Conference Paper

Circular Joint Sink Mobility Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

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Regarding energy efciency in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), routing protocols are engaged in a playful manner suggesting a consciousness of high value. In this research work, we present Circular Joint Sink Mobility (CJSM) scheme for WSNs. Our proposed scheme increases the stability period, network lifetime and throughput of the WSN. The beauty of our proposed scheme is that it controls the cluster head (CHs) election and selection in such a way that uniform load on CHs is ensured and it measures the distances through which each packet is sent from CHs to sink or Base Station (BS). Two mobile sinks are move in opposite direction, therefore each node or CHs calculates its distance and send data to the nearest one to preserve its energy. Thus, proposed scheme minimizes the overall energy consumption of the network. We implement CJSM scheme, in homogeneous, heterogeneous, reactive and proactive simulation environments. Results justify its applicability.

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... However, the problem of the size of the unbalanced mass is still present because of the random selection of cluster heads. [17]. ...
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In recent years, researchers have focused on wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Because there are a lot of applications we used. The wireless sensor network consists of many small sensor nodes that contain a small and self-charged battery. Sometimes it is possible to change the power source of the node battery but sometimes it is impossible to do so, and this varies depending on the nature of the network environment so, the wireless sensor network may be destroyed over time. This makes the process of increasing the lifetime of the wireless sensor network a major challenge for researchers. There are a lot of WSN protocols to improve the lifetime of WSN, one of these protocols and some of its modified versions. In this paper, LEACH is used to investigate wireless sensor networks (WSN) by evaluating LEACH, LEACH-C, LEACH-B (balanced leech), MOD-LEACH, I-LEACH, and Multi-hop LEACH. Moreover, The LEACH, LEACH-C, LEACH-B (balanced leech), MOD-LEACH, I-LEACH, and Multi-hop LEACH are implemented by MATLAB to achieve simulation results. The performance evaluation is shown in more charts to prove the performance of these protocols.
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In this book, the authors describe the fundamental concepts and practical aspects of wireless sensor networks. The book provides a comprehensive view to this rapidly evolving field, including its many novel applications, ranging from protecting civil infrastructure to pervasive health monitoring. Using detailed examples and illustrations, this book provides an inside track on the current state of the technology. The book is divided into three parts. In Part I, several node architectures, applications and operating systems are discussed. In Part II, the basic architectural frameworks, including the key building blocks required for constructing large-scale, energy-efficient sensor networks are presented. In Part III, the challenges and approaches pertaining to local and global management strategies are presented - this includes topics on power management, sensor node localization, time synchronization, and security. At the end of each chapter, the authors provide practical exercises to help students strengthen their grip on the subject. There are more than 200 exercises altogether. Key Features: Offers a comprehensive introduction to the theoretical and practical concepts pertaining to wireless sensor networks Explains the constraints and challenges of wireless sensor network design; and discusses the most promising solutions Provides an in-depth treatment of the most critical technologies for sensor network communications, power management, security, and programming Reviews the latest research results in sensor network design, and demonstrates how the individual components fit together to build complex sensing systems for a variety of application scenarios Includes an accompanying website containing solutions to exercises ( This book serves as an introductory text to the field of wireless sensor networks at both graduate and advanced undergraduate level, but it will also appeal to researchers and practitioners wishing to learn about sensor network technologies and their application areas, including environmental monitoring, protection of civil infrastructure, health care, precision agriculture, traffic control, and homeland security.
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In wireless sensor networks, since sensor nodes are distributed in inaccessible regions for data gathering, they need to be operated during an assigned time without battery recharging and relocation. For this reason, there has been abundant research on improving energy efficiency. PEGASIS, one of the well-known chain-based routing protocols for improving energy efficiency, builds a chain based on the greedy algorithm. However, due to long communication distance of some sensor nodes in a chain formed by the greedy algorithm, unbalanced energy consumption of sensor nodes occurs. Eventually, the network lifetime from this cause decreases. We propose energy efficient chain formation (EECF) algorithm to resolve the unbalanced energy consumption problem caused by long-distance data transmission of some nodes in a chain formed by the greedy algorithm. The simulation results are used to verify the energy consumption balance of sensor nodes and the whole network lifetime. In simulation, it is shown that EECF produces better results than the greedy algorithm.
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One of the major challenges in design of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is to reduce energy consumption of sensor nodes to prolong lifetime of finite capacity batteries. In this paper, we propose energy-efficient adaptive scheme for transmission (EAST) in WSNs. EAST is an IEEE 802.15.4 standard compliant. In this scheme, open-looping feedback process is used for temperature-aware link quality estimation and compensation, wherea closed-loop feedback process helps to divide network into three logical regions to minimize overhead of control packets. Threshold on transmitter power loss () and current number of nodes (()) in each region help to adapt transmit power level () according to link quality changes due to temperature variation. Evaluation of the proposed scheme is done by considering mobile sensor nodes and reference node both static and mobile. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme effectively adapts transmission to changing link quality with less control packets overhead and energy consumption as compared to classical approach with single region in which maximum transmitter assigned to compensate temperature variation.
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We study the impact of heterogeneity of nodes, in terms of their energy, in wireless sensor networks that are hierarchically clustered. In these networks some of the nodes become cluster heads, aggregate the data of their cluster members and transmit it to the sink. We assume that a percentage of the population of sensor nodes is equipped with additional energy resources—this is a source of heterogeneity which may result from the initial setting or as the operation of the network evolves. We also assume that the sensors are randomly (uniformly) distributed and are not mobile, the coordinates of the sink and the dimensions of the sensor field are known. We show that the behavior of such sensor networks becomes very unstable once the first node dies, especially in the presence of node heterogeneity. Classical clustering protocols assume that all the nodes are equipped with the same amount of energy and as a result, they can not take full advantage of the presence of node heterogeneity. We propose SEP, a heterogeneous-aware protocol to prolong the time interval before the death of the first node (we refer to as stability period), which is crucial for many applications where the feedback from the sensor network must be reliable. SEP is based on weighted election probabilities of each node to become cluster head according to the remaining energy in each node. We show by simulation that SEP always prolongs the stability period compared to (and that the average throughput is greater than) the one obtained using current clustering protocols. We conclude by studying the sensitivity of our SEP protocol to heterogeneity parameters capturing energy imbalance in the network. We found that SEP yields longer stability region for higher values of extra energy brought by more powerful nodes.
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A wireless sensor network is a large collection of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational capability. Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey is to present the concept of the multipath routing approach and its fundamental challenges, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique in wireless sensor networks. In addition, we present a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols, which are especially designed for wireless sensor networks. We highlight the primary motivation behind the development of each protocol category and explain the operation of different protocols in detail, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper compares and summarizes the state-of-the-art multipath routing techniques from the network application point of view. Finally, we identify open issues for further research in the development of multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks.
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The 21st International Teletraffic Congress, held in Paris from September 15-17, 2009, presented several research papers on telecommunication traffic. The paper 'A new statistical approach to estimate global file populations from local observations in the eDonkey P2P file sharing system' proposed a new statistical approach for the estimation of global population statistics from local observations. 'On the interplay of network structure and routing strategies in scale-free networks' considered scale-free networks. 'Towards end-host based identification of competing protocols against TCP in a bottleneck link' investigated identifiable presence of UDP flows that compete against a TCP flow on a bottleneck link. 'Parametric distributions of connection lengths for the efficient analysis of fixed access network' presented a mathematical framework based on stochastic geometry that takes into account the strong dependency between the telecommunications infrastructure and the road systems infrastructure, in particular for access networks.
In order to prolong the network lifetime, energy-efficient protocols should be designed to adapt the characteristic of wireless sensor networks. Clustering Algorithm is a kind of key technique used to reduce energy consumption, which can increase network scalability and lifetime. This paper studies the performance of clustering algorithm in saving energy for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. A new distributed energy-efficient clustering scheme for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks is proposed and evaluated. In the new clustering scheme, cluster-heads are elected by a probability based on the ratio between residual energy of node and the average energy of network. The high initial and residual energy nodes will have more chances to be the cluster-heads than the low energy nodes. Simulational results show that the clustering scheme provides longer lifetime and higher throughput than the current important clustering protocols in heterogeneous environments.
Infrastructure for Homeland Security Environments. Wireless Sensor Networks helps readers discover the emerging field of low-cost standards-based sensors that promise a high order of spatial and temporal resolution and accuracy in an ever-increasing universe of applications. It shares the latest advances in science and engineering paving the way towards a large plethora of new applications in such areas as infrastructure protection and security, healthcare, energy, food safety, RFID, ZigBee, and processing. Unlike other books on wireless sensor networks that focus on limited topics in the field, this book is a broad introduction that covers all the major technology, standards, and application topics. It contains everything readers need to know to enter this burgeoning field, including current applications and promising research and development; communication and networking protocols; middleware architecture for wireless sensor networks; and security and management. The straightforward and engaging writing style of this book makes even complex concepts and processes easy to follow and understand. In addition, it offers several features that help readers grasp the material and then apply their knowledge in designing their own wireless sensor network systems: Examples illustrate how concepts are applied to the development and application of; wireless sensor networks; Detailed case studies set forth all the steps of design and implementation needed to solve real-world problems; Chapter conclusions that serve as an excellent review by stressing the chapter's key concepts; References in each chapter guide readers to in-depth discussions of individual topics; This book is ideal for networking designers and engineers who want to fully exploit this new technology and for government employees who are concerned about homeland security. With its examples, it is appropriate for use as a coursebook for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students.
In this paper, we present two new chain formation techniques, namely, multi-chain energy-efficient routing (ME) and cost optimisation with multi-chaining for energy efficient communication (COME) for wireless sensor networks supported by linear programming based mathematical models. ME protocol divides network area into subareas of equal size, which contain equal number of randomly deployed nodes. Furthermore, minimum distance based next hop for data transmission is used and the sojourn locations are adjusted in a way that, at a time when data reaches to the last node of the chain (terminator node), BS moves to the possible nearest location of that node (sojourn location). ME uses shorter routes for communication. COME protocol closely inspects the energy costs and selects route with minimum energy cost. Simulations show improved results for our proposed protocols as compared to PEGASIS in terms of the stability period, network lifetime, dropped packets and throughput.
Regarding energy efficiency in Wireless Sensor Net-works (WSNs), routing protocols are engaged in a playful manner suggesting a consciousness of high value. In this research work, we present Away Cluster Heads with Adaptive Clustering Habit ((ACH) 2) scheme for WSNs. Our proposed scheme increases the stability period, network lifetime and throughput of the WSN. The beauty of our proposed scheme is its away Cluster Heads (CHs) formation, and free association mechanisms. The (ACH) 2 controls the CHs' election and selection in such a way that uniform load on CHs is ensured. On the other hand, free association mechanism removes back transmissions. Thus, the scheme operations minimize the over all energy consumption of the network. In subject to throughput maximization, a linear programming based mathematical formulation is carried out in which the induced subproblem of bandwidth allocation is solved by mixed-bias resource allocation scheme. We implement (ACH) 2 scheme, by varying node density and initial energy of nodes in homogeneous, heterogeneous, reactive and proactive simulation environments. Results justify its applicability.
1 Abstract—Due to the growth of potential of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), now becomes possible to use this technology in various new generation services such as monitor environment characteristics like temperature, humidity, among others. WSNs are emerging as a new paradigm, gathering information in a collaborative way, where independent sensor nodes collect and share information. In the last few years ubiquitous computing popularity has grown considerably, ambient intelligence and home automation systems are having a good public acceptance. In this context, we developed a mobile application to remotely monitor one WSN, installed at a customer's home. The application's main goal is to interact with a WSN, allowing a user to consult sensor states and receive sensor alerts. Sensor alerts will be received, in case a sensor's threshold value, exceeds the limit. Therefore the user will be notified whenever there are changes in the WSN. Apart the WSN, a base station is also needed for keeping the state of the WSN, store sensor's information and enable communication between the WSN and the developed mobile application via Web Services. This way and having a network connection, the user can check the state of any WSN component, anytime, anywhere. The Android platform was chosen to implement our application, since it is having a great acceptance and continued growth in the mobile market.
Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) has progressed quickly and found its wide applications recently because of mobility, flexibility, extensible and low cost. WLAN has become very important part of future communication. Quality of Service is a hot-point of research about wireless network. Two wireless network loss models, namely random uniformed model and Gilbert-Elliott model, are analyzed. The theoretic results were verified by simulation empirical results. The applications of both models are therefore proved.
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Wireless distributed microsensor systems will enable the reliable monitoring of a variety of environments for both civil and military applications. In this paper, we look at communication protocols, which can have significant impact on the overall energy dissipation of these networks. Based on our findings that the conventional protocols of direct transmission, minimum-transmission-energy, multi-hop routing, and static clustering may not be optimal for sensor networks, we propose LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster based station (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network. LEACH uses localized coordination to enable scalability and robustness for dynamic networks, and incorporates data fusion into the routing protocol to reduce the amount of information that must be transmitted to the base station. Simulations show the LEACH can achieve as much as a factor of 8 reduction in energy dissipation compared with conventional outing protocols. In addition, LEACH is able to distribute energy dissipation evenly throughout the sensors, doubling the useful system lifetime for the networks we simulated.
The clustering Algorithm is a kind of key technique used to reduce energy consumption. It can increase the scalability and lifetime of the network. Energy-efficient clustering protocols should be designed for the characteristic of heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. We propose and evaluate a new distributed energy-efficient clustering scheme for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks, which is called DEEC. In DEEC, the cluster-heads are elected by a probability based on the ratio between residual energy of each node and the average energy of the network. The epochs of being cluster-heads for nodes are different according to their initial and residual energy. The nodes with high initial and residual energy will have more chances to be the cluster-heads than the nodes with low energy. Finally, the simulation results show that DEEC achieves longer lifetime and more effective messages than current important clustering protocols in heterogeneous environments.
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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) monitors changes in the operational environment and collaborate to actuate distributed tasks in dynamic uncertain and hostile environments. The biggest constraint of these networks is short life time. In this context, various schemes have been presented in order to improve the life time of these networks and to overcome the energy constraint. This paper presents a new cluster based routing algorithm to address the traditional problem of load balancing and energy efficiency in the WSNs. The proposed algorithm makes use of the nodes in a sensor network whose area coverage is covered by the neighboring nodes and marks these nodes as temporary cluster heads. These temporary cluster heads are later used for multihop intercluster communication. Performance studies indicate that the proposed algorithm solves effectively the problem of load balancing across the network and is more energy efficient compared to standard Leach and the enhanced version of Leach algorithms.
Prior work in the field of packet radio networks has often assumed a simple success-if-exclusive model of successful reception. This simple model is insufficient to model interference in large dense packet radio networks accurately. In this paper we present a model that more closely approximates communication theory and the underlying physics of radio communication. Using this model we present a decentralized channel access scheme for scalable packet radio networks that is free of packet loss due to collisions and that at each hop requires no per-packet transmissions other than the single transmission used to convey the packet to the next-hop station. We also show that with a modest fraction of the radio spectrum, pessimistic assumptions about propagation resulting in maximum-possible self-interference, and an optimistic view of future signal processing capabilities that a self-organizing packet radio network may scale to millions of stations within a metro area with raw per-station rates...
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