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Fair Trade und Preisfairness unter der Lupe

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Fair Trade und Preisfairness unter der Lupe

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Abstract

Fair Trade gewinnt nicht nur bei Konsumenten stetig an Beliebtheit, auch Unternehmen zeigen vermehrt Interesse an fairem Handel. Für das Management stellt sich aber die Frage, wie die Profitabilität von Waren auch bei höheren Herstellungskosten gewährleistet werden kann. Die Option, Konsumenten an den Kosten für Fair Trade zu beteiligen, ist Gegenstand einer Studie, die dieser Beitrag behandelt. Sie analysiert die wahrgenommene Fairness von Fair-Trade-Preiserhöhungen sowie die Reaktion der Konsumenten.Fair Trade ist schon lange kein Nischenphänomen mehr und auch keine isolierte Bewegung einer ideologisch geprägten oder besonders einkommensstarken Minderheit, die benachteiligte Personen der Gesellschaft unterstützen möchte. Fair Trade ist vielmehr bei der breiten Masse der Konsumenten angekommen. Hierzulande entwickelt sich ein Markt für diese Produkte, mit großem Potenzial für Unternehmen. Im Jahr 2010 kauften deutsche Konsumenten zertifizierte Fair-Trade-Produkte im Wert von rund 340 ...

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Chapter
Die Optimierung des Preises als eines der vier Marketinginstrumente ist für den Erfolg eines Unternehmens, welches Nachhaltigkeit als eine Zielsetzung verfolgt, von enormer Bedeutung: Der Preis hat einen starken Einfluss auf Absatz und Marktanteil, denn durch den Absatzpreis wird der Anteil festgelegt, den ein nachhaltig produziertes Produkt von der gesamten Nachfrage auf sich vereinen kann. Die Optimierung der Preispolitik für nachhaltige Produkte ist jedoch nicht trivial: Aufgrund der Mehrdimensionalität der Preiswirkungen sind die Zusammenhänge zwischen Preis, Absatzmenge, Umsatz, Kosten und Gewinn durch interdependente und teilweise gegenläufige Wirkungsketten gekennzeichnet.
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Using two studies, the author examines the influence of the inferred motive for a firm's price increase on perceptions of price unfairness. Prior to the research presented here, the only established causal antecedent of perceived price unfairness was increased relative profit. In Study 1,the author extends the existing research by demonstrating that the inferred motive, as well as inferred relative profit, provides causal explanation of perceived price unfairness. When participants inferred that the firm had a negative motive for a price increase, the increase was perceived as significantly less fair than the same increase when participants inferred that the firm had a positive motive. In addition, the author shows in Study 2 that the firm's reputation can influence the inferred motive, thereby altering perceptions of price unfairness. Specifically, participants sometimes gave a firm with a good reputation the benefit of the doubt when inferring motive. If the "good" firm did not profit from the price increase, participants inferred significantly more positive motives than if it did profit. The firm with a poor reputation did not receive this benefit; inferred motive was equally negative regardless of whether the firm profited from the price increase. Together, these studies provide evidence that consumer inferences of the motive for a price increase influence the perceived fairness of the increase. Furthermore, reputation is shown to moderate the effect of inferred relative profit on inferred motive. Finally, analyses show that perceived unfairness leads to lower shopping intentions and demonstrate that perceived unfairness mediates the effects of inferred motive and relative price on consumers' shopping intentions.
Article
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There is research evidence that suggests that perceptions of price unfairness give rise to consumer resistance to prices and result in decreased profit to the firm. However, it is as yet unclear what factors influence perceptions of unfairness. Answers the question, “What is fair?” by proposing that consumers sometimes infer a firm’s motive for a price and that the inferred motive influences perceived price fairness. A study provides evidence that consumers use contextual information to infer a firm’s motive. When consumers infer a negative motive, the price is perceived to be unfair and when consumers do not infer a negative motive, the same price is perceived to be fair. Suggests that marketers should: provide reasons for prices; consider consumers’ likely inferences of motive and either avoid taking actions that are likely to give rise to inferences of negative motive or manage the motive inferred; and consider the inferences that consumers may make for other marketing actions in addition to price.
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Recent news coverage on pricing portrays the importance of price fairness. This article conceptually integrates the theoretical foundations of fairness perceptions and summarizes empirical findings on price fairness. The authors identify research issues and gaps in existing knowledge on buyers' perceptions of price fairness. The article con-cludes with guidelines for managerial practice.. Jennifer L. Cox is Associate Brand Man-ager, John Deere Worldwide Commercial & Consumer Equipment (e-mail: CoxJenniferL@JohnDeere.com). The authors gratefully acknowl-edge the support of the anonymous JM reviewers for their helpful sugges-tions and for their support during the development of this article. T he issue of price fairness has become newsworthy as concerns about gasoline prices, prescription drug prices, physicians' retainer fees, smart vending machines, hidden fees and charges, or Amazon.com's dynamic pricing test have become public knowledge. The uproar that occurred when an Amazon.com customer dis-covered that the price of same-title DVDs differed across purchase occasions was a public relations nightmare for the firm (Adamy 2000). This example shows that both the price offered and the rationale for offering a certain price may lead to perceptions of price unfairness. Perceptions of price unfairness may lead to negative consequences for the seller, including buyers leaving the exchange relationship, spread-ing negative information, or engaging in other behaviors that damage the seller (e.g., Campbell 1999). Why do consumers at times believe that they are being treated unfairly? Given increasing public concern, it seems appropriate to explore further the theoretical bases and empirical findings to clarify what is known about the causes of perceived price unfairness and how the perceptions influ-ence customers' behaviors. Various conceptualizations have been developed and adapted to explain the phenomenon of fairness. However, each approach tends to address a specific reason for price fairness. For example, the dual entitlement principle emphasizes the influence of supply and demand changes and the sellers' profit orientation (Kahneman, Knetsch, and Thaler 1986b). Equity theory and distributive justice emphasize the importance of equality of outcomes between two parties in an exchange (Adams 1965; Homans 1961). In contrast, procedural justice focuses on the influ-ence of the underlying procedures used to determine the outcomes on fairness perceptions (Thibaut and Walker 1975). In this article, we present a conceptual framework for price fairness that integrates the conceptualizations and organizes existing price fairness research. We then use the framework to identify gaps in existing research and to offer guidance for further research. As we proceed, we develop a set of propositions for new research. We conclude with some practical prescriptions for pricing managers.
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This paper researches factors that influence price fairness judgements. The empirical literature suggests several factors: reference prices, the costs of the seller, a self-interest bias and the perceived motive of sellers. Using a Dutch sample, we find empirical evidence that these factors significantly affect perceptions of fair prices. In addition, we find that the perceived fairness of prices is also influenced by other distributional concerns that are independent of the transaction. In particular, price increases are judged to be fairer if they benefit poor people or small organisations rather than benefiting rich people or big organisations.
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The financial crisis of 2008, which started with an initially well-defined epicenter focused on mortgage backed securities (MBS), has been cascading into a global economic recession, whose increasing severity and uncertain duration has led and is continuing to lead to massive losses and damage for billions of people. Heavy central bank interventions and government spending programs have been launched worldwide and especially in the USA and Europe, with the hope to unfreeze credit and boltster consumption. Here, we present evidence and articulate a general framework that allows one to diagnose the fundamental cause of the unfolding financial and economic crisis: the accumulation of several bubbles and their interplay and mutual reinforcement has led to an illusion of a ``perpetual money machine'' allowing financial institutions to extract wealth from an unsustainable artificial process. Taking stock of this diagnostic, we conclude that many of the interventions to address the so-called liquidity crisis and to encourage more consumption are ill-advised and even dangerous, given that precautionary reserves were not accumulated in the ``good times'' but that huge liabilities were. The most ``interesting'' present times constitute unique opportunities but also great challenges, for which we offer a few recommendations.
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A series of studies demonstrates that consumers are inclined to believe that the selling price of a good or service is substantially higher than its fair price. Consumers appear sensitive to several reference points--including past prices, competitor prices, and cost of goods sold--but underestimate the effects of inflation, overattribute price differences to profit, and fail to take into account the full range of vendor costs. Potential corrective interventions--such as providing historical price information, explaining price differences, and cueing costs--were only modestly effective. These results are considered in the context of a four-dimensional transaction space that illustrates sources of perceived unfairness for both individual and multiple transactions. Copyright 2003 by the University of Chicago.
Article
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Community standards of fairness for the setting of prices and wages were elicited by telephone surveys. In customer or labor markets it isacceptable for a firm to raise prices (or cut wages) when profits arethreatened, and to maintain prices when costs diminish. It is unfair toexploit shifts in demand by raising prices or cutting wages. Several market anomalies are explained by assuming that these standards of fairness influence the behavior of firms. Copyright 1986 by American Economic Association.
Article
Using two studies, the author examines the influence of the inferred motive for a firm's price increase on perceptions of price unfairness. Prior to the research presented here, the only established causal antecedent of perceived price unfairness was increased relative profit. In Study 1, the author extends the existing research by demonstrating that the inferred motive, as well as inferred relative profit, provides causal explanation of perceived price unfairness. When participants inferred that the firm had a negative motive for a price increase, the increase was perceived as significantly less fair than the same increase when participants inferred that the firm had a positive motive. In addition, the author shows in Study 2 that the firm's reputation can influence the inferred motive, thereby altering perceptions of price unfairness. Specifically, participants sometimes gave a firm with a good reputation the benefit of the doubt when inferring motive. If the “good” firm did not profit from the price increase, participants inferred significantly more positive motives than if it did profit. The firm with a poor reputation did not receive this benefit; inferred motive was equally negative regardless of whether the firm profited from the price increase. Together, these studies provide evidence that consumer inferences of the motive for a price increase influence the perceived fairness of the increase. Furthermore, reputation is shown to moderate the effect of inferred relative profit on inferred motive. Finally, analyses show that perceived unfairness leads to lower shopping intentions and demonstrate that perceived unfairness mediates the effects of inferred motive and relative price on consumers’ shopping intentions.
Article
Der folgende Beitrag untersucht, welche Faktoren die wahrgenommene Preisfairness von Lebensmitteldiscountern beeinflussen. Auf Basis theoretischer Überlegungen und Befunden einer qualitativen Studie werden verschiedene Bestimmungsfaktoren der Preisfairness im Lebensmittelhandel identifiziert. Am Beispiel von zwei Warengruppen aus dem Frischebereich wird gezeigt, dass alle Bestimmungsfaktoren zumindest in bestimmten Segmenten die wahrgenommene Preisfairness von Discountern beeinflussen, jedoch in unterschiedlicher Stärke.
Article
A survey of 858 Belgians (615 people drawn from the general public and 243 visitors to Oxfam World Shops), examined the knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour of consumers with respect to fair-trade issues. The results showed that the respondents' knowledge and attitudes generally supported the fair-trade concept. However, many of the people questioned believed that fair-trade organizations should provide more and better information on fair-trade products, especially in shops and on the items themselves. In addition, fair-trade products should be more readily available in regular supermarkets, and their price should be lowered. The most interesting socio-demographic target group for non-profit fair-trade organizations appears to be older people with higher education and income. Consumers from the south (French-speaking) part of Belgium in general have a more positive attitude towards fair trade. Copyright
Article
Consumers’ buying behavior is not consistent with their positive attitude toward ethical products. In a survey of 808 Belgian respondents, the actual willingness to pay for fair-trade coffee was measured. It was found that the average price premium that the consumers were willing to pay for a fair-trade label was 10%. Ten percent of the sample was prepared to pay the current price premium of 27% in Belgium. Fair-trade lovers (11%) were more idealistic, aged between 31 and 44 years and less “conventional.” Fair-trade likers (40%) were more idealistic but sociodemographically not significantly different from the average consumer.
Article
A new theory in economics (Kahneman, Knetsch, and Thaler, 1986a, b) contends that consumer judgments of seller fairness can explain why sellers in many industries do not raise prices to ration off excess demand. In a small study focusing on automated teller machines (ATM) fees, we obtain empirical support for KKT's prediction that unjustified price increases are perceived as unfair, while cost justification legitimates a price increase in consumers' eyes. We also find, however, that fairness perceptions are not significantly related to behavioral intentions (as the theory would suggest). Many respondents felt the fee was unfair but would not switch banks because of switching costs, while others felt the fee was fair but would switch banks because of the cumulative cost. Research directions are discussed.
Article
Aufgrund einer hohen Dynamik des Forschungsbereichs ist es das Ziel des vorliegenden Beitrags, eine gesamthafte Bestandsaufnahme der wissenschaftlichen Literatur zum Thema Preisfairness vorzunehmen. Aufbauend auf den theoretischen und begrifflichen Grundlagen der Preisfairness werden vier konzeptionelle und 63 empirische Arbeiten analysiert. Die analysierten Arbeiten werden danach differenziert, ob die Preisfairness hinsichtlich ihrer Determinanten oder Konsequenzen erforscht wurde. Es erfolgt eine Diskussion konvergierender und, falls vorhanden, divergierender Befunde. Auf Basis der analysierten Literatur werden Ansätze für zukünftige Forschungsarbeiten identifiziert und priorisiert. Because of the high dynamic of price fairness research it is the aim of the paper at hand to provide an overview of the current state of research on this topic. Based on the theoretical and conceptual foundations of price fairness, four conceptual and 63 empirical studies are analyzed. A division into determinants and consequences of perceived price fairness and a discussion of converging and, if applicable, diverging results are included as well. Based on this analysis of the existing literature, avenues for further research are identified and prioritized. SchlüsselwörterPreisfairness-Behavioral Pricing-Preismanagement KeywordsPrice fairness-Behavioral pricing-Price management JEL ClassificationM31
Article
Most of the previous research on price changes has focused on price decreases. This article investigates the effects of price increases at an individual level. The authors argue that customers’ reactions to price increases (i.e., repurchase intentions) are strongly driven by two factors: the magnitude of the price increase and the perceived fairness of the motive for the price increase. In this context, the authors examine the role of customer satisfaction in influencing the impact of these two variables on repurchase intentions after a price increase. Their findings reveal that as satisfaction increases, the negative impact of the magnitude of a price increase is weakened. Furthermore, the results suggest that satisfaction moderates the impact of perceived motive fairness. The authors also find that the level of satisfaction can influence the valence of the perceived motives in response to a price increase.
Article
This research tests the effect of rule-based price fairness (as opposed to fairness in the sense of “cheap”). In the first study, perceived rule-based price fairness is shown to influence the inferred fairness of the seller's pricing process which affects buyers' attitude toward the seller and willingness to purchase. In the second study, consumers are provided information as to whether the seller has followed a rule-based pricing process. The results indicate that the knowledge of how a price has been determined has a significant effect on how the price is perceived. The conclusion is that not just the price tag itself but how that price has been determined affects consumers' perceptions of fairness and willingness to purchase.
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Daniel Heinrich Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Lehrstuhl für Allgemeine Betriebswirtschaftslehre und Marketing II an der
  • Dr
Dr. Daniel Heinrich Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Lehrstuhl für Allgemeine Betriebswirtschaftslehre und Marketing II an der Universität Mannheim. E-Mail: daniel.heinrich@bwl.uni-mannheim.de