ArticlePDF Available

Blurred Lines? Responding to ‘Sexting’ and Gender-based Violence among Young People

Authors:

Abstract

The emerging phenomenon of youth ‘sexting’ presents a range of unique legal, policy and educative challenges. In this article we consider four key issues in recent responses to youth sexting behaviours: (1) the definitional dilemmas surrounding the term ‘sexting’; (2) the inadequacy of existing legislative frameworks for responding to these behaviours; (3) the problematic messages conveyed in anti-sexting campaigns; and (4) the relative silence around gender-based violence in non-consensual and abusive encounters. We argue that the non-consensual creation and distribution of sexual images has largely been framed in public debates as a problem of youth naiveté, with the effect of censuring young women's ‘risky’ sexual behaviour, and leaving unproblematised gender-based violence. We suggest that more nuanced understandings of sexting that distinguishes between the consensual and non-consensual creation and distribution of sexual images must inform legal, policy and education-based prevention responses to the misuse of new technologies.
!
"!
!"#$%&'()*+,-&.$#.#!$%&'()!*+!,!-..')!/0!,!1'2)!0/"3#!44!""+5"03!
!
6&'77)8!9:2).;!<).4%28:2=!>%!?.)@>:2=A!B28!=)28)75CB.)8!
D:%&)2E)!B(%2=!F%'2=!4)%4&)!
!
G7!H2B.>B.:B!I%J)&&!K<L-M!N2:D)7.:>FO!B28!G7!P:E%&B!Q)27F!K9B!M7%C)!
N2:D)7.:>FO!
!
/"')'0'&1#(1)2"'(30'(3()34)53+-")6,'7-#(18)2&','(-,).)&.(1')34)+(#9+')$'1.$:)
23$#;5).(%)'%+;.-#<');".$$'(1',=)>()-"#,).&-#;$')?');3(,#%'&)43+&)@'5)#,,+',)#()&';'(-)
&',23(,',)-3)53+-"),'7-#(1)A'".<#3+&,B)CDE)-"')%'4#(#-#3(.$)%#$'00.,),+&&3+(%#(1)
-"')-'&0)6,'7-#(18F)CGE)-"')#(.%'9+.;5)34)'7#,-#(1)$'1#,$.-#<')4&.0'?3&@,)43&)
&',23(%#(1)-3)-"',')A'".<#3+&,F)CHE)-"')2&3A$'0.-#;)0',,.1',);3(<'5'%)#().(-#I
,'7-#(1);.02.#1(,F).(%)CJE)-"')&'$.-#<'),#$'(;').&3+(%)1'(%'&IA.,'%)<#3$'(;')#()
(3(I;3(,'(,+.$).(%).A+,#<')'(;3+(-'&,=)K').&1+')-".-)-"')(3(I;3(,'(,+.$)
;&'.-#3().(%)%#,-&#A+-#3()34),'7+.$)#0.1',)".,)$.&1'$5)A''()4&.0'%)#()2+A$#;)
%'A.-',).,).)2&3A$'0)34)53+-")(.#<'-L:)?#-")-"')'44';-)34);'(,+&#(1)53+(1)?30'(8,)
6&#,@58),'7+.$)A'".<#3+&:).(%)$'.<#(1)+(2&3A$'0.-#,'%)1'(%'&IA.,'%)<#3$'(;'=)K')
,+11',-)-".-)03&')(+.(;'%)+(%'&,-.(%#(1,)34),'7-#(1)-".-)%#,-#(1+#,"',)A'-?''()
-"');3(,'(,+.$).(%)(3(I;3(,'(,+.$);&'.-#3().(%)%#,-&#A+-#3()34),'7+.$)#0.1',)0+,-)
#(43&0)$'1.$:)23$#;5).(%)'%+;.-#3(IA.,'%)2&'<'(-#3()&',23(,',)-3)-"')0#,+,')34)('?)
-';"(3$31#',=))
))
R)FJ%78.S!T)@>:2=#!F%'>U#!.)@'B&:>F#!=)28)7#!D:%&)2E)#!>)EU2%&%=FV!
!
W%77).4%28:2=!H'>U%7S!
!
G7!H2B.>B.:B!I%J)&&!
9)E>'7)7#!1'.>:E)!X!9)=B&!T>'8:).!
<L-M!N2:D)7.:>F!
6':&8:2=!*Y#!9)D)&!3!
3""!TJB2.>%2!T>7))>!
L)&C%'72)V!$-WV!*///!
IU%2)S!K/*O!++0Z!*Z[[!
\(B:&S!B2B.>B.:BV4%J)&&]7(:>V)8'VB'!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
0!
6&'77)8!9:2).;!<).4%28:2=!>%!?.)@>:2=A!B28!=)28)75CB.)8!
D:%&)2E)!B(%2=!F%'2=!4)%4&)!
!
!
"#$%&'()$*&#!
!
-2!P%D)(C)7!0/"*#!B!^&'77F!%^!()8:B!B>>)2>:%2!'2E%D)7)8!>U)!)@:.>)2E)!%^!B!
=7%'4!%^!F%'2=!P)J!_)B&B28!()2#!B=)8!"Y!B28!"`#!EB&&:2=!>U)(.)&D).!?>U)!<%B.>!
6'.>)7.AV!MU).)!()2!B&&)=)8&F!=7%'457B4)8!87'2a#!'28)7B=)!=:7&.#!B28!>U)2!
C7B==)8!BC%'>!>U):7!)@4&%:>.!%2!B!bBE)C%%a!4B=)V!MU)!bBE)C%%a!4B=)!7)(B:2)8!
BE>:D)!^%7!>J%!F)B7.#!B28!B&>U%'=U!>U)!4%&:E)!a2)J!BC%'>!>U)!.:>)#!2%!B77).>.!J)7)!
(B8)V!L%7)%D)7#!bBE)C%%a!8:8!2%>!.U'>!8%J2!>U)!.:>)!'2>:&!>U)!()8:B!C7%a)!>U)!
.>%7F!BC%'>!>U)!=7%'4#!B28!B!2'(C)7!%^!D:E>:(.!EB()!^%7JB78!>%!>)&&!>U):7!.>%7:).#!
8).4:>)!>U)!.:>)!E&)B7&F!C7)BEU:2=!bBE)C%%aA.!>)7(.!B28!E%28:>:%2.V!H&>U%'=U!>U)!
.:>)!UB.!.:2E)!C))2!7)(%D)8#!:>!:.!B&&)=)8!>UB>!>U)!4U%>%.#!D:8)%.!B28!()..B=).!
B7)!BEE)..:C&)!D:B!-2>)72)>!EBEU).!%7!.BD)8!.E7))2.U%>.!%^!J)C.:>).V!c2!>U)!%2)!
UB28#!>U:.!(BF!47%D:8)!4%&:E)!J:>U!>U)!7)d':.:>)!)D:8)2E)!>%!.)E'7)!.)@'B&!
B..B'&>!E%2D:E>:%2.#!F)>!%2!>U)!%>U)7!UB28#!:>!B&.%!8)(%2.>7B>).!>U)!8:^^:E'&>F!%^!
7)(%D:2=!%^^)28:2=!(B>)7:B&!%2E)!:>!:.!%'>!:2!?EFC)7.4BE)AV!
!
MU)!7B4:8!.U:^>.!:2!E%(('2:EB>:%2.!>)EU2%&%=F!B28!>U)!%44%7>'2:>:).!>U).)!
>)EU2%&%=:).!47%D:8)!^%7!.)@'B&!E%(('2:EB>:%2!B28!:2>)7BE>:%2!K).4)E:B&&F!D:B!
:2>)72)>5)2BC&)8!?.(B7>A!4U%2).!B28!.%E:B&!2)>J%7a:2=!.:>).O!UBD)!&)8!>%!
J:8).47)B8!E%2E)72!7)=B78:2=!>U)!4%>)2>:B&!7:.a.!>UB>!>U).)!4&B>^%7(.!4%.)!>%!
F%'2=!4)%4&)V!-2!4B7>:E'&B7#!>U)!4U)2%()2%2!%^!?.)@>:2=A!KB&.%!a2%J2!B.!2'8)!
?.)&^:).A!%7!?2%%8eAO!UB.!7)E):D)8!B!=7)B>!8)B&!%^!B>>)2>:%2!:2!7)E)2>!>:().!KH&C'7F!
X!W7BJ^%78#!0/"0f!gB&a)7#!TB2E:!X!M)(4&)5T(:>U#!0/"*f!0/""OV!T)@>:2=!:.!
E%((%2&F!'28)7.>%%8!>%!7)^)7!>%!>U)!E7)B>:%2!B28!8:.>7:C'>:%2!%^!.)@'B&&F!
)@4&:E:>!>)@>#!D:8)%!B28,%7!4:E>'7)!()..B=).#!%^>)2!D:B!(%C:&)!4U%2)!B28!
:2E7)B.:2=&F!D:B!.%E:B&!()8:BV!c^!E%'7.)#!>U)7)!:.!2%>U:2=!?2)JA!BC%'>!>Ba:2=!
.)@'B&!%7!:2>:(B>)!4:E>'7).#!F)>!(%C:&)!B28!%2&:2)!>)EU2%&%=:).!7B:.)!2)J!
E%2E)72.!JU)2!.'EU!:(B=).!EB2!C)!)B.:&F!>Ba)2!B28!J:8)&F!8:.>7:C'>)8!J:>U%'>!
!
*!
>U)!E%2.)2>!%^!>U)!.'Ch)E>#!4B7>:E'&B7&F!JU)2!>U).)!:(B=).!B7)!%^!.)@'B&!B..B'&>#!
%7!JU)7)!>U)!:(B=).!B7)!'.)8!B.!B!>%%&!%^!C&BEa(B:&#!UB7B..()2>!B28!U'(:&:B>:%2V!
!
-2!>U:.!B7>:E&)#!J)!^%E'.!%2!^%'7!a)F!B28!:2>)7E%22)E>)8!:..').!:2!7)E)2>!
7).4%2.).!>%!F%'>U!.)@>:2=!C)UBD:%'7.V!b:7.>#!J)!E7:>:EB&&F!)@B(:2)!>U)!>)7(!
?.)@>:2=A!:2!%78)7!>%!B8D%EB>)!B!E%2E)4>'B&!B28!&)=B&!8:.>:2E>:%2!C)>J))2!
E%2.)2.'B&#!B28!2%25E%2.)2.'B&!^%7(.V!T)E%28#!J)!)@4&%7)!>U)!.E%4)!%^!>U)!
E7:(:2B&!B28!E:D:&!&BJ!:2!H'.>7B&:B#!JU:EU!%2!>U)!%2)!UB28!.)7D).!>%!E7:(:2B&:.)!
F%'>U!.)@'B&:>F#!C'>!%2!>U)!%>U)7#!)@E&'8).!E7:(:2B&!&:BC:&:>F!^%7!.%()!%^^)2E).!
B28!47%D:8).!:(4'2:>F!>%!%^^)28)7.!JU%!E7)B>)!B28!8:.>7:C'>)!.)@'B&!:(B=).!
J:>U%'>!>U)!E%2.)2>!%^!>U)!.'Ch)E>V!g)!B7=')!>UB>!>U)!:2B8)d'BEF!%^!&BJA.!
7).4%2.)!>%!.)@>:2=!UB.!:2!4B7>!C))2!:2^%7()8!CF!>U)!47%C&)(B>:E!8)^:2:>:%2.!%^!
.)@>:2=#!B.!8:.E'..)8!:2!>U)!^:7.>!.)E>:%2V!!
!
MU)!>U:78!:..')!J)!8:.E'..!E%2E)72.!>U)!47%C&)(B>:E!()..B=).!%^!B2>:5.)@>:2=!
47)D)2>:%2!EB(4B:=2.!>UB>#!&:a)!>U)!&BJ#!>)28!>%!^:@B>)!%2!JU)>U)7!%7!2%>!>U)7)!
JB.!)B7&:)7!E%2.)2>!>%!>U)!E7)B>:%2!%^!>U)!:(B=)#!7B>U)7!>UB2!>U)!&BEa!%^!E%2.)2>!
B>!B!&B>)7!4%:2>V!g)!.'44%7>!%>U)7!.EU%&B7.!JU%!(B:2>B:2!>UB>!>U)!)^^)E>!:.!>%!
E)2.'7)!F%'2=!J%()2A.!?7:.aFA!C)UBD:%'7.!B28!8)2F!F%'2=!4)%4&)A.!.)@'B&!
B=)2EFV!b:2B&&F#!>U)!^%'7>U!:..')!J)!:8)2>:^F!E%2E)72.!>U)!7)&B>:D)!.:&)2E)!
.'77%'28:2=!>U)!7)&B>:%2.U:4!C)>J))2!2%25E%2.)2.'B&!.)@>:2=!C)UBD:%'7.!B28!
=)28)75CB.)8!D:%&)2E)V!!
!
MU)!4B4)7!:.!.>7'E>'7)8!B7%'28!>U).)!^%'7!:..').V!g)!87BJ!%2!.%()!%^!>U)!a)F!
^:28:2=.!B28!7)E%(()28B>:%2.!%^!>U)!7)E)2>!$:E>%7:B2!IB7&:B()2>B7F!9BJ!
<)^%7(!W%((:>>))!i$I9<Wj!>(9+#&5)#(-3)M'7-#(1)K0/"*O!B.!J)&&!B.!%'7!%J2!
7)^&)E>:%2.!CB.)8!%2!47)&:(:2B7F!8B>B!^7%(!B!&B7=)7!7).)B7EU!47%h)E>!>UB>!
:2D).>:=B>).!B8'&>!J%()2A.!)@4)7:)2E).!%^!>)EU2%&%=F5^BE:&:>B>)8!.)@'B&!D:%&)2E)!
B28!UB7B..()2>V!gU:&)!>U)!47%h)E>!8%).!2%>!.4)E:^:EB&&F!)@4&%7)!>U)!)@4)7:)2E).!
%^!.EU%%&5B=)!F%'2=!4)%4&)#!%'7!47)&:(:2B7F!^:28:2=.!7)=B78:2=!J%()2A.!KB=)8!
%D)7!"`O!)@4)7:)2E).!%^!>)EU2%&%=F5CB.)8!.)@'B&!D:%&)2E)!B7)!:2.>7'E>:D)!^%7!
^7B(:2=!7).4%2.).!>%!F%'>U!.)@>:2=!C)UBD:%'7.V!!
!
!
3!
+,-$./!*#!-!#-012!314*#*#5!6/17$*#5.!
!
T)@>:2=!:.!B!>7)28!>UB>!JB.!^:7.>!7)4%7>)8!:2!>U)!()8:B!:2!0//Z!>%!8).E7:C)!>U)!
.)28:2=!%^!)@4&:E:>!>)@>!()..B=).!D:B!(%C:&)!4U%2).#!B28!JU:EU!&B>)7!)D%&D)8!>%!
>U)!.)28:2=!%^!.)@'B&&F!)@4&:E:>!.>:&&!B28!D:8)%!:(B=).!KB.!J)&&!B.!>)@>!()..B=).O!
8')!>%!EUB2=).!:2!EB()7B!EB4BC:&:>:).!%2!(%C:&)!4U%2).!K$I9<W#!0/"*OV!H.!B!
7).'&>!%^!B!7B^>!%^!()8:B!7)4%7>.!>UB>!>))2B=)7.!J)7)!C):2=!EUB7=)8!J:>U!EU:&8!
4%72%=7B4UF!%^^)2E).#!.)@>:2=!UB.!C)E%()!>U)!.'Ch)E>!%^!('EU!4'C&:E!B28!
.EU%&B7&F!8)CB>)V!k)>#!E'77)2>&F!>U)7)!:.!&:>>&)!B=7))()2>!B.!>%!)@BE>&F!JUB>!
E%2.>:>'>).!?.)@>:2=!C)UBD:%'7.AV!
!
T)@>:2=!JB.!>U)!^%E'.!%^!B!7)E)2>!$:E>%7:B2!IB7&:B()2>!9BJ!<)^%7(!W%((:>>))!
:2d':7F#!>U)!^:7.>!B28!%2&F!:2d':7F!>%!8B>)!:2>%!.)@>:2=!:2!H'.>7B&:BV!MU)!-2d':7F!
8)^:2).!.)@>:2=!JU)7)!B!4)7.%2S!!
!
E7)B>).#!%7!E%2.)2>.!>%!>U)!E7)B>:%2!%^#!>U)!()..B=)!%7!:(B=)!^%7!U:.!%7!U)7!
%J2!47:DB>)!'.)!B28,%7!>U)!'.)!%^!%2)!%7!(%7)!%>U)7!.4)E:^:E!4)7.%2.f!%7!
E7)B>).#!%7!E%2.)2>.!>%!>U)!E7)B>:%2!%^#!>U)!()..B=)!%7!:(B=)!B28!J:>U%'>!
>U):7!a2%J&)8=)!B28,%7!>U):7!E%2.)2>!>U)!()..B=)!%7!:(B=)!:.!
8:..)(:2B>)8!(%7)!C7%B8&F!>UB2!>U)!4)7.%2!:2>)28)8V!K$I9<W#!0/"*#!4V!
:@O!
!
MU:.!8)^:2:>:%2!JB.!B&.%!.'((B7:.)8!B.S!?l!>U)!E7)B>:2=#!.UB7:2=#!.)28:2=!%7!
4%.>:2=!%^!.)@'B&&F!)@4&:E:>!()..B=).!%7!:(B=).!D:B!>U)!:2>)72)>#!(%C:&)!4U%2).!
%7!%>U)7!)&)E>7%2:E!8)D:E).!CF!4)%4&)#!).4)E:B&&F!F%'2=!4)%4&)A!K$I9<W#!0/"*#!4V!
"+OV!H&>U%'=U!>U)!W%((:>>))!7)E%=2:.).!.)@>:2=!.4)E:^:EB&&F!B(%2=!F%'2=!
4)%4&)#!:>!2%2)>U)&)..!BEa2%J&)8=).!B8'&>!)2=B=)()2>!:2!.)@>:2=!C)UBD:%'7.V!6F!
E%2>7B.>#!g%&Ba!B28!b:2a)&U%7!K0/""O!^%E'.!%2!.)@>:2=!2B77%J&F!B.!B!F%'>U!
47BE>:E)#!J:>U!B8'&>.!%2&F!C):2=!:2D%&D)8!JU)2!:(B=).!B7)!7)E):D)8!:2!>U)!
E%2>)@>!%^!B!.)@'B&&F!)@4&%:>B>:D)!7)&B>:%2.U:4!J:>U!B!F%'2=!4)7.%2V!H.!.'EU#!
g%&Ba!B28!b:2a)&U%7!K0/""O!:2E&'8)!>J%!>F4).!%^!.)@>:2=S!?B==7BDB>)8A!K:2D%&D:2=!
E7:(:2B&!B28!BC'.:D)!)&)()2>.!m!JU:EU!(BF!:2D%&D)!B8'&>.!B.!4)74)>7B>%7.Of!B28!
!
Z!
?)@4)7:()2>B&A!KF%'>U!>Ba:2=!4:E>'7).!%^!>U)(.)&D).!B28!.)28:2=!>U)(!%2!B.!4B7>!
%^!B!?7%(B2>:EA!)@EUB2=)OV!!
!
MU)7)!B7)!E%(4)&&:2=!7)B.%2.!^%7!B8D%EB>:2=!B!C7%B8!8)^:2:>:%2!%^!.)@>:2=V!b:7.>#!B!
C7%B8!8)^:2:>:%2!(:=U>!BD%:8!.%()!%^!>U)!4:>^B&&.!7)E%=2:.)8!:2!B2>:5.)@>:2=!
EB(4B:=2.!KH&C'7F!X!W7BJ^%78#!0/"0O#!:2E&'8:2=!^:@B>:2=!%2!F%'>Uf!^B:&:2=!>%!
B8)d'B>)&F!BEE%'2>!^%7!>U)!UB7(!B..%E:B>)8!J:>U!.%()!'2)>U:EB&#!'2&BJ^'&!B28!
E7:(:2B&!47BE>:E).f!B28!47)E&'8:2=!BEa2%J&)8=)()2>!%^!B8'&>!^%7(.!%^!C%>U!
E%2.)2.'B&!B28!2%25E%2.)2.'B&!.)@>:2=V!T)E%28#!B!8)^:2:>:%2!>UB>!)@4&:E:>&F!
)2EB4.'&B>).!>U)!E%2.)2.'B&!.(%!2%25E%2.)2.'B&!E7)B>:2=#!.UB7:2=!%7!.)28:2=!%^!
.)@'B&&F!)@4&:E:>!()..B=).!%7!:(B=).!(:=U>!C)!'.)^'&!^%7!:2E&'8:2=!B!.4)E>7'(!%^!
E%2.)2.'B&#!E%)7E:D)!%7!)@4&%:>B>:D)!C)UBD:%'7.#!7)E%=2:.:2=!>UB>!B!8:.>:2E>:%2!
C)>J))2!E%2.)2>!B28!E%)7E:%2!:.!2%>!B&JBF.!.>7B:=U>^%7JB78!K<:2=7%.)#!n:&&#!
9:D:2=.>%2)!X!QB7D)F#!0/"0OV!!
Q%J)D)7#!B&>U%'=U!>U)7)!B7)!2%!8%'C>!C&'77)8!&:2).!C)>J))2!E%2.)2>!B28!
E%)7E:%2!>UB>!7)d':7)!47%C&)(B>:.B>:%2#!:>!.))(.!:2B447%47:B>)!>%!&BC)&!.%()!
C)UBD:%'7.!B.!?.)@>:2=A#!^%7!:2.>B2E)#!>U)!<%B.>!6'.>)7.!bBE)C%%a!)@B(4&)!
7)^)77)8!>%!)B7&:)7!:2!>U)!4B4)7V!->!:.!B&.%!:(4%7>B2>!>UB>!>U)!E%2.)2.'B&!E7)B>:%2!
%^!B!.)@'B&!:(B=)!:.!a)4>!.)4B7B>)!^7%(!2%25E%2.)2.'B&!B28!BC'.:D)!)&)()2>.#!
^%7!:2.>B2E)#!E7)B>:2=!:(B=).!J:>U%'>!>U)!E%2.)2>!%7!a2%J&)8=)!%^!>U)!.'Ch)E>#!
B28,%7!8:.>7:C'>:2=!>%!%>U)7.!>U)!.)@'B&!:(B=)#!B=B:2!J:>U%'>!>U)!E%2.)2>!%7!
a2%J&)8=)!%^!>U)!.'Ch)E>V!MU:.!2B77%J!B447%BEU!:.!'.)^'&!^%7!:2^%7(:2=!
&)=:.&B>:D)!7).4%2.).!>%!.)@>:2=!.%!>UB>!E%2.)2.'B&!.)@>:2=!B(%2=!F%'2=!4)%4&)!
B28!B(%2=!B8'&>.!:.!2%>!E7:(:2B&:.)8#!C'>!>U)!E7)B>:%2!B28!8:.>7:C'>:%2!%^!.)@'B&!
:(B=)7F!J:>U%'>!>U)!a2%J&)8=)!%7!E%2.)2>!%^!>U)!.'Ch)E>#!%2!>U)!%>U)7!UB28#!:.!
(B8)!.'Ch)E>!>%!E:D:&!%7!E7:(:2B&!&BJ.V:!!
!
815-9!4%-01:&%;/<!=%*0*#-9*/*#5!>&($,!/17!&%!/17(-9!?*&91#)12!
!
MU)!$:E>%7:B2!>(9+#&5)#(-3)M'7-#(1!.%'=U>!>%!:2D).>:=B>)#!B(%2=!%>U)7!>U:2=.#!^:7.>#!
>U)!?)@>)2>!B28!)^^)E>:D)2)..!%^!)@:.>:2=!BJB7)2)..!B28!)8'EB>:%2!BC%'>!>U)!
.%E:B&!B28!&)=B&!)^^)E>!B28!7B(:^:EB>:%2.!%^!.)@>:2=Af!B28!.)E%28#!>U)!
?B447%47:B>)2)..!B28!B8)d'BEF!%^!)@:.>:2=!&BJ.#!).4)E:B&&F!E7:(:2B&!%^^)2E).!B28!
!
[!
>U)!B44&:EB>:%2!%^!>U)!.)@!%^^)28)7.!7)=:.>)7#!>UB>!(BF!B44&F!>%!>U)!47BE>:E)!%^!
.)@>:2=#!4B7>:E'&B7&F!J:>U!7)=B78!>%!>U)!E7)B>:%2#!4%..)..:%2!B28!>7B2.(:..:%2!%^!
.)@'B&&F!.'==).>:D)!%7!)@4&:E:>!()..B=).!B28!:(B=).AV!MU)!-2d':7F!(B8)!B!
2'(C)7!%^!7)E%(()28B>:%2.!:2!7)&B>:%2!>%!>U)!&BJ.!%^!.)@>:2=!:2!C%>U!$:E>%7:B!
B28!H'.>7B&:BV!
!
MU)!a)F!7)E%(()28B>:%2.!:2E&'8)S!EUB2=).!>%!%'>8B>)8!EU:&8!4%72%=7B4UF!&BJ.!
K%^>)2!'.)8!:2!7).4%2.)!>%!'28)7B=)!.)@>:2=Of!B!2)J!E7:(:2B&!%^^)2E)!>%!B887)..!
>U)!:2>)2>:%2B&#!2%25E%2.)2.'B&!8:.>7:C'>:%2!%^!B2!:2>:(B>)!:(B=)!K^%7!C%>U!
F%'2=!4)%4&)!B28!B8'&>.Of!B28!B!2)J!>7:C'2B&!>%!B887)..!>U)!UB7(!>UB>!
'2B'>U%7:.)8!.)@'B&!:(B=).!EB'.)!>%!F%'>U!B28!B8'&>.!B&:a)V::!!H.!UB.!C))2!
47)D:%'.&F!B7=')8#!E'77)2>!8)CB>).!B28!7).4%2.).!>%!.)@>:2=!UBD)!>)28)8!>%!
E%2^&B>)!E%2.)2.'B&!.)@'B&!C)UBD:%'7!C)>J))2!>J%!F%'2=!4)%4&)!%^!E%2.)2>:2=!
B=)!J:>U!.)@'B&!UB7(!:2!B28!%^!:>.)&^!KH&C'7F!)>!B&V#!0/"*f!I%J)&&#!0/"/CO#!JU:&)!
^B:&:2=!>%!B887)..!>U)!UB7(!%^!(3(I;3(,'(,+.$!.)@'B&!:(B=)!>Ba:2=!B28!
8:.>7:C'>:%2V!MU:.!:.!)@BE)7CB>)8!CF!%'7!E'77)2>!&BJ.!%2!EU:&8!4%72%=7B4UF#!
JU:EU!J)7)!2%>!J7:>>)2!J:>U!E%2.)2.'B&!.)@>:2=!C)>J))2!(:2%7.!:2!(:28V!!
!
N28)7!H'.>7B&:B!.>B>)!B28!>)77:>%7F!&BJ.#!B2F!:(B=)!>UB>!8)4:E>.!B!4)7.%2!'28)7!
"[!%7!"`!F)B7.!%^!%&8!:2!B!.)@'B&!%7!.)@'B&&F!.'==).>:D)!(B22)7!:.!E%2.:8)7)8!
EU:&8!4%72%=7B4UF#!)D)2!>U%'=U!>U:.!8%).!2%>!B&JBF.!7)^&)E>!>U)!B=)!%^!E%2.)2>!>%!
.)@'B&!BE>:D:>F#!JU:EU!DB7:).!BE7%..!8:^^)7)2>!.>B>).!B28!>)77:>%7:).V!H.!B!7).'&>#!B!
4)7.%2!JU%!4B..).!%2!%7!7)E):D).!>U%.)!:(B=).!EB2!C)!EUB7=)8!J:>U!B!E7:(:2B&!
%^^)2E)!B28#!:2!.%()!EB.).#!(BF!C)!&:.>)8!%2!B!.)@!%^^)28)7.A!7)=:.>)7V!b%7!
)@B(4&)#!:2!$:E>%7:B#!:^!B=)8!%D)7!"`!F)B7.#!:28:D:8'B&.!^BE)!(B28B>%7F!
7)=:.>7B>:%2!%2!>U)!T)@!c^^)28)7.!<)=:.>)7!C'>!:^!>U)F!B7)!'28)7!"`#!>U)!E%'7>!UB.!
>U)!8:.E7)>:%2!>%!:2E&'8)!>U)(!%2!>U)!7)=:.>)7!KM'7)N44'(%'&,)O'1#,-&.-#3()*;-)
GPPJ)K$:EOOV!!!
!
MU)!%D)75E7:(:2B&:.B>:%2!%^!F%'2=!4)%4&)A.!8:=:>B&!E%(('2:EB>:%2.!UB.!C))2!
8:.E'..)8!B>!&)2=>U!)&.)JU)7)!K)V=V!H&C'7F!X!W7BJ^%78#!0/"0f!H&C'7F#!b'22)&&!X!
P%%2B2#!0/"/f!TB&>)7#!W7%^>.!X!9))#!0/"*O#!J:>U!7).)B7EU)7.!U:=U&:=U>:2=!>U)!
JBF.!:2!JU:EU!&BJ.!UBD)!>U)!)^^)E>!%^!E7:(:2B&:.:2=!F%'2=!4)%4&)A.!.)@'B&!
!
Y!
)@4&%7B>:%2!B28!B=)2EFV!!b%7!)@B(4&)#!9))!B28!E%&&)B=').!K0/"*#!4V!*[O!B7=')!
>UB>!?B&>)72B>:D)!2B77B>:D).!%^!.)@>:2=!:2D%&D:2=!F%'2=!4)%4&)!B7)!(B7=:2B&:.)8!%7!
7)28)7)8!.:&)2E)!CF!(%7B&:.:2=!8%(:2B2>!8:.E%'7.)AV!T:(:&B7&F#!H&C'7F#!b'22)&&!
B28!P%%2B2!K0/"/#!4V!"/O!B.aS!?gUB>!a:28!%^!(%8)&!%^!:2>:(B>)!E:>:e)2.U:4!:.!
%^^)7)8!>%!F%'2=!4)%4&)!JU%!B7)!'2BC&)!>%!E7)B>)!%7!BEE)..!()8:B>)8!:(B=).!%^!
>U)(.)&D).!%7!>U):7!%J2!.)@'B&!&:D).!J:>U%'>!C):2=!EB.>!B.!):>U)7!D:E>:(!%7!
4)74)>7B>%7;AV!<)^%7(.!>%!H'.>7B&:B2!E7:(:2B&!B28!E:D:&!&BJ!.U%'&8!>U)2!4&BE)!
,'7+.$);3(,'(-#!7B>U)7!>UB2!7).>7:E>:%2.!%2!^7))8%(!%^!.)@'B&!)@47)..:%2#!B>!>U)!
E)2>7)V!MU:.!:.!&:a)J:.)!B2!:(4%7>B2>!&)..%2!^%7!EFC)7!.B^)>F!EB(4B:=2.#!JU)7)!
>U)!)^^)E>!UB.!>F4:EB&&F!C))2!>%!^%E'.!%2!F%'>U!2B:D)>o!7B>U)7!>UB2!>U)!)>U:E.!%^!
E7)B>:2=!B28,%7!8:.>7:C'>:2=!B!.)@'B&&F!)@4&:E:>!:(B=)!J:>U%'>!>U)!E%2.)2>!%^!>U)!
.'Ch)E>V!!!
!
@%1?1#$*&#!1'()-$*&#<!=>A1%!6/-41$>.!)-0B-*5#/!
!
gU:&)!>U)7)!B7)!%2=%:2=!&)=:.&B>:D)!B28!4%&:EF!8)CB>).!7)=B78:2=!>U)!B447%47:B>)!
7).4%2.)!>%!.)@>:2=!:2!4B7>:E'&B7#!:>!:.!)..)2>:B&!>UB>!B!47)D)2>:%2!B=)28B!:.!B&.%!
8:7)E>)8!B>!>U:.!:..')V!-28))8#!B!a)F!47%C&)(!J:>U!E'77)2>!8)CB>).!B28!7).4%2.).!
>%!.)@>:2=!:.!>UB>!>U)F!%^>)2!C&B()!>U)!D:E>:(!JU:&)!(:2:(:.:2=!>U)!7%&)!%^!%>U)7.!
:2!4)74)>7B>:2=!UB7(#!^%7!)@B(4&)#!JU)7)!B2!:(B=)!UB.!C))2!>Ba)2!B28,%7!
8:.>7:C'>)8!J:>U%'>!E%2.)2>V!MU:.!:.!4B7>:E'&B7&F!>7')!%^!.%()!47)D)2>:%2!
B28!)8'EB>:%2!7).%'7E).#!JU:EU!UBD)!E&)B7&F!47).)2>)8!F%'2=!J%()2!>Ba:2=!
.)@'B&!:(B=).!%^!>U)(.)&D).!B.!?.>'4:8A!%7!?2BpD)A#!C'>!UBD)!:=2%7)8!>U)!7%&)!%^!
%>U)7.!JU%!8:.>7:C'>)!B!.)@'B&!:(B=)!J:>U%'>!>U)!a2%J&)8=)!%7!E%2.)2>!%^!>U)!
4)7.%2!4:E>'7)8!:2!>U)!:(B=)!%7!D:8)%V!-28))8#!(B2F!%^!>U)!.'C(:..:%2.!7)E):D)8!
CF!>U)!$:E>%7:B2!>(9+#&5)#(-3)M'7-#(1)K$I9<W#!0/"*O!U:=U&:=U>!>U)!47%C&)(B>:E!
()..B=).!E%2D)F)8!:2!-2>)72)>!%7!EFC)7!?.B^)>FA!EB(4B:=2.!>U'.!^B7V!!
!
H!2'(C)7!%^!7).)B7EU)7.!UBD)!)@47)..)8!.:(:&B7!E%2E)72.!7)=B78:2=!>U)!
47%C&)(B>:E!B28!(%7B&:.>:E!()..B=).!E%2D)F)8!:2!B2>:5.)@>:2=!EB(4B:=2.!K)V=V!
H&C'7F!X!W7BJ^%78#!0/"0f!H&C'7F!)>!B&V#!0/"/OV!MU)!0/"/!H'.>7B&:B2!=%D)72()2>!
EB(4B:=2!/"#(@)Q3+)R(3?:):.!B!4)7>:2)2>!)@B(4&)V!->!^)B>'7).!B!D:8)%!>:>&)!
?L)=B2A.!T>%7FA!JU:EU!>)&&.!B!.>%7F!%^!B!=:7&!JU%!UB.!.)2>!B!.)@'B&!:(B=)!%^!U)7.)&^!
!
`!
>%!B!^)&&%J#!(B&)!.>'8)2>V!H.!.U)!.:>.!8%J2!B>!U)7!8).a!:2!E&B..#!:>!C)E%().!
B44B7)2>!>UB>!>U)!C%F!UB.!.)2>!%2!>U)!:(B=)!>%!U:.!E&B..(B>).#!B28!>U)!E&:4!.U%J.!
>U)!%>U)7!.>'8)2>.!KB28!>U)!>)BEU)7O!7)E):D:2=!>U)!:(B=)!%2!>U):7!(%C:&)!4U%2).!
J:>U!&%%a.!%^!8:.B44%:2>()2>!B28!8:.='.>#!8:7)E>)8!2%>!B>!>U)!C%F#!C'>!B>!?L)=B2AV!
-2!>U:.!E&:4#!2%!B>>)2>:%2!:.!=:D)2!>%!>U)!)>U:E.!%^!^%7JB78:2=!B!47:DB>)!:(B=)!%^!
.%()%2)!J:>U%'>!>U):7!E%2.)2>V!MU)!E&:4!.)7D).!47)8%(:2B2>&F!B.!B!JB72:2=!>%!
F%'2=!=:7&.!BC%'>!>U)!8B2=)7.!%^!.)@>:2=V!->!7):2^%7E).!B2!'27)B&:.>:E!()..B=)!%^!
BC.>:2)2E)!KI%J)&&#!0/"/BO!B28!^B:&.!>%!BEa2%J&)8=)!>UB>!F%'2=!4)%4&)!UBD)!>U)!
7:=U>!>%!)@4&%7)!>U):7!.)@'B&!:8)2>:>:).!:2!B!.B^)!)2D:7%2()2>V!->!B&.%!.)7D).!>%!
C&B()!>U)!D:E>:(!>U7%'=U!.UB()#!U'(:&:B>:%2!B28!=':&>V!MU:.!EB(4B:=2!KB.!J)&&!B.!
%>U)7.O!^B:&.!>%!7)E%=2:.)!>U)!4%>)2>:B&!UB7(!EB'.)8!CF!>U)!.UB7:2=!%^!B!47:DB>)!
.)@'B&!:(B=)!J:>U%'>!>U)!.'Ch)E>A.!K%7!)D)2!>U)!7)E):D)7A.O!E%2.)2>#!2%7!8%).!:>!
BEa2%J&)8=)!.:>'B>:%2.!JU)7)!F%'2=!J%()2!K%7!()2O!B7)!E%)7E)8!:2>%!.)28:2=!
.'EU!:(B=).!K<:2=7%.)!)>!B&V#!0/"0OV!
!
H.!B!7).'&>!%^!>U)!47%C&)(B>:E!()..B=).!%^!B2>:5.)@>:2=!EB(4B:=2.#!>U)!$:E>%7:B2!
IB7&:B()2>B7F!9BJ!<)^%7(!W%((:>>))!7)E%(()28)8!>UB>!>U)!$:E>%7:B2!
n%D)72()2>!?)2.'7)!>UB>!)8'EB>:%2B&!B28!()8:B!EB(4B:=2.!8:7)E>)8!>%JB78!
.)@>:2=!^%E'.!%2!>U)!B447%47:B>)2)..!%^!>U)!C)UBD:%'7!%^!4)%4&)!JU%!8:.>7:C'>)!
:2>:(B>)!:(B=).!%7!()8:B!J:>U%'>!E%2.)2>#!7B>U)7!>UB2!%2!>U)!4)7.%2!JU%!
:2:>:B&&F!E7)B>).!>U)!:2>:(B>)!:(B=).!%7!()8:BA!K$I9<W#!0/"*#!4V@@:::OV!!-28))8#!:>!:.!
:(4%7>B2>!>%!)2=B=)!C%>U!F%'2=!()2!B28!F%'2=!J%()2!:2!8:.E'..:%2.!BC%'>!
JUB>!:>!(:=U>!()B2!>%!C)!B2!)>U:EB&!'.)7!B28!E%2.'()7!%^!>)EU2%&%=:).#!B28!B2!
)>U:EB&!CF.>B28)7V!-2!B88:>:%2#!F%'2=!()2!B28!J%()2!EB2!C)!)8'EB>)8!>%!
C)E%()!(%7)!E7:>:EB&!E%2.'()7.!%^!:(B=).f!>%!>U:2a!BC%'>!>U)!:(B=).!>U)F!
)2E%'2>)7!B28!JU)>U)7!:>!:.!)>U:EB&!>%!.)28!>U)(!%2!>%!>U):7!4))7.f!B28#!
B88:>:%2B&&F#!>%!E%2.:8)7!JU)>U)7!:>!(:=U>!C)!B447%47:B>)!B28!)>U:EB&!>%!7)4%7>!
>U)!C)UBD:%'7.!>%!B2!B'>U%7:>FV!!
!
MU:.!:.!2%>!>%!.'==).>!>UB>!J)!.U%'&8!:=2%7)!)8'EB>:2=!F%'2=!4)%4&)!BC%'>!>U)!
4%>)2>:B&!^%7!)@4&%:>B>:%2!>U7%'=U!-2^%7(B>:%2!B28!W%(('2:EB>:%2!M)EU2%&%=:).!
K-WM.O!%7!^B:&!>%!EB'>:%2!>U)(!B=B:2.>!4%>)2>:B&&F!8B(B=:2=!7)47).)2>B>:%2.!:2!
DB7:%'.!%2&:2)!4&B>^%7(.V!<B>U)7#!:>!:.!%^!.)7:%'.!E%2E)72!>UB>!>%!8B>)!('EU!%^!>U)!
!
+!
?JB72:2=.A!UBD)!C))2!^B7!>%%!7)(:2:.E)2>!%^!?D:E>:(!C&B(:2=A!8:.E%'7.).#!B.!
>U%'=U!>U)7)!JB.!%2&F!%2)!4B7>F!7).4%2.:C&)!^%7!^%7(.!%^!.)@'B&!D:%&)2E)#!
C'&&F:2=!B28!UB7B..()2>#!JU)>U)7!D:B!2)J!>)EU2%&%=:).!%7!%>U)7J:.)V!!
!
C1:!01'*-!$1),#&9&5*1/!-#'!51#'1%DA-/1'!?*&91#)1!
!
-2!B88:>:%2!>%!>U)!)@4)7:)2E).!%^!.EU%%&5B=)!F%'2=!4)%4&)#!>U)!$:E>%7:B2!
W%((:>>))!JB.!B&.%!EB7)^'&!>%!BEa2%J&)8=)!B28!8:.E'..!:..').!:2!7)&B>:%2!>%!
B8'&>!?.)@>:2=AS!?MU)!W%((:>>))!U)B78!>UB>!F%'2=!4)%4&)!B7)!2%>!>U)!%2&F!4)%4&)!
JU%!)2=B=)!:2!4))75>%54))7!.)@>:2=!m!(B2F!B8'&>.!UBD)!B&.%!:2E%74%7B>)8!
>)EU2%&%=F!:2>%!>U):7!.)@!&:D).A!K$I9<W#!0/"*#!4V!03OV!!MU)!W%((:>>))#!^%7!
)@B(4&)#!8:.E'..)8!>U)!JBF.!:2!JU:EU!.)@'B&&F!)@4&:E:>!4U%>%=7B4U.!B28!^%%>B=)!
EB2!C)!'.)8!:2!^B(:&F!%7!:2>:(B>)!D:%&)2E)!E%2>)@>.#!E:>:2=!B!DB7:)>F!%^!
.'C(:..:%2.!7B:.:2=!E%2E)72!%D)7!>U:.!)()7=:2=!:..')S!
!
MU:.!%EE'7.!(%.>!%^>)2!:2!>U)!E%2>)@>!%^!B!7)&B>:%2.U:4!C7)Ba8%J2#!JU)7)!
B!4)7.%2!(BF!UBD)!%7:=:2B&&F!.)2>!>U):7!4B7>2)7!B2!:2>:(B>)!:(B=)!%^!
>U)(.)&D).!J:&&:2=&F#!%7!J)7)!UB44F!^%7!>U):7!4B7>2)7!>%!E7)B>)!>U)!:(B=)#!
B28!>U)!7)&B>:%2.U:4!UB.!.'C.)d')2>&F!8)>)7:%7B>)8V!MU)!2B>'7)!%^!
)&)E>7%2:E!E%(('2:EB>:%2!(Ba).!>U)!>U7)B>!%^!7)&)B.:2=!B2!:2>:(B>)!
:(B=)!%7!^%%>B=)!B!4%J)7^'&!%2)!m!:(B=).!EB2!C)!4%.>)8!%2&:2)!%7!
>7B2.(:>>)8!>%!B!&B7=)!2'(C)7!%^!4)%4&)!d':Ea&F!B28!)B.:&FV!K$I9<W#!0/"*#!
4V!03OV:::!
!
MU)!E%2E)72.!U:=U&:=U>)8!:2!.'C(:..:%2.!>%!>U)!-2d':7F!B7)!^'7>U)7!7)^&)E>)8!:2!
>U)!47)&:(:2B7F!^:28:2=.!^7%(!%'7!7).)B7EU!47%h)E>!%2!B8'&>!J%()2A.!
)@4)7:)2E).!%^!>)EU2%&%=F5^BE:&:>B>)8!.)@'B&!D:%&)2E)!B28!UB7B..()2>V!-2!
:2>)7D:)J.!J:>U!"*!B=)2E:).!BE7%..!>U)!J%()2A.!.)7D:E)!B28!&)=B&!.)E>%7.#!.>'8F!
4B7>:E:4B2>.!UBD)!8:.E'..)8!>U)!DB7:%'.!JBF.!:2!JU:EU!E%(('2:EB>:%2.!
>)EU2%&%=F!B28!2)J!()8:B!B7)!C):2=!'.)8!>%!4)74)>7B>)!B28!)@>)28!.)@'B&:.)8!
D:%&)2E)!B=B:2.>!J%()2V!!-2!B88:>:%2!>%!>U)!)@B(4&)!=:D)2!BC%D)!JU)7)!
%7:=:2B&&F!E%2.)2.'B&!:2>:(B>)!:(B=).!B28!D:8)%.!(:=U>!C)!&B>)7!8:.>7:C'>)8!CF!
!
"/!
B2!)@54B7>2)7!:2!B2!B=)!%^!?7)D)2=)A#:D!B8'&>!J%()2!B7)!.))a:2=!.'44%7>!:2!
7).4%2.)!>%!%>U)7!C)UBD:%'7.!.'EU!B.S!!
!
! S&',,+&')-3)2&3%+;'),'7+.$)#0.1'&5B)JU)7)!B!4B7>2)7!%7!4%>)2>:B&!4B7>2)7!
47)..'7).!J%()2!:2>%!.)28:2=,7)E%78:2=!.)@'B&!:(B=).!%7!D:8)%#!
.%()>:().!:2!>U)!E%2>)@>!%^!B2!B&7)B8F!D:%&)2>!7)&B>:%2.U:4#!>U%'=U!%>U)7!
)@B(4&).!:2E&'8)!47)..'7)!D:B!%2&:2)!8B>:2=!.)7D:E).!B28!.(B7>4U%2)!
B44&:EB>:%2.f!
! T$.;@0.#$S!JU)7)!B2!)@54B7>2)7!%7!B!4)74)>7B>%7!%^!.)@'B&!B..B'&>!
>U7)B>)2.!>%!7)&)B.)!:(B=).!:^!J%()2!8%!2%>!7)(B:2!.:&)2>!BC%'>!>U)!
D:%&)2E)f!!
! U.&.,,0'(-B)JU)7)!4)74)>7B>%7.!%^!D:%&)2E)!B7)!BC&)!>%!:2>:(:8B>)!D:E>:(.!
>U7%'=U!E%2>:2')8!E%2>BE>!%2&:2)#!.'EU!B.!7)='&B7&F!4%.>:2=!%2!>U):7!
bBE)C%%a!4B=)!B^>)7!B2!B..B'&>f!B28!
! !5A'&,-.$@#(1S!JU)7)!.(B7>4U%2)!B44&:EB>:%2.!B28,%7!.%E:B&!()8:B!4%.>.!
B7)!'.)8!>%!>7BEa!J%()2A.!&%EB>:%2.#!B28,%7!>U7)B>)2:2=!()..B=).!B7)!
.)2>!>%!>U)!D:E>:(!JU)>U)7!%2&:2)#!>U7%'=U!)(B:&!%7!(%C:&)!
E%(('2:EB>:%2.V!
!
gUB>!UB.!C))2!4B7>:E'&B7&F!.>7:a:2=!^%7!'.!:.!>U)!%D)7&B4!C)>J))2!>U)!)@4)7:)2E).!
%^!B8'&>!J%()2!K%^>)2!:2!>U):7!*/.!B28!3/.O!B28!>U%.)!%^!>U)!>))2B=)!F%'2=!
J%()2!>UB>!>U)!.)@'B&!B..B'&>!.)7D:E)!.)E>%7!:2!4B7>:E'&B7!:.!47%D:8:2=!.'44%7>!
>%V!b%7!)@B(4&)#!:2!B88:>:%2!>%!>U)!2%J!J)&&5a2%J2!:..')!%^!'2B'>U%7:.)8!
8:.>7:C'>:%2!%^!JUB>!JB.!%7:=:2B&&F!B!E%2.)2.'B&!.)@'B&!:(B=)#!:(B=).!C):2=!
>Ba)2!B28!8:.>7:C'>)8!%^!:28)E)2>!B28!.)@'B&!B..B'&>.!:.!B2%>U)7!47)..:2=!:..')!
KI%J)&&#!0/"/COV!!T)@'B&!B..B'&>!J%7a)7.!UBD)!B&.%!.4%a)2!>%!'.!BC%'>!.EU%%&5B=)!
F%'2=!J%()2!JU%!J)7)!.'C.)d')2>&F!UB7B..)8!%2!bBE)C%%a!CF!>U)!F%'2=!()2!
JU%!B..B'&>)8!>U)(!:2!%78)7!>%!.:&)2E)!>U)(!BC%'>!>U)!B..B'&>V!L%7)%D)7#!:2!
.%()!EB.).#!D:E>:(.!B7)!.'Ch)E>!>%!^'7>U)7!UB7B..()2>!B28!U'(:&:B>:%2!CF!>U):7!
J:8)7!4))7!=7%'4!B.!J)&&V!!!
!
\@B(4&).!.'EU!B.!>U).)!(Ba)!>U)!:(4%7>B2E)!%^!4))7!%7!?CF.>B28)7A!)8'EB>:%2!
47%=7B(.!B&&!>U)!(%7)!)D:8)2>!B28!'7=)2>!K$:EQ)B&>U#!0/"0OV!-2!>U)!E%2>)@>!%^!B!
!
""!
F%'>U!E'&>'7)!JU)7)!)@4%.'7)!>%!.)@'B&!E%2>)2>#!.)28:2=!%2!7)E):D)8!:(B=).!B28!
4%.>:2=!:(B=).!%^!%>U)7.!%2!.%E:B&!2)>J%7a:2=!.:>).!B7)!B&&!:2E7)B.:2=&F!
2%7(B&:.)8#!:>!:.!:(4%7>B2>!>%!)2=B=)!F%'2=!4)%4&)!:2!8:.E'..:%2.!BC%'>!>U)!
)>U:E.!.'77%'28:2=!>U)!:(B=).!>UB>!>U)F!>Ba)!%^!%>U)7.#!%7!:28))8!>U)!:(B=).!>UB>!
%2E)!7)E):D)8!>U)F!EU%%.)!>%!.)28!%2!>%!%>U)7.V!
!
L%7)%D)7#!>U).)!C)UBD:%'7.!B7)!2%>!=)28)752)'>7B&V!gU:&)!:>!:.!>U)!EB.)!>UB>!C%>U!
F%'2=!()2!B28!J%()2!E7)B>)#!.)28!B28!7)8:.>7:C'>)!.)@'B&!:(B=).#!>U)7)!:.!
B(4&)!)D:8)2E)!.'==).>:2=!>UB>!:>!:.!.)@'B&!:(B=).!%^!J%()2!B28!=:7&.!>UB>!B7)!
8:.47%4%7>:%2B>)&F!E7)B>)8#!.)2>!B28!7)8:.>7:C'>)8!?#-"3+-);3(,'(-!K6&')>>56%F8#!
b:&)C%72#!q'B8B7B!X!L%%7)#!0/"*f!I%J)&&#!0/"/COV!!MU'.!%'7!^7B()J%7a.#!
JU)>U)7!8:7)E>)8!B>!&)=B&!7).4%2.).#!4%&:E:).!%7!)8'EB>:%2!EB(4B:=2.#!('.>!>Ba)!
B.!>U):7!E%7)!^%E'.!>U)!:2>)757)&B>)8!:..').!%^!E%2.)2>#!>U)!=)28)7)8!2B>'7)!%^!
.)@'B&!D:%&)2E)!B28!UB7B..()2>#!B28!>U)!4))7!E'&>'7).!>UB>!47%(%>)!%7!E%28%2)!
.)@'B&!D:%&)2E)!B=B:2.>!J%()2!B28!=:7&.V!
!
=&#)9(/*&#!
!
MU)!2%25E%2.)2.'B&!E7)B>:%2!B28,%7!8:.>7:C'>:%2!%^!.)@'B&!:(B=).!UB.!&B7=)&F!
C))2!8)^:2)8!B28!^7B()8!:2!4'C&:E!8)CB>).#!4%&:EF!7).4%2.).!B28!&)=B&!8:.E%'7.)!
B.!B!47%C&)(!%^!F%'>U!2B:D)>o#!B28!.%()>:().!(%7)!47%C&)(B>:EB&&F!B.!?^)(B&)!
.>'4:8:>FAV!IB7B8%@:EB&&F#!>U)!.:('&>B2)%'.!)^^)E>!UB.!C))2!>%!E7:(:2B&:.)!F%'2=!
4)%4&)A.!.)@'B&!)@4&%7B>:%2#!E)2.'7)!F%'2=!J%()2A.!?7:.aFA!.)@'B&!C)UBD:%'7.#!
B28!&)BD)!=)28)75CB.)8!D:%&)2E)!'2EUB&&)2=)8!B28!'2EU)Ea)8V!!
!
-2!%78)7!>%!BD%:8!>U).)!47%C&)(B>:E!^7B(:2=.#!J)!B8D%EB>)!>UB>!.)@>:2=!47BE>:E).!
.U%'&8!2%>!C)!E7:(:2B&:.)8!B.!EU:&8!4%72%=7B4UF!)@E)4>!JU)7)!>U)7)!:.!B!(:2%7!
.(%!B8'&>!:2D%&D)8V!gU)7)!:(B=).!UBD)!C))2!E7)B>)8#!B447%47:B>)8!%7!
8:.>7:C'>)8!?#-"3+-);3(,'(-:!J)!B7=')!>UB>!>U).)!)@4&%:>B>:D)!C)UBD:%'7.!.U%'&8!
C)!.'Ch)E>!>%!E:D:&!%7!E7:(:2B&!.B2E>:%2.V!!MU)7)!B7)!.>:&&!(B2F!%'>.>B28:2=!:..').#!
:2E&'8:2=!JU)>U)7!B!2)J!E7:(:2B&!%^^)2E)!.U%'&8!C)!E7)B>)8f!B28!JU)>U)7!>U)!
)@:.>)2E)!%^!(B&:E)!%7!7)Ea&)..2)..!.U%'&8!8)>)7(:2)!JUB>!C)UBD:%'7.!J%'&8!:2!
^BE>!C)!E7:(:2B&:.)8!'28)7!H'.>7B&:B2!.>B>)!B28!>)77:>%7F!&BJV!b'7>U)7!8:.E'..:%2!
!
"0!
:.!2))8)8!B7%'28!>U)!.E%4)!%^!C%>U!E:D:&!B28!E7:(:2B&!h'.>:E)!7).4%2.).!>%!B!J:8)!
DB7:)>F!%^!C)UBD:%'7.!>UB>!(BF!E%()!'28)7!>U)!'(C7)&&B!>)7(!%^!.)@>:2=V!
!
MU)!47%C&)(B>:E!8)^:2:>:%2.!B28!^7B(:2=.!.'((B7:.)8!BC%D)!UBD)!&:a)J:.)!C))2!
E%2D)F)8!:2!?B2>:5.)@>:2=A!)8'EB>:%2!EB(4B:=2.f!(B2F!%^!JU:EU!UBD)!C))2!
8:7)E>)8!&B7=)&F!B>!F%'2=!J%()2!J:>U!B!?h'.>!8%2A>!8%!:>A!B447%BEUV!I'C&:E!
)8'EB>:%2!EB(4B:=2.#!J)!.'==).>#!2))8!>%!B447%BEU!>U)!:..')!%^!.)@>:2=!J:>U!
(%7)!E%(4&)@:>FV!!T'EU!EB(4B:=2.!2))8!>%!)2=B=)!(%7)!8:7)E>&F!J:>U!>U)!
C)UBD:%'7!%^!CF.>B28)7.!JU%!B7)!BE>:D)&F!:2D%&D)8!:2!>U)!7)58:.>7:C'>:%2!%^!
:2>:(B>)!:(B=).!C'>!JU%!B&.%!4B7>:E:4B>)!:2!>U)!4))7!E'&>'7).!>UB>!.UB()!%7!
U'(:&:B>)!=:7&.!B28!J%()2!JU)2!.'EU!:(B=).!B7)!(B8)!4'C&:EV!MUB>!>U:.!.UB(:2=!
:.!.%!)^^)E>:D)!B28!8B(B=:2=!>%!D:E>:(.!7)^&)E>.!>U)!=)28)7)8!2B>'7)!%^!>U).)!
C)UBD:%'7.!B28!>U):7!:(4BE>.V!-2!.U%7>#!J)!B.!B!.%E:)>F!2))8!>%!7)4%.:>:%2!>U)!
47%C&)(!%^!.)@>:2=!>%!:>.!E%7)!:..')!%^!E%2.)2>f!JU)7)!:>!:.!>U)!C)UBD:%'7!%^!>U%.)!
JU%!D:%&B>)!B2!:28:D:8'B&.A!.)@'B&!B'>%2%(F!K:2E&'8:2=!%D)7!>U):7!.)@'B&!%7!
:2>:(B>)!:(B=)O!>UB>!:.!.UB()8V!HC%D)!B&&#!:>!:.!:(4%7>B2>!>UB>!&)=B&#!4%&:EF!B28!
)8'EB>:D)!7).4%2.).!>%!.)@>:2=#!B.!J)&&!B.!%>U)7!^%7(.!%^!>)EU2%&%=F5^BE:&:>B>)8!
.)@'B&!D:%&)2E)!B28!UB7B..()2>#!B7)!=7%'28)8!:2!>U)!&:D)8!)@4)7:)2E).!%^!C%>U!
B8'&>.!B28!F%'>U!B&:a)#!:2!B!E%2.>B2>&F!)@4B28:2=!B28!C&'77F!>)EU2%.%E:B&!J%7&8V!
!
!
E141%1#)1/!!
!
H&C'7F#!RV!X!W7BJ^%78#!RV!K0/"0OV!?T)@>:2=#!E%2.)2>!B28!F%'2=!4)%4&)r.!)>U:E.S!
6)F%28!L)=B2r.!T>%7FA#!!3(-#(++0#!0[K*O#!3[*m3Y*V!
!
H&C'7F#!RV#!b'22)&&#!PV!X!P%%2B2#!\V!K0/"/OV!?MU)!4%&:>:E.!%^!.)@>:2=S!k%'2=!4)%4&)#!
.)&^57)47).)2>B>:%2!B28!E:>:e)2.U:4AV!S&3;''%#(1,)34)-"')*+,-&.$#.().(%)V'?)
W'.$.(%)!300+(#;.-#3()*,,3;#.-#3()!3(4'&'(;'B)X'%#.:)Y'03;&.;5).(%)!".(1':)
N$%)S.&$#.0'(-)U3+,'V!
!
6&')>>56%F8#!PV#!b:&)C%72#!6V#!q'B8B7B#!HV!X!L%%7)#!TV!K0/"*OV!/"')&3$')34)'0'&1#(1)
;300+(#;.-#3()-';"(3$31#',)#()'72'&#'(;',)34),'7+.$)<#3$'(;'B)*)('?)$'1.$)
!
"*!
4&3(-#'&Z!K<).)B7EU!<)4%7>!P%V!0*OV!L)&C%'72)S!H'.>7B&:B2!-2.>:>'>)!%^!bB(:&F!
T>'8:).V!
!
9))#!LV#!W7%^>.#!MV#!TB&>)7#!LV#!L:&:D%h)D:E#!TV!X!LEn%D)72#!HV!K0/"*OV!?9)>A.!=)>!
.)@>:2=AS!<:.a#!4%J)7#!.)@!B28!E7:(:2B&:.B>:%2!:2!>U)!(%7B&!8%(B:2AV!>(-'&(.-#3(.$)
[3+&(.$)43&)!&#0').(%)[+,-#;':)0K"O#!*Zm3+V!!
!
I%J)&&#!HV!K0/"/BOV!M'7:)23?'&).(%);3(,'(-B)Q3+-");+$-+&').(%)+(?&#--'()&+$',V!
L)&C%'72)S!WB(C7:8=)!N2:D)7.:>F!I7)..V!
!
I%J)&&#!HV!K0/"/COV!?W%2^:='7:2=!E%2.)2>S!\()7=:2=!>)EU2%&%=:).#!'2B'>U%7:.)8!
:(B=).!B28!.)@'B&!B..B'&>A:)*+,-&.$#.().(%)V'?)W'.$.(%)[3+&(.$)34)
!&#0#(3$315:!3*K"O#!Y[m+/V!
!
<:2=7%.)#!1V#!n:&&#!<V#!9:D:2=.>%2)#!TV!X!QB7D)F#!9V!K0/"0OV!*)9+.$#-.-#<'),-+%5)34)
;"#$%&'(:)53+(1)2'32$').(%)\,'7-#(1\V!H!7)4%7>!47)4B7)8!^%7!>U)!PB>:%2B&!T%E:)>F!
^%7!>U)!I7)D)2>:%2!%^!W7')&>F!>%!WU:&87)2!iPTIWWjV!9%28%2S!PTIWWV!
!
TB&>)7#!LV#!W7%^>.#!MV!X!9))#!LV!K0/"*OV!?6)F%28!E7:(:2B&:.B>:%2!B28!
7).4%2.:C:&:.B>:%2S!T)@>:2=#!=)28)7!B28!F%'2=!4)%4&)AV!!+&&'(-)>,,+',)#()!&#0#(.$)
[+,-#;'#!03K*O#!*/"m*"[V!
!
$:EQ)B&>UV!K0/"0OV!X3&')-".()&'.%5B)T5,-.(%'&).;-#3()-3)2&'<'(-)<#3$'(;').1.#(,-)
?30'()#()-"')]#;-3&#.();300+(#-5=)!L)&C%'72)S!$:E>%7:B2!Q)B&>U!I7%(%>:%2!
b%'28B>:%2!i$:EQ)B&>UjV!!
!
$:E>%7:B2!IB7&:B()2>V!K0/"*OV!?$:E>%7:B2!n%D)72()2>!7).4%2.)!>%!>U)!9BJ!
<)^%7(!W%((:>>))!-2d':7F!:2>%!T)@>:2=AV!"/!G)E)(C)7!0/"*V!HDB:&BC&)!B>S!
U>>4S,,JJJV4B7&:B()2>VD:EV=%DVB',:(B=).,.>%7:).,n%D>s<).4%2.)sT)@>:2=s-2d'
:7FV48^!KBEE)..)8!"[!1B2'B7F!0/"3OV!
!
!
"3!
$:E>%7:B2!IB7&:B()2>B7F!9BJ!<)^%7(!W%((:>>))!i$I9<WjV!K0/"*OV!>(9+#&5)#(-3)
,'7-#(1B)O'23&-)34)-"')^.?)O'43&0)!300#--'')>(9+#&5)#(-3)M'7-#(1=!IB7&:B()2>B7F!
IB4)7!P%V!0*/#!T)..:%2!0/"/m0/"*V!L)&C%'72)S!T>B>)!n%D)72()2>!%^!$:E>%7:BV!
!
gB&a)7#!TV#!TB2E:#!9V!X!M)(4&)5T(:>U#!LV!K0/"*OV!?T)@>:2=S!k%'2=!J%()2A.!B28!
()2A.!D:)J.!%2!:>.!2B>'7)!B28!%7:=:2.A#![3+&(.$)34)*%3$',;'(-)U'.$-"#!Z0K[O#![+Ym
Y/"V!
!
gB&a)7#!TV#!TB2E:#!9V!X!M)(4&)5T(:>U#!LV!K0/""OV!?T)@>:2=!B28!F%'2=!4)%4&)AV!
Q3+-")M-+%#',)*+,-&.$#.#!*/K3O#!`m"[V!
!
g%&Ba#!1V!X!b:2a)&U%7#!GV!K0/""OV!?T)@>:2=S!H!>F4%&%=FAV!O','.&;")T+$$'-#()CX.&;"E:)
_(#<'&,#-5)34)V'?)U.02,"#&'B)!&#0',)*1.#(,-)!"#$%&'()O','.&;")!'(-'&V!
!
F#'#&$1/!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
:!H2%>U)7! %4>:%2! :.! >%! 8:.EB78! >U)! >)7(! ?.)@>:2=A! B&>%=)>U)7#! =:D)2! >UB>! :>! :.! B! ()8:B5=)2)7B>)8!
E%2E)4>!B28!F%'2=!4)%4&)!>)28! 2%>!>%!'.)! :>!KH&C'7F!)>! B&V!0/"*f!<:2=7%.)! )>!B&V!0/"0OV!Q%J)D)7#!
>U)!47%C&)(!J:>U!>U:.! B447%BEU! :.! >UB>! >U)! >)7(!UB.!=B72)7)8!E%((%2!'28)7.>B28:2=!:2!4'C&:E!
8:.E%'7.)!B28!B.!.'EU#!:>!(BF!C)!B!>)7(!>UB>!J)!B7)!.>'Ea!J:>UV!
::!H88:>:%2B&!7)E%(()28B>:%2.!(B8)!CF!>U)!:2d':7F!:2E&'8)S!E%((:..:%2:2=!7).)B7EU!:2>%!>U)!
.)@>:2=!47BE>:E).!%^!EU:&87)2!B28!B8'&>.!:2!$:E>%7:Bf!:2>)=7B>)8!)8'EB>:%2B&!47%=7B(.!B7%'28!
:2>)72)>!B28!E%(('2:EB>:%2.!BJB7)2)..!B28!.B^)>F!:2!.EU%%&.f!>7B:2:2=!^%7!>)BEU)7.!>%!47%(%>)!
EFC)75.B^)>F!)8'EB>:%2f!B28!.U:^>:2=!>U)!^%E'.!%^!)8'EB>:%2B&!B28!()8:B!EB(4B:=2.!>%!:2E&'8)!>U)!
C)UBD:%'7!%^!>U%.)!JU%!%#,-&#A+-'!:(B=).!J:>U%'>!E%2.)2>!7B>U)7!>UB2!>U)!4)7.%2!JU%!:2:>:B&&F!
E7)B>)8!>U)!:(B=)!K.))!$:E>%7:B2!IB7&:B()2>!0/"*OV!
:::!T'C(:..:%2.!^7%(S!>U)!\B.>)72!W%(('2:>F!9)=B&!W)2>7)!K\W9WOf!g%()2A.!Q)B&>U!g).>!KgQgOf!
>U)!c^^:E)!%^!>U)!$:E>%7:B2!I7:DBEF!W%((:..:%2)7!Kc$IWOV!MU)!c$IW#!^%7!)@B(4&)#!2%>)8!:2!>U):7!
.'C(:..:%2!>UB>!.)@>:2=!UB.!C)E%()!?B2!:2E7)B.:2=&F!4%4'&B7!()>U%8!%^!BC'.)!^%7!>))2.!:2!8B>:2=!
7)&B>:%2.U:4A!K$I9<W!0/"*S!0[OV!gQg!2%>)8!>%%!>UB>!.)@>:2=!:2!B!^B(:&F!D:%&)2E)!E%2>)@>!B^^)E>.!
%&8)7!B.!J)&&!B.!F%'2=)7!J%()2V!
:D!<)E)2>!()8:B!E%D)7B=)!UB.!&BC)&)8!>U).)!C)UBD:%'7.#!?7)D)2=)!4%72A#!B!&BC)&!J)!B7)!4B7>:E'&B7&F!
'2E%(^%7>BC&)!J:>U!B.!:>!:(4&:).!B!&)D)&!%^!E%2.)2>!B28!(:2:(:.).!>U)!UB7(!>UB>!8:.>7:C'>:2=!
:2>:(B>)!:(B=)7F!EB'.).!>%!D:E>:(.V!
... Het komt ook voor dat deze beelden gemaakt zijn tijdens seksueel geweld, of dat beelden worden gebruikt als vernedering, intimidatie of zelfs als chantagemateriaal. Alhoewel websites met gevoelige content verwijderd (kunnen) worden, kunnen foto's, video's en berichten alsnog toegankelijk zijn via internetcaches, opgeslagen screenshots of websites (Powell & Henry, 2014). Het vrijgeven van materiaal op een online platform is bijna onmogelijk terug te draaien (Europol, 2017). ...
... De grens tussen consent en dwang is niet altijd zo duidelijk. Een afbeelding kan met consent zijn gemaakt, maar zonder consent verspreid zijn (Powell & Henry, 2014). Er zitten gradaties tussen verleiden en dwingen om seksuele beelden te sturen. ...
... Soms leidt zo'n ontmoeting tot seksueel misbruik (Kierkegaard, 2008). Cyberstalking is het gebruik van apps en/of social media posts om iemands locatie te tracken en/of bedreigende berichten te sturen naar het slachtoffer via e-mail of andere mobiele communicatie (Powell & Henry, 2014). ...
Full-text available
Technical Report
Shame sexting, sextortion and other forms of online sexual violence occurs frequently. Many youngsters have to cope with it. What determines the impact of online sexual violence? And what does one need after the experience? With these questions, we started this research. After a literature review, we conducted interviews with 4 experts in the field of online sexual violence and 8 victims. The victims were confronted with unwanted distribution of their nude photo/video or with sextortion with nude images.
... Frequently, however, the prevention of violent behaviours among young people is not viewed through a gender lens [18]. Furthermore, in some contexts, an overemphasis on physical violence alone can distract from other experiences of gendered harm in peer and romantic relationships [19][20][21][22]. For these reasons, nonphysical forms of gender-based violence, such as emotional, psychological, or technology-facilitated abuse and harassment (including, but is not exclusive to, behaviour that perpetrates sexual and gendered-based control, harassment, non-consensual sexting, and image-based abuse using technology [22]), are often misinterpreted or overlooked by young people and those within their institutions. ...
... Furthermore, in some contexts, an overemphasis on physical violence alone can distract from other experiences of gendered harm in peer and romantic relationships [19][20][21][22]. For these reasons, nonphysical forms of gender-based violence, such as emotional, psychological, or technology-facilitated abuse and harassment (including, but is not exclusive to, behaviour that perpetrates sexual and gendered-based control, harassment, non-consensual sexting, and image-based abuse using technology [22]), are often misinterpreted or overlooked by young people and those within their institutions. As such, there is little Australian literature that discusses how young people experience and respond to or challenge the broad range of gender-based violence in their social lives [23][24][25][26][27]. ...
Full-text available
Article
In recent years, young people in Australia and abroad have taken to social media to express their concerns about the violent behaviour of their peers, and to share content that challenges the causes of gender-based and interpersonal violence. From launching policy-changing petitions to responding to and engaging with online campaigns, young people are pushing action and momentum from generational changes in feminist movements. Young people have their own contexts and influences that affect understandings and responses to gendered inequality and violence. This paper discusses the findings of nine focus groups with 32 young people who share content online about preventing gender-based violence, exploring their perceptions on their reasonings for using these tools and how they came to assumptions about gender inequality. It explores the contexts that young people in Australia draw upon to challenge existing gender inequalities and their reasonings for using social media to share ideas about preventing violence with others. The findings of this paper, thus, have implications for how young people are engaged in the primary prevention of gender-based violence, suggesting better use for social-media-campaign content engagement.
... Some scholarly literature on teen sexting "almost exclusively situates sexting behavior within a context of risk, negative consequences, and legal implications, " relies on anecdotal evidence, and associates sexting with "cyberbullying, pornography, sexual risk behavior, substance use, and emotional and mental health problems" (Murphy & Spencer, 2021, p. 12). However, a growing body of criminological and socio-legal scholarship analyzes teen sexting through a more sex-positive lens (Crofts et al., 2018;Hasinoff, 2015;Karaian & Van Meyl, 2015;Powell & Henry, 2014). Additionally, sex-positive criminology would do well to engage with fields pursuing complementary goals, such as education and healthcare. ...
Full-text available
Article
This article provides an introduction to sex‐positive criminology and its goals for change. Sex‐positive criminology draws from the “thick desire” organizing principle, which is a rights‐based approach to human sexuality, as well as from positive sexuality approaches. It also draws from critical, queer, and feminist criminological traditions and abolitionist sensibilities. We discuss examples that pertain to key tenets of sex‐positivity: consent and bodily autonomy, education, medical access, harm reduction, and ways to increase agency. Main topics of discussion include addressing deeply harmful and sex‐negative laws and policies that perpetuate state violence, such as coerced or forced sterilization, criminalization of abortion and pregnancy loss, sexual and physical assault of sex workers by police, criminalization through medically inaccurate laws, and legislation such as Allow States and Victims to Fight Online Sex Trafficking Act and the Stop Enabling Sex Traffickers Act that puts marginalized populations at risk. Throughout, we reflect on possibilities for sex‐positive laws and policies and the social impacts they would have, such as improving health and well‐being.
... Such practices take many forms (Mandau, 2020a;Rasmussen & Søndergaard, 2020), but can be broadly divided into two categories: consensual practices and non-consensual practices. Consensual sharing practices involve situations where young people have agreed on the production and exchange of sexual images and videos (Powell & Henry, 2014), while non-consensual practices describe situations where this agreement has been disrupted and the imagery is distributed to a wider audience. Non-consensual practices are also described with names such as "revenge porn" or "non-consensual porn", although several scholars have argued that the term "image-based sexual abuse" is a more precise term for describing non-consensual uses of sexualized imagery (Henry, Powell, & Flynn, 2017;McGlynn & Rackley, 2017). ...
Full-text available
Article
The ubiquity of smartphones and social media has introduced new ways of being connected and engaged in digitally mediated spaces, including the possibilities of exchanging private sexualized digital imagery – a practice known as ‘sexting’. In this paper, we study the ways in which young people’s engagement in both consensual and non-consensual sexting practices is facilitated – and sometimes even accelerated – by technology. Our study is based on focus group interviews with young people aged 16-21, 6 months of digital ethnography on social and digital media, and posts concerning sexting written by young people on Danish counselling websites. We draw on perspectives from postphenomenology and new materialism in order to focus on human-technology interactions and how digital technologies shape social processes and interactions when young people exchange sexualized digital images and videos. We attend to the ways the affordances of social media (e.g., spreadability, ephemerality and persistence) facilitate and mediate young people’s sharing of sexualized imagery and how the affects emerging through these processes produce intensities, fantasies and intimacies, which both motivate and accelerate these practices. Our analyses seek to refine current understandings of young people’s production and sharing of sexualized digital imagery. Moreover, we argue that there is a need for further development of psychological concepts and analyses that can adequately grasp the nuances of the complex digital and visual intimate, social, sexual processes of young people’s lives and advance the research field of sexting among young people.
... For the victim of non-consensual forwarding dimension, it is possible to determine whether the perpetrator is, in fact, male or female. In general terms, the male population seems to forward more nonconsensual sexual content (Norman, 2017;Ojeda et al., 2019) and, specifi cally, the most frequently shared non-consensual sexual material is of women and girls (Powell & Henry, 2014). ...
Full-text available
Article
Background: Sexting has garnered interest from the public and the scientific community given its ever-increasing presence in adolescents' lives. However, analysis varies depending on the baseline study used. This calls for a standardised sexting instrument that addresses scientific evidence-based recommendations. The primary aim of this study was to develop and validate the structure of a questionnaire that includes the various sexting behaviours and motives. Method: The sample comprised 1,362 students (51.1% female; 12-18 years old). Participants were randomly split into two halves, controlling for the gender variable (n=681), and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. Results: Validity of the Sexting Behaviours and Motives Questionnaire (SBM-Q) was confirmed, along with the suitability of the factor structure, internal consistency, and divergent validity. This was also reported by gender. Six dimensions were identified: sending, reasons for sending, receiving, forwarding, victim of forwarding, and reasons for forwarding. Conclusions: The SBM-Q presents good psychometric properties, providing a detailed and consolidated overview of the behaviours that adolescents might engage in when sexting as well as the context in which it occurs.
Full-text available
Article
World Health Organization (WHO) calls for 2.5 nurses per 1000 people in the national health-care system. The total available nurses per 1,000 persons in Pakistan is 0.604, far less than the WHO standards. Pakistan is among 57 countries facing a crisis in Human Resource for Health (HRH). Apart from other social issues, cyber-bullying has further affected the participation of female nurses in health-care jobs. The issue of cyberbullying is silently draining female participation in nursing jobs. Moreover, the issue of bullying is not often raised because of moral, ethical, and social issues related to the reporting and remedial system. Therefore, the article sets to examine the credibility of the available remedial system, the issues involved with reporting the issue of cyberbullying, and the manner to improve the response against the issue of cyberbullying with reference to young female nurses. To construct the arguments, the study will examine the issue of cyber-bullying related to female nurses at statistical and legislative levels.
Article
This article analyses police cases to argue that image-based sexual abuse should not be understood as only happening to women who have shared risqué image of themselves. Anyone could have sexual images shared without consent, because all digital images can be pornified by the addition of sexually explicit iconography. Pornography is important to research visually because porn is a sexual script that can be used to alter any image from everyday and/or intimate to abusive. The research field on nonconsensual sharing of intimate images has abolished the term ‘revenge porn’ as contributing to victim blaming: Image-based sexual abuse is not caused by any acts justifying ‘revenge’. However, the relevance of the concept of ‘porn’ may have been too hastily dismissed.
Full-text available
Article
Sexting has become a new form of intimate interaction in line with contemporary communication methods. This phenomenon often leads to positive outcomes, but it can also have negative repercussions depending on the situation, such as the context of the relationship, and whether it is consensual or coercive. Despite this, the main types of sexting behaviors (sending, receiving, and third-party forwarding) must be addressed in order to promote safe and healthy practices. However, the approach to tackling this phenomenon remains unclear. This systematic review sought to summarize the lines of action proposed or conducted in the scientific literature to address sexting, to help researchers and educators create and evaluate effective programs. A systematic search of 21 databases was conducted; only articles relating to sexting education, prevention, and intervention among child and adolescent populations were considered. In total, 456 articles were identified, 91 of which were included for the purposes of this research. The results highlighted a need to respond to the aforementioned sexting behaviors and to tackle the resulting conflict situations. Although interventions across different areas are recommended (e.g., health, family, policies, legal advice, law enforcement, technology experts, and even society as a whole), most studies agree that school is the most practical setting for intervention. Thus, the 15 lines of action identified in this systematic review must all be considered to effectively address sexting in childhood and adolescence.
Article
Concern over juvenile sexting behaviors has increased substantially over the last decade, leading to criminological inquiries of the correlates of sexting. Evidence suggests that sexting behavior is associated with one's level of self-control, such that individuals with low self-control are unable to constrain themselves from acting on opportunities to offend. Though self-control is correlated with sexting, few have considered the ways that situational opportunities associated with technology access and self-control influence one another. This study attempted to address this gap in the literature through an analysis of 1328 adolescents enrolled in secondary schools located in a large metropolitan region of South Australia. The findings from three binary logistic regression models illustrated that low self-control, and online opportunity factors were associated with sexting behaviors, though self-control was mediated by the inclusion of opportunity measures. The implications of this analysis for our understanding of criminological theory is discussed in detail.
Full-text available
Article
In recent years, the prosecution of teenagers who use digital and online technology to produce and circulate erotic imagery (‘sexts’) under child pornography statutes has been the subject of sustained controversy. Debates over sexting have foregrounded the harms of criminalisation as well as the role of sexts in cyber-bullying and online child solicitation. While acknowledging the problematic dimensions of legal interventions in sexting, this article notes that patterns of relational coercion often begin in adolescence and that malicious sexting cases follow patterns similar to other forms of technologically facilitated gendered victimisation. The gendered dimensions of sexting are often overlooked in education campaigns that position girls and young women in ways that responsibilise them to reduce their own risk of victimisation. It is argued that efforts to prevent or intervene in the harms of sexting should consider the broader sociocultural role of digital and online technology in coercive control and dating abuse and also avoid a simplistic responsibilisation of potential victims.
Full-text available
Article
This article explores the criminalisation and governance of sexting among young people. While the focus is on Australian jurisdictions, the article places debates and anxieties about sexting and young people in a broader analysis around concerns about new technologies, child sexual abuse, and the risks associated with childhood sexuality. The article argues that these broader social, cultural and moral anxieties have created an environment where rational debate and policy making around teen sexting has been rendered almost impossible. Not only has the voice of young people themselves been silenced in the public, political and media discourse about sexting, but any understanding about the differing behaviours and subsequent harms that constitute teen sexting has been lost. All the while, sexting has been rendered a pleasurable if somewhat risky pastime in an adult cultural context lending weight to the argument that teen sexting is often a subterranean expression of activities that are broadly accepted. The article concludes that the current approaches to regulating teen sexting, along with the emergence of sexting as a legitimate adult activity, may have had the perverse consequence of making teen sexting an even more attractive teenage risk taking activity. Key Words Sexting, childhood sexuality, criminalisation and sexuality, children and technology, technology and risk. Murray Lee et al.: 'Let's Get Sexting': Risk, Power, Sex and Criminalisation in the Moral Domain IJCJ 36 Online version via www.crimejusticejournal.com © 2013 2(1) Introduction
Full-text available
Article
Young people's 'sexting' - defined by the Macquarie Dictionary Online (2010) as the sending and receiving of sexually explicit images via mobile phones - has become a focus of much media reporting; however, research regarding the phenomenon is in its infancy. This paper reports on the first phase of a study to understand this activity more comprehensively. Interviews were conducted with notable key informants (including teen culture authors and professionals from the academic, education and health sectors) to create a context for a second phase involving interviews with young people. Insights were offered into reasons for young people's participation, potential consequences and solutions. Highlighted was a gap in reliable data from the perspective of young people themselves, and the importance of their voice in understanding and developing effective strategies to prevent and deal with this phenomenon.
Article
Sex, Power and Consent: Youth Culture and the Unwritten Rules draws on the real world stories and experiences of young women and young men - as told in their own words - regarding love, sex, relationships and negotiating consent. Judicious reference to feminist and sociological theory underpins explicit connections between young people's lived experience and current international debates. Issues surrounding youth sex within popular culture, sexuality education and sexual violence prevention are thoroughly explored. In a clear, incisive and eminently readable manner, Anastasia Powell develops a compelling framework for understanding the ‘unwritten rules’ and the gendered power relations in which sexual negotiations take place. Ultimately Sex, Power and Consent provides practical strategies for young people, and those working with them, toward the prevention of sexual violence.
Article
This research study investigates how communication technologies facilitate sexual violence against young people and what challenges this presents for the Victorian criminal justice system. Based on interviews with young people and professionals working with young people, it examines the effects of technology on the lives of young people, the interface between emerging communication technologies and experiences of sexual violence, and the factors that enable or hinder appropriate legal responses. Communication technologies such as online social networking sites and mobile phones are considered, and their use in identifying and grooming potential victims, blackmail and intimation, sexting, harassment, and pornography.
Article
Contemporary teens and young adults, often collectively referred to as the .NET generation or the ‘digital generation’, represent the largest proportion of end-users in the information and communication technologies market (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2007; Australian Communications and Media Authority [ACMA], 2007, 2008). While there is much written concerning the rise in pornographic and other sexual material via the internet and mobile phones there is comparatively little published work regarding the use of information and communication technologies for the distribution of unauthorised sexual images, more particularly, where a sexual assault has occurred. This article considers the issues raised by the use of information and communication technologies in sexual violence and the distribution of unauthorised sexual images. The implications of this emerging issue are considered in light of existing and potential legislative frameworks.
Article
Purpose: This study addresses a gap in evidence regarding the nature and origins of the phenomenon of sexting from the perspective of young people. Methods: A qualitative methodology was used, involving individual semistructured interviews with 33 young people aged 15-20 years. Participants were sourced via youth health, recreational, and educational settings using purposive snowball sampling. Results were organized using NVivo, and themes were generated. Results: Interviews with 15 males and 18 females exposed a number of themes, including the gendered nature of sexting, which is the focus of this article. Of particular concern is the theme of pressure experienced by both young women and young men to be involved in the behavior. Conclusions: Findings highlight important implications for the design of strategies to prevent the potential harmful consequences of sexting. For prevention approaches to be effective, they must consider the underlying origins of the behavior and the online sociocultural context within which young people live.