Article

What Discourages Students from Engaging with Innovative Instructional Methods: Creating a Barrier Framework

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Abstract

When faculty members choose to implement instructional methods that are learning-centred, this may represent a change for students; and some resist engaging. In this exploratory case study research, 172 students shared what discourages them from being willing to engage with these innovative methods that aim to facilitate their learning. Questionnaire and interview responses revealed eight key themes that are used to create a comprehensive barrier framework, and comparative analyses assist in reducing the findings. A fishbone diagram provides a possible planning tool for practitioners, and theoretical connections to the Reasoned Action Approach model are explored to further distill the findings.

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... Researchers have found that students do not always engage with student-centred learning (SCL); in fact they sometimes experience distress or dislike these new methods and thus resist them (e.g., Albers, 2009;Keeney-Kennicut, Gunersel, & Simpsons, 2008;Pepper, 2010). Few studies have sought to examine the factors underlying engagement and disengagement with these student-centred instruction methods, and only some have done so from a student viewpoint (Ellis, 2015;Struyven, Dochy, & Janssens, 2008). The present study thus aimed to investigate student-perceived barriers and facilitators to engagement with SCL. ...
... Although student-centred learning appears to be engaging across educational contexts, the findings are not unanimous. Research has shown that in some cases students are not engaged by SCL instruction methods, and actually resist them (e.g., Albers, 2009;Alessio, 2004;Ellis, 2015;Gijbels, Segers, & Struyf, 2008;Hockings, 2009;Keeney-Kennicut et al., 2008;Pepper, 2010;Reimann, 2011;Smith & Cardaciotto, 2011). In these studies, instructors implemented various student-centred instruction methods, but were surprised to find that students did not engage with them and disliked them. ...
... In these studies, instructors implemented various student-centred instruction methods, but were surprised to find that students did not engage with them and disliked them. In some of these studies, disengagement was measured via short questionnaires or course evaluation forms (e.g., Alessio, 2004;Keeney-Kennicut et al., 2008;Smith & Cardaciotto, 2011), while in others, disengagement was manifest in students' behaviour, with indices such as refusal to participate in activities, absenteeism, overt protests or even course dropout (e.g., Albers, 2009;Ellis, 2015;Pepper, 2010). Taken together, these findings indicate that student-centred learning may sometimes fail to engage students. ...
Thesis
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Baptiste Roucau Engagement with student-centred learning: The student perspective Student-centred learning (SCL) is believed to make learning more engaging for students. However, some research suggests that SCL can also be experienced as excessively distressing and ultimately disengaging by students. Few studies have examined the roots of this phenomenon. Yet in order to design effective educational programs, it appears crucial to determine the factors that facilitate or hinder students' engagement with SCL. This was the purpose of the present study. A science course using a combination of SCL instruction methods was examined as a case-study: seven students were interviewed at the beginning and at the end of the course, and in-class observation was conducted throughout the semester. Results indicate that students shifted from initial disengagement to high engagement; instructor guidance, peer influence and perceived usefulness were the main facilitating factors, while lack of clarity, excessive demands and risk for grades were the chief barriers to engagement with SCL. These findings are linked to theories of motivation, and implications for practice are discussed.
... The researchers were from different areas (Economics, History, and Sociology) and were actively producing scientific research and advising graduate students at the time. Understanding the importance of promoting innovation among researchers (Ellis 2015;Elrehail et al., 2018;Johannessen et al., 1999;Joshua and Edward, 2020), the concept of innovation by researchers is relevant since, we suppose, it must reflect that understood by public policies in the country. ...
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Researchers in universities are encouraged to produce innovative scientific research and participate in the international scientific community. In Mexico, public policies have intended to promote competitiveness in such social space. However, the lack of funding, researchers, and the polysemic conception of innovation in scientific production, amongst other factors, has scarcely promoted the economic, scientific and social progress in the region. This study (1) analyzes the concept of innovation among researchers in the field of Social Sciences to identify if they share a standard definition of such and if (2) the scholars have the impression that they perform innovations in their scientific production. The study compares researchers’ conceptions from three higher education institutions of the State of Sonora, Mexico. The Northwestern region of Mexico is significant due to its research production in Physics and Social Sciences, which is mainly generated in Higher Education institutions. We conducted semi-structured interviews and analyzed their views about their scientific production over the last five years. We reflect on the different types of relations scholars tie the concept of innovation. The main results show the different conceptions of innovation, especially its fragmentary character among social science researchers and how this inhibits the development of innovation and competitiveness. This result is a virtual space for policymakers to open a formative space for innovation and is an invitation to investigate the innovative or non-innovative character of scientific production in northwestern Mexico.
... There are various innovative instructional strategies introduce in education. For instance, the use of audio-tutorial, technology-assisted instruction, blended learning, instructional video and television, outdoor learning, gaming and simulation, online-video meeting, and other strategies (Ellis, 2015;Sharif, 2019). Even though these strategies have been very popular and widely used in educational instruction, the question regarding their effectiveness and efficiency still emerge. ...
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This study aimed to test a reflective model involving Technology Innovation Acceptance (TIA) and Organizational Innovation Climate (OIC) as predictors for Innovative Teaching Behavior with Information and Communication Technology (IT-ICT) among 533 pre-service teachers from 3 Indonesian universities. Four hypotheses were proposed in the current model. A survey instrument was developed and validated through face and content validity. The validation also involved the assessment of the measurement model through partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The assessment of the structural model to determine path coefficient (β) as well as t and p values of the 4 hypotheses was also computed through PLS-SEM. Findings informed that TIA possesses a positive correlation with OIC and that OIC is statistically significant affecting IT-ICT. The role of the moderating variable (OIC) is also significant in mediating TIA with IT-ICT for hypothesis However, TIA is insignificant in predicting IT-ICT.
... Regarding the improvement possibilities and innovative practices that could be implemented in Croatian HEIs to enhance T&L quality, most of the respondents emphasised a shift towards learning-centred teaching and practices aimed at empowering teachers to adjust their teaching methods accordingly. Ellis (2015) also found that learning-centred teaching is still not widely implemented in higher education, regardless the fact that they improve student learning and students perceive them as innovations in teaching. The most important innovative practices, from the management perspective, were different on-line learning methods and investments into technologies that support their implementation. ...
... Students appreciated the opportunity to tackle realistic projects and problems, and the majority compared TST's approach positively with teacher-centered pedagogies and rote learning. However, to our surprise, some students were unhappy with the self-guided learning approach, indicating that they felt they were not being taught, or even that they did not believe they were learning (Ellis, 2015). ...
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Background Student recruitment and retention are essential to the vitality of any program, but are often difficult to achieve, particularly for new and/or alternative programs. Aims This qualitative study explores the factors that influence students' enrollment in, and subsequent decision to continue in or leave a pilot on‐campus program within a large traditional university. The program design integrated nontraditional components that likely have not previously been combined in this form. Methods Students (N = 33) were surveyed and interviewed throughout the year to explore their reasons for enrolling the program and reasons why they decided to continue with the program or leave. Constant comparative method for naturalistic inquiry was used to identify themes. Results Results showed that many of the factors influencing students' decisions to join, stay, or leave, such as university reputation and perception of program fit, were similar to those for traditional programs. However, program novelty and unique program design elements also contributed to students' decision to join, stay, or leave the program. Students' uncertainty about transfer of credit, grading, and how to succeed in the program also contributed to these decisions. The very traits some students found most attractive were unattractive to others. We contend that new, nontraditional programs need to ensure institutional alignment, provide scaffolding to support new students in acclimating to nontraditional program aspects, and align recruitment materials with program aspects to attract diverse students for whom the program is a good fit. Implications, limitations, and future research are discussed.
... Indeed, past research shows that the lack of guidance in PBL and discovery learning may be challenging for students, resulting in lower knowledge and skill attainment levels (Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark 2006). On the other hand, students engaged in classes with the strong active learning component that is an important aspect of a PBL environment are often not prepared for the level of intensity, freedom and collaboration involved, which may further increase their dismay and resistance to participation and learning in general (Ellis 2015). Additionally, students' prior experience and preparation is a strong indicator of their preferences. ...
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Background: A growing number of educators have started exploring student-centered approaches to improve students’ learning and satisfaction with courses and programs. While prior research shows a positive impact of such strategies on student learning, further exploration of the perceptions of traditional, lecture-based and other more inquiry-based active learning as experienced by students within the same university is needed. Purpose: To compare students’ perceptions of the learning environment in studio-type courses within an innovative pilot student-centered transdisciplinary learning experience to the environment in traditional lecture or lecture-and-lab courses. Program description: An innovative learning experience that employs student-centered teaching strategies to engage students in the transdisciplinary exploration of technology and liberal arts within a technology-focused college in a large land-grant university. Sample: At the end of the first semester, eight students who chose to leave the program were interviewed. At the end of the second semester, eight students who chose to remain in the program and four students who left after the first semester were interviewed. Design/Method: Student were interviewed individually during the end of either their Fall 2014 semester or Spring 2015 semester. A thematic analysis was conducted. Frequency of occurrence was counted and compared for each theme. Results: The most frequently mentioned differences between traditional courses and this learning experience regarded instruction, assessment, and uncertainty. Students enjoyed the flexibility of a more student-centered approach, but struggled with understanding assessment and time management within self-directed transdisciplinary coursework. Student learning preferences appeared to influence their perceptions of each teaching method. Conclusions: Although results seemed to be influenced by personal preferences, time management and dealing with uncertainty were sources of frustration across both groups of students. Scaffolding students in these two areas may help students make an easier transition toward more student-centered learning environments.
... curricular flexibility, space constraints, and lack of student buy-in). Some of these constraints, such as student non-compliance, have been named by others (Ellis, 2015), with suggestions that instructors acknowledge reasons behind student resistance and offer ways to mitigate perceived risks of active learning. Similarly, it may be useful for anticipate how to mitigate the challenges faced in their own local context, in order to best leverage small classrooms for active learning benefits. ...
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In this paper I report on 625 student responses and analyse student perceptions of Problem‐Based Learning during their first semester at university. The data I present outlines the scope of the implementation at six entry‐level units for the years 2007 to 2009 and is followed by a qualitative analysis of student responses. Eight themes are conceptualised as stretching along a continuum with one end point representing an instrumentalist and superficial response and the opposite end representing a professional and more thoughtful response. Despite some tension, this implementation of Problem‐Based Learning into the Science Faculty was, in the main, challenging, time‐consuming and rewarding for the majority of students. Two implications for science education evident as a result of this study are that the general student response to change is more positive if they are informed and supported when a different teaching and learning strategy is introduced and that many students require training and support to become self‐directed learners.
Article
This reprinted chapter originally appeared in Educational Leadership, 4, 195-200. This chapter continues the argument for action research--here, particularly in the field of education--by reviewing completed projects that already had proved useful. The value of this article for the purposes of this anthology lies in Lewin's review of the action research in which he was directly involved from 1938 to 1943. Lewin noted that this line in his career began with the studies of modes of leadership. Although they were not, strictly speaking, action research, those studies had demonstrated the feasibility of experimentation with natural groups. Subsequent action research projects, in a wide variety of settings, had since been mounted, and Lewin provided a brief account of them here. It seems that little if any action research had been used in the field of formal education. In response to a request by the editor of a prominent educational journal, Lewin took the opportunity to encourage educators to join in what had become a virtual movement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Although recent research has identified attitudes towards ambiguity and risk to be important determinants of choice behavior [8] [18], no prior work jointly assessed the roles of both attitudes. We conducted a laboratory experiment using a real decision scenario and conducted exploratory analyses of the relationship between attitudes towards risk and ambiguity and the decision taken by the subjects. The results support the prediction that attitudes towards both risk and ambiguity affect choice behavior. Our exploratory analyses indicate interesting avenues for future research, including an examination of the decision process itself.
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The choice of a brand, and most particularly a beverage type, depends on the consequences it produces for the beverage consumer. Means-end chain theory provides an approach for linking product values. This article demonstrates a methodology for constructing hierarchical value structure maps for beverages in general and individually for several different types of beverages. The implications of this approach for creating advertising strategy are also demonstrated and discussed.
Article
Longitudinal changes in student course evaluations throughout the process of implementing information technology-enhanced delivery of a veterinary immunology course were examined. Student ratings of almost all aspects of the course and instruction declined significantly during the five-year period of technology implementation and then recovered to and exceeded their previous levels after the technology was fully implemented. This finding is discussed within the context of the educational change and innovation literature. Understanding how course innovations affect student evaluations over time is essential to avoid penalizing innovators for predictable, temporary declines in student ratings of course quality during the implementation of innovations.
Chapter
Providing a complete portal to the world of case study research, the Fourth Edition of Robert K. Yin's bestselling text Case Study Research offers comprehensive coverage of the design and use of the case study method as a valid research tool. This thoroughly revised text now covers more than 50 case studies (approximately 25% new), gives fresh attention to quantitative analyses, discusses more fully the use of mixed methods research designs, and includes new methodological insights. The book's coverage of case study research and how it is applied in practice gives readers access to exemplary case studies drawn from a wide variety of academic and applied fields.Key Features of the Fourth Edition Highlights each specific research feature through 44 boxed vignettes that feature previously published case studies Provides methodological insights to show the similarities between case studies and other social science methods Suggests a three-stage approach to help readers define the initial questions they will consider in their own case study research Covers new material on human subjects protection, the role of Institutional Review Boards, and the interplay between obtaining IRB approval and the final development of the case study protocol and conduct of a pilot case Includes an overall graphic of the entire case study research process at the beginning of the book, then highlights the steps in the process through graphics that appear at the outset of all the chapters that follow Offers in-text learning aids including 'tips' that pose key questions and answers at the beginning of each chapter, practical exercises, endnotes, and a new cross-referencing tableCase Study Research, Fourth Edition is ideal for courses in departments of Education, Business and Management, Nursing and Public Health, Public Administration, Anthropology, Sociology, and Political Science.
Article
This paper describes the process of inducting theory using case studies-from specifying the research questions to reaching closure. Some features of the process, such as problem definition and construct validation, are similar to hypothesis-testing research. Others, such as within-case analysis and replication logic, are unique to the inductive, case-oriented process. Overall, the process described here is highly iterative and tightly linked to data. This research approach is especially appropriate in new topic areas. The resultant theory is often novel, testable, and empirically valid. Finally, framebreaking insights, the tests of good theory (e.g., parsimony, logical coherence), and convincing grounding in the evidence are the key criteria for evaluating this type of research.
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Three years ago, I read Michael Polanyi's contribution—as a philosopher—to a symposium entitled Scientific Outlook: Its Sickness and Cure. In a brilliant, penetrating, and delightfully humorous criticism of R. W. Gerard's1 biological contribution, he unerringly diagnosed the sickness of medicine: The fact that a so learned, ingenious and imaginative survey of living beings should deal so perfunctorily with some of the most important questions concerning them shows a fundamental deficiency of human thinking.... If a rat laps up a solution of saccharine, the rational explanation of this lies in the act that the solution tastes sweet and that the rat likes that. The tasting and liking are facts that physics and chemistry as known today cannot explain. Nothing is relevant to biology, even at the lowest level of life, unless it bears on the achievements of living beings... and distinctions unknown to physics and chemistry... The current idea of
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Despite a lack of definitive evidence, tolerance of ambiguity has most often been treated as a generalized personality trait. In this paper we propose a measure of ambiguity tolerance (Attitudinal Ambiguity Tolerance scale) which can test the assumptions of generality by assessing cross-content variability. The validity and reliability of the Attitudinal Ambiguity Tolerance scale were found to be adequate. The results indicate that tolerance of ambiguity is not a generalized personality trait, but rather, that expressions of ambiguity tolerance are content specific. The findings suggest that, in comparison to the Attitudinal Ambiguity Tolerance scale, personality measures may be inaccurate predictors of ambiguity tolerance in specific content domains.
Book
Most writing on sociological method has been concerned with how accurate facts can be obtained and how theory can thereby be more rigorously tested. In The Discovery of Grounded Theory, Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss address the equally Important enterprise of how the discovery of theory from data--systematically obtained and analyzed in social research--can be furthered. The discovery of theory from data--grounded theory--is a major task confronting sociology, for such a theory fits empirical situations, and is understandable to sociologists and laymen alike. Most important, it provides relevant predictions, explanations, interpretations, and applications. In Part I of the book, "Generation Theory by Comparative Analysis," the authors present a strategy whereby sociologists can facilitate the discovery of grounded theory, both substantive and formal. This strategy involves the systematic choice and study of several comparison groups. In Part II, The Flexible Use of Data," the generation of theory from qualitative, especially documentary, and quantitative data Is considered. In Part III, "Implications of Grounded Theory," Glaser and Strauss examine the credibility of grounded theory. The Discovery of Grounded Theory is directed toward improving social scientists' capacity for generating theory that will be relevant to their research. While aimed primarily at sociologists, it will be useful to anyone Interested In studying social phenomena--political, educational, economic, industrial-- especially If their studies are based on qualitative data.