Article

The anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties of honey

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Abstract

Honey is a natural product produced by bees and has been used for thousands of years as a medicinal agent and dietary supplement. It is known to cure a wide variety of ailments and can be used as a potent anti-inflammatory and wound healing agent. These vital bioactivities of honey are far less well known than its antibacterial, antioxidant, and any other biological activities. Many clinical trials have been reported and revealed that, when honey is applied to wound, there is a decrease in inflammation and will have a soothing effect. There is much evidence for the anti-inflammatory and wound healing effects of honey in terms of publications in modern medical and scientific journals. The exact mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity and wound healing property of honey has yet to be demonstrated. Possibly there are several mechanisms of action. There are also some reports where honey exerts negligible side effects. The article focuses on the components of honey involved in its anti-inflammatory effect, possible mechanism of action, properties of honey responsible for its wound healing activity, and its adverse effects. Overall the review presents the evidence and explanation for the anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties of honey.

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... Also, honey and its substances have been shown to be engaged with control of proteins, inclusive of iNOS, COX-2, tyrosine kinase, and ornithine decarboxylase [23,24]. There are reports on the induction for the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1β, by different types of honey [24,25]. ...
... Also, honey and its substances have been shown to be engaged with control of proteins, inclusive of iNOS, COX-2, tyrosine kinase, and ornithine decarboxylase [23,24]. There are reports on the induction for the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1β, by different types of honey [24,25]. As of late, some honeys such as Gelam honey have been shown to reduce mediators of inflammatory reactions, for example, TNF-α and COX-2, by means of weakening NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and in this manner hindering the initiation of the NF-κB pathway. ...
... The healing properties of honey have long been recognized and documented [24]. Both endogenous (pathophysiology) and exogenous (microorganisms) factors DOI: http://dx.doi.org ...
... Honey has been studied for the prevention of oral mucositis. There is evidence from published studies for its wound healing effects, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects [72,73,119]. Oral consumption of honey has been associated with a reduction in plasma prostaglandin levels in humans [72] and topical treatment of wounds with honey shown to reduce signs and symptoms of inflammation including localized swelling, redness, pain, and heat [73]. ...
... There is evidence from published studies for its wound healing effects, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects [72,73,119]. Oral consumption of honey has been associated with a reduction in plasma prostaglandin levels in humans [72] and topical treatment of wounds with honey shown to reduce signs and symptoms of inflammation including localized swelling, redness, pain, and heat [73]. Honey, and compounds found in honey and bee propolis including flavonoids and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), are thought to produce anti-inflammatory effects through several mechanisms. ...
... Honey, and compounds found in honey and bee propolis including flavonoids and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), are thought to produce anti-inflammatory effects through several mechanisms. These include inhibition of ROS formation, inhibition of leukocyte infiltration, inhibition of COX-2 and iNOS expression and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) production [73]. ...
Article
Mucositis is a side effect associated with the use of chemotherapy, and has a significant impact on the quality of life. Mucositis, by definition, refers to the inflammation of the mucosa and occurs throughout the alimentary tract from the mouth to anus. Nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) encompasses a family of transcription factors, which upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines. Both are recognized as key targets in developing therapeutic interventions for chemotherapy-induced mucositis, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibition may also be beneficial in reducing the severity and duration. This review focuses on the pathobiology of chemotherapy-induced oral and gastrointestinal mucositis and recent research examining the role of agents with anti-inflammatory activity in treatment and prevention of the condition. We consider agents in clinical use as well as some others under current investigation including plant-derived and other natural medicines.
... Recently, nature-derived antioxidant and antinflammatory molecules/products such as honey and curcumin have been applied to treating wounds since they are safe and effective [18,21,22]. 5hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is commonly found in many daily food products (e.g., honey, coffee, and syrup) and is used as a flavoring substance in heat-processed products [23,24]. ...
... Therefore, developing novel therapeutic strategies to accelerate wound healing is necessary. Recently, natural antioxidant/anti-inflammatory products such as honey, curcumin, and t-resveratrol have gained much attention in treating the wound because they can promote wound healing via modulating the immune system response in a molecular level [18,21,22]. Also, anti-oxidant-based wound dressings are generally safe and cheap, compared to growth factor-based wound products that are costly and are potentially associated with increased cancer mortality [18,35]. ...
... Moreover, 5-HMF-embedded PVA/SA hydrogels supported better reepithelization and collagen deposition at day 20 compared with the control and PVA/SA hydrogels without 5-HMF, which means that 5-HMF could help to enhance the reepithelization and tissue remodeling process of the wound. These results are in agreement with those of other antiinflammatory/antioxidant agents-based wound dressings [18,21,22]. ...
Article
Treating large acute or chronic wounds remains a challenging task because of a lack of effective methods to accelerate wound healing. Though growth factor-based wound products are found to be effective, they are costly and are potentially associated with increased cancer mortality. Effective, safe, and affordable strategies to tackle large or chronic wounds need to further be designed and developed. Here, we designed a new antioxidant-embedded hydrogel system for speeding up the wound healing process. We prepared multifunctional poly (vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate (PVA/SA) hydrogels with the incorporation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), and investigated their physiochemical and biological properties in vitro and in vivo. PVA, SA, 5-HMF, and Ag-NPs were employed for good mechanical properties, good biocompatibility, anti-inflammation, and anti-bacterial activity, respectively. 5-HMF is commonly found in many food products (e.g. honey, coffee, and black garlic) and is known as an antioxidant. In our in vitro study, 5-HMF was found to effectively facilitate the proliferation and migration of human skin fibroblasts (HSF), and collagen production. Besides, 5-HMF-embedded PVA/SA hybrid hydrogels supported controlled release and good cell compatibility, and more importantly accelerated wound healing in vivo through ameliorated inflammation, enhanced angiogenesis/vascularization, increased collagen production, and promoted re-epithelialization.
... 5 These potentially beneficial effects can be attributed to its antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties. [5][6][7] The composition of honey, in particular the exact proportions of each of its constituents, is dependent on the floral source of the pollen used to produce the honey. 8 Overall, honey is a mixture of several different categories of compounds, including polyphenols, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, organic acids, enzymes and other proteins, 9 all of which contribute to honey being a viable nutritional source of antioxidants. ...
... 13 The concomitant effects of the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of honey also contribute to its anti-inflammatory effects of reducing excessive inflammation, possibly resulting in a wound-healing effect. 6 As the presence of ROS has been determined to lead to the production of inflammation, 14 the antioxidant activity of honey can also contribute to a reduction of an excessive inflammatory response. 7 Moreover, honey's capability to prevent the development of bacterial infections (through providing an environment that cannot support bacterial growth and proliferation) can further assist with the inhibition of inflammation. ...
... 5 The topical application of honey to various injured tissues has also been shown to stimulate wound repair through the stimulation of growth of epithelial cells, reduction of edema, and wound debridement. 6,7 It is well established that an individual's oral health impacts their quality of life. 4,15, 16 Poor oral health is shown to affect physical and psychological wellbeing through condition-related reductions in functionality, including the inability to consume adequate nutrition and communicate, undesirable effects on physical appearance, in addition to causing pain. ...
Article
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Background and objectives: A healthy oral environment features a rapid turnover rate of epithelium cells capable of regeneration and repair, with the oral epithelium contributing as a physical barrier and immune defense. However, the oral cavity can be subjected to unique damage, such as ulcerations. Honey is reported as a therapeutic agent for wound healing, due to its antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Methods: A systematic review was performed following the PRISMA 2015 Guidelines, to assess the efficacy and safety of the therapeutic use of honey in the oral cavity. Four electronic databases were searched (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Science) for randomized controlled trials examining the effect of honey on oral cavity conditions. Results: In total, 2,832 records were identified, and after applying exclusion criteria, 13 studies were included. Honey was applied topically throughout, for chemotherapy or radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis (n = 11), dental wounds (n = 1), and recurrent aphthous stomatitis (n = 1), all of which are ulcerations with different pathologies. In the majority of studies (12/13), honey reduced the severity and/or duration of the condition compared with control groups (all p<0.05). However, a group treated with Manuka honey (n = 1) experienced adverse effects and considerable participant attrition. Conclusions: Honey is an effective treatment for a range of oral ulcerative conditions. Future research should focus on compositional analysis of honeys to determine those with optimal beneficial properties, and whether Manuka honey is safe to use in the oral cavity
... Also, honey and its substances have been shown to be engaged with control of proteins, inclusive of iNOS, COX-2, tyrosine kinase, and ornithine decarboxylase [23,24]. There are reports on the induction for the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1β, by different types of honey [24,25]. ...
... Also, honey and its substances have been shown to be engaged with control of proteins, inclusive of iNOS, COX-2, tyrosine kinase, and ornithine decarboxylase [23,24]. There are reports on the induction for the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1β, by different types of honey [24,25]. As of late, some honeys such as Gelam honey have been shown to reduce mediators of inflammatory reactions, for example, TNF-α and COX-2, by means of weakening NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and in this manner hindering the initiation of the NF-κB pathway. ...
... The healing properties of honey have long been recognized and documented [24]. Both endogenous (pathophysiology) and exogenous (microorganisms) factors DOI: http://dx.doi.org ...
Chapter
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Honey has been used traditionally for ages to treat infectious diseases. These amazing properties of honey are complex as a result of the involvement of various bioactive compounds. Honey is becoming sustainable as a reputable and effective therapeutic agent to practitioners of conventional medicine and to the general public. Its beneficial role has been endorsed due to its antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflam-matory, and antioxidant activities as well as boosting of the immune system. Also, other medical conditions discussed here which can be treated with honey include but not limited to diarrhea, gastric ulcer, canine recurrent dermatitis, diabetics, tumor, and arthritis, and honey can also be used for skin disinfection and wound healing. Most of the known factors that give honey these properties include its acidity, high sugar, hydrogen peroxide, and other non-peroxide properties. Some factors may affect the therapeutic properties of honey such as exposure to heat and light.
... [1] Honey isn't only an antimicrobial agent but also function as food supplement to avert other noninfectious diseases of human due to its phytochemical component as reported by Hadagali and Chua. [6] Composition of honey Honey was made of water, glucose, fructose, proteins, vitamins and minerals. [7] It might be also described as the ordinary sweet substance created by honeybees from the nectar of blossoms or from the exudation of living parts of plants or excretions of plants sucking insects on the living parts of plants, which bees gathered, converted and mixed with specific substances of their own, kept and confined in the honeycomb to mature as reported by Elijah et al. [8] Olakunle et al. [9] reported that Honey predominantly comprises sugar and water. ...
... Anti-inflammation is the positive reaction to a procedure that decreases inflammation, according to Hadagali and Chua [6] , and inflammation may be a disease resulting from tissue response to trauma or pathogenic agents. In order to get rid of the injuring stimuli, such as bacteria, damaged cells or irritants, it has a protective method of action by an organism / tissue. ...
... Regarding the wound healing potential of the Palestinian honey, the macroscopic examination of the wound reveals a significant decrease in the diameter of the wounds treated by honey as compared with wounds treated with Madecassol. The healing property of honey is mainly due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial activity [50,51]. Furthermore, its acidity and hyperosmolarity, as well as the bioactive molecule such as flavonoids, hydrogen peroxide, glucose oxidase, gluconic acid, and MGO, play a major role in its activity [50,52,53]. ...
... The healing property of honey is mainly due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial activity [50,51]. Furthermore, its acidity and hyperosmolarity, as well as the bioactive molecule such as flavonoids, hydrogen peroxide, glucose oxidase, gluconic acid, and MGO, play a major role in its activity [50,52,53]. The wound healing activity could also be due to inhibition of PG, stimulation of nitric oxide and modulating the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors by monocytes [54,55]. ...
Article
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Aim: The composition and activity of honey depend on its floral origin. Honey collected from Tulkarm was evaluated for physicochemical property and antioxidant content as well as a diuretic and wound healing activity. Its effect on kidney function was evaluated and compared with furosemide. Materials and Methods: Honey was collected in Tulkarm, Palestine, and its phenol, flavones, and flavonol content were assessed. The antioxidant activity was determined with the use of colorimetric assays, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). Two sets of experiments were conducted. First experiment: 18 rats were used for the evaluation of diuretic activity of honey. The rats received either honey or furosemide. Renal function test, uric acid, and serum and urine electrolytes assay were performed. Second experiment: 18 male mice were used to evaluate the wound healing property of honey. Wounds were created on mice skin and treated daily with honey or Madecassol. Measurements of wounds were performed over a period of 12 days. Results: The physical and chemical parameters of Tulkarm honey are within the limits of the European legislation and fulfilling the criteria described in the standard codex for honey. It contains antioxidant compounds and shows antioxidant activity. Oral honey increased creatinine clearance and urine volume, sodium, and chloride without causing hypokalemia or affecting blood urea, uric acid, or serum creatinine level. The diuretic activity of furosemide was associated with hypokalemia. Topical honey application enhanced wound closure when compared with the Madecassol application. Conclusion: The study is the first to report that honey collected from Tulkarm has a considerable diuretic effect without affecting serum electrolytes or kidney function test and exhibits strong antioxidant activity and wound healing property.
... The original definition has been reformulated throughout time, a nutraceutical being designated to possess physiological benefits, that provide protection against several disorders (Kalra, 2003;Sarin, 2012;Golla, 2018). Natural honey can be considered a nutraceutical agent due to the fact that besides its nutritional value, it is widely appreciated for its therapeutic properties (Chua et al., 2014). Honey represents a significant source of sugars, with a high nutritive value. ...
... Therefore, honey has been widely used in several skin pathologies due to its antimicrobial, antioxidant, immuno-stimulatory and anti-inflammatory properties (Kwakman et al., 2008;Vandamme et al., 2013;McLoone et al., 2016;Pereira and Bártolo, 2016). The main components of honey involved in the wound healing process are represented by hydrogen peroxide, glucose oxidase, gluconic acid, methylgloxal, polyphenols, as well as hygroscopicity, hypertonicity and lower pH (Al-Waili et al., 2011;Hadagali and Chua, 2014;Majtan, 2014;Devasvaran and Yong, 2016). In addition, available literature indicates the ability of honey in stimulating angiogenesis, granulation and epithelialization (Molan, 2001b), lymphocytes and phagocytes (Al-Waili et al., 2011), and in initiating the expression of tissue repair markers (Barui et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Honey, the sweet natural substance produced by honeybees is currently considered one of the nature’s most powerful products. Natural honey can be regarded as a nutraceutical product due to its nutritional benefits and therapeutic promises. In addition to this, the use of honey as food and medicine has been embraced by different civilizations, from ancient times to the present, transcending the barriers of cultural and religious beliefs. The aim of the present review was to highlight and summarize some of the numerous medicinal attributes of honey, apart from its nutritional profile, that can contribute to its framing as nutraceutical agent. In this regard, it was proved that honey can promote metabolic and cardiovascular benefits, oral and bone health, haematological beneficial effects, anticancer activity. Moreover, evidence has been found for the use of honey as an alternative cure in several skin disorders.
... Honey consumption for its medicinal properties (Hadagali and Chua, 2014) is an example of a widespread shift from drugs to functional foods. Various studies have shown health-promoting properties of honey such as anti-inflammatory properties (Tonks et al., 2003;Kassim, Achoui, Mansor et al., 2010;Hadagali and Chua, 2014), antioxidant, and antibacterial properties (Liu et al., 2013). ...
... Honey consumption for its medicinal properties (Hadagali and Chua, 2014) is an example of a widespread shift from drugs to functional foods. Various studies have shown health-promoting properties of honey such as anti-inflammatory properties (Tonks et al., 2003;Kassim, Achoui, Mansor et al., 2010;Hadagali and Chua, 2014), antioxidant, and antibacterial properties (Liu et al., 2013). The Kelulut honey is commonly available in tropical climate forests of Malaysia and is produced by the stingless bee species from the Trigona spp. ...
Article
Full-text available
The anti-inflammatory activity of raw and processed Kelulut stingless bee honey was investigated for its ability to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Raw honey was optimally processed by thermal processing and thermosonication at 90°C. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell viability assay showed that Kelulut honey from 7.8 to 500 µg/mL was not cytotoxic to RAW 264.7 cells as it resulted in at least 80% viable cells after 24 hr. Both raw and processed honey from 10 to 300 µg/mL displayed an increase and decrease in NO concentrations, suggesting a mixed effect of NO inhibition and enhancement. Maximum NO inhibition of 17.5% was recorded from 20 µg/mL of thermally processed honey while the highest NO enhancement of 7.8% was from 10 µg/mL of thermosonicated honey. The NO effects were independent of honey concentration and processing techniques, suggesting its potential robustness in medicinal properties as part of the diet.
... [1] Honey isn't only an antimicrobial agent but also function as food supplement to avert other noninfectious diseases of human due to its phytochemical component as reported by Hadagali and Chua. [6] Composition of honey Honey was made of water, glucose, fructose, proteins, vitamins and minerals. [7] It might be also described as the ordinary sweet substance created by honeybees from the nectar of blossoms or from the exudation of living parts of plants or excretions of plants sucking insects on the living parts of plants, which bees gathered, converted and mixed with specific substances of their own, kept and confined in the honeycomb to mature as reported by Elijah et al. [8] Olakunle et al. [9] reported that Honey predominantly comprises sugar and water. ...
... Anti-inflammation is the positive reaction to a procedure that decreases inflammation, according to Hadagali and Chua [6] , and inflammation may be a disease resulting from tissue response to trauma or pathogenic agents. In order to get rid of the injuring stimuli, such as bacteria, damaged cells or irritants, it has a protective method of action by an organism / tissue. ...
... Honey exerts antibacterial [2][3][4] and antifungal [5] activity in vitro, but these properties are highly variable among different honey types [6]. These biological properties are attributed to physical and chemical factors such as low pH, high sugar content (high osmolality), hydrogen peroxide production from glucose oxidase activation and additionally to other chemical compounds such as methylglyoxal, 3-phenyllactic acid (PLA), bee defensin, Major Royal Jelly Proteins (MRJPs) and bacteriocins [7]. Biological factors such as honey microbiome may contribute The microbial communities of bee bread could produce their own antimicrobial compounds thus further contributing to its bioactivity. ...
Article
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Bee-collected pollen (BCP) is a well-known functional food. Honey bees process the collected pollen and store it in the hive, inside the comb cells. The processed pollen is called bee- bread or ambrosia and it is the main source of proteins, lipids, vitamins, macro-and micro-elements in honey bee nutrition. During storage, beebread undergoes solid state fermentation which preserves it and increases the bioavailability of nutrients. Research on beebread has been rather limited until now. In recent years, there is an increasing interest regarding the antimicrobial properties of BCP and beebread, due to emerging antimicrobial resistance by pathogens. Both BCP and beebread exhibit antimicrobial properties against diverse pathogens, like bacteria and fungi. As is the case with other bee products, lack of antimicrobial resistance might be attributed to the synergy of more than one antimicrobial compounds within BCP and beebread. Furthermore, BCP and bee bread exert targeted activity against pathogens and affect the host microbiome in a prebiotic manner. This review aims to present up to date research findings regarding these aspects as well as to discuss current challenges and future perspectives in the field.
... Such activity has been ascribed to the presence of methylglyoxal content through a non-peroxide mediated mechanism [46]. Similarly, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory components of honey have found extensive investigation in biomaterial application [47]. On the other hand, senescence of stem cells has remained as the principal mechanism undermining their long-term expansion and in vivo delivery for clinical applications. ...
Article
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Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCDMSC) are attractive candidates for cell-based regenerative medicine. However, they are susceptible to replicative senescence during repetitive passaging for in-vitro expansion and induced senescence in an oxidative, inflammatory microenvironment in vivo. Aim of this study is to investigate if honey-incorporated matrices can be employed to reduce senescence of UCDMSC. Matrices were prepared by electrospinning solutions of honey with poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA). PVA:honey matrices exhibited free radical scavenging activity. Culture of UCDMSC on PVA:honey matrices showed improvement in cell proliferation compared to pure PVA nanofibres. Expression of vimentin indicated that mesenchymal phenotype is preserved after culturing on these matrices. Further, UCDMSC were serially subcultured and cells of two passages (P2 and P6) were evaluated for reactive oxygen species (ROS) load and senescence parameters. P6 cells showed a higher ROS load and β-galactosidase (β-gal) positive senescent cells compared to P2. However, culturing on PVA:honey substrates significantly reduced both ROS and β-gal markers compared to cells on PVA substrates. Honey contains several antioxidant and anti-inflammatory components, which can reduce the ROS-related senescence. Thus, it is concluded that honey containing nanofibres can be effective substrates for stem cell-based wound healing and regenerative medicine.
... Studies have shown that corn bran is the cell wall material with the highest content of ferulic acid among all grain by-products (Dai et al., 2019;Rose et al., 2010). It has been proved that corn bran ferulic acid showed not only antioxidant capacity (Ulusoy & Kolayli, 2014), but also other good physiological activities, such as anti-inflammatory (Hadagali & Chua, 2014;Sim et al., 2020), anti-photoaging (Seo et al., 2010), and antihyperglycemic (Nowicka & Wojdyło, 2019). Diferulic acids are formed by dimerization of ferulic acid. ...
Article
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Maize is the food crop with the highest total output in the world. However, corn bran is only a by‐product with low price. The 5,5′‐diferulic acid glucoside esters (DFG) were obtained from corn bran using the enzymatic method. DFG showed obvious antioxidant capacity in cell, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) and in mouse. DFG decreased ROS and MDA content in 500 μM H2O2 stimulated ARPE‐19 cells to 48.6% and 32.2%, respectively. DFG decreased ROS content in C. elegans to 49.1% and MDA content in acute ethanol (50%, 12 ml/kg) stimulated mouse to 30.4%. DFG also increased SOD protein content significantly in cell, C. elegans and mouse to 175.5%, 120.1%, and 126.2%, respectively. DFG significantly extended the lifespan of C. elegans both under heat stress and natural situation. The median survival time was prolonged to 133.3% and 116.7%, respectively. This capacity relied on the SIR‐2.1 activity. SIR‐2.1 is an ortholog of human Sirtuin‐1 (SIRT‐1). DFG also upregulated SIRT‐1 and PCG‐1α expression level obviously in H2O2‐stimulated ARPE‐19 cells (to 134.4% and 127.1%, respectively) and in acute ethanol stimulated mouse eyes (to 135.1% and 111.5%, respectively) and liver (to 123.3% and 113.6%, respectively). These results indicate that DFG has multiple bioactivities. Our research provides a new application prospect of corn bran. And to our best knowledge, this is the first time, the sirtuins‐relied lifespan extension activity of the 5,5′‐diferulic acid extracted from corn bran was reported. Practical applications The traditional method for extracting diferulic acid from corn bran is to use the strong alkali. Obviously, this is not welcomed by the food industry. We employed the biological enzyme method in a relatively mild pH range during the extraction process. It is more environmentally friendly and more economical. DFG can be added as a raw material for functional foods like yogurt, fruit juice, and cereals. As well, the solid precipitate obtained after extraction can also be used as high‐quality dietary fiber to produce functional food. Meanwhile, concerning for the 5,5′‐diferulic acid derived from corn bran, the relevant research is still not abundant. And to our best knowledge, we have reported for the first time about the effect of this kinds of diferulic acid on prolonging life span and its SIRT‐1‐dependent activity. It also provides a new perspective for the study of diferulic acid.
... 39 Humool and farzaja are specially recommended for maqami zakhm and jaryane dam. 43 [87][88] Farzaja and huqna are more beneficial than mulayinat, especially in amraze rahim. 30 Amale kaiyy bil naar (cauterization) is recommended, if the drugs fail to heal the ulcer. ...
Article
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Cervical ectopy is one of the commonest gynecological conditions seen in OPD’s, about 80-85% of women suffer from cervical ectopy during their life time. Many a times, it is an accidental finding in an asymptomatic woman coming for routine gynecological examination. Although it is a benign lesion, but may predispose to complications like infertility, cervical intraepithelial neoplasm, risk of various sexually transmitted infections like C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoea, human papilloma virus, human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus and shows malignant changes as it progresses. Ectopy occurs when the columnar epithelium lining the endocervix, extends onto the ectocervix. As the disease takes 10-20 years to progress from pre invasive to invasive disease, preventive measures such as screening and treatment modalities should be adopted. Early diagnosis of cervical ectopy is important for its effective management and for prevention of its long-term sequel. The treatment option available in conventional medicine includes surgical procedure either electro or, cryocautery, but have their own complications. Hence, this treatment is limited due to its complications and contraindications and need for safer alternate therapy. In Unani system of medicine, various formulations are available as treatment of quruhal rahim, which have been recommended to be used locally in the form of humool for immediate healing of wound, exhibiting the properties of anti-inflammatory (muhallile warm), desiccant (mujaffif), wound healing (mundamile qurooh), sedative (musakkin), antiseptic (dafa’e ta’ffun) etc. This review article gives a detailed description of cervical ectopy as mentioned in classical Unani text including its etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation and principles of treatment as well as evidence-based Unani medicine.
... w obrębie oparzeń. Gdy stosowano miód na miejscowy obrzęk lub zaczerwienioną skórę, co było związane ze stanem zapalnym, stwierdzano zmniejszanie się objawów zapalnych [27]. ...
... Inflammation may be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation contributes to wound healing, while chronic inflammation delays wound healing and prolongs this process (Hadagali and Chua, 2014). Vitexin flavonoid used in this study has been shown to have antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties in various studies (Gökbulut et al., 2010;Chen et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Acute or chronic wounds are one of the most common health problems worldwide and medicinal drugs or traditional remedies are often used in wound healing. Further studies regarding wound treatment are rapidly continuing. Vitexin is a phenolic compound, which is found in many medicinal plants, has different pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant. In the present study, it is aimed to investigate the wound healing effect of formulation prepared as chitosan-based gel with vitexin in vivo and in vitro. Cytotoxicity and wound healing assays were used for in vitro and excisional wound model is used for in vivo studies. Extracted tissues from wound area were histologically examined. Wound healing process was monitored on 7, 14 and 21st days. When wound construction was evaluated, chitosan-based gel formulation containing vitexin demonstrated significant effect compared to control group. Histological examinations demonstrated that skin regeneration was promoted by vitexin formulation. Significant cell proliferation was observed with vitexin/chitosan dispersion in the wound healing assay performed with NIH 3T3 and HaCaT cells. In conclusion, our test substance chitosan-based gel formulation containing vitexin significantly accelerated wound healing both in vivo and in vitro. Keywords: Vitexin, Chitosan, Wound healing assay, Excisional wound model
... For years, it has been reported that honey has relevant biological activities such as antimicrobial, anticancer, tissue repair, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory [1]. Several types of honey from different countries have been associated with promising antiinflammatory activity, and this effect is associated with a significant amount of phenolic compounds such as quercetin, ellagic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric, chrysin, and ferulic acid [2][3][4][5]. ...
Article
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Honey is an ancient food in the human diet, and the chemical composition of some types of honey has been associated with several beneficial biological effects. Among them, honey has been highlighted to improve health and control inflammatory processes. However, there is no study elucidating the mechanism of action of honey produced organically. Here, we separated organic honey (OH) samples from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest into eight different profiles (OH-1 to OH-8) and evaluated, in vitro and in vivo, their anti-inflammatory potential. To determine cell viability, RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with several concentrations of OH-1 up to OH-8, and anti-inflammatory activity was assessed through NF-κB activation and TNF-α levels. All types of the studied honey up to a concentration of 4% (w/v) did not interfere with macrophage viability and decreased NF-kB activation and TNF-α levels in macrophage culture in vitro. OH-7 was selected as the most promising anti-inflammatory and used in subsequent assays. Mice pretreated orally with OH-7 showed a decrease in neutrophil migration and TNF-α level. Thus, these types of Brazilian organic honey show promising anti-inflammatory potential, particularly the OH-7 variety. Brazilian organic honey may lead to the development of new products and/or be incorporated into food for use in veterinary medicine and human health as well
... The anti-inflammatory effect of honey is well known and broadly used (Manjunatha and Chua 2014). It can only be speculated if this effect is enhanced by the crushed ricinus seeds. ...
Article
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While probably originating from Africa, the plant Ricinus communis is found nowadays around the world, grown for industrial use as a source of castor oil production, wildly sprouting in many regions, or used as ornamental plant. As regards its pharmacological utility, a variety of medical purposes of selected parts of the plant, e.g., as a laxative, an anti-infective, or an anti-inflammatory drug, have been described already in the sixteenth century bc in the famous Papyrus Ebers (treasured in the Library of the University of Leipzig). Quite in contrast, on the toxicological side, the native plant has become the “poisonous plant 2018” in Germany. As of today, a number of isolated components of the plant/seeds have been characterized, including, e.g., castor oil, ricin, Ricinus communis agglutinin, ricinin, nudiflorin, and several allergenic compounds. This review mainly focuses on the most toxic protein, ricin D, classified as a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP2). Ricin is one of the most potent and lethal substances known. It has been considered as an important bioweapon (categorized as a Category B agent (second-highest priority)) and an attractive agent for bioterroristic activities. On the other hand, ricin presents great potential, e.g., as an anti-cancer agent or in cell-based research, and is even explored in the context of nanoparticle formulations in tumor therapy. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the pharmacology and toxicology-related body of knowledge on ricin. Toxicokinetic/toxicodynamic aspects of ricin poisoning and possibilities for analytical detection and therapeutic use are summarized as well.
... Honey and its flavonoids can significantly suppress leukocyte infiltration and ROS production. Their anti-inflammatory property is due to the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX2 expression, which leads to the reduced generation of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, PGE2, and NO [33,37]. Phenolic compounds can inhibit NO and PGE2, which results in suppression of edema [38]. ...
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Background: Antioxidant therapy has gained attention for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). The excessive generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species in the gastrointestinal tract increases oxidative stress, thereby leading to antioxidant defense depletion, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, tissue damage, and ulceration. Spirulina platensis (SP) and honey are excellent sources of potent antioxidants such as polyphenols and other bioactive compounds. We aimed to investigate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of honey and SP in comparison with sulfasalazine (SSZ) and mesalazine on acetic acid-induced colitis (AA-colitis) in rats. Materials and methods: Fifty-six Sprague Dawley male rats were allocated to seven groups, with each group comprising eight rats. UC was induced, except in normal controls (NC). All groups received oral treatments for seven days. The normal saline solution of 2 mL was intrarectally administered to the NC group. The AA-colitis and NC groups received 2 mL acetic acid intrarectally as a single dose and 2 mL normal saline for seven consecutive days orally. The mesalazine group received 100 mg/kg mesalazine, the SSZ group 360 mg/kg SSZ, the honey or H group 1 mL honey diluted with 1 mL distilled water, the SH group 1g/kg SP and 1 mL honey, and the SP group 1g/kg SP. After clinical activity score assessment, the rats were sacrificed. Colonic weight/length ratio, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), reduced glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. Colonic histopathological changes were observed microscopically. Results: Treatment of UC with SP, honey, and combination regimen significantly reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, MDA, MPO, NO, and PGE2, and increased TAC, GSH, GPx, and SOD in interventional groups compared to the AA-colitis group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Honey and SP might be beneficial food supplements for medical nutrition therapy in UC.
... Honey is made by bees from plant nectars and therefore exhibits seasonal and geographical variation. Honey exhibits a wide range of clinically useful effects (Basbug et al. 2011;Gollu et al. 2008;, although it is not entirely clear how it accelerates wound healing (Hadagali and Chua 2014). Nevertheless, the value of systemic or topical application of honey for healing gastrointestinal anastomosis has been reported for several experimental models (Gollu et al. 2008;Ergul and Ergul 2010;Saber 2010). ...
Article
We compared the effect of honey and a mixture of arginine-glutamine-hydroxymethylbutyrate (AGHMB) on healing of a descending colon anastomosis in rats that were immunosuppressed with tacrolimus (Tac). Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: untreated control, Tac, Tac + honey and Tac + AGHMB. Colon resection and anastomosis were performed on day 14 and re-laparotomy was performed on the day 21 of the study. Anastomotic bursting pressure, macroscopic adhesion score, weekly body weight changes, histopathological features and immunohistochemical staining of TGF-β1 were determined for all groups. We found no significant difference in anastomotic bursting pressure among the experimental groups. We found significant weekly increases in body weight for the Tac + honey group. We found no significant difference in the weekly body weight measurements for the Tac + AGHMB group. We found significant increases in TGF-β1 expression in the Tac + honey group compared to the control and Tac groups. No significant differences in inflammatory cell infiltration, fibroblast proliferation or collagen deposition were found between the Tac + honey and Tac + AGHMB groups; however, a significant difference in neovascularization between these groups was found. Neovascularization in the Tac + honey group was significantly greater than for the Tac + AGHMB group. We found that both honey and the AGHMB mixture were beneficial for anastomotic wound healing in rats that were immunosuppressed using Tac.
... Interestingly, our results demonstrated that oral supplementation of SBH down-regulated both NF-κB and p38 MAPK in the liver, kidney, heart and lung, and ameliorated leukocytosis and serum inflammatory mediators in LPS-induced rats. These results are consistent with recent studies showing the anti-inflammatory activities of honey and its constituents [50][51][52][53][54]. Accordingly, propolis, a resinous mixture of bee saliva and beeswax, has down-regulated NF-κB and p38 MAPK in LPS-stimulated Raw 246.7 cells. ...
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Background Epidemiological and experimental studies have extensively indicated that chronic subclinical systemic inflammation (CSSI) and oxidative stress are risk factors for several chronic diseases, including cancer, arthritis, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. This study examined the protective effect of stingless bee honey (SBH) supplementation against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced CSSI, pointing to the possible involvement of NF-κB, p38 MAPK and Nrf2 signaling. Methods CSSI was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of LPS three times per week for 28 days, and SBH (4.6 and 9.3 g/kg/day) was supplemented for 30 days. Results LPS-induced rats showed significant leukocytosis, and elevated serum levels of CRP, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), accompanied with diminished antioxidants. Treatment with SBH significantly ameliorated inflammatory markers, MDA and 8-OHdG, and enhanced antioxidants in LPS-induced rats. In addition, SBH decreased NF-κB p65 and p38 MAPK, and increased Nrf2 expression in the liver, kidney, heart and lung of LPS-induced rats. Furthermore, SBH prevented LPS-induced histological and functional alterations in the liver, kidney, heart and lung of rats. Conclusion SBH has a substantial protective role against LPS-induced CSSI in rats mediated via amelioration of inflammation, oxidative stress and NF-κB, p38 MAPK and Nrf2 signaling.
... invertase, diastase and glucose oxidase) processes and ultimately transforms into honey (Nicolson and Human, 2008;Doner, 1977 cited from Brodschneider and Crailsheim 2010). Besides higher nutritional value honey is regarded more often because of its several medicinal properties (Khan et al., 2007;Mandal and Mandal, 2011;Cortes et al., 2011;Hadagali and Chua, 2014). Thus it is utmost important to ensure the quality of honey. ...
... It has been stated that polyphenols in honey exert their wound healing properties and a part of antioxidant effects through upregulation of AMPK/ Nrf2/ARE signaling pathways and promote antioxidant enzyme expression (37). In addition, chrysin suppresses the expression of COX2 and release of IL-1β and TNF-α (43). Gallic acid can suppress iNOS and COX2 and diminish the production of proinflammatory cytokines and histamine release in macrophages (28). ...
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Background: Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes increased lipid peroxidation, decreased intestinal epithelial barrier integrity, and ultimately mucosal disruption and ulceration. Several studies have confirmed the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties of Spirulina Platensis (SP), edible blue-green algae, in various inflammatory diseases. In addition, natural honey, a source of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, is a powerful antioxidant, which can help prevent chronic oxidative stress and subsequent inflammation. Objectives: In this study, we examined and compared the protective effects of SP and honey on ulcerative colitis induced by acetic acid (AA) in rats. Methods: Forty male rats were allocated into five groups (N = 8) and received pretreatment for 32 consecutive days. The administrations were as follows: group 1 (control) and group 2 (AA-colitis group): normal saline, group 3: 1 ml honey/day, group 4: 1 ml honey/day plus 1 g/kg SP, and group 5: 1 g/kg SP. Colitis was induced on the 30th day in groups 2 to 5. On day 32, the clinical activity was determined and anesthetized animals were sacrificed. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), colonic tissues myeloperoxidase (MPO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and colonic weight/length ratio were determined. In addition, histopathological changes of the colon were observed microscopically. Results: The inflammatory markers (PGE2, MDA, NO, IL-6, IL-1β, MPO, and TNF-α) were significantly lower in the pretreatment groups than in the AA-colitis group (P values < 0.05). PGE2 [median (IQR)] of the honey, SP + honey, and SP groups was [0.76 (0.33)], [0.75 (0.40)], and [0.87 (0.86)], respectively, compared to the AA-colitis group [2.60 (2.23)] (P values < 0.041). MDA values were [6.52 (3.57)], [6.09 (3.59)], and [5.85 (4.92)] vs. [16.60 (12.03)] (P values < 0.046) and IL-1β values were [42.20 (8.2)], [41.76 (18.10)], and [42.93 (14.09)] vs. [79.54 (40.79)] (P values < 0.044). Also, SOD, GSH, GPx, and TAC [median (IQR)] were significantly higher in the pretreatment groups than in the AA-colitis group (P values < 0.05). For example, TAC values of the honey, SP + honey, and SP groups were [0.164 (0.08)], [0.14 (0.05)], and [0.16 (0.10)], respectively, vs. the AA-colitis group [0.08 (0.01)] (P values < 0.028). Conclusions: Honey and SP are favorable foods in preventing oxidative stress and inflammatory diseases such as ulcerative colitis.
... e production of free radicals like hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) by leukocytes plays a role in inflammation, whereby it is responsible for the oxidative activation of NF-κB. e NF-κB then regulates the expression of various genes encoding proinflammatory mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and inducible enzymes [38]. Several proinflammatory mediators are released during an inflammatory response, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), IL-6, IL-12, interferon (INF-c), TNF-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) [39]. ...
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Bone remodelling is a complex and tightly regulated process. Disruption of bone remodelling skewing towards resorption will cause osteoporosis and increase the risk of fragility fracture. Honey is a natural product containing various bioactive ingredients with health benefits, especially polyphenols. Therefore, honey may be a novel dietary supplement to prevent osteoporosis. This review aims to summarize the current evidence on the effects of honey on bone health. The evidence reported so far indicates a skeletal-beneficial effect of honey in animal models of osteoporosis. However, the number of studies on humans is limited. Honey can protect the bone via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, primarily through its polyphenol content that acts upon several signalling pathways, leading to bone anabolic and antiresorptive effects. In conclusion, honey is a potential functional food for bone health, but the dose and the bioactive contents of honey need to be verified prior to its application in humans.
... 31 Activated NF-κB upregulates several downstream proinflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), IL-6, IL-12, interferon, TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase. 32,33 Besides, reactive oxygen species (ROS) is generated during MetS due to excessive macronutrients intake and inflammation. 28,34,35 ROS like hydrogen peroxide also reciprocally promotes the oxidative activation and self-amplification of the inflammatory response. ...
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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to the simultaneous presence of hypertension, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and/or visceral obesity, which predisposes a person to cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Evidence suggesting the presence of direct and indirect associations between MetS and osteoporosis is growing. Many studies have reported the beneficial effects of polyphenols in alleviating MetS in in vivo and in vitro models through their antioxidant and anti-inflammation actions. This review aims to summarize the effects of honey (based on unifloral and multi-floral nectar sources) on bone metabolism and each component of MetS. A literature search was performed using the PubMed and Scopus databases using specific search strings. Original studies related to components of MetS and bone, and the effects of honey on components of MetS and bone were included. Honey polyphenols could act synergistically in alleviating MetS by preventing oxidative damage and inflammation. Honey intake is shown to reduce blood glucose levels and prevent excessive weight gain. It also improves lipid metabolism by reducing total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein, as well as increasing high-density lipoprotein. Honey can prevent bone loss by reducing the adverse effects of MetS on bone homeostasis, apart from its direct action on the skeletal system. In conclusion, honey supplementation could be integrated into the management of MetS and MetS-induced bone loss as a preventive and adjunct therapeutic agent.
... Nowadays, honey nutraceutical properties are well known and its antioxidant, antimicrobial and disease-preventive effects widely described in the literature. [24][25][26][27][28][29] In the present study, the biochemical composition (in sugars, secondary metabolites and proteins) of both R. pseudoacacia nectar and its derivative monofloral honey was investigated. In particular, these two matrixes were compared, in order to detect distinctive and ordinary characteristics and understand how much the starting solution (nectar) could reflect the final product (honey), following the transformation process performed by A. mellifera. ...
Article
Background: Robinia pseudoacacia L. nectar and its derivative monofloral honey were systematically compared in this study, to understand how much the starting solution reflected the final product, after re-elaboration by Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola. Results: Subjected to dehydration in the hive, nectar changed its water and sugar content when transformed in honey, as physicochemical and GC-MS analyses revealed. Spectrophotometrical measurements and HPLC-DAD characterization of 18 plant molecules demonstrated honey to be richer than nectar in secondary metabolites. For the first time, the hypothesis of the existence of a nectar redox cycle in R. pseudoacacia was reported, as previously described for Nicotiana sp., based on 1D-protein profiles, WB analysis and detection of H2 O2 and ascorbate. The bioactivity of both matrixes was also investigated. Antiradical in vitro tests showed that Acacia honey is more antioxidant than nectar, which was even able to induce oxidative stress directly on a eukaryotic cell system. Antimicrobial assays demonstrated nectar to be bacteriostatic, due to H2 O2 activity of, whereas honey even bactericidal. Conclusion: All these data support the ecological role of nectar and honey in nature: protection of gynaeceum and preservation from pathogens and degradative processes, respectively.
... Interestingly, our findings showed that oral 2 g/kg/day BGH supplementation significantly decreased the expression of both NF-κB, MYD88, and IKKβ in the liver and kidney of treated diabetic rats. These findings are supported by earlier works, where honey and its constituents to have anti-inflammatory properties by modulating NF-κB and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in animal models [71][72][73][74][75]. ...
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Honey has several pharmacological effects, including anti-diabetic activity. However, the effectiveness of bitter gourd honey (BGH) in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM) is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties of BGH on the kidney and liver of a streptozotocin-induced diabetes rat model. Methods: A single dose (nicotinamide 110 mg/kg, streptozotocin (STZ) 55 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)) was used to induce DM in male rats. For 28 days, normal or diabetic rats were administered 1 g/kg/day and 2 g/kg/day of BGH orally. After the treatment, blood, liver, and kidney samples were collected and analysed for biochemical, histological, and molecular parameters. In addition, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to identify the major bioactive components in BGH. Results: The administration of BGH to diabetic rats resulted in significant reductions in alanine transaminase (ALT),aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, and urea levels. Diabetic rats treated with BGH showed lesser pathophysiological alterations in the liver and kidney as compared to non-treated control rats. BGH-treated diabetic rats exhibited reduced levels of oxidative stress (MDA levels), inflammatory (MYD88, NFKB, p-NFKB, IKKβ), and apoptotic (caspase-3) markers, as well as higher levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GPx) in the liver and kidney. BGH contains many bioactive compounds that may have antioxidative stress, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. Conclusion: BGH protected the liver and kidney in diabetic rats by reducing oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis-induced damage. As a result, BGH can be used as a potential therapy to ameliorate diabetic complications.
... The inflammatory process is a physiological response of the body in order to eliminate, neutralize and destroy stimuli resulting from infection or tissue damage [41]. Diseases usually involve an ongoing inflammatory response, such as that observed in atherosclerosis and cancer [42,43]. ...
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Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a widespread group of secondary metabolites in plants. PAs are notorious for their acute hepatotoxicity, genotoxicity and neurological damage to humans and animals. In recent decades, the application of PAs for beneficial biological activities to cure disease has drawn greater attention. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the pharmacological properties of PAs and discuss PAs as promising prototypes for the development of new drugs.
... This observation has led to the subsequent discovery of a large number of additional antimicrobial compounds in honey, including flavonoids, phenolic acids and the peptide bee defensin-1. [76,[169][170][171] In addition to its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, honey also has anti-inflammatory properties, [172][173][174] which has again been attributed to the presence of these phenolic acids and flavonoids. [174,175] Tonks et al. [126] studied the anti-inflammatory effects of honey in a monocytic cell line, MonoMac-6 (MM6), finding that three types of honey (Manuka, pasture and Australian jelly bush) stimulated the release of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-1β and IL-6 from these cells. ...
Article
Objectives The pathophysiology of chronic wounds typically involves redox imbalance and inflammation pathway dysregulation, often with concomitant microbial infection. Endogenous antioxidants such as glutathione and tocopherols are notably reduced or absent, indicative of significant oxidative imbalance. However, emerging evidence suggests that polyphenols could be effective agents for the amelioration of this condition. This review aims to summarise the current state of knowledge surrounding redox imbalance in the chronic wound environment and the potential use of polyphenols for the treatment of chronic wounds. Key findings Polyphenols provide a multi-faceted approach towards the treatment of chronic wounds. Firstly, their antioxidant activity allows direct neutralisation of harmful free radicals and reactive oxygen species, assisting in restoring redox balance. Upregulation of pro-healing and anti-inflammatory gene pathways and enzymes by specific polyphenols further acts to reduce redox imbalance and promote wound healing actions, such as proliferation, extracellular matrix deposition and tissue remodelling. Finally, many polyphenols possess antimicrobial activity, which can be beneficial for preventing or resolving infection of the wound site. Summary Exploration of this diverse group of natural compounds may yield effective and economical options for the prevention or treatment of chronic wounds.
... A large number of studies on the chemical and biological properties of honey have been performed due to their potent antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and wound healing effects. Since honey has a long-standing tradition with good medicinal value, "folklore" beekeepers and honey enthusiasts have been attached to the putative medicinal effects of honey (Hadagali and Chua, 2014). However, its therapeutic effects depend on its quality, which is attributed to many factors, including the maturation of the bee nest or hive during the harvesting season. ...
Article
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Since the ancient times, bee products (i.e., honey, propolis, pollen, bee venom, bee bread, and royal jelly) have been considered as natural remedies with therapeutic effects against a number of diseases. The therapeutic pleiotropy of bee products is due to their diverse composition and chemical properties, which is independent on the bee species. This has encouraged researchers to extensively study the therapeutic potentials of these products, especially honey. On the other hand, amid the unprecedented growth in nanotechnology research and applications, nanomaterials with various characteristics have been utilized to improve the therapeutic efficiency of these products. Towards keeping the bee products as natural and non-toxic therapeutics, the green synthesis of nanocarriers loaded with these products or their extracts has received a special attention. Alginate is a naturally produced biopolymer derived from brown algae, the desirable properties of which include biodegradability, biocompatibility, non-toxicity and non-immunogenicity. This review presents an overview of alginates, including their properties, nanoformulations, and pharmaceutical applications, placing a particular emphasis on their applications for the enhancement of the therapeutic effects of bee products. Despite the paucity of studies on fabrication of alginate-based nanomaterials loaded with bee products or their extracts, recent advances in the area of utilizing alginate-based nanomaterials and other types of materials to enhance the therapeutic potentials of bee products are summarized in this work. As the most widespread and well-studied bee products, honey and propolis have garnered a special interest; combining them with alginate-based nanomaterials has led to promising findings, especially for wound healing and skin tissue engineering. Furthermore, future directions are proposed and discussed to encourage researchers to develop alginate-based stingless bee product nanomedicines, and to help in selecting suitable methods for devising nanoformulations based on multi-criteria decision making models. Also, the commercialization prospects of nanocomposites based on alginates and bee products are discussed. In conclusion, preserving original characteristics of the bee products is a critical challenge in developing nano-carrier systems. Alginate-based nanomaterials are well suited for this task because they can be fabricated without the use of harsh conditions, such as shear force and freeze-drying, which are often used for other nano-carriers. Further, conjunction of alginates with natural polymers such as honey does not only combine the medicinal properties of alginates and honey, but it could also enhance the mechanical properties and cell adhesion capacity of alginates.
... Honey, similarly, has an extensive history of use. The anti-inflammatory action of the honey is due to inhibition of several factors including inhibiting ROS formation, complement pathway, leukocyte infiltration, COX-2, iNOS and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) [139]. More recently curcumin, a product of plants from the Curcuma longa species and a derivative of turmeric, has gained more traction. ...
Article
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Delayed healing of traumatic wounds often stems from a dysregulated immune response initiated or exacerbated by existing comorbidities, multiple tissue injury or wound contamination. Over decades, approaches towards alleviating wound inflammation have been centered on interventions capable of a collective dampening of various inflammatory factors and/or cells. However, a progressive understanding of immune physiology has rendered deeper knowledge on the dynamic interplay of secreted factors and effector cells following an acute injury. There is a wide body of literature, both in vitro and in vivo, abstracted on the immunomodulatory approaches to control inflammation. Recently, targeted modulation of the immune response via biotechnological approaches and biomaterials has gained attention as a means to restore the pro-healing phenotype and promote tissue regeneration. In order to fully realize the potential of these approaches in traumatic wounds, a critical and nuanced understanding of the relationships between immune dysregulation and healing outcomes is needed. This review provides an insight on paradigm shift towards interventional approaches to control exacerbated immune response following a traumatic injury from an agonistic to a targeted path. We address such a need by (1) providing a targeted discussion of the wound healing processes to assist in the identification of novel therapeutic targets and (2) highlighting emerging technologies and interventions that utilize an immunoengineering-based approach. In addition, we have underscored the importance of immune engineering as an emerging tool to provide precision medicine as an option to modulate acute immune response following a traumatic injury. Finally, an overview is provided on how an intervention can follow through a successful clinical application and regulatory pathway following laboratory and animal model evaluation.
... Honey has been widely studied for its anti-inflammatory, tissue regeneration, angiogenic and epithelisation properties [21][22][23][24][25][26]. Honey's application in skin grafting, however, has been limited to fixation of STSGs to the recipient bed in humans to facilitate graft adherence in the absence of sutures or staples [27,28]. ...
Article
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Background: Full thickness skin grafts (FTSGs), although ideal for resurfacing large defects of the distal extremities in veterinary patients, have a high failure rate due to issues of adherence, infection and inadequate revascularisation because of its thickness and high nutritional demand. This study investigated the effect of Nigeria bee honey on FTSG take at the distal extremities of dogs. The study was conducted on 6 adult male Nigerian indigenous dogs using 3 of the 4 limbs of each dog randomly divided into 3 treatment groups: Nigerian bee honey (HON group), platelet-rich plasma (PRP group) and normal saline (CON group). Full-thickness skin wounds (3 cm × 1.5 cm) were created on the lateral aspect of the radioulnar or metatarsal areas and dressed till adequate granulation tissues formed. Donor skins harvested from the lateral thorax of each dog were sutured to the recipient bed following application of the assigned treatment, and evaluated grossly and histologically on days 0, 4, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21. Results: A higher percentage (4/6 representing 66.7%) of complete graft take was observed in the HON and PRP groups as compared to 3/6 (50%) in the CON group. The HON group had a greater percentage (5/6 representing 83.3%) of adhered grafts as compared to the PRP (4/6 representing 66.7%) and CON (3/6 representing 50%) groups at day 4. There was a significant decrease (p = 0.022) in percentage necrosis between the CON and HON/PRP groups on day 10, 14 and 17. The percentage open mesh area for the HON group was significantly lesser at day 4, 7 and 10 when compared with CON (p < 0.001) and at day 4 when compared with PRP (p = 0.001). At histology, graft neovascularisation score was highest in the HON group on days 4, 14 and 21. Conclusion: Nigeria bee honey enhanced take of meshed full-thickness skin autografts by promoting adherence to the recipient bed, enhancing fibroblast proliferation and collagen laydown, and accelerating the rate of neovascularisation suggesting promising application as an alternative modality to enhance FTSG take.
... Honey exerts broad spectrum antimicrobial efficacy against different types of pathogenic bacteria [152] and viruses [153]. The antibacterial activities of honey are influenced by numerous physical and chemical properties such as high sugar content (high osmolality), low pH, glucose oxidase activation that leads to hydrogen peroxide production, and in addition to that, the biological action of chemical compounds present in honey such as bacteriocins, bee defensin, methylglyoxal, 3-phenyllactic acid (PLA), and the so-called Major Royal Jelly Proteins (MRJPs) [154]. Honey has been shown to yield exceptional antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive (including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)), and Gram-negative bacteria, which are frequently linked to skin infections [155]. ...
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Bee products have long been used in traditional healing practices to treat many types of disorders, including cancer and microbial-related diseases. Indeed, several chemical compounds found in bee products have been demonstrated to display anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral, and antiparasitic properties. With the improvement of research tools and in view of recent advances related to bee products, this review aims to provide broad yet detailed insight into the pharmaceutical prospects of bee products such as honey, propolis, bee pollen, royal jelly, bee bread, beeswax, and bee venom, in the domain of cancer and infectious disease management. Available literature confirms the efficacy of these bee products in the alleviation of cancer progression, inhibition of bacterial and viral proliferation, and mitigation of parasitic-related symptoms. With such potentials, bioactive components isolated from the bee products can be used as an alternative approach in the long-run effort to improve humans' health at a personal and community level.
... Sparteine is a quinolizidine alkaloid and has been reported to induce uterine contraction as well as exhibiting diuretic and anti-inflammatory activities [40] . It has also been reported to have bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus thuringienis [41] . Honey has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties [42] . ...
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The phytochemical and mineral element compositions of honey from an apiary in Amizi community, Abia State, Nigeria were determined and possible health risks as a result of the presence and concentration of the identified mineral elements assessed. The most abundant phytochemicals in the honey samples were phenols, sapogenin, sparteine, lunamarin, flavanone, and proanthocyanin, with mean concentrations 102.53 µg/g, 81.40 µg/, 58.92 µg/g, 42.84 µg/g, 36.14 µg/g and 27.56 µg/g respectively. The concentration of iron, nickel, copper, zinc, and lead were 17.60 ± 3.68, 6.40 ± 0.48, 5.60 ± 0.88, 15.80 ± 3.84, and 1.20 ±0.32 mg/kg respectively. The health risk assessment showed that lead, nickel, aluminum, copper, and zinc in the honey samples did not pose non-carcinogenic risk to the health of the consumers. However, the carcinogenic risk of nickel was found to be 1.64(-3) which exceeded the acceptable level of 10(-4). This finding indicated that the consumption of this honey could pose a potential cancer risk to its consumers. Regulatory agencies in all countries should, therefore, introduce mandatory regulations and laws that would control honey production, handling, and quality check to ascertain its safety level.
... The antibacterial effects of honey are ascribed to its physicochemical properties (including pH and viscosity), which have the ability to prevent the growth of bacterial species [7], and the production of hydrogen peroxide as a by-product of the breakdown of glucose caused by glucose oxidase [8]. The combined effects of the antioxidant and antibacterial properties can further lead to their synergistic anti-inflammatory effects [9,10]. ...
Article
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Honey's composition and appearance is largely influenced by floral and geographic origins. Australian honeys are frequently sourced from supermarkets; however, properties associated with consumer preference and likeability remain relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to complete sensory and compositional analyses on a selection of commercially available Australian honeys. Samples (n = 32) were analysed for visual, olfactory and taste characteristics, with overall likeability assessed by the trained sensory panel (n = 24; M = 12). Compositional analysis included colour intensity (mAU); phenolic content; antioxidant characteristics (DPPH, CUPRAC); and phys-icochemical properties (pH, viscosity, total soluble solids). There were 23 honey samples that were significantly less liked when compared to the most liked honey (p < 0.05). The likeability of honey was positively associated with perceived sweetness (p < 0.01), and it was negatively associated with crystallisation; odour intensity; waxy, chemical, and fermented smell; mouthfeel; aftertaste; sour-ness; bitterness and pH (All p's < 0.05). The price (AUD/100 g) was not associated with likeability (p = 0.143), suggesting price value potentially does not influence consumer preferences. Conclusively, differences in likeability between the honey samples demonstrate that consumer perception of sampled honeys is diverse. Honey preference is primarily driven by the organoleptic properties, particularly perceived negative tastes, rather than their antioxidant capacity or phenolic content.
... Mankind has been used honey not only as a food but also as a therapeutic agent for healing wounds and treating infectious disease for many years (Hadagali et al., 2014;Oryan et al., 2016;Anand et al., 2019;Ronsisvalle et al., 2019). The dehydrated structure of honey, its acidity feature and the components it contains such as hydrogen peroxide, phenolic acids and flavonoids prevent the development of microorganisms, and in addition to this feature, the nutritional content of honey accelerates the healing of wounds (Dryden et al., 2014;da Silva et al., 2016;Oryan et al., 2016;Karlıdağ et al., 2021). ...
... Several of honey's compounds, including hydrogen peroxide resulting from honey's dilution [28], and bioactive compounds, notably polyphenols [29], have also been demonstrated to contribute to honey's antimicrobial activity. These properties are proposed to form a synergistic and comprehensive wound healing process that includes an anti-inflammatory effect [30], pain reduction by blocking wound exposure to oxygen [31], and tissue epithelialisation [32]. ...
Article
Objectives Oral mucositis is a debilitating oncology treatment side effect, with honey identified as a viable management option due to established wound-healing abilities. However, effects of saliva on properties attributed to honey’s wound-healing abilities is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to identify interactions between saliva, and antioxidant characteristics and pH of honey. Methods Saliva was collected from 15 healthy participants (Females n=9; mean age=34.1 ± 11.2 years). Centrifuged salivary supernatant, whole saliva, and water were independently used to dilute commercial Australian honeys (n=42). Antioxidant characteristics (DPPH and FRAP) and pH of diluted honeys were analysed, and differences between dilution conditions were determined. Results Honey and saliva dilutions increased antioxidant characteristics compared to water, and addition of honey to saliva reduced pH compared with saliva alone. There were significant differences between dilutions for FRAP and pH, and water and salivary conditions for DPPH (p<0.001). No difference was observed between salivary conditions for DPPH (p=0.931), suggesting smaller cells remaining in the supernatant possess antioxidant abilities. However, differences observed for FRAP suggest precipitable molecules, including epithelial and food debris, could provide additional antioxidant power. Conclusions The addition of saliva to honey may support properties attributed to honey’s wound-healing abilities and should be considered in the context of oral mucositis management.
Article
Background and aim: Up to now, proper wound care management has remained as an important clinical challenge. Chitosan nanosheets (CNSs) showed a great potential in tissue engineering, but our knowledge about their wound healing effectiveness is based on very limited data. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate the wound healing potential of CNSs and honey as a vehicle for these nanoparticles. Methods: The skin excisional wound injury model was made in adult male BALB/c mice ( n = 60) by creating two identical sized wounds (5mm) on either side of their dorsal midline. The animals were divided into five groups ( n = 12 each) as untreated control, honey, polyethylene glycol, and CNSs dissolved either in honey or polyethylene glycol. Animals were received their relative topical treatments twice per day for 14 consecutive days. Tissue sampling was carried out on days 4, 7, 10, and 14 post wounding. The histological parameters including inflammatory cells infiltration, fibroblast proliferation, re-epithelialization, granulation formation, and collagen formation were evaluated in all studied time points. Results: Compared to the control group, CNSs showed significant wound healing activities with lower inflammatory cells infiltration, higher fibroblastosis and new epithelium thickness, and greater granulation area and collagen fibers density in the ulcer bed. In addition, honey synergistically increased the wound healing activity of the studied nanoparticles. Conclusion: These results showed that CNSs have promising wound healing activity specially when dissolved with honey concurrently.
Article
Background Patients using endotracheal tubes are at high risk of oral health status dysfunction due to impaired natural airway defence, oral flora composition changes and protective substances of the teeth, medication causing xerostomia. Oral care has not been enough to manage oral mucosal dryness, so an additional topical agent is needed to protect oral mucosa to maintain oral health. Honey is one of the recommended topical agents. Objective This study aims to identify the effect of oral care with honey as topical agents on the oral health status of patients using endotracheal tube in the Intensive Care Unit. Methods This was an experimental study with a randomized pretest and posttest design. The sample was adult intubated patients, consisting of 36 patients. The data were analysed using the parametric test, and dependent and independent t-test. Results The oral health score in the control group was found to be pre & post mean score11.94 and 13.28 (p = .004) respectively, while in the intervention group 11.89 and 8.33 (p < .001). Mean differences in both groups were 4.95 (p < .001) and the BOAS subscale differences were seen on the lips, gums & mucosa, and tongue (p < .05). Conclusion Oral care with honey as a topical agent can improve the oral health status of intubated patients on the lips, gum, mucosa, and tongue subscale. Therefore, honey as an additional topical agent can be a moisturizer to maintain the oral mucosa for intubated patients in the Intensive Care Unit. Furthermore, good mucosal health will help prevent the infection and colonization of microorganisms.
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Honey is a natural product recognized and appreciated for its nutritional value and therapeutic potential. However, the quality of bee honey is essential because various contaminants can seriously affect consumers’ health. In the experimental part of the work, we analyzed different types of honey (linden, black locust, rapeseed and multifloral honey) and propolis, which were collected from Romanian accredited beekeepers who placed beehives in two areas characterized by different industrial activity: area 1 (A1) is an area with intense industrial activity, with other industries existing nearby, including a refinery, while area 2 (A2) is entirely devoid of industrial activity, but with moderate agricultural activity. A total of 144 samples were collected, twelve samples for each variety of honey, propolis and soil, corresponding to each area analyzed. In addition, seven heavy metals and three pesticides were tested for in the samples collected. Finally, the correlation between the degree of contamination with soil pollutants and the contamination of the bee products harvested from the analyzed areas was studied. Cadmium, lead, copper, zinc and the sum of DDT metabolites exceeded the maximum allowable levels in honey samples, with differences between different types of honey Citation: Mititelu, M.; Udeanu, D.I.; Nedelescu, M.; Neacsu, S.M.; Nicoara, A.C.; Oprea, E.; Ghica, M. Quality Control of Different Types of Honey and Propolis Collected from Romanian Accredited Beekeepers and Consumer’s Risk Assessment. Crystals 2022, 12, 87. https:// doi.org/10.3390/cryst12010087
Thesis
Introduction: The scientific research in the field of api-aromatherapy is promising and aims to develop a new generation of natural products with interesting therapeutic properties, at a time when the misuse of available pharmaceutical products makes them almost no or more effective. Aromiel, a mixture of honey and essential oil, is a product that has been the subject of few studies so far and whose synergistic power of its components well documented in the literature, makes it attractive. Objectives: This work focuses on the Aromiel and has for general objectives the determination of the phytochemical profile of the mixture and the characterization of the criteria of quality and standardization of the product. A particular interest will be brought to the antioxidant power of the mixture via a thorough pharmacological study of the synergistic combination Honey-essential oil. Methods: The natural products used concern different samples of honey from Palestine and Morocco as well as Oregano essential oil. The physicochemical parameters and the phytochemical profile of these samples were determined. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by the DPPH, FRAP and molybdate tests. In vitro investigations on the effect of Aromiel on bacterial strains as well as in vivo studies were performed on rats to evaluate the antibacterial effect and the hepato-nephroprotective effect against induced toxicity by CCl4. This effect has been compared to that of honey and essential oil studied separately. Results: The quality study revealed that the honeys and essential oils used meet standards of quality and standardization and are a potential source of bioactive molecules objectified by considerable antioxidant power. On the microbiological level, the synergistic action between honeys and the essential oil of Origanum vulgare was objectified toward multidrug-resistant bacteria: Aromiel (Vs essential oil alone) was able to reduce MICs by 4 times on Gram-positive bacteria and 8-fold on Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, it has been found that the more honey is rich in tannic acid, ferulic, gallic, epicatechin galate, and melanoidin, the more it tends to synergize with the combined essential oil. Metabolically, Aromiel has a greater hepato-nephroprotective effect against CCl4- induced damage than that of honey or essential oil used separately. The administration of the mixture of Origanum vulgare essential oil and honey of Thymus vulgaris showed a potential synergistic effect. This argues for the interaction between the polyphenols identified in the two matrices (carvacrol and thymol for the essential oil and epicatchin gallate and ferulic acid for honey). Conclusion: Our results show that Aromiel, a promising natural product, has a powerful antioxidant power related to the synergistic action of the different bioactive molecules present in the mixture.
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Wound healing consists of several continuous phases involving various cells and chemical intermediates. As a rich source of nutrition elements, honey has proved to have potential benefits in the treatment of various diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the healing effect of a honey mixture with selected essential oils on chemical and thermal wound models in rabbits. Dressing mixtures of Thymus vulgaris honey with three essential oils (Origanum vulgare, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris) were prepared and applied daily in the treatment groups. These essential oils were rich in phytochemicals and had significant antibacterial activity against four selected ATCC bacterial strains. Madecasol ointment was used as a standard control. The healing effect of the mixtures was evaluated by measuring wound surface area and comparing healing time. The results showed that the healing rate in the treatment groups was significantly higher than that of the untreated group and standard group. The best healing effect for burns was seen in the mixture of honey and Thymus vulgaris essential oil, which had wound closure rates of 85.21% and 82.14% in thermal- and chemical-induced burns, respectively, and showed the shortest healing time (14 days) in comparison to other groups. Therefore, it can be concluded that honey mixtures have significant beneficial effects on skin wound healing and, thus, they may be used as a healing agent in different types of wounds in humans after specific clinical trials.
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Wound inflammation is a rapid and highly orchestrated process that significantly impacts the wound healing cascade. Consequent to injury, a series of events set off that include inflammatory, proliferation and maturation phases leading to wound closure and restoration of normal skin integrity. Stimuli causing stress to host immune system or induce inflammatory response include tissue damage and pathogenic microbial infection.Several evidences points towards the positive role of inflammation as it essential to fight against the attack of invading pathogens and to remove dead tissues from the site of injury. Besides its positive role, prolonged inflammation is injurious and may result in deregulated stages of the wound healing which may lead to excessive scarring. Achieving balance in inflammatory cascade is one of the challenging tasks for development of a wound healing drug. This review mainly focuses on the pharmacological control of inflammation by agents which critically balance the inflammatory cascade. However, none of the agent is available in the healthcare market which exclusively plays a role in wound repair. In this review we shall explore different factors or agents affecting inflammation in wound healing. This information might be helpful in designing and development new process, technologies or drugs for better management of wound care. In addition, understanding the effect of inflammation on the outcome of the healing process will serve as a significant milestone in the area of pathological tissue repair.
Chapter
Use of honey is advocated by the people of all religions, traditions, and cultural beliefs, and it is one of the most valued natural products owing to its nutritional and medicinal properties. Honey is known to be the rich in sugars, phenolic compounds, free organic acids, and enzymes. It also contains lipids, amino acids, trace elements, vitamins, and few toxic compounds. It has been known to exert neuroprotective, cardioprotective, gastroprotective, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. This chapter focusses on the positive influence of honey on human health and the mechanisms involved in the same. It also sheds light on the chemical composition and the ongoing clinical trials on honey.
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Honey is a sweet gift of nature to mankind. It is a miraculous liquid produced from the nectar of flower by the action of honeybees. Honey provides multiple nutritional and curative benefits owing to its chemical composition and physical properties which in turn depend on floral source, geographical origin, processing, and storage. Chemically, honey is a concentrated carbohydrate solution. In addition to sugars, small amounts of minerals, proteins, vitamins, acids, and antioxidants are also present that impart biological attributes to honey, i.e., antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. These biological properties are responsible for its health-promoting effects. History of honey is as old as human civilization on this earth. Several Stone Age evidence show that the practice of beekeeping and honey harvesting was performed since ever. During ancient civilization, honey was used as a sweetener in various foods, sacred products for religious offerings, eye cosmetics, ointment to treat wounds and burns as well as medicine to cure disease and disorders of the digestive system and eye ailments. In the modern era, clinical and laboratory studies have scientifically proved the traditionally claimed nutritional and medicinal attributes of honey. Recently, honey is used in various commercially available products as sweetener, wound healing ointment, food preservative, prebiotic, in skincare products, and as medicine to treat cough and eye ailments. The present chapter is intended to provide information on multiple health benefits of honey as well as its utilization in traditional and modern culture.
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Lacto-n-neotatraose (LNnT) oligosaccharide shows properties such as anti-inflammatory, type 2 immune response induction, induced angiogenesis, and anti-bacterial effects. Here, we hypothesized that the application of LnNT in the skin full-thickness wound can accelerate the healing process through its anti-inflammatory effect as well as induction of type 2 immune responses. In this study, we evaluated the cell viability of fibroblasts in the presence of LNnT. The full-thickness wound model was created by punch biopsy. The mice were treated intradermaly with LNnT at the concentrations of 100 and 200 µg or PBS as a control group. The wounds samples were compared based on the macroscopic and histological evaluations. The amount of collagen deposition and expression of genes involved in type 2 immunity were measured by the hydroxyproline assay and real time PCR method, respectively. Our results showed that LNnT had no negative effect on the cell viability of fibroblasts. LNnT increased the wound closure rate on day 7 post-wounding. H&E stain analysis revealed that mice treated with 200 µg LNnT exhibited better healing score, follicle formation, and lower epidermal thickness index. The mice treated with LNnT exhibited a lower collagen deposition on day 21 and higher collagen content on days 7 and 14 post-treatment. The LNnT groups also exhibited a lower number of neutrophils and a higher number of basal cells and fibroblasts. The expression rate of IL-10, IL-4, and IL-13 was higher in the LNnT groups. These results showed the high potential of LNnT for use in treatment of full-thickness wounds.
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For a long time, honey has been recognized for its health-promoting properties and, consequently, has been used in traditional medicine worldwide. Apart from the beneficial bioactive compounds found in this food (e.g. polyphenols), molecules with potentially harmful effects may also be present, such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Aiming the quality assessment of honeys produced from Echium plantagineum L., a species known for its content in pyrrolizidine alkaloids, this work was focused in the search of these alkaloids and of polyphenols in one monofloral and two multifloral honeys, using chromatographic techniques. Additionally, their cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory potential were assessed in cellular models. Several polyphenols were determined, but no pyrrolizidine alkaloid was detected in the analysed honey samples. Honey extracts exhibited capacity to decrease NO levels in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophage-like cells (RAW 264.7) up to 40% at concentrations of 0.25 mg/mL. Therefore, this work highlights the health benefits of these honey samples.
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Nowadays, there has been an increase in the number of people with chronic wounds, which has resulted in serious health problems worldwide. The rate-limiting stage of chronic wound healing has been found to be the inflammation stage, and strategies for shortening the prolonged inflammatory response have proven to be effective for increasing the healing rate. Recently, various anti-inflammatory strategies (such as anti-inflammatory drugs, antioxidant, NO regulation, antibacterial, immune regulation and angiogenesis) have attracted attention as potential therapeutic pathways. Moreover, various biomaterial platforms based on anti-inflammation therapy strategies have also emerged in the spotlight as potential therapies to accelerate the repair of chronic wounds. In this review, we systematically investigated the advances of various biomaterial platforms based on anti-inflammation strategies for chronic wound healing, to provide valuable guidance for future breakthroughs in chronic wound treatment.
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Bee bread is the only fermented product of the beehive. It constitutes the main source of proteins, lipids, vitamins, and macro- and microelements in honeybee nutrition and it exerts antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, though research on these aspects has been limited so far. In this study 18 samples of Greek bee bread, two of which were monofloral, were collected during different seasons from diverse locations such as Crete and Mount Athos and were tested for their bioactivity. Samples were analyzed for their antibacterial properties, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC). The antimicrobial activity of each sample was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhimurium. Our data demonstrate that all samples exert inhibitory and most of them bactericidal activity against at least two pathogens. Furthermore, all samples exert significant antioxidant activity, where the monofloral Castanea Sativa sample demonstrated superior antioxidant activity. Nevertheless, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were not strongly correlated. Furthermore, machine learning methods demonstrated that the palynological composition of the samples is a good predictor of their TPC and ABTS activity. This is the first study that focuses on the biological properties of Greek bee bread and demonstrates that bee bread can be considered a functional food and a possible source of novel antimicrobial compounds.
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Microvesicles have become key players in cellular communication. Since glandular secretions present a rich source of active exosomes, we hypothesized that exosome-like vesicles are present in Apis mellifera hypopharyngeal gland secretomal products (honey, royal jelly and bee pollen), and participate in their known antibacterial and pro-regenerative effects. We developed an isolation protocol based on serial- and ultracentrifugation steps and demonstrated the presence of protein-containing exosome-like vesicles in all three bee-derived products. Assessing their antibacterial properties, we found that exosome-like vesicles had bacteriostatic, bactericidal and biofilm-inhibiting effects on Staphylococcus aureus Furthermore, we could demonstrate that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) internalize bee-derived exosome-like vesicles and that these vesicles influence their migration potential. In an in vitro wound healing assay, honey and royal jelly exosome-like vesicles increased migration of human MSC, demonstrating their interkingdom activity. Summarizing, we have discovered exosome-like vesicles as a new, active compound in bee pollen, honey and royal jelly.
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The major unexplained phenomenon in fibrotic conditions is an increase in replicating fibroblasts. In this report we present evidence that oxygen free radicals can both stimulate and inhibit proliferation of cultured human fibroblasts, and that fibroblasts themselves release superoxide (O2.-) free radicals. Fibroblasts released O2.- in concentrations which stimulated proliferation, a finding confirmed by a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation by free radical scavengers. Oxygen free radicals released by a host of agents may thus provide a very fast, specific and sensitive trigger for fibroblast proliferation. Prolonged stimulation may result in fibrosis, and agents which inhibit free radical release may have a role in the prevention of fibrosis.
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Honey is a by-product of flower nectar and the upper aero-digestive tract of the honey bee, which is concentrated through a dehydration process inside the bee hive. Honey has a very complex chemical composition that varies depending on the botanical source. It has been used both as food and medicine since ancient times. Human use of honey is traced to some 8000 years ago as depicted by Stone Age paintings. In addition to important role of natural honey in the traditional medicine, during the past few decades, it was subjected to laboratory and clinical investigations by several research groups and it has found a place in modern medicine. Honey has been reported to have an inhibitory effect on around 60 species of bacteria, some species of fungi and viruses. Antioxidant capacity of honey is important in many disease conditions and is due to a wide range of compounds including phenolics, peptides, organic acids, enzymes, and Maillard reaction products. Honey has also been used in some gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, inflammatory and neoplastic states. This review covers the composition, physico-chemical properties and the most important uses of natural honey in human diseases.
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Tualang honey (TH) is a Malaysian multifloral jungle honey. In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the number of studies published in medical databases regarding its potential health benefits. The honey is produced by the rock bee (Apis dorsata), which builds hives on branches of tall Tualang trees located mainly in the north-western region of Peninsular Malaysia. This review collates the results of the various studies of TH that range from research on tissue culture to randomised control clinical trials. Findings thus far show that, TH has antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimutagenic, antitumor, and antidiabetic properties, in addition to wound-healing attributes. Some of its properties are similar to the well-researched Manuka honey (New Zealand and/or Australian monofloral honey). Distinct differences include higher phenolics, flavonoids, and 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural (HMF). Compared with Manuka honey, TH is also more effective against some gram-negative bacterial strains in burn wounds.
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The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of bees' honey against metanil-yellow-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were divided into 7 groups: control group; three groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg metanil yellow, and three groups treated with metanil yellow plus 2.5 mg · kg(-1) · day(-1) bees' honey for 8 weeks. The obtained data showed that the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory activity of bees' honey reduced the oxidative stress in the liver tissue and downregulated the inflammatory markers. In addition, the elevated levels of AGE and the activated NF- κ B in the metanil-yellow-treated animals were significantly attenuated. Moreover, the levels of TNF- α and IL-1 β were significantly attenuated as a result of bees' honey administration. Furthermore, the histopathological examination of the liver showed that bees' honey reduced fatty degeneration, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and necrosis in metanil-yellow-treated rats. In conclusion, the obtained data suggest that bees' honey has hepatoprotective effect on acute liver injuries induced by metanil-yellow in vivo, and the results suggested that the effect of bees' honey against metanil yellow-induced liver damage is related to its antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties which attenuate the activation of NF- κ B and its controlled genes like TNF- α and IL-1 β .
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Nonhealing wounds represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for a large portion of the population. One of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the failure of chronic wounds to heal is an out-of-control inflammatory response that is self-sustaining. Underappreciation of the inherent complexity of the healing wound has led to the failure of monotherapies, with no significant reduction in wound healing times. A model of the inflammatory profile of a nonhealing wound is one in which the equilibrium between synthesis and degradation has been shifted toward degradation. This review summarizes the current information regarding acute wound healing responses as contrasted to the delayed response characteristic of chronic wounds. In addition, some initial complexity theoretical models are proposed to define and explain the underlying pathophysiology.
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Free amino acids (FAAs) in royal jelly (RJ) were determined and their identification was confirmed with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS). The presence of D-aminoacids was evaluated using GC with a chiral column. The total FAA content was 7.3 mg/g RJ on average; the major FAAs were proline, lysine, glutamate, β-alanine, phenylalanine, aspartate and serine. The concentration of FAAs of the D-series was below the detection limit of the method (0.1 mg/g RJ) in all the samples. The FAA fraction was monitored in RJ frozen immediately after sample collection (control) and in aliquots of the same sample stored at two different temperatures (room temperature and 4 °C) for different time intervals (3, 6 and 10 months). The FAA content was constant throughout storage at 4 °C. However, at room temperature, proline and lysine increased after three months to 6.8 and 3 mg/g, respectively and then decreased after 6 and 10 months to 3 and 1 mg/g. royal jelly / free amino acid / storage condition / gas chromatography-mass spectrometry / chiral separation
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Monocytes and macrophages are part of the first-line defense against bacterial, fungal, and viral infections during host immune responses; they express high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic molecules, including nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and their reaction product peroxynitrite. Peroxynitrite is a short-lived oxidant and a potent inducer of cell death. Honey, in addition to its well-known sweetening properties, is a natural antioxidant that has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine. We examined the ability of Gelam honey, derived from the Gelam tree (Melaleuca spp.), to scavenge peroxynitrite during immune responses mounted in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide/interferon-γ (LPS/IFN-γ) and in LPS-treated rats. Gelam honey significantly improved the viability of LPS/IFN-γ-treated RAW 264.7 cells and inhibited nitric oxide production-similar to the effects observed with an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (1400W). Furthermore, honey, but not 1400W, inhibited peroxynitrite production from the synthetic substrate 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) and prevented the peroxynitrite-mediated conversion of dihydrorhodamine 123 to its fluorescent oxidation product rhodamine 123. Honey inhibited peroxynitrite synthesis in LPS-treated rats. Thus, honey may attenuate inflammatory responses that lead to cell damage and death, suggesting its therapeutic uses for several inflammatory disorders.
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Osteoporosis which is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration with a consequent increase in bone fragility can be associated with various stimuli such as oxidative stress and inflammation. Postmenopausal women are more prone to osteoporosis due to reduction in estrogen which may further lead to elevation of oxidative stress and lipid accumulation which will promote osteoblasts apoptosis. Proinflammatory cytokines are elevated following estrogen deficiency. These cytokines are important determinants of osteoclasts differentiation and its bone resorption activity. The main treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis is estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Despite its effectiveness, ERT, however, can cause many adverse effects. Therefore, alternative treatment that is rich in antioxidant and can exert an anti-inflammatory effect can be given to replace the conventional ERT. Tualang honey is one of the best options available as it contains antioxidant as well as exerting anti-inflammatory effect which can act as a free radical scavenger, reducing the oxidative stress level as well as inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine. This will result in survival of osteoblasts, reduced osteoclastogenic activity, and consequently, reduce bone loss. Hence, Tualang honey can be used as an alternative treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with minimal side effects.
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Abstract: In this study the non-peroxide antibacterial factors in Malaysian honey were isolated and identified. The phenolic components were extracted from two different local floral honeys and their effects on the growth of selected pathogens were examined. A solid-phase extraction procedure was applied for the first time to recover honey phenolics. Identification was carried out via high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography analysis. Antibacterial activity was determined via the disc- diffusion and broth dilution assays. The phenolic fractions of gelam and coconut honeys showed potent antibacterial activities. Both honeys contain gallic, caffeic, and benzoic acids. However, gelam honey contains additional phenolic acids, namely ferulic and cinnamic acids. Since phenolic acids are known to exert an antibacterial effect, their presence in honey explains its antibacterial activity.
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Natural honey is well known for its therapeutic value and has been used in traditional medicine of different cultures throughout the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Malaysian Gelam honey in inflammation-induced rats. Paw edema was induced by a subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the rat right hind paw. Rats were treated with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) or Gelam honey at different doses (1 or 2 g/kg, p.o.). The increase in footpad thickness was considered to be edema, which was measured using a dial caliper. Plasma and paw tissue were collected to analyze the production of inflammatory mediators, such as NO, PGE 2 , TNF- α , and IL-6, as well as iNOS and COX-2. The results showed that Gelam honey could reduce edema in a dose-dependent fashion in inflamed rat paws, decrease the production of NO, PGE 2 , TNF- α , and IL-6 in plasma, and suppress the expression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF- α , and IL-6 in paw tissue. Oral pretreatment of Gelam honey at 2 g/kg of body weight at two time points (1 and 7 days) showed a significantly decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines, which was similar to the effect of the anti-inflammatory drug Indomethacin (NSAID), both in plasma and tissue. Thus, our results suggest that Gelam honey has anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the rat paw edema size and inhibiting the production of proinflammatory mediators. Gelam honey is potentially useful for treating inflammatory conditions.
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Gelam honey exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and is thought to have potent effects in reducing infections and healing wounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intravenously-injected Gelam honey in protecting organs from lethal doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Six groups of rabbits (N = 6) were used in this study. Two groups acted as controls and received only saline and no LPS injections. For the test groups, 1 mL honey (500 mg/kg in saline) was intravenously injected into two groups (treated), while saline (1 mL) was injected into the other two groups (untreated); after 1 h, all four test groups were intravenously-injected with LPS (0.5 mg/kg). Eight hours after the LPS injection, blood and organs were collected from three groups (one from each treatment stream) and blood parameters were measured and biochemical tests, histopathology, and myeloperoxidase assessment were performed. For survival rate tests, rabbits from the remaining three groups were monitored over a 2-week period. Treatment with honey showed protective effects on organs through the improvement of organ blood parameters, reduced infiltration of neutrophils, and decreased myeloperoxidase activity. Honey-treated rabbits also showed reduced mortality after LPS injection compared with untreated rabbits. Honey may have a therapeutic effect in protecting organs during inflammatory diseases.
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Physicochemical properties of 39 samples of Moroccan honeys were analysed; 30 parameters were measured, including water content, pH, acidity (free and lactonic), HMF, diastase activity, electrical conductivity, mineral and sugar content, and colour. In addition, the characterisation of the five unifloral honeys (Eucalyptus sp., Citrus sp., Lythrum sp., Umbelliferae and honeydew) by cluster (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA) and multiLayer perceptrons (MLP) were carried out. The PCA showed that the cumulative variance was approximately 44% for the first 2 PCs. About 97% of the samples were correctly classified by using the SDA and MLP, the best results being obtained for the eucalyptus, citrus, Umbelliferae and honeydew honeys (100% correct).
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The global prevalence of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, cancer and Alzheimer's disease is on the rise. These diseases, which constitute the major causes of death globally, are associated with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is defined as an "imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the oxidants, potentially leading to damage". Individuals with chronic diseases are more susceptible to oxidative stress and damage because they have elevated levels of oxidants and/or reduced antioxidants. This, therefore, necessitates supplementation with antioxidants so as to delay, prevent or remove oxidative damage. Honey is a natural substance with many medicinal effects such as antibacterial, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, reproductive, antihypertensive and antioxidant effects. This review presents findings that indicate honey may ameliorate oxidative stress in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), liver, pancreas, kidney, reproductive organs and plasma/serum. Besides, the review highlights data that demonstrate the synergistic antioxidant effect of honey and antidiabetic drugs in the pancreas, kidney and serum of diabetic rats. These data suggest that honey, administered alone or in combination with conventional therapy, might be a novel antioxidant in the management of chronic diseases commonly associated with oxidative stress. In view of the fact that the majority of these data emanate from animal studies, there is an urgent need to investigate this antioxidant effect of honey in human subjects with chronic or degenerative diseases.
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This paper reviews wound healing, which is divided into three main processes, inflammation, proliferation and maturation. Research in this area has led to detailed knowledge of the processes involved and to the development of new techniques to stimulate this process--cellular growth techniques and recombinant technology.
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From ancient times, honey is being used as a therapeutic agent apart from its wide use as a sweetener. Honey is known to have antibacterial and anti-inflammatory property. Honey is used widely in the treatment of burns, to heal wounds, gastritis, ulcers and diarrhea and also in veterinary use. Today honey is available as candies as well as in gelled form. 90% of human population suffers from mild gingivitis to chronic periodontitis in their life time. As bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics newer generation drugs are being prescribed by the dentist. Hence research has turned in finding newer alternative therapy, which can be easily accessed and affordable to common man. Honey is a natural sweetener and can be used as an alternative in treatment of periodontal infections.
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Traditionally, Yemini Sidr honey has been reported to cure liver problems, stomach ulcers, and respiratory disorders. In this experiment, we evaluated Yemeni Sidr honey for its ability to protect inflammations caused by acetic acid and formalin -induced writhing, carrageenan and histamine-induced paw oedema in experimental rat model. Hyperpyrexia, membrane stabilizing activity, and phytochemical screening of the honey was also examined. Yemini Sidr Honey at (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg) exhibited a concentration dependant inhibition of acetic acid induced and formalin induced writhing, paw oedema induced by carrageenan & histamine, and hyperpyrexia induced by brewer's yeast, it also inhibited membrane stabilizing activity. Phytochemical screenings of the honey reveal the presence of flavonoids, steroid, alkaloids, saponins and tannins. This study suggested that Yemeni Sidr honey possess very strong antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects and these effects would be a result of the phytochemicals present.
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Honey and silver are traditional wound therapies that are still used in modern clinical practice. Whereas silver is one of the most common antimicrobial agents used in wound management (Leaper, 2011), more scepticism surrounds the use of honey, despite accumulating evidence of its efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Both antimicrobial interventions have a place in modern formularies, due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. Yet medical devices containing either inhibitor vary in their formulations and delivery mechanisms, making generalisations unwise. In this review, the latest information on the mode of action of manuka honey, which is used for the production of most currently available medical-grade honeys (Kwakman, 2011b), will be compared and contrasted with silver, in an attempt to show that manuka honey is an effective alternative antibacterial product to silver for the prevention and management of wound infection.
Article
Background: The All Wales Tissue Viability Nurses Forum provides a platform for sharing information and experience, and fosters collaborative work between its members, healthcare organisations, communities, and individuals. The Forum worked with Welsh Health Supplies to produce an All-Wales Wound Management Contract, which includes a range of honey-based dressings. Aims: In order to gain clinical experience of honey, and to access its effectiveness as a wound debriding agent, the Forum evaluated a case series of honey dressings. Methods: Patients with chronic wounds that contained slough and/or necrotic tissue in which honey dressings were being used were recruited on three consecutive dressing changes. Results: Honey dressings in this case study achieved partial or total autolytic debridement in the majority of wounds. Additional advantages, such as a reduction in wound exudate, malodour, and pain, as well as the stimulation of new tissue growth, were noted.
Conference Paper
Inflammation shifts the hemostatic mechanisms in favor of thrombosis. Multiple mechanisms are at play including up regulation of tissue factor leading to the initiation of clotting, amplification of the clotting process by augmenting exposure of cellular coagulant phospholipids, inhibition of fibrinolysis by elevating plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and decreases in natural anticoagulant pathways, particularly targeted toward down regulation of the protein C anticoagulant pathway through multiple mechanisms. The decreased function of the natural anticoagulant pathways may be particularly problematic because these appear to play a role in dampening inflammatory responses. The protein C anticoagulant pathway provides a useful model for the impact of inflammation on coagulation. This pathway plays a major role in preventing microvascular thrombosis. The pathway is initiated when thrombin binds to thrombomodulin (TM) on the surface of the endothelium. An endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) augments protein C activation by the thrombin-TM complex more than 10-fold in vivo. EPCR is shed from the endothelium by inflammatory mediators and thrombin. EPCR binds to activated neutrophils in a process that involves protemase 3 and Mac-1 and appears to inhibit leukocyte extravisation. EPCR can undergo translocation from the plasma membrane to the nucleus where it redirects gene expression. During translocation it can carry activated protein C (APC) to the nucleus, possibly accounting for the ability of APC to modulate inflammatory mediator responses in the endothelium. TNF alpha and other inflammatory mediators can down-regulate EPCR and TM and IL-6 can depress levels of protein S in experimental animals. Inhibition of protein C pathway function increases cytokine elaboration, endothelial cell injury and leukocyte extravisation in response to endotoxin, processes that are decreased by infusion of APC. In vitro, APC inhibits TNF alpha elaboration from monocytes and to block leukocyte adhesion to selectins. Since thrombin can elicit many inflammatory responses in microvascular endothelium, loss of control of microvascular thrombin generation due to impaired protein C pathway function probably contributes to microvascular dysfunction in sepsis.
Article
Although honey has been used as a traditional remedy for burns and wounds, the potential for its inclusion in mainstream medical care is not well recognized. Many studies have demonstrated that honey has antibacterial activity in vitro, and a small number of clinical case studies have shown that application of honey to severely infected cutaneous wounds is capable of clearing infection from the wound and improving tissue healing. The physicochemical properties (eg, osmotic effects and pH) of honey also aid in its antibacterial actions. Research has also indicated that honey may possess antiinflammatory activity and stimulate immune responses within a wound. The overall effect is to reduce infection and to enhance wound healing in burns, ulcers, and other cutaneous wounds. It is also known that honeys derived from particular floral sources in Australia and New Zealand (Leptospermum spp) have enhanced antibacterial activity, and these honeys have been approved for marketing as therapeutic honeys (Medihoney and Active Manuka honey). This review outlines what is known about the medical properties of honey and indicates the potential for honey to be incorporated into the management of a large number of wound types. (J WOCN 2002;29:295-300.)
Article
Burn is a severe form of thermal injury. Placenta membrane has been introduced as a rapid physiological wound healer; honey has been known for its antibacterial activity and silver sulfadiazine (SSD) as one of the most commonly used topical treatment for partial thickness burns. Present study has been performed to compare the placenta membrane, honey-impregnated placenta membrane, and SSD-impregnated placenta membrane in the healing of burn wounds in rat. For this study, 64 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, placenta membrane, honey-impregnated placenta membrane, and SSD-impregnated placenta membrane groups. For all animals, under the general anesthesia, deep partial thickness burn was created. At the end of the first, second, third and fourth weeks of treatments, biopsies were taken from burn and adjacent normal areas. In the prepared slides, the number of polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes, vascular channels, and fibroblasts were examined. In the third group treated by honey-impregnated placenta membranes, PMN leukocyte count was significantly lower than that of the other three groups (P < 0.05). The amount of granulation tissue formation and the number of fibroblasts in this group were greater than those of the other three groups (P < 0.05). The organization of granulation tissue in the abovementioned group was significantly better (P < 0.05). The reepithelialization, containing horny layer, in the second and third groups was completely formed. The honey-impregnated placenta membrane was an ideal tissue for temporary wound coverage and repair surface injuries after partial thickness burns.
Article
Botulism is caused by a neurotoxin produced from the anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulism in humans is usually caused by toxin types A, B, and E. Since 1973, a median of 24 cases of foodborne botulism, 3 cases of wound botulism, and 71 cases of infant botulism have been reported annually to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). New vehicles for transmission have emerged in recent decades, and wound botulism associated with black tar heroin has increased dramatically since 1994. Recently, the potential terrorist use of botulinum toxin has become an important concern. Botulism is characterized by symmetric, descending, flaccid paralysis of motor and autonomic nerves, usually beginning with the cranial nerves.Blurred vision, dysphagia, and dysarthria are common initial complaints. The diagnosis of botulism is based on compatible clinical findings; history of exposure to suspect foods; and supportive ancillary testing to rule out other causes of neurologic dysfunction that mimic botulism, such as stroke, the Guillain-Barre syndrome, and myasthenia gravis. Laboratory confirmation of suspected cases is performed at the CDC and some state laboratories. Treatment includes supportive care and trivalent equine antitoxin, which reduces mortality if administered early. The CDC releases botulism antitoxin through an emergency distribution system. Although rare, botulism outbreaks are a public health emergency that require rapid recognition to prevent additional cases and to effectively treat patients. Because clinicians are the first to treat patients in any type of botulism outbreak, they must know how to recognize, diagnose, and treat this rare but potentially lethal disease.
Article
Background: Honey is a viscous, supersaturated sugar solution derived from nectar gathered and modified by the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Honey has been used since ancient times as a remedy in wound care. Evidence from animal studies and some trials has suggested that honey may accelerate wound healing. Objectives: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of honey compared with alternative wound dressings and topical treatments on the of healing of acute (e.g. burns, lacerations) and/or chronic (e.g. venous ulcers) wounds. Search methods: For this update of the review we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 15 October 2014); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 9); Ovid MEDLINE (1946 to October Week 1 2014); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations 13 October 2014); Ovid EMBASE (1974 to 13 October 2014); and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 15 October 2014). Selection criteria: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials that evaluated honey as a treatment for any sort of acute or chronic wound were sought. There was no restriction in terms of source, date of publication or language. Wound healing was the primary endpoint. Data collection and analysis: Data from eligible trials were extracted and summarised by one review author, using a data extraction sheet, and independently verified by a second review author. All data have been subsequently checked by two more authors. Main results: We identified 26 eligible trials (total of 3011 participants). Three trials evaluated the effects of honey in minor acute wounds, 11 trials evaluated honey in burns, 10 trials recruited people with different chronic wounds including two in people with venous leg ulcers, two trials in people with diabetic foot ulcers and single trials in infected post-operative wounds, pressure injuries, cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Fournier's gangrene. Two trials recruited a mixed population of people with acute and chronic wounds. The quality of the evidence varied between different comparisons and outcomes. We mainly downgraded the quality of evidence for risk of bias, imprecision and, in a few cases, inconsistency.There is high quality evidence (2 trials, n=992) that honey dressings heal partial thickness burns more quickly than conventional dressings (WMD -4.68 days, 95%CI -5.09 to -4.28) but it is unclear if there is a difference in rates of adverse events (very low quality evidence) or infection (low quality evidence).There is very low quality evidence (4 trials, n=332) that burns treated with honey heal more quickly than those treated with silver sulfadiazine (SSD) (WMD -5.12 days, 95%CI -9.51 to -0.73) and high quality evidence from 6 trials (n=462) that there is no difference in overall risk of healing within 6 weeks for honey compared with SSD (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.02) but a reduction in the overall risk of adverse events with honey relative to SSD. There is low quality evidence (1 trial, n=50) that early excision and grafting heals partial and full thickness burns more quickly than honey followed by grafting as necessary (WMD 13.6 days, 95%CI 9.82 to 17.38).There is low quality evidence (2 trials, different comparators, n=140) that honey heals a mixed population of acute and chronic wounds more quickly than SSD or sugar dressings.Honey healed infected post-operative wounds more quickly than antiseptic washes followed by gauze and was associated with fewer adverse events (1 trial, n=50, moderate quality evidence, RR of healing 1.69, 95%CI 1.10 to 2.61); healed pressure ulcers more quickly than saline soaks (1 trial, n= 40, very low quality evidence, RR 1.41, 95%CI 1.05 to 1.90), and healed Fournier's gangrene more quickly than Eusol soaks (1 trial, n=30, very low quality evidence, WMD -8.00 days, 95%CI -6.08 to -9.92 days).The effects of honey relative to comparators are unclear for: venous leg ulcers (2 trials, n= 476, low quality evidence); minor acute wounds (3 trials, n=213, very low quality evidence); diabetic foot ulcers (2 trials, n=93, low quality evidence); Leishmaniasis (1 trial, n=100, low quality evidence); mixed chronic wounds (2 trials, n=150, low quality evidence). Authors' conclusions: It is difficult to draw overall conclusions regarding the effects of honey as a topical treatment for wounds due to the heterogeneous nature of the patient populations and comparators studied and the mostly low quality of the evidence. The quality of the evidence was mainly downgraded for risk of bias and imprecision. Honey appears to heal partial thickness burns more quickly than conventional treatment (which included polyurethane film, paraffin gauze, soframycin-impregnated gauze, sterile linen and leaving the burns exposed) and infected post-operative wounds more quickly than antiseptics and gauze. Beyond these comparisons any evidence for differences in the effects of honey and comparators is of low or very low quality and does not form a robust basis for decision making.
Article
Skin grafts can be used effectively to cover burn injuries. A critical element of this treatment is the adherence of the graft to the wound bed. Honey has been shown to increase the adherence of skin grafts to wound beds and have antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects and increase healing rate of wounds. We therefore devised a clinical trial to determine the effect of honey on skin graft fixation in burn injuries. Sixty patients were included in this study (in 30 patients, graft was fixed with medical honey, and in 30 patients, it was fixed with dressing or suturing). All patients in two groups were evaluated for infection, graft loss, graft contraction, severity of pain, and need for re-operation. The most common cause of burn was kerosene. Honey significantly decreased infection rate on fifth day and reduced the patient pain. The mean hospital stay was shorter in honey group. Contraction of graft was significantly less in honey group. Honey has strong adhesive properties for skin graft fixation. Medical honey is a natural material, not synthetic. For this reason, we can advise the application of medical honey for the fixation of split thickness skin graft.
Article
Honey bee sting is used in some societies as a treatment of inflammation in joint diseases such as arthritis. To investigate the effect of honey bee venom in reducing inflammation, we selected 30 male Wister rats which were divided in to 6 groups. Except group 1, all remaining groups received 0.5 ml of complete Freund's adjuvant to induce arthritis. After 9 days, all animals that received adjuvant were suffering from acute inflammation in their joints especially in knee joint (tibia-tarsal region). Group 2 was not received any treatment. Group 3 was received only saline (0.05 ml) by subcutaneous injection at the site of inflammation. Group 4 received cream without any honey bee venom. Group 5 was received cream containing 200μg honey bee venom/gram of cream. Group 6 was received 0.05 ml solution containing freshly prepared 7 μg honey bee venom through subcutaneous injection at the site of inflammation. The parameters determined were, arthritis index score (redness, edema, stiffness in movement) and joint diameter, all the parameters were noted before and during experiment. Results obtained in this experiment shows that all animals that received complete freund's adjuvant, suffered from acute inflammation, redness and difficulty in movement. Treatment by honey bee venom at mentioned dose could not reduce either the inflammation or difficulty in movement. This study brings a great doubt for using honey bee venom as an anti inflammatory drug.
Article
The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Manuka honey ointment and dressings in the conservative management of exomphalos major (EM). A retrospective review of five patients with EM who underwent non-operative management with Manuka honey ointments and dressings was carried out to assess the time to complete epithelialisation, time to full feeds, hospital stay, adverse effects, complications and outcome. The skin epithelialisation over the EM sac was achieved in a median of 63 days (48-119). The median time to full enteral feed was 13 days (3-29). The median hospital stay was 66 days (21-121). No adverse effects were noted related to Manuka honey. Three patients had pulmonary hypoplasia requiring prolonged hospitalization; one of those died with respiratory complications at home after achieving complete epithelialisation. The follow-up was a median 16 months (6-22). Two patients did not require repair of the ventral hernia. One patient had ventral hernia repair at 16 months with excellent cosmesis. The remaining patient is awaiting repair. This is the first descri