Preliminary Study on Purification of Aquaculture Wastewater by Microbial Nano-Silica Ball

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To form microbial nanoball, EM active calcium was immobilized on nano-silica carrier consisting of pond sediment, zeolite powder and nanosilica. Through real-time monitoring of pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) aquaculture wastewater, the purification effects of Microbial nanoSilica Ball on aquaculture wastewater under different mud-water ratio condition were studied. The results showed that the purification effect reached best in 3-6 days for all treatments and was better for mud-water ratio of 1:2.7. In this mud-water ratio, it was indicated that pH was maintained at 7-8.5 which was an optimum value for the aquaculture, the content of DO was increased by 82.16% compared with the initial value and the removal rate of COD and NH4+-N was 57.80% and 54.60% respectively.

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... The fermentation was carried out for six to seven days at a shaker with a speed of 150-220 rpm and a constant temperature of 37 °C to obtain an EM active calcium solution. According to the research of Wang et al. [23], the combination of active calcium with EM could significantly improve microbial biological activities. The sediment obtained from an aquaculture pond was acidified using a 0.1 mol/L HCl solution to decontaminate. ...
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Nanospheres were prepared by different materials of nano-bamboo charcoal powder, zeolite powder, and aquaculture pond sediment in different ratios. It was then fermented with effective microorganisms (EM) active calcium liquid to synthesize the bioactive microbial nanospheres. These nanospheres were used to compare the purification effect of ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) pollutants in aquaculture wastewater. The indoor simulation experiment was also conducted to compare the different dosage methods (one-time dosing without aeration, multiple dosing without aeration, and multiple dosing with aeration) of microbial nanospheres on the removal of organic matter (OM) and effect of the biodegradability (G value) in aquaculture sediment. The results obtained indicated that the purification effect was most remarkable when the mass ratio of nano-bamboo charcoal powder: zeolite powder: pond sediment was 10%: 15%: 75%, in which the maximum removal rate of NH4+-N, TN, and TP reached up to 84.86%, 52.15%, and 50.35%, respectively. Under the same microbial nanospheres amount, the effect of one-time addition on the removing of OM in sediment was not as effective as that of multiple dosing. After the 20th day, the removal rate of OM reached 25.99% in multiple dosing treatment and it was 35.58% higher than one-time dosing treatment. The OM content in sediment was reduced by 32.38% under the multiple dosing with aeration treatment. Multiple dosing of microbial nanospheres with aeration increased the G value of sediment about 337.0%. In situ experiment further indicated that the microbial nanospheres dosage with aeration had a good sediment bio-remediation effect, which is applicable to solve the problem of endogenous pollution in aquaculture ponds.
Taking the polyvinyl alcohol and sodium alginate as embedding agent and the domesticated activated sludge as embedding microbial agent, immobilized microbial granules were prepared with the embedding agent and embedding microbial agent in a ratio of 2: 1. The prepared granules were loaded into a homemade reactor in a filling rate of 20%, and the reactor was used for treating synthetic polluted surface water. The performance of the immobilized microbial granules and their pollutant removal efficiency were investigated. The results showed that the optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) and influent COD loading rate were 10 h and 1.15-1.85 g· L-1 · d-1, respectively. At water temperature 25-29 °C, DO concentration 3-4 mg · L-1, and HRT 10 h, and when the influent COD and NH4+-N were 70.58-91.76 mg · L-1 and 13.68-17.82 mg · L-1, respectively, more than 62.3% of the COD and more than 90.6% of the NH4+-N were removed. It was suggested that the immobilized microbial granules could effectively remove the COD and NH4+-N from polluted surface water.
The blossom-end rot (BER) induced by calcium deficiency will cause a great impact on tomato yield and quality. Aimed at the tomato physical barriers caused by calcium deficiency, the composite micro-organisms (EM) fermentation technology was applied to configure biological active calcium preparations of different calcium concentrations, with raw materials of calcium sulfate, lime and gypsum. The active calcium preparation with calcium concentration of 1 ‰ was sprayed on the fruits during the fruit development period in the field experiment. The results show that lime with highest solubility is the best raw material for the fermentation of EM active calcium preparations with the consideration of higher calcium concentration, reasonable pH and EC value, and the lowest cost. It also shows the incidence of blossom-end rot of the experimental group is 35.36 % lower than that of CK.
The objective of this work was to prepare novel magnetic Fe3O4/polyurethane foam (Fe3O4/PUF) composites applied to the carriers of immobilized microorganisms for toluene-containing wastewater treatment. The morphology and structure of Fe3O4/PUF composite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and magnetic property measurement system. These morphological investigations revealed that Fe3O4 nano-particles were well dispersed into the matrix of PUF with nano-scale diameter particles. TG experiments indicated that the initial thermal weight loss temperatures of composite with the content of 2.5 wt% and 7.5% Fe3O4 were increased by 7 and 16 °C, compared with pure PUF. The degradation efficiency of toluene with magnetic PUF composite was much higher than that of pure PUF carrier, and the reason why the immobilization of microbial biomass of microorganisms on the magnetic PUF composite was much higher than that of the pure PUF. The prepared magnetic Fe3O4/PUF composite offered excellent thermal stability and medium paramagnetic properties. And this composite could not only increase the immobilized biomass of the microorganisms, but also enhance the COD removal efficiency of wastewater.
Nitrate contamination is becoming a widespread environmental problem. The application of immobilized microorganisms' techniques to industry, especially in the biological wastewater systems and the production of metabolites, not only offers a high cell concentration in the reactor tank for increasing efficiency, but also facilitates the separation of liquid and solid in the settling tank. In this work, the applicability of cell immobilization to the aquaculture wastewater treatment process using the polyvinyl alcohol -boric acid (PVA-BA) method was investigated. The experimental results showed the denitrification efficiency of the aquaculture wastewater was over 80% under the conditions of hydraulic retention time =12h, pH=6.8, T=20-25�� , origin ammonia concentration =100mg/L.
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