. (1986). Overload and boredom. New York, NY: Greenwood Press.
Psychometric approaches to the Study of Human Creativity
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Plucker, J. A. and Renzulli, J. S. (1999). Psychometric approaches to the Study of Human Creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.) Handbook of Creativity, pp. 35-62. London, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Extreme individualisation, false subjectivity and boredom
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Hoover, M. (1986). Extreme individualisation, false subjectivity and boredom. Virginia Journal of Sociology, 2, 35-51.
Boredom: Root of discontent and aggression
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Dehlinger, R. (1975). The yawning student. In F. Goetzel (Ed.), Boredom: Root of discontent and aggression (pp. 44-54). Berkely, CA: Grizzly Peak Press.
Feeling bored Feelings: Our vital signs (pp. 113–129)
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Gaylin, W. (1979). Feeling bored. In W. Gaylin (Ed.), Feelings: Our vital signs (pp. 113–129). New York, NY: Harper and Row.
Will the BlackBerry sink the presidency?
  • S Begley
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  • J Interlandi
Begley, S., Bailey, H., Sone, D., & Interlandi, J. (2009). Will the BlackBerry sink the presidency? Newsweek, 153(7), 36-39.