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Article A new species of Peltephilidae (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata) from the late Miocene (Chasicoan SALMA) of Argentina



A new species of Peltephilidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata) (early Eocene–late Miocene) is described here. The new taxon is based on three specimens collected from the margins of Arroyo Chasicó, Buenos Aires Province, (Argenti-na), which correspond to the Arroyo Chasicó Formation (late Miocene, Chasicoan SALMA). The new species is charac-terized by osteoderms with a very rough exposed surface showing high longitudinal and well developed crests (two lateral and one central) with deep and ample valleys among them. The new taxon is the only " relictual " xenarthran cingulate of the Santacrucian Age (late early Miocene) to be registered for the last time in the Chasicoan SALMA (late Miocene), and represents the youngest record of the family Peltephilidae.
Accepted by M. Weksler: 16 May 2012; published: 28 Jun. 2012
ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition)
Copyright © 2012 · Magnolia Press
Zootaxa 3359: 5564 (2012)
A new species of Peltephilidae (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata) from the late
Miocene (Chasicoan SALMA) of Argentina
1Laboratorio de Investigaciones en Evolución y Biodiversidad (LIEB), Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia “San Juan Bosco” sede
Esquel (UNPSJB), Ruta Nacional 259, km 16.5, 9200, Esquel, Chubut, Argentina. E-mail:
2División de Paleontología Vertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, 1900 La Plata,
Argentina. E-mail: ,,
A new species of Peltephilidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata) (early Eocene–late Miocene) is described here. The
new taxon is based on three specimens collected from the margins of Arroyo Chasicó, Buenos Aires Province, (Argenti-
na), which correspond to the Arroyo Chasicó Formation (late Miocene, Chasicoan SALMA). The new species is charac-
terized by osteoderms with a very rough exposed surface showing high longitudinal and well developed crests (two lateral
and one central) with deep and ample valleys among them. The new taxon is the only “relictual” xenarthran cingulate of
the Santacrucian Age (late early Miocene) to be registered for the last time in the Chasicoan SALMA (late Miocene), and
represents the youngest record of the family Peltephilidae.
Key words: Xenarthra, Peltephilidae, Miocene, Chasicoan SALMA, Argentina
The Peltephilidae (Xenarthra, Cingulata) are a peculiar group of fossil mammals known since the late XIX century
(Ameghino 1887) and characterized by a short and broad rostrum, high skull, short jaw, completely fused and
expanded mandibular symphysis, teeth with chisel-like occlusal surfaces forming a complete series without
diastema, U-shaped dental arcade, dental formula 7/7, and the presence of a pair of osteoderms on the nasals and
maxillaries forming recurved “horns” (Ameghino, 1891, 1894; Scott, 1903). Like all cingulates, they have a dorsal
carapace of osteoderms regionalized in a cephalic shield, a dorsal shield, and a caudal sheath (Engelmann, 1985).
Peltephilines were traditionally regarded as specialized carnivores (Hoffstetter, 1958), but recent analyses
(Vizcaíno & Fariña, 1994, 1997; Vizcaíno, 2009) proposed an alternative view for peltephilines as having fed on
moderately tough items, although animalivory cannot be excluded as a dietary habit, which might have included
plant material of underground origin in addition to carrion.
The Peltephilidae are registered exclusively in South America and are recorded from the Paleogene (early
Eocene, Riochican SALMA; Scillato-Yané, 1986; Carlini et al., 2005, 2010) to the Neogene (late Miocene, Chasi-
coan SALMA; Pascual, 1965). The last detailed systematic revision of the group dates from the 1930s (Bordas,
1936, 1938). According to the catalogue of Mones (1986), there are five genera (Peltephilus Ameghino, Peltecoe-
lus Ameghino, Anantiosodon Ameghino, Epipeltephilus Ameghino, and Parapeltecoelus Bordas) and 17 species of
Peltephilidae formally nominated, of which 12 were considered valid by Scillato-Yané (1980). In addition, two
undescribed species are referred in the literature (Barrio et al., 1984; Croft et al., 2009).
The presence of Chasicoan Peltephilidae is known since Cabrera and Kraglievich (1931) mentioned materials
of Peltephilus or an allied genus from Arroyo Chasicó, Buenos Aires Province (Figure 1). Later on, those speci-
mens, as well as newly collected material, were assigned to Epipeltephilus by Kraglievich (1934), Pascual (1965),
and Cattoi (1966), sometimes with a doubtful specific identification.
56 · Zootaxa 3359 © 2012 Magnolia Press
Scillato-Yané (1979) identified three specimens of peltephilids from the Chasicoan and described one of them
briefly. This author assigned all the specimens to Peltephilidae incertae sedis, because previous identifications
were not based on empiric evidence and because they were not clearly assigned to any of the known genera. Later
on, Scillato-Yané (1982), in his unpublished PhD dissertation, recognized a new genus and species of Peltephilidae
based on same three specimens; unfortunately, this description remains unpublished.
After studying the specimens identified by Scillato-Yané (1979, 1982), as well as a new specimen collected
during recent field work in Arroyo Chasicó, we have concluded that the material represents a new species of
Epipeltephilus. This new species, exclusive to the Chasicoan fauna, is the youngest record of the family Peltephili-
FIGURE 1. Geographic location of the type locality Arroyo Chasicó, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.
Material and methods
Characteristics of osteoderms of the cephalic shield, dorsal shield, and caudal sheath of cingulates have tradition-
ally been used in the diagnosis and description of the different genera and species. In fact, most taxonomic studies
on fossil armadillos are based on different patterns of ornamentation and morphology of the osteoderms from the
carapace (Ameghino, 1889; Yepes, 1928; Hoffstetter, 1958; Paula Couto, 1979; Scillato-Yané, 1982; Wetzel, 1982;
Carlini et al., 2009, 2010). The terminology here used to describe the osteoderms follows Croft et al. (2007), Krm-
potic et al. (2009), and Carlini et al. (2009).
We follow the higher level taxonomic arrangement of McKenna and Bell (1997), as well as the catalogues of
Scillato-Yané (1980) and Mones (1986) for the species of Peltephilidae considered valid, and the preliminary list-
ing offered by González (2010a, b). The geochronologic scheme follows Flynn and Swisher (1995). We examined
specimens from the following institutions: MACN: Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivada-
via”, Buenos Aires, Argentina; MACN A: Colección Nacional Ameghino, Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales
“Bernardino Rivadavia”, Buenos Aires; MLP: División Paleontología de Vertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias Natu-
rales y Museo, Universidad de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina; MMP: Museo Municipal de Ciencias Naturales de
Mar del Plata “Lorenzo Scaglia”, Mar del Plata, Argentina.
For comparative purposes, the following specimens were studied: Peltephilus strepens Ameghino 1887
(MACN A 771; MLP 55-XII-13-132; MLP 67-VIII-13-2; MLP 69-IX-9-18); Peltephilus pumilus Ameghino 1887
(MACN A 866-870; MLP 67-XI-13-1a3); Peltephilus giganteus Ameghino 1894 (MACN A 4891-4900, type);
Peltephilus ferox Ameghino 1891 (MACN A 4901, type; MACN A-7784-7798); Peltephilus nanus Ameghino
1898 (MACN A 7958-7959, type); Peltephilus depressus Ameghino 1897 (MACN A 12016, type); Peltephilus
Zootaxa 3359 © 2012 Magnolia Press · 57
granosus Ameghino 1902 (MACN A 12019, type); Peltephilus protervus Ameghino 1897 (MACN A 12020, type);
Peltephilus depressus Ameghino 1897 (MACN A 12016, type); Anantiosodon rarus Ameghino 1891 (MACN A
5119, type); Peltecoelus praelucens Ameghino 1902 (MACN A 12022, type); Parapeltecoelus pattersoni Bordas
1938 (MACN 11946, type); Epipeltephilus recurvus Ameghino 1904 (MACN A 11641, type); Epipeltephilus
recurvus? (MLP 16-2; MLP 69-XII-19-5; MLP 69-XII-19-9; MLP 91-IX-7-14).
Most of the species of Peltephilidae (E. recurvus, Peltephilus nanus, P. giganteus, P. protervus, P. depressus, P.
granosus, Peltecoelus praelucens) are known by few osteoderms (< 10), while Peltephilus pumilus and P. strepens
are known by a few more osteoderms (< 100). If we consider that extant “armadillos” have between 600–1000
osteoderms (Vizcaíno y Bargo, 1993; González, 2010a), we conclude that carapaces of Peltephilidae are still poorly
known. Thus, the knowledge of the carapace of Peltephilidae is based on the genus Peltephilus, which is repre-
sented by more complete specimens (Scott, 1903). The cephalic shield is formed by 19–21 large osteoderms that
are placed following a pattern: three large hexagonal osteoderms in the middle line, the posterior one being the
larger, and seven polygonal osteoderms on each side. In front of the middle line there are two large “horn-like”
osteoderms on the nasals and maxilars. There were possibly two additional anterior osteoderms (Ameghino, 1894;
Scott, 1903). The osteoderms from the caudal sheath are still unknown.
Epipeltephilus is a monotypic taxon (E. recurvus) and the holotype (MACN A 11641) comes from Lago
Blanco (=Laguna Blanca) Chubut Province (Río Mayo Formation, “Mayoan” SALAMA). The type is formed only
by a portion of the skull and one hemi-mandible. There are four groups of osteoderms from other Mayoan localities
assigned to Epipeltephilus recurvus: MLP 16-2 and MLP 69-XII-19-9, from Río Huemules; MLP 69-XII-19-5
from Río Genguel; and MLP 91-IX-7-14 from Cerro Guenguel (see González, 2010a). Another mention of
?Epipeltephilus from Río Senguer (Kraglievich, 1930; Bondesio et al., 1980) is a misidentification, and the osteo-
derms belongs to Proeutatus sp. (MLP 16-5) (see González, 2010a).
The allocation of this new species within Epipeltephilus is based on the characters of the osteoderms surface of
the dorsal carapace, principally the combination of roughness of the exposed surface and the development of ele-
vated longitudinal crests. Given the absence of a phylogenetic analysis of the Peltephilidae the diagnosis of the spe-
cies of this family are based almost exclusively on qualitative characters of the osteoderms (see González, 2010a).
Systematic Paleontology
Xenarthra Cope 1889
Cingulata Illiger 1811
Dasypodoidea Gray 1821
Peltephilidae Ameghino 1894
Epipeltephilus Ameghino 1904
Type specie. Epipeltephilus recurvus Ameghino 1904.
Included species. The type species and the species described below.
Diagnosis (emended from Ameghino, 1904 and González, 2010a). Skull larger and posteriorly wider and shal-
lower than Peltephilus and Parapeltecoelus, and with the temporal and parietals extended laterally. Sagittal and
occipital crests less developed than Peltephilus. The mandibular ramus is larger than that of Peltephilus and with
vertically implanted molariforms, which are anteriorly inclined in Peltephilus. The upper molariforms (as well the
lower in Peltephilus) are sub-elliptical, whereas they are prismatic-triangular in Peltephilus and Parapeltecoelus.
The last upper molariform is similar in shape to other of the same series unlike Peltephilus and Parapeltecoelus
which have very small last molariforms. The osteoderms of the dorsal carapace of Epipeltephilus are rougher and
with more elevated and developed crests than Peltecoelus and Peltephilus.
58 · Zootaxa 3359 © 2012 Magnolia Press
Epipeltephilus kanti new species
(Figures 2–3A)
Etymology. “kanti” in honor of the Prussian philosopher Emmanuel Kant (1724–1804), brilliant creator of the crit-
icism and precursor of the modern scientific philosophy.
Holotype. MLP 92-XI-19-7, three fixed osteoderms of the dorsal shield (Figure 2 A–C).
Geographic and stratigraphic occurrence of the holotype. Arroyo Chasicó (38°37´06.10´´S,
62°59´14.53´´W), Buenos Aires Province, Vivero Member, Arroyo Chasicó Formation, Chasicoan SALMA. Mate-
rial collected during a field trip organized by the Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo de La Plata (Argentina)
and Duke University (USA).
FIGURE 2. Osteoderms of Epipeltephilus kanti: A–C, Holotype (MLP 92-XI-19-7); D–G, Referred material, D–G (MLP 28-
X-11-66), H (MMP 339-M). Scale Bar: 5 cm.
Referred material. MLP 28-X-11-66, three complete, fixed osteoderms and an additional fragment of the dor-
sal shield (Figure 2 D–G); MLP 60-VI-18-3, one molariform and osteoderms of an indeterminate region of the dor-
sal shield; MMP 339-M, one movable osteoderm of the dorsal shield (Figure 2 H). All specimens were collected in
the Vivero Member, Arroyo Chasicó Formation (Figure 1).
Differential diagnosis. Osteoderms larger than those of Peltephilus nanus and Peltephilus pumilus, and simi-
lar in size to those of Epipeltephilus recurvus, Peltecoelus praelucens, and the other species of Peltephilus. Longi-
tudinal crests (two lateral and one central) are higher and more developed than in Epipeltephilus recurvus,
Peltephilus giganteus, Peltephilus pumilus, Peltephilus strepens and Peltephilus protervus. These crest are absent
in Peltecoelus praelucens, Peltephilus depressus, Peltephilus granosus and Peltephilus nanus. Exposed surface of
the osteoderms roughed like Epipeltephilus recurvus much more than the species of Peltephilus and Peltecoelus
Zootaxa 3359 © 2012 Magnolia Press · 59
Comparative description. Molariform. Scillato-Yané (1982) described the molariform MLP 60-VI-18-31 as
very small and lower because the main wear pit is located externally, as in Peltephilus according to Scott (1903),
and it would correspond to the third or fourth molariform of the left dental series. It is broken in its base and the
preserved part measures 7.6 mm of maximum antero-posterior diameter, and 3.5 mm of maximum cross-sectional
According to Scillato-Yané (1982) the molariform section is subtriangular, less compressed than in Anantio-
sodon, whereas in Epipeltephilus (E. recurvus) teeth are subeliptic. In addition, Vizcaíno and Fariña (1997: 81)
remarked that the molariforms of Peltephilus are “chiefly triangular in section and slenderly built”. Lower molari-
forms of Peltecoelus and Parapeltecoelus are not known.
Osteoderms of the dorsal shield. Shape and size. The known osteoderms of Epipeltephilus kanti are rectan-
gular or quadrangular (Figure 2 A–H). They cover a large range of sizes (Table 1), indicating that osteoderms from
different regions of the dorsal shield are represented; also, that the size variation of the osteoderms was probably
remarkable at intraspecific level, depending on the regions of the dorsal shield, as it happens in Eutatus (Burmeis-
ter, 1883; Scillato-Yané, 1982).
In relation to other species of Peltephilidae, the osteoderms of Epipeltephilus kanti are larger than those of
Peltephilus nanus, and generally larger than those of Peltephilus pumilus, but within the range of variation of the
remaining species of Peltephilus, as well as Epipeltephilus recurvus and Peltecoelus praelucens (Table 1).
TABLE 1. Measurements of osteoderms and their associated foramina (mm).
Foramina. Osteoderms of Epipeltephilus kanti generally have one or two big oval foramina, which can be
associated to glandular cisterns (Scillato-Yané, 1979; Croft et al., 2007). In the case of Epipeltephilus kanti, the
largest foramina correspond to the largest osteoderms (Figure 2 A–H, 3A). In some osteoderms, there is a smaller
foramen between and over the previous ones; this character is mentioned by Croft et al. (2007) for the osteoderms
of a specimen of cf. Peltephilus sp. One movable osteoderm of Epipeltephilus kanti has a third big foramina under-
neath the two bigger (Figure 2 H).
Much variation has been documented for the number of osteoderm foramina in different species of Peltephili-
1. : * We searched this specimen several times in the MLP collections with Dr. Marcelo Reguero (Collection Manager) and
with Dr. Scillato-Yané (who originally described it in 1982) but we could not find it. Unfortunately, the molariform is lost
in the Museum and the illustrations given by Scillato-Yané (1982: plate 1, figura 4) do not have enough resolution for com-
Taxon Osteoderm
type Osteoderm surface Foramina
(min-max) Length
(min-max) Width
(min-max) Length
Epipeltephilus kanti Fixed 12.427.1 11.529.5 1.43.1 1.63.5
Movable 16.1 24.6 1.41.9 0.81.0
Epipeltephilus recurvus?Fixed 12.119.0 11.222.6 2.02.8
Movable 17.621.5 22.323.9 1.01.6 2.12.6
Peltephilus strepens Fixed 13.821.1 16.425.4 1.21.5 1.71.5
Movable 16.519.3 18.627.1 0.90.9 1.11.3
Peltephilus pumilus Fixed 9.1 12.5 1.11.5 1.21.4
Movable 8.511.9 10.215.8 0.92.5 1.02.7
Peltecoelus praelucens Fixed 14.823.4 19.325.8 3.0 2.4
Peltephilus nanus Fixed 7.78.7 5.97.2 1.31.9 1.21.8
Peltephilus protervus Movable 22.3 35.8 2.4 2.6
Peltephilus giganteus Fixed 12.413.6 16.017.1 1.852.2 2.32.5
Peltephilus depressus Movable 17.419.7 22.526.2 1.42.1 1.61.7
Peltephilus granosus Fixed 14.513.0 17.823.3 1.82.4 2.42.8
60 · Zootaxa 3359 © 2012 Magnolia Press
dae: Peltephilus strepens has two or four (Ameghino 1887) (Figure 3 F–G); Peltephilus pumilus, P. nanus, P.
giganteus, P. protervus and P. granosus have two (Figure 3 C, D, E, H, J); Peltephilus depressus has two or three;
Ameghino (1897) mentioned four foramina for that species, but the type and assigned material have two or three
(Figure 3 I); Peltecoelus praelucens has three foramina (Ameghino, 1902) (Figure 3 K), and Epipeltephilus recur-
vus has generally four foramina (Croft et al., 2009) (Figure 3 B), although there are also osteoderms with one, two
or three foramina.
Crests. The osteoderms of Epipeltephilus kanti have one middle longitudinal crest and two lateral longitudinal
crests. All of them are elevated, wide and have rough margins, with the subsequent development of deep and ample
valleys among them. The middle longitudinal crest may or may not reach the posterior border while the two laterals
always do. The posterior border is elevated and has rough margins.
Some osteoderms of Epipeltephilus recurvus have a middle longitudinal crest, but unlike Epipeltephilus kanti,
it is a narrow and not high. Peltephilus giganteus has three longitudinal crests, but they are rounded, without rough-
ness and without ample valleys between them (Figure 3 E). Peltephilus protervus has a smooth and well developed
crest, which extends only one half the surface of the osteoderm, being anteriorly wide and disappearing posteriorly
(Ameghino, 1897) (Figure 3 H). A longitudinal crest is developed in Peltephilus strepens (Figure 3 F–G)
(Ameghino, 1887), but it is low instead of marked as in P. giganteus or Epipeltephilus kanti. Some osteoderms
assigned to Peltephilus pumilus have a high and narrow longitudinal middle crest (Ameghino, 1887) (Figure 3C),
whereas in other specimen assigned to this species this crest is absent. The osteoderms of Peltephilus nanus, Pelte-
philus depressus, Peltephilus granosus and Peltecoelus praelucens lack the longitudinal crests (Ameghino, 1897;
Ameghino, 1902) (Figure 3 D, I, J, K).
Surface roughness. The exposed surface of the osteoderms of Epipeltephilus kanti is rougher than any other
Peltephilidae. The osteoderms of Epipeltephilus recurvus are not as rough as in E. kanti. Peltephilus pumilus, P.
nanus, P. giganteus, and P. strepens has osteoderms with similarly rough surfaces (Figure 3 C–G), but rougher than
in Peltephilus protervus, P. depressus, and Peltecoelus praelucens (Figure 3 H, I, K), and less than E. recurvus and
E. kanti (Figure 3 A–B). Although P. granosus has an anterior rough region, Peltephilus protervus and P. granosus
has smooth and punctuate surfaces (Ameghino, 1897, 1902). Finally, although Ameghino (1902) remarks that the
osteoderms of Peltecoelus praelucens are completely smooth, we observed that they are also punctuate.
Geochronology and biostratigraphy. The first fossils from Arroyo Chasicó (Figure 1) were collected by S.
Roth and his assistant B. Eugui around 1915 (Kraglievich, 1934; Pascual, 1961; Bondesio et al., 1980). Cabrera
(1928) and Kraglievich (1934) were the first to mention this locality, followed by works of Reig (1957), Pascual
(1961, 1965), and Pascual et al. (1965).
Kraglievich (1934) recognized the Chasicoan (Chasicoense”) geologic horizon and assigned a Miocene age
to its fauna, while indicating that: “…esta fauna es casi equivalente a la más antigua de Entre Ríos y su edad puede
considerarse Miocena” (Kraglievich, 1934: 89). Pascual (1961, 1965) and Pascual et al. (1965) defined the Arroyo
Chasicó Formation indicating the existence of outcrops in the headwaters of Arroyo Chasicó and in the cliffs of the
Chasicó lagoon (type area). They also recognized a Chasicoan SALMA on the basis of the presence of “relictual”
mammals from the Santacrucian SALMA and the primitive character of the Pan-Araucanian predominant taxa.
Bondesio et al. (1980) summarized the data on the geology and fossil mammals of the area and divided Arroyo
Chasicó Formation into two Members: the lower Vivero Member and the upper Las Barrancas Member. According
to these authors, these members are related to two different biozones: 1) Biozone of Chasicotherium rothi
Ameghino, which is a local representation of the “Viverense” (lower Chasicoan); and 2) Biozone of Chasicotatus
ameghinoi Scillato-Yané, which represents the “Barranquense” (upper Chasicoan). Both units were deposited dur-
ing the earliest part of the late Miocene (Tonni et al., 1998; Cione et al., 2000). Zárate et al. (2007) conducted a
geologic study of the Chasicoan deposits recognizing different lithofacies and paleosols. This lithofacial adjust-
ment does not fit with the lithostratigraphic division of the Arroyo Chasicó Formation in two members.
In accordance with the more recent biostratigraphic scheme proposed by Verzi et al. (2008), Chasicotatus
ameghinoi was recorded in the Biozones of Chasichimys bonaerense Pascual, Chasichimys scagliai (Pascual), Xen-
odontomys simpsoni Kraglievich and Xenodontomys elongatus (Verzi, Montalvo & Tiranti). For that reason, Verzi
et al. (2008) suggested to change the Biozone of Chasicotatus ameghinoi, since it would be not an exclusive taxon
for that biozone. Finally, Schultz et al. (2004) presented an 40Ar/39Ar age of 9.23 ± 0.09 Ma for Arroyo Chasicó For-
mation, placing the Chasicoan fauna between the Mayoan (ca.10.0–11.8 Ma) and the Huayquerian (6.8–9.0 Ma)
faunas, in the time interval of ca. 9.0–10.0? Ma based on the scheme by Flynn and Swisher (1995).
Zootaxa 3359 © 2012 Magnolia Press · 61
FIGURE 3. Osteoderms of Peltephilidae: A, Epipeltephilus kanti (MLP 92-XI-19-7, part of the holotype); B, Epipeltephilus
recurvus? (MLP 91-IX-7-14); C, Peltephilus pumilus (MACN A-866-870); D, Peltephilus nanus (MACN A 7958-7959, part of
the type); E, Peltephilus giganteus (MACN A-4891-4900, part of the type); F-G, Peltephilus strepens (MACN A-771); H,
Peltephilus protervus (MACN A-12020, part of the type); I, Peltephilus depressus (MACN A-12016, part of the type); J, Pelte-
philus granosus (MACN A-12019, part of the type); K, Peltecoelus praelucens (MACN A-12022, part of the type). Scale Bar:
5 cm.
Discussion and conclusions
The Peltephilidae are represented by 12 recognized valid species distributed in 5 genera (Scillato-Yané, 1980),
from which 11 are registered during late Oligocene–early Miocene (ca 28.4–15.97 Ma), and only one, Epipeltephi-
lus recurvus, during the entire middle and late Miocene (ca 15.97–5.33 Ma), specifically for the upper part of the
middle Miocene (Río Mayo Formation, Mayoan SALMA, ?10.0–11.8 Ma). In that context, although peltephilids
for the late Miocene (Arroyo Chasicó Formation, Chasicoan SALMA, 9.0–10.0? Ma) were mentioned and briefly
described, they have never been formally nominated and studied in detail.
62 · Zootaxa 3359 © 2012 Magnolia Press
Only the holotype of the new taxon (MLP 92-XI-19-7) has precise stratigraphic information, i.e., that of
Arroyo Chasicó Formation, and was collected in the Vivero Member, lower in the section (in schedula). Bondesio
et al. (1980) mentioned the Peltephilidae only for the Vivero Member, implying that all other known specimens
may come exclusively from this Member.
On the basis of the particular “aggregate” of fossil mammals, Pascual (1965) and Pascual et al. (1965) recog-
nized the Chasicoan SALMA, characterized by “la presencia de mamíferos Pan-santacrucianos y en el carácter
primitivo de sus elementos Pan-araucanianos, que son predominantes” (Pascual et al., 1965: 177). Within these
“santacrucian mammals” recorded up to the Chasicoan, two cingulate xenarthrans are included: the Peltephilidae,
and one Dasypodidae Euphractinae, the genus Vetelia Ameghino (Scillato-Yané, 1986). The latter has been recently
recorded in several Huayquerian localities, slightly younger than the Chasicoan (Esteban & Nasif, 1996; Esteban et
al., 2001; Ciancio et al., 2006; Georgieff et al., 2004; Tonni et al., 1998); therefore, its biocron exceeds the Chasi-
coan SALMA and are no longer considered as the last occurrence of those “relictual” Santacrucian taxa. According
to this, within the Cingulata, the Peltephilidae, with Epipeltephilus kanti, is the only “relictual Santacrucian” taxon
whose last record is the Chasicoan SALMA. In addition, although Ameghino (1906: 482) indicated in a list of taxa
the presence of “?Peltephilus” for its “ Faunas Entrerrianas”, that record was opportunely disestimated by Scil-
lato-Yané (1982: 62), essentially because the material was never described or figured, and has not been found in its
repository (MACN). At the moment, Epipeltephilus kanti sp. nov. is the youngest record of the entire family Pelte-
Finally, the presence of Epipeltephilus, Vetelia perforata, and Palaehoplophorini (“Hoplophorinae”) in the
Mayoan and Chasicoan (all absent in the Colloncuran), as well as the absence of Stegotheriini, Proeutatus (Euta-
tini), Stenotatus (Eutatini), Prozaedyus (Euphractini), and Propalaehoplophorinae (all recorded in the Colloncuran)
indicates a closer affinity between the Mayoan and Chasicoan faunas than between the Mayoan and the Collon-
curan ones, according whit the interpretations of Bond (1993) and Vucetich et al. (1993) for native ungulates and
rodents, respectively.
The authors wish to thanks M. Reguero (MLP) and S. M. Álvarez (MACN) for allowing us the access to the collec-
tions of fossil mammals under their care. To D. Croft (CWRU School of Medicine) for information about Epipelte-
philus. To A. A. Dondas (MMP) for pictures of the specimen MMP 339-M. M. Tejedor and G. Martin have
contributed with the English translation. To D.A. Croft and D. Perea for their reviews and helpful suggestions. The
research project of the middle Miocene of Patagonia was funded by the National Science Foundation (to R.F. Kay,
Duke University, USA), providing the type of the new species here described. To the FCNYM (for the N-593 and
N-568 to AAC).
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... Fossils referred to the Peltephilidae range from the early Eocene (Scillato-Yané 1986; Oliveira and Bergqvist 1998;Carlini et al. 2010) to the late Miocene (e.g., Bordas 1936;González-Ruiz et al. 2012), but they are still only well known in the Miocene, especially in the Santacrucian SALMA. Exceptionally, three species referred to the Santacrucian Peltephilus, as well as the Colhuehuapian Parapeltecoelus Bordas, 1938, are known from fairly complete skulls (Ameghino 1894;Scott 1903Scott -1904Bordas 1936;Vizcaíno et al. 2012; see also Materials and Methods). ...
... Included genera. Undoubted members of the Peltephilidae include species of Parapeltecoelus Bordas, 1938;Peltephilus Ameghino, 1887;Peltecoelus Ameghino, 1902;Anantiosodon Ameghino, 1891;andEpipeltephilus Ameghino, 1904 (Bordas 1938;McKenna and Bell 1997;González-Ruiz et al. 2012), plus the new taxon described below, Ronwolffia pacifica. Species of Machlydotherium have also been considered to be members of, or sister to, the Peltephilidae (Wolf 2007;González-Ruiz et al. 2012 ...
... Undoubted members of the Peltephilidae include species of Parapeltecoelus Bordas, 1938;Peltephilus Ameghino, 1887;Peltecoelus Ameghino, 1902;Anantiosodon Ameghino, 1891;andEpipeltephilus Ameghino, 1904 (Bordas 1938;McKenna and Bell 1997;González-Ruiz et al. 2012), plus the new taxon described below, Ronwolffia pacifica. Species of Machlydotherium have also been considered to be members of, or sister to, the Peltephilidae (Wolf 2007;González-Ruiz et al. 2012 ...
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Remains of peltephilid cingulates from the late Oligocene (Deseadan, South American Land Mammal Age) of Salla, Bolivia, are described and organized as two morphs, the larger referred to a new taxon, Ronwolffia pacifica, and the smaller as indeterminate. A fairly well-preserved cranium serves as the holotype for Ronwolffia pacifica, with referred material consisting of jaws, osteoderms, and a partial pelvis. Ronwolffia is recognized by a combination of characters, some of which are regarded as general placental traits compared to some distinctive features of the wellknown Santacrucian species of Peltephilus. Such generalized traits in Ronwolffia include tendencies for eight (rather than seven) mandibular teeth, unfused mandibular symphysis, incompletely ossified auditory bulla, and a low occiput and cranial vault. Like those of other peltephilids, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is low, but, unlike typical armadillos and the genotypic Peltephilus strepens, the glenoid fossa forms part of the wall of the external acoustic porus. Similar crowding of the TMJ and porus is noted in Peltephilus pumilus and Peltephilus ferox. Terminology related to the classification of xenarthrans is considered. Dasypodoidea Gray, 1821 is herein used for the crown clade that includes armadillos and glyptodonts, with Cingulata designating the total clade (crown + stem); that is, taxa more closely related to Dasypus than to any pilosan taxon (sloth or anteater). It is also desirable to clearly discriminate between the crown and total clade Xenarthra; thus Xenarthra is herein used exclusively for the crown, with the biogeographically inspired name, Americatheria, being proposed for the total clade; that is, taxa more closely related to Dasypus than to any members of Afrotheria or Boreotheria.
... This trait differs from the " surface roughness " suggested by previous authors which used it to describe the external surface of peltephilids (e.g. Gonz Ruiz et al., 2012). Similar ornamental structures have been described and quantified in the skull and osteoderms of crocodilians (e.g. ...
... Comments: This extinct family of armadillos is mainly known by remains of their particular skull and bony exoskeleton (Gaudin and Wible, 2006; Croft et al., 2007; Gonz alez-Ruiz et al., 2012). Phylogenetic analyses have shown peltephilids to be the sister group of Cingulata (e.g. ...
... Peltephilidae differs principally from Dasypodidae in having a robust skull with a U-shaped dental arcade, beveled canine-like teeth, a short rostrum, and a pair of horn-like nasal osteoderms (Ameghino, 1894; Scillato-Yan e, 1977; Gaudin and Wible, 2006). The morphology and ornamentation of osteoderms have been used as diagnostic features for Peltephilidae (Bordas, 1936; Scillato-Yan e, 1977; Gonz alez-Ruiz et al., 2012), as well as in other cingulates, e.g. Dasypodidae (e.g. ...
Until now, only one Cenozoic fossil mammal from the Chilean Precordillera (Arica and Parinacota Region) has been reported, Caraguatypotherium munozi (Mesotheriidae: Notoungulata). In this study, we describe a fourth specimen of C. munozi and a new armadillo species, Epipeltephilus caraguensis (Peltephilidae: Cingulata), both collected from a new site closer to the fossiliferous outcrops of the Caragua area (Serravallian – Tortonian). E. caraguensis differs from other members of the family in having: two sulci in the articular surface of the mobile osteoderm; having a tubular, rough and raised anterior edge; a conspicuous transverse depression; and four widely spaced foramina. This taxon represents the youngest known peltephilid from intermediate latitudes and indicates a wide geographic distribution (Patagonia to Central Andes) of the family just prior to its extinction. The new mesothere specimen is 19% larger than previous records. The revision of the dental features of C. munozi allowed the identification of an ambiguous trait in its original diagnosis, i.e. an enamel fracture was misinterpreted with the presence of a posterior sulcus on the talonid of the m3, suggesting that further taxonomic and systematic revision for the Caragua mesothere is necessary. Although the fossil record from the Caragua area is still scarce, mesotheriines seem to be abundant at this latitude, just as has been observed at several early to late Miocene sites such as Chucal (Chile), Cerdas and Nazareno (Bolivia), as well as in southern regions such as Arroyo Chasicó and Mendoza (Argentina). The presence of a new peltephilid species in Caragua sustains the hypothesis of provincialism during the Miocene in intermediate latitudes. Our findings also provide further support for probable faunal movements between intermediate and higher latitudes rather than to lower ones.
... gen., nov. sp.? Argentina, Bolivia and Chile (Scillato-Yané, 1986; Flynn and Swisher, 1995; Croft, et al., 2007 Croft, et al., , 2009 Shockey and Anaya, 2008; Bostelmann et al., 2012; González-Ruiz et al., 2012, 2013). At least thirteen peltephilid species are currently recognized, distributed among five genera: Peltephilus, Peltecoelus, Parapeltocoelus, Anantiosodon, and Epipeltephilus (McKenna and Bell, 1997), but since specimens are often very fragmentary, identification below the family level is difficult (Croft, et al., 2007Croft, et al., , 2009). ...
... Consequently, the family Peltephilidae is in need of a full taxonomic revision and a comprehensive phylogenetic study. Osteoderms of peltephilids have a suite of diagnostic features: they are relatively wider than those of other dasypodoids; have a very small area of overlap with other osteoderms; outer surface is often rough in texture; presence of two to four very conspicuous piliferous pits on the outer surface; absence of figures on the outer surface (Croft, et al., 2007Croft, et al., , 2009 González-Ruiz et al., 2012, 2013). The fixed osteoderm IVIC-P-2910 exhibits almost all the diagnostic features of peltephilids, but is remarkable in that it has a very smooth outer surface, therefore differing from all other known genera, except from Peltephilus depressus and Peltecoelus praelucens which have a less roughened texture than in the other better known peltephilids (González-Ruiz et al., Page 10 of 35 A c c e p t e d M a n u s c r i p t 2012). ...
... The fixed osteoderm IVIC-P-2910 exhibits almost all the diagnostic features of peltephilids, but is remarkable in that it has a very smooth outer surface, therefore differing from all other known genera, except from Peltephilus depressus and Peltecoelus praelucens which have a less roughened texture than in the other better known peltephilids (González-Ruiz et al., Page 10 of 35 A c c e p t e d M a n u s c r i p t 2012). Also IVIC-P-2910 lacks both the middle and lateral longitudinal crests, as occurs in Epipeltephilus spp., Peltephilus giganteus, P. protervus, P. strepens, and P. pumilus (González Ruiz et al., 2012). In terms of size the fixed osteoderm IVIC-P-2910 is similar to Peltephilus nanus; this makes it located in the lower size range of peltephilids (González-Ruiz et al., 2012: p. 59, table 1), but both differ due to the distinctive rough outer surface and the close position of the two piliferous pits in the latter species (P. ...
Geological explorations of the basal beds of the Río Yuca Formation (Tucupido region, Portuguesa State, western Venezuela) resulted in the recognition of a new vertebrate assemblage that includes eight taxa: the toxodont cf. Adinotherium, a Peltephilidae armadillo, the freshwaters fishes Platysilurus and Phractocephalus, the caiman Purussaurus, an indeterminate dolphin, turtles, and the previously recognized sloth Pseudoprepotherium venezuelanum. When compared with the higher latitudes faunas of Argentina and Chile, the presence of cf. Adinotherium and peltephilids in the Rio Yuca Formation is consistent, but not conclusive, with a Santacrucian to Frisian SALMA age. The associated fauna, as well recent apatite fission track analysis, indicates that the Río Yuca assemblage is more likely younger in age, specifically middle to late Miocene. So far the Miocene localities of the northern part of South America have provided a less prolific fossil record compared to the southern part of the continent (e.g., Santacrucian and Friasian faunas of Patagonia), but the present work documents the surprising occurrence of two taxa (Peltephilidae and Nesodontinae) common in southern high latitude faunas of South America, implying the persistence of the Santacrucian-Friasian genus Adinotherium in younger strata from northern South America, and that peltephilids were much more widespread during the Miocene than previously recognized. The presence of these common Patagonian taxa (Peltephilidae and Nesodontinae) in Río Yuca also supports the hypothesis presented by prior researchers for the presence of biogeographical connections between the northern and southern portions of South America during the late Oligocene or early Miocene, which facilitated faunal interchange between the two regions. Finally, the biogeographical affinities of the freshwater fishes and the giant caiman (Purussaurus) indicate close relationships of the Tucupido region with the ancestral distribution of the Orinocoan-Amazonian drainage system.
... Within Cingulata, Glyptodontidae is the clade that reached the largest size (Soibelzon et al., 2012). This group is first recorded in the Late Eocene of the Patagonian region of Argentina (Ameghino, 1902;Gaudin and Croft, 2015), and later experienced a diversification and radiation process since the Late Miocene (Fernicola, 2008;González-Ruiz et al., 2012;Zurita et al., 2016), probably related to the development of open biomes of grasslands (Delsuc et al., 2004;Carlini and Zurita, 2010;Iglesias et al., 2011;Mitchell et al., 2016). ...
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Panochthus Burmeister is one of the most diversified and widely distributed glyptodonts in the Pleistocene of South America, which includes areas located at high altitudes (>4,000 m.a.s.l.). Within the genus, eight species (P. intermedius Lydekker, P. subintermedius Castellanos, P. tuberculatus (Owen), P. frenzelianus Ameghino, P. greslebini Castellanos, P. jaguaribensis Moreira, P. hipsilis Zurita, Zamorano, Scillato-Yané, Fidel, Iriondo and Gillette, and P. florensis Brambilla, Lopez and Parent) are currently recognized. Here, we report a dorsal carapace (UATF-V n/n) from the Pleistocene of the surroundings of Potosi, Bolivia, that shows some morphological particularities when compared to the carapace of P. intermedius, P. frenzelianus, P. subintermediusand P. tuberculatus, including: a) its maximum dorso-ventral diameter is at the anterior half, meanwhile in other species is at mid-point (e.g., Propalaehoplophorus) or at posterior half (e.g., Glyptodon); b) the dorsal profile is different in comparison to other glyptodonts (e.g., Glyptodon, Glyptotherium, Neosclerocalyptus, Propalaehoplophorus); c) the ornamentation pattern of the osteoderms shows a central figure surrounded by small polygonal figures along the most exposed surface of the carapace (except for the mid-dorsal region that shows reticular ornamentation pattern), being different from that of the remaining species, in which central figures are limited to the caudal/cephalic and most lateral regions of the carapace. In summary, the combination of characters suggests that it could belong to a new species or, alternatively, to P. floriensis or P. jaguaribensis in which the dorsal carapace is not yet known. The phylogenetic analysis confirms its basal position among Panochthus and highlights the importance of these high elevation areas of the Andes in South America in order to understand the complex evolutionary history of glyptodonts.
... Despite comprehensive studies were developed at low and middle latitudes (e.g. La Venta, Colombia, Kay et al., 1997;Cerdas, Quebrada Honda, Bolivia, Croft, 2007;Croft et al., 2009Croft et al., , 2016, high latitude middle Miocene localities have been analyzed by specific taxonomic works (e.g., Marshall and Salinas, 1990;Vucetich et al., 1993;Martin and Tejedor, 2007;Pérez, 2010;Bostelmann et al., 2012;González Ruiz et al., 2012), lacking integral vertebrate analysis in an adequate geochronological context. This paper examines four new high latitude middle Miocene fossiliferous localities ( Fig. 1) placed in a North Patagonian foreland sequence (Paso del Sapo Basin, Chubut Province, Argentine; Bucher et al., 2018;Bucher et al., 2019a) for which a high-resolution time scheme based on U-Pb zircon ages and magnetostratigraphic data was recently performed (Bucher et al., 2019b). ...
The Miocene represents a key moment in the South American evolution, since meaningful geographic and climatic processes occurred, promoting the development of several biologic changes. The isolation of South America together with major global and regional climatic changes resulted in an enormous variety of biomes and endemic diversity of flora and fauna, especially of mammals diversity. Most of the best-known continental vertebrate fossil-bearing deposits correspond to the early and late Miocene, existing a deficient knowledge for the middle Miocene, which is poorly understood at high latitudes. This work examines four new middle Miocene fossiliferous localities from a North Patagonian foreland succession, through a multidisciplinary approach that combines stratigraphic and preliminary paleontological analyses within a previously defined high-resolution temporal scheme. Two localities are referred to the lower section of Collón Cura Formation, and were constrained to a range of 14.6-12.75 Ma, whereas the other two localities correspond to the upper section of Collón Cura Formation and were constrained to 12.75-12.05 Ma. A large variety of fossil vertebrates were recognized in the lower section, belonging to Teleostei, Testudinidae, Teiidae, Anura and Mammalia; whereas Teleostei, Testudinidae and Mammalia vertebrates were documented in the upper section. Our results indicate a Collon-curan and younger (e.g., Mayoan) South American Mammals Ages (SALMAs) for the lower and upper sections of Collón Cura Formation, respectively. However, data from this work support the idea of a continuum on the SALMAs sequence for the middle Miocene where overlap, at least partially, both in absolute dates and in the faunal assemblages.
... Comments—Among presently known species of Peltephilidae, the general morphological pattern observed in the Cerdas taxon (e.g., tall and narrow central longitudinal ridge and many peripheral tubercles) is also seen in middle to late Miocene species from Argentina (Epipeltephilus). In particular, it is reminiscent of Epipeltephilus kanti from the late Miocene of Arroyo Chasic o, Argentina (Chasicoan SALMA) (see Gonz alez-Ruiz et al., 2012). However, the osteoderms of this species differ from those of the Cerdas taxon in being 20–30% smaller, having shallower depressions surrounding the median longitudinal ridge, and in having a lower, less ornamented posterior margin. ...
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We provide new and revised identifications of mammals from the early middle Miocene (Langhian age, Colloncuran South American Land Mammal Age [SALMA]) of Cerdas, Bolivia. We also formally name a new typothere notoungulate, Hegetotherium cerdasensis, sp. nov., that can be distinguished by the absence of an external talonid sulcus on m3 and its small size (15–25% smaller than Hegetotherium mirabile). We refer several typothere specimens from Nazareno, Bolivia, to H. cerdasensis, which suggests that the two sites are of similar age. We report the first sparassodont and astrapothere remains from Cerdas. Sparassodont remains include an associated basicranium and mostly complete mandible; the species appears to represent a new, small-bodied borhyaenoid. Astrapothere remains consist of many tooth fragments from a new species of the subfamily Uruguaytheriinae. A partial sloth dentary from Cerdas likely pertains to the subfamily Megatheriinae and is the first report of the family Megatheriidae from the site. A newly discovered peltephilid armadillo specimen includes a partial articulated carapace that supports recognition of the Cerdas taxon as a new species. The two dasypodids of Cerdas (one Euphractini, one Eutatini) represent two new species closely related to undescribed species from the late middle Miocene (Serravallian age, Laventan SALMA) of Quebrada Honda, Bolivia. The mammals of Cerdas indicate that (1) the middle latitudes (southern tropics) contributed significantly to the diversity of Miocene mammal communities in South America; and (2) the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum was a key factor in the differentiation of South American mammal assemblages. Citation for this article: Croft, D. A., A. A. Carlini, M. R. Ciancio, D. Brandoni, N. E. Drew, R. K. Engelman, and F. Anaya. 2016. New mammal faunal data from Cerdas, Bolivia, a middle-latitude Neotropical site that chronicles the end of the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum in South America. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2016.1163574.
... Pero debe constar que Ameghino (1908, p. 482) mencionó en una lista: Peltephilidae, con "? Peltephilus" (sic) Ameghino, 1887, para sus "Faunes entrerriennes", consistentes en su mayoría en taxones de la Formación Ituzaingó. Si bien este dato nunca pudo verificarse (nunca se encontró el material en cuestión), dado que los peltefílidos tienen como último registro seguro la Formación Arroyo Chasicó (Edad Chasiquense, Mioceno Tardío, sur de la provincia de Buenos Aires, ver Scillato-Yané, 1979;González Ruiz et al., 2012) no sería improbable que alguno de estos extraños Cingulata hayan persistido hasta la cronológicamente muy próxima Edad Huayqueriense (Mioceno Tardío). ...
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Los Cingulata (Mammalia, Xenarthra) del “Conglomerado osífero” (Mioceno Tardío) de la Formación Ituzaingó de Entre Ríos, Argentina
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Peltephilidae (Xenarthra, Cingulata) is an ancient lineage of medium-large-sized 'armadillos' from South America, characterized by chisel-shaped molariforms, a U-shaped dental arcade, and cephalic osteoderms modified into hornlike structures. Although the biochron of the group extends from the early Eocene to the Late Miocene, the most abundant and complete records come from the Early Mio-cene of Patagonia. Remains from the Late Miocene are very scarce, and the last records of the group are from the Chas-icoan Stage (Tortonian). The only taxon known from this interval is Epipeltephilus kanti from the Arroyo Chasic o Formation (9.23 AE 0.09 Ma; Buenos Aires Province, Argentina), a species previously represented only by a few isolated osteo-derms. Here we report new remains assigned to E. kanti from the Late Miocene of Loma de Las Tapias Formation (c. 9.0-7.8 Ma; San Juan Province, Argentina), including a hemimandible and several fixed and mobile osteoderms. These new specimens constitute the youngest record of Pel-tephilidae. The inclusion of E. kanti within Epipeltephilus and the monophyly of the genera Peltephilus and Epipeltephi-lus are corroborated for the first time through a cladistic analysis. The decline and eventual disappearance of this 'armadillo' group in the Late Miocene is chronologically coincident with the replacement of subtropical/tropical environments by more open and arid ones and with the proliferation of other large armadillos such as Vetelia, Macrochorobates, and Macroeuphractus.
Despite recent efforts, the diversity of Neogene mammals in Chile remains poorly known, with several presumed new taxa awaiting description. For example, previous studies have suggested that the early to late Miocene mammalian assemblages from the Laguna del Laja fossiliferous locality (Cura-Mallín and Trapa-Trapa formations), in the Andean Cordillera of south-central Chile (∼37°), comprise dozens of undescribed taxa. Therefore, a better understanding of the Laguna del Laja faunal taxonomic affinities is needed, especially because the region holds one of the few known localities spanning from early to late Miocene in Chile. Dozens of mammal specimens recently recovered in late early Miocene beds of the Cura-Mallín Formation at Laguna del Laja are described and illustrated, and a discussion of their biogeographical and paleoenvironmental significance is provided. We recognize the presence of at least 17 taxa, including some potential new ones (e.g., Maruchito sp. nov.?) and others recognized in Chile for the first time (e.g., Galileomys). Geochronological (17.7–16.4 Ma) and biostratigraphical data indicate that this fauna correlates well with the Santacrucian SALMA, contributing to filling the gap in the taxonomic composition of Santacrucian mammalian assemblages in Chile and southwestern of South America. However, it is noteworthy that Laguna del Laja has documented some taxa previously found only in older (Colhuehuapian) and younger (Colloncuran) ages. Finally, the faunal assemblage supports a paleoenvironmental reconstruction of mixed forested and open habitats, likely with the predominance of the former, in the region during the late early Miocene and a widely distributed Santacrucian fauna throughout southern South America in both intra-arc and foreland basins.
South America is home to some of the most distinctive mammals on Earth-giant armadillos, tiny anteaters, the world’s largest rodent, and its smallest deer. But the continent once supported a variety of other equally intriguing mammals that have no close living relatives: armored mammals with tail clubs, saber-toothed marsupials, and even a swimming sloth. We know of the existence of these peculiar species thanks to South America’s rich fossil record, which provides many glimpses of prehistoric mammals and the ecosystems in which they lived. Organized as a “walk through time” and featuring species from 15 important fossil sites, this book is the most extensive and richly illustrated volume devoted exclusively to the Cenozoic mammals of South America. The text is supported by 75 life reconstructions of extinct species in their native habitats, as well as photographs of fossil specimens and the sites highlighted in the book. An annotated bibliography is included for those interested in delving into the scientific literature.
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En Gran Barranca reconocemos unas ocho faunas, prácticamente sucesivas y de diferente representación areal, de las cuales siete contienen Xenartros. La más antigua correponde a la Subedad Barranquense del Casamayorense y la más moderna, una que se encuentra por encima de los clásicos niveles del Colhuehuapense. En todas ellas se verifica una supremacía absoluta de los Cingulata por sobre los Phyllophaga, ya que estos últimos son muy escasos. La diversidad relativa de cada grupo de Xenartros registrada en cada una de estas faunas, indica que los cambios de las temperaturas medias anuales marinas aparentemente afectaron la cladogénesis del grupo de manera decisiva. Seguramente, la condición peninsular de Patagonia permitió que los cambios de temperatura de las aguas marinas se hayan visto reflejadas en el clima tierra adentro.
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Dasypodidae remains from La Toma archaeological site were analyzed. The material is grouped in two levels: the lower is characterized by the presence of Chaetophractus villosus and Zaedyus cf. Z. pichiy, and the upper with Dasypus sp. cf. D. hybridus-D. septemcinctus associated to the other two species. A paleoenvironmental sequence is proposed for the late Pleistocene-Holocene: 1) Generalized arid or semiarid conditions that last until partly the late Holocene; 2) A transition toward more humid and warm conditions between 1000 and 1700 years BP; 3) Temperate and humid conditions, similar to the present ones, registered close to the European Conquest and after it. -from English summary
Se dan a conocer nuevos registros de Dasypodidae (Xenarthra, Cingulata) para la Formación Cerro Azul en la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina. El material estudiado consiste en placas aisladas de la coraza dorsal y procede de las localidades: Laguna Chillhué, Cerro de los Guanacos, Bajo Giuliani, Quehue, Naicó, Laguna Guatrache, Telén, Loventué, Cerro de la Bota y Salinas Grandes de Hidalgo, comprendidas entre los 36°-38° S and 63°-67°0. Se reconocen Chasicotatus ameghinoi, Macrochorobates scalabrinii, Zaedyus pichiy, Vetelia perforata, Doellotatus inornatus, Doellotatus chapadmalensis, Proeuphractus, Macroeuphractus morenoi, Chorobates villosissimus, y Gen. nov. "A" Scillato Yane. Los siete primeros taxones y Gen. nov. "A" Scillato Yane son citados por vez primera para esta formación. Se constata la presencia de una probable nueva especie de Proeuphractus. La Formación Cerro Azul es referida al Huayqueriense (Miocene tardío) sobre la base de diferentes grupos de mamíferos fósiles. En este marco, el registro de Chasicotatus ameghinoi es el más moderno para el taxón, mientras que los de Zaedyus pichiy, Doellotatus inornatus, Doellotatus chapadmafensis y Gen. nov. "A" Scillato Yane extienden la antigüedad de estos dasipódidos hasta el Huayqueriense.