Conference Paper

iA-MAC: Improved Adaptive Medium Access Control protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

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Abstract

This paper presents improved Adaptive Medium Access Control (iA-MAC) protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). In addition to the adaptive guard band assignment technique, the newly proposed protocol has an improved as well as adaptive sleep/wakeup mechanism. We consider a simple temperature measuring application, where sensors (nodes) sense human body for updated information. If the current readings are within normal range, nodes stay in idle state (do not access channel). On the other hand, if the current sensed information is within high range then nodes switch to active state and access the channel because critical information needs to be transmitted as soon as possible. Besides the normal and high ranges of temperature, if the current sensed temperature lies with pre-high range then nodes access for channel if and only if the current sensed data is not duplicated version of the previously sensed data. Moreover, iA-MAC uses well defined synchronization mechanism to avoid collisions between data as well as control packets. Simulation results show that performance of the newly proposed iA-MAC protocol is better than its existing counter part protocols in terms of the selected performance metrics.

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... Certain protocols in the field of energy and energy saving have been presented in [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]. An approach toward encoding body area networks by decode-and-forward relay strategy has been provided in [11]. ...
... The proposed protocols in references [10,55,56,70] are introduced in this section as selected protocols from the general 'Thermal-aware' category (Fig. 15). Kamal and et al. proposed a new Fault Tolerant Virtual Backbone for Minimum Temperature in Sensor Networks that it can use in other thermal aware methods [53].As shown in Table 7, the selected protocols are also examined in terms of advantages, disadvantages, and goals. ...
... As illustrated in Fig. 40, references [6,10,[33][34][35] are introduced in this section as selections from the 'Medium Access Control' category. In addition, the selected protocols Fig. 34 Breakdown of Opportunistic papers in terms of layering are examined in Table 18 in terms of their advantages, disadvantages, and goals. ...
Article
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Wireless body area sensor network is a special purpose wireless sensor network that, employing wireless sensor nodes in, on, or around the human body, makes it possible to measure biological parameters of a person for specific applications. One of the most fundamental concerns in wireless body sensor networks is accurate routing in order to send data promptly and properly, and therefore overcome some of the challenges. Routing protocols for such networks are affected by a large number of factors including energy, topology, temperature, posture, the radio range of sensors, and appropriate quality of service in sensor nodes. Since energy is highly important in wireless body area sensor networks, and increasing the network lifetime results in benefiting greatly from sensor capabilities, improving routing performance with reduced energy consumption presents a major challenge. This paper aims to study wireless body area sensor networks and the related routing methods. It also presents a thorough, comprehensive review of routing methods in wireless body area sensor networks from the perspective of energy. Furthermore, different routing methods affecting the parameter of energy will be classified and compared according to their advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, fundamental concepts of wireless body area sensor networks are provided, and then the advantages and disadvantages of these networks are investigated. Since one of the most fundamental issues in wireless body sensor networks is to perform routing so as to transmit data precisely and promptly, we discuss the same issue. As a result, we propose a classification of the available relevant literature with respect to the key challenge of energy in the routing process. With this end in view, all important papers published between 2000 and 2015 are classified under eight categories including ‘Mobility-Aware’, ‘Thermal-Aware’, ‘Restriction of Location and Number of Relays’, ‘Link-aware’, ‘Cluster- and Tree-Based’, ‘Cross-Layer’, ‘Opportunistic’, and ‘Medium Access Control’. We, then, provide a full description of the statistical analysis of each category in relation to all papers, current hybrid protocols, and the type of simulators used in each paper. Next, we analyze the distribution of papers in each category during various years. Moreover, for each category, the advantages and disadvantages as well as the number of issued papers in different years are given. We also analyze the type of layer and deployment of mathematical models or algorithmic techniques in each category. Finally, after introducing certain important protocols for each category, the goals, advantages, and disadvantages of the protocols are discussed and compared with each other.
... The BAN generally uses a guard band (GB) to compensate for the time drift and reduce the frequency of network synchronization [37]. The traditional protocol of BAN often selects the upper limit value of the time drift for GB [38]. Thus, the protocol would wake up the sleeping node to receive the beacons in the unsynchronized clock, and energy is wasted in the beacon transmission. ...
... Figure 10 is obtained to compare the SAGB MAC protocol with the traditional GB MAC protocol. In general, the GB is used to overcome the time drift in the MAC protocols, and the GB of the traditional protocol is constant and equals to the maximum time drift of the nodes [38]. When the sensor node transmits four data packets to the coordinator per second, the energy consumption of the traditional GB MAC protocol is 0.35 J, whereas the energy consumption is 0.17 J for the SAGB MAC Fig. 9 The collision probability simulation Blood pressure data 60 Temperature data 5 Based on the results, the SAGB MAC protocol effectively optimizes the energy consumption. ...
Article
Full-text available
Body area networks (BAN) are at the forefront of technologies for long-term monitoring of personal healthcare, which is intended be an effective strategy to address the aging population worldwide. The transceiver is the most energy-consuming part of a sensor node, and radio transmission in the vicinity of the human body is highly lossy and inefficient. Therefore, the energy of the sensor node constrains the life cycle and quality of service (QoS) of the network; consequently, low-cost protocol shave attracted wide interest. This paper proposes a frame structure model of a self-adaptive guard band (SAGB) protocol, which introduces a guard band (GB) in each time slot according to the allowed maximum time drift of the crystal, adaptively adjusts the value of the GB based on the actual time drift, and then ensures that the node simultaneously maintains the sleeping state and synchronization with the coordinator during beacon transmission, thus reducing the energy consumption.
... One of the methods to achieve energy efficiency is to perform energy-efficient routing. The factors of the energy-efficient routing protocols in WBAN such as temperature, link, routing matrix, mobility, etc. Ahmad et al. (2014a), Javaid et al. (2013), Latre et al. (2011), Movassaghi et al. (2014), Yang and Yang (2006), Yazaki and Matsunaga (2008), Zhou et al. (2008). Tang et al. (2005) introduced an energy-efficient and thermal-aware routing protocol for WBANs to minimize the data loss and also reducing the node temperature as well as decreasing the delay. ...
... Continuous monitoring of patients suffering from different diseases such as electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure, and obesity require a special body monitoring system. In this regard, development of small, and wearable sensors that can be alternative to hospitalization has attracted researchers [1]. The main reason for the attraction of these sensor nodes is its low duty cycle, data rate, and energy consumption. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wireless body area networks are captivating growing interest because of their suitability for wide range of applications. However, network lifetime is one of the most prominent barriers in deploying these networks for most applications. Moreover, most of these applications have stringent QoS requirements such as delay and throughput. In this paper, the modified superframe structure of IEEE 802.15.4 based MAC protocol is proposed which addresses the aforementioned problems and improves the energy consumption efficiency. Moreover, priority guaranteed CSMA/CA mechanism is used where different priorities are assigned to body nodes by adjusting the data type and size. In order to save energy, a wake-up radio based mechanism to control sleep and active modes of body sensors are used. Furthermore, a discrete time finite state Markov model to find the node states is used. Analytical expressions are derived to model and analyze the behavior of average energy consumption, throughput, packet drop probability, and average delay during normal and emergency data. Extensive simulations are conducted for analysis and validation of the proposed mechanism. Results show that the average energy consumption and delay are relatively higher during emergency data transmission with acknowledgment mode due to data collision and retransmission.
... A large number of energy-efficient MAC protocols for WBANs have been proposed. These include [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. Also, there have been some prior works that proposed traffic adaptive MAC protocols for WBANs. ...
Article
Full-text available
In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), every healthcare application that is based on physical sensors is responsible for monitoring the vital signs data of patient. WBANs applications consist of heterogeneous and dynamic traffic loads. Routine patient’s observation is described as low-load traffic while an alarming situation that is unpredictable by nature is referred to as high-load traffic. This paper offers a thematic review of traffic adaptive Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols in WBANs. First, we have categorized them based on their goals, methods, and metrics of evaluation. The Zigbee standard IEEE 802.15.4 and the baseline MAC IEEE 802.15.6 are also reviewed in terms of traffic adaptive approaches. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of the protocols is made and their performances are analyzed in terms of delay, packet delivery ratio (PDR), and energy consumption. The literature shows that no review work has been done on traffic adaptive MAC protocols in WBANs. This review work, therefore, could add enhancement to traffic adaptive MAC protocols and will stimulate a better way of solving the traffic adaptivity problem.
... The results indicate that the channel access is widely exploited by the highest User Priority (UP) nodes, while the other nodes starve. In [25], the authors present an improved adaptive MAC protocol for WBANs, where a well-defined synchronization mechanism avoids collisions. The authors in [26] propose an analytical model to evaluate the performance of a contention-based IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA/CA mechanism under saturated conditions for heterogeneous WBAN scenarios. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) procedure of IEEE 802.15.6 Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for the Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) use an Alternative Binary Exponential Backoff (ABEB) procedure. The backoff algorithm plays an important role to avoid collision in wireless networks. The Binary Exponential Backoff (BEB) algorithm used in different standards does not obtain the optimum performance due to enormous Contention Window (CW) gaps induced from packet collisions. Therefore, The IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA/CA has developed the ABEB procedure to avoid the large CW gaps upon each collision. However, the ABEB algorithm may lead to a high collision rate (as the CW size is incremented on every alternative collision) and poor utilization of the channel due to the gap between the subsequent CW. To minimize the gap between subsequent CW sizes, we adopted the Prioritized Fibonacci Backoff (PFB) procedure. This procedure leads to a smooth and gradual increase in the CW size, after each collision, which eventually decreases the waiting time, and the contending node can access the channel promptly with little delay; while ABEB leads to irregular and fluctuated CW values, which eventually increase collision and waiting time before a re-transmission attempt. We analytically approach this problem by employing a Markov chain to design the PFB scheme for the CSMA/CA procedure of the IEEE 80.15.6 standard. The performance of the PFB algorithm is compared against the ABEB function of WBAN CSMA/CA. The results show that the PFB procedure adopted for IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA/CA outperforms the ABEB procedure.
... So, mechanisms need to be supplied to impede the temperature rise in the nodes; for example, limited or traffic controls algorithms. This class named "thermal-aware" [46], [47]. For instance, the Thermal Aware Routing Algorithm (TARA) that routes data away from high temperature areas [47]. ...
Article
Full-text available
During the last few years, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged into many application domains, such as medicine, sport, entertainments, military, and monitoring. This emerging networking technology can be used for e-health monitoring. In this paper, we review the literature and investigate the challenges in the development architecture of WBANs. Then, we classified the challenges of WBANs that need to be addressed for their development. Moreover, we investigate the various diseases and healthcare systems and current state-of-the-art of applications and mainly focus on the remote monitoring for elderly and chronically diseases patients. Finally, relevant research issues and future development are discussed.
... Moreover, the MAC also plays a key role to improve the overall performance of the network [14]. Therefore, many energy efficient MAC protocols such as [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30] have been proposed. In addition, other MAC protocols are proposed to improve Quality of Service (QoS) through data classification such as [31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40], and data prioritization such as [41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50]. ...
Article
In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), emergency traffic handling is essential for saving human life. The traffic must be delivered instantaneously without loss and with least delay since a delay may endanger human life. Because of the importance of emergency traffic handling, several researchers have explored and proposed different emergency traffic protocols. In this paper, we provide a thematic review of the emergency traffic Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols in WBANs. Zigbee standard and baseline MAC as used in WBANs are also analyzed in terms of emergency traffic handling. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of the existing emergency traffic MAC protocols is made and their performance analysis is performed based on delay, Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), and energy consumption. Currently, no review work has been done on emergency traffic MAC protocols in WBANs. This paper, therefore, serves as the first, and adds enhancement to the emergency traffic handling at MAC layer in WBANs. We believe the paper will stimulate a better way of solving the emergency traffic handling problem.
... Further, the MAC layer also plays an important role to get high performance [33]. Therefore, various MAC schemes have been proposed to decrease energy consumption such as in references [11,[34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48]. Also, some MAC schemes are aimed to provide traffic prioritization such as in references [49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes an improved Traffic Class Prioritization based Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (TCP-CSMA/CA) scheme for prioritized channel access to heterogenous-natured Bio-Medical Sensor Nodes (BMSNs) for IEEE 802.15.4 Medium Access Control (MAC) in intra-Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). The main advantage of the scheme is to provide prioritized channel access to heterogeneous-natured BMSNs of different traffic classes with reduced packet delivery delay, packet loss, and energy consumption, and improved throughput and packet delivery ratio (PDR). The prioritized channel access is achieved by assigning a distinct, minimized and prioritized backoff period range to each traffic class in every backoff during contention. In TCP-CSMA/CA, the BMSNs are distributed among four traffic classes based on the existing patient’s data classification. The Backoff Exponent (BE) starts from 1 to remove the repetition of the backoff period range in the third, fourth, and fifth backoffs. Five moderately designed backoff period ranges are proposed to assign a distinct, minimized, and prioritized backoff period range to each traffic class in every backoff during contention. A comprehensive verification using NS-2 was carried out to determine the performance of the TCP-CSMA/CA in terms of packet delivery delay, throughput, PDR, packet loss ratio (PLR) and energy consumption. The results prove that the proposed TCP-CSMA/CA scheme performs better than the IEEE 802.15.4 based PLA-MAC, eMC-MAC, and PG-MAC as it achieves a 47% decrease in the packet delivery delay and a 63% increase in the PDR.
... Many prior work such as [1,21,22,28,30,31] have proposed emergency traffic adaptive MAC protocols in WBANs to increase the network lifetime in WBANs. Again, different MAC protocols have been proposed to decrease energy consumption such as [32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47]. The overall performance of the WBANs is affected by the heterogeneous nature of BMSNs, sporadic emergency traffic, variations in the traffic generation rates, and the energy constraint. ...
Article
Full-text available
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... One of the methods to achieve energy efficiency is to perform energy-efficient routing. The factors of the energy-efficient routing protocols in WBAN such as temperature, link, routing matrix, mobility, etc. Ahmad et al. (2014a), Javaid et al. (2013), Latre et al. (2011), Movassaghi et al. (2014), Yang and Yang (2006), Yazaki and Matsunaga (2008), Zhou et al. (2008). Tang et al. (2005) introduced an energy-efficient and thermal-aware routing protocol for WBANs to minimize the data loss and also reducing the node temperature as well as decreasing the delay. ...
... To accommodate nor- mal and life-critical traffic, PMAC uses two contention access peri- ods and one contention-free period for transmission of large number of data packets. To conserve energy, an adaptive sleep/ wake based medium access control was proposed in Ahmad, Khan and Alnuem (2014). The authors in Javaid, analyzed delay and different medium access techniques for WBANs. ...
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This paper presents a novel energy-efficient MAC Protocol designed specifically for wireless body area sensor networks (WBASN) focused towards pervasive healthcare applications. Wireless body area networks consist of wireless sensor nodes attached to the human body to monitor vital signs such as body temperature, activity or heart-rate. The network adopts a master-slave architecture, where the body-worn slave node periodically sends sensor readings to a central master node. Unlike traditional peer-to-peer wireless sensor networks, the nodes in this biomedical WBASN are not deployed in an ad hoc fashion. Joining a network is centrally managed and all communications are single-hop. To reduce energy consumption, all the sensor nodes are in standby or sleep mode until the centrally assigned time slot. Once a node has joined a network, there is no possibility of collision within a cluster as all communication is initiated by the central node and is addressed uniquely to a slave node. To avoid collisions with nearby transmitters, a clear channel assessment algorithm based on standard listen-before-transmit (LBT) is used. To handle time slot overlaps, the novel concept of a wakeup fallback time is introduced. Using single-hop communication and centrally controlled sleep/wakeup times leads to significant energy reductions for this application compared to more ldquoflexiblerdquo network MAC protocols such as 802.11 or Zigbee. As duty cycle is reduced, the overall power consumption approaches the standby power. The protocol is implemented in hardware as part of the Sensiumtrade system-on-chip WBASN ASIC, in a 0.13- mum CMOS process.
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A parallel rendezvous multichannel mac protocol
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