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The aims of this study were (a) consider the effectiveness of strength training (ST) to weight loss and (b) present the main physiological me-chanisms that explain this relationship. Through literature review, analyzed studies published originally in international language. As the search strategy was used the Medline database (National Library of Medicine) with the combination of the following keywords: resistance exercise, strength training, weight exercise, strength exercise, energy expenditure, weight loss. No results were found involving concurrent or aerobic exercises. The selected studies show that the ST can effectively collaborate with the weight loss process as a complement to aerobic exercise training and diet. Mentioned cooperation occurs mainly through the increase or maintenance in the resting metabolic rate, energy expenditure of the activity itself and also under the effect related to excessive oxygen consumption after exercise. Moreover, in general, ST periodization is ideal for long-term success because it enables combinations of the beneficial effects of ST-related weight loss.
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Physical Education / Educação Física
J Health Sci Inst. 2010;28(4):337-40 337
Strength training and weight loss
Treinamento de força e emagrecimento
Gustavo Ribeiro da Mota1, Fábio Lera Orsatti1, Tatienne Neder Figueira da Costa2,3, Moacir Marôcolo Júnior1
1Department of Sport Sciences, Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba-MG, Brazil; 2Nursing School, University Center of Votu-
poranga, Votuporanga-SP, Brazil; Physical Education School, University Center of Votuporanga, Votuporanga-SP, Brazil.
The aims of this study were (a) consider the effectiveness of strength training (ST) to weight loss and (b) present the main physiological me-
chanisms that explain this relationship. Through literature review, analyzed studies published originally in international language. As the
search strategy was used the Medline database (National Library of Medicine) with the combination of the following keywords: resistance
exercise, strength training, weight exercise, strength exercise, energy expenditure, weight loss. No results were found involving concurrent
or aerobic exercises. The selected studies show that the ST can effectively collaborate with the weight loss process as a complement to
aerobic exercise training and diet. Mentioned cooperation occurs mainly through the increase or maintenance in the resting metabolic rate,
energy expenditure of the activity itself and also under the effect related to excessive oxygen consumption after exercise. Moreover, in
general, ST periodization is ideal for long-term success because it enables combinations of the beneficial effects of ST-related weight loss.
Descriptors: Exercise; Weight lifting; Resistance training; Weight loss; Obesity
Os objetivos deste trabalho foram (a) analisar a eficácia do treinamento de força muscular (TF) sobre o emagrecimento e (b) apresentar os
principais mecanismos fisiológicos que explicam tal relação. Por meio de revisão de literatura foram analisados estudos publicados original-
mente em idioma internacional. Como estratégia de busca, foi utilizada a base de dados Medline (National Library of Medicine) com a com-
binação das seguintes palavras-chave: resistance exercise, strength training, weight exercise, strength exercis, energy expendidture, weight
loss. Não foram considerados resultados que implicavam em exercícios concorrentes ou aeróbios. Os trabalhos selecionados mostram que o
TF pode efetivamente colaborar com o processo de emagrecimento como complemento ao treinamento aeróbio e à dieta. Citada cooperação
ocorre, principalmente, por meio do aumento ou manutenção na taxa metabólica de repouso, do gasto energético da própria atividade de
força e também pelo efeito relacionado ao consumo de oxigênio excessivo após o exercício. Além disso, de forma geral, a periodização do
TF é ideal para o sucesso em longo prazo, pois possibilita combinações dos efeitos benéficos do TF relacionados ao emagrecimento.
Descritores: Exercício; Levantamento de peso; Treinamento de resistência; Perda de peso; Obesidade
Muscle strength is the capacity of the neuromuscular system to
win or to oppose the external resistance such as weights, elastic
bands, the very body mass and strength training machines. The syste-
matic implementation of such exercise is called strength training (ST)
and has a positive impact in several activities of daily living. This
benefit is obvious because these activities require a certain percentage
of the individual capacity to perform tasks and improvement in muscle
strength result in less physiological stress to implement them1.
The ST, also called resistance training or weight training has been
considered an important component of exercise programs aimed at
physical fitness and health2. This link occurs by the association of
the metabolic effects caused by the loss of muscle mass to the high
prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipide-
mia and hypertension3. Conversely, the gain and/or the preservation
of muscle mass through the ST, has been regarded as formidable
factor in preventing or combating the harmful effects of aging2.
On the other hand, excess of body fat is related to various diseases
and its prevalence has increased significantly in recent decades4. By
definition, the weight loss occurs when there is reduction of body fat
relative to total body mass. That is, the percentage of body fat is de-
creased and this condition is positive for the promotion of health5.
Traditionally, the predominant aerobic exercise training has been
recommended as priority by the international scientific community
when it comes to exercise and weight loss5. This suggestion probably
is based on the higher oxygen consumption (VO2) (and energetic
expenditure) than the aerobic activities have compared the strength
for the same time of exercise1,6 together with the fact of the aerobics
oxidize more lipids when compared to ST, which predominantly
use carbohydrate as fuel energy for its accomplishment. However,
more recent studies have suggested that ST plays an important role
in controlling body weight and results in unique effects that the im-
plementation of aerobic exercise alone can not achieve6.
We analyzed the most relevant studies published originally in in-
ternational language. As the search strategy was used the database
Medline (National Library of Medicine) with the combination of
the following keywords: resistance exercise, strength training, weight
exercise, strength exercise, energy expenditure, weight loss. No re-
sults were considered if involving aerobic or concurrent exercises.
Thus, the aims of this review were (a) analyze the effectiveness
of ST on the weight loss process and (b) present the main physiolo-
gical mechanisms that explain this.
Energy balance
The change in body mass is explained mathematically by ±
95% of cases. Less than 5% occur from hereditary diseases that
cause obesity or slimness7. Thus, the weight loss occurs when
there is negative energy balance. That is, the total daily energy ex-
penditure (TEE) exceeds your energy consumption. Conversely,
when caloric intake exceeds the TEE, there will be a condition of
positive energy balance, with subsequent gain in body mass. If
both (TEE and food intake) are equal to the body mass1mainte-
nance will occur (Table 1).
Table 1. Balance energy and implications for body mass
Input energy Output energy Result on body mass
Equal Equal No change
Higher Minor Increase
Minor Higher Decrease
Components of total daily energy expenditure
Considering that weight loss will happen if the TTE is greater than
the calorie intake (Table 1), it is imperative to understand how the
body spends energy in the twenty-four hours. Basically there are
three components: (a) resting metabolic rate, which involves energy
expenditure to maintain physiological functions during sleep and in
situations close to the resting state. It is estimated that approximately
60-75% of TTE is devoted to this component, (b) thermic effect of
food which is the component responsible for digestion, absorption
and assimilation of nutrients from foods eaten with ± 10% of TTE
and (c) thermic effect of physical activity that is ± 15 to 30% of TTE1
(Table 2). Clearly, these values are approximate and that there are al-
ways individual variations. That said, we will look from here the
effect of ST on each of these components through the literature.
Table 2. Estimated values of total daily energy expenditure
Components Energy expenditure
Resting metabolic rate ± 60 a 75%
Thermic effect of food ± 10%
Thermic effect of physical activity ± 15 a 30%
Prescription of strength training and weight loss
Whereas the resting metabolic rate is the major component of the
TTE and that it relates to the amount of individual muscle mass8, the
hypothesis that the ST to provide muscle hypertrophy contributes to
the process of weight loss5. Logically this physiological effect (hy-
pertrophy) not only depend on the training itself, but also on other
factors such as genetics, and action hormonal9and nutrition2,10.
The postulated mechanism for the collaboration of the ST with
weight loss via muscle hypertrophy, it would be this: the increase
in muscle mass creates greater resting metabolic rate and this, in
turn, increases the TTE, thereby reducing the fat corporal5.
As noted above, muscle hypertrophy depends not only on phy-
sical training. Nevertheless, for purposes of this study will focus on
the major aspects of the prescription of ST that could maximize
hypertrophy and, thus, contribute to the negative energy balance.
The ideal intensity (weight used) of ST to stimulate and generate
hypertrophy has been a subject of great curiosity among researchers.
In general, it is recommended that a weight falls between 6 and 12
repetitions maximum (RM)11 or ± 70 to 90% 1RM2. Importantly,
small variations in these values also stimulate muscle hypertrophy,
but with a lower rate hypertrophic.
An interesting study looked at three groups of ST with different
protocols (4 sets of 3 to 5RM; 3 sets of 9 to 11RM and 2 sets of 20
to 28RM) for eight weeks and found that all groups improved ma-
ximal strength (1RM) and muscular endurance (maximum number
of repetitions with 60% 1RM) in relation to control group and also
to their own values of the pre-training. With regard to muscle hy-
pertrophy, all training groups, except the “high repetitions” improved
compared to its pre-training values and control. These results suggest
that almost all combinations of the components of ST generate be-
nefits (strength, power, endurance, hypertrophy), but that certain
combinations of variables that make up the ST emphasize more (or
less) such results due to the specificity of training11.
Pause between sets
Pauses or rest intervals between sets can modify the metabolic
stress of ST and thus the chronic adaptations provided by the ST.
For example, short intervals (± 45 sec to 1 min 30 sec) further sti-
mulate the lactic anaerobic system, while long pauses (± 3-5 min),
by allowing more creatine phosphate12 regeneration, stress less the
same bioenergetic system . How high blood lactate values are re-
lated to the release of anabolic hormones such as testosterone and
GH, and greater hypertrophy muscular13 the recommendation for
shorter pauses is useful for the purpose of increasing the resting
energy expenditure due to increased muscle mass.
Muscle actions
Concentric muscle actions, eccentric and isometric muscle strains
produce different results and therefore in different training effects.
In general, when isolated, the eccentric muscle action is the one
that generates micro lesions compared to others14. These small le-
sions are called adaptive micro-trauma and are fundamental to sti-
mulate muscle hypertrophy. However, in practice the ST, all types
of muscle actions are performed with, once again, different emp-
hases depending on the training method.
Speed of movement
Relatively recent works show that the fast movement of exercise
promotes greater stimulus for muscle hypertrophy than slower15.
Thus, the periodization of ST should also consider this variable
(speed of movement) in the different cycles of training and promo-
ting changes to better stimulate the muscles constantly requested.
Increase resting metabolic rate
It is believed that the main mechanism by which ST contributes
significantly to the weight loss process is the increase in resting
metabolic rate and, finally, TTE5. As the largest component of TEE
is the resting metabolism and the main energy substrate used in
this situation is the fat, this would be an efficient way to promote
weight reduction and, ultimately, the body fat. However, is neces-
sary to understand that the caloric expenditure (kcal) by increased
muscle mass is modest when viewed daily. It has been estimated at
30 to 50 kcal/day in the resting metabolic rate for 1 kg of muscle
mass acquired16. Furthermore, incorporating 1 kg of muscle mass
does not occur quickly, nor is it as simple as it depends not only on
ST. Nevertheless, long-term (one year, for example), these low
values would generate daily reduction from 1.42 to 2.37 kg of
body fat. Seen in this light, the ST and its chronic effect on muscle
mass appear to be extremely healthy for weight loss.
A study compared ST with the endurance and concurrent (concur-
rent endurance and ST) in physically active men, for ten weeks. Before
and after the intervention, among other parameters, the authors reported
greater increases in basal metabolic rate with ST than endurance. Mo-
reover, changes in lean mass was related to change in this rate17.
Another study that found positive changes in TTE after 26 weeks
of ST was conducted in older of both sexes. In this case, these authors
found increases in strength (36%) and resting energy expenditure
(6.8%) and decreased respiratory quotient of ± 3.5% which means
increased fat oxidation at rest18. In the same line of work mentioned,
but investigating elderly with coronary artery disease, has been re-
ported that ST increases the TTE after 6 months with a 4% increase
in resting metabolic rate measured by indirect calorimetry19.
Aiming to compare the TEE and nutrient oxidation in 24 hours,
research carried out with ten men on three different occasions
(cycle ergometer at 70% VO2max; ST circuit at 70% 1RM and con-
trol) concluded that both TTE as the oxidation of macronutrients of
ST was similar to that of aerobic exercise and superior to control20.
Recently, randomized study of two groups (control and ST) sho-
wed that only a set of 3-6RM (9 exercises, 3 days/week, 6 months)
significantly increased resting and sleep metabolic rates, and in-
creased oxidation fat during sleep in young21. The impressive is
that the total time of the session was only 11 ± 1 min, which
reveals to be suitable for people who have little time to exercise
and need or want to improve body composition.
Energy expenditure with strength training itself
The energy expenditure provided by the ST is considered relati-
vely small when compared to aerobic exercises. Because aerobic
can run for longer periods and often recruit more muscle mass,
they require higher VO2and promote, thereby, higher energy ex-
penditure6. For example, a 70 kg person running at 6 mph for 30
minutes ± 338 kcal spend while during the same period, the ST
spent between 60 and 150 kcal whereas a ratio of 15 and 15 min
of exercise min breaks due intermittent nature of ST1.
338 J Health Sci Inst. 2010;28(4):337-40
Mota GR, Orsatti FL, Costa TNF, Marôcolo Júnior M.
A research was conducted to compare the energy expenditure
of aerobic activity to ST with relatively similar time and intensity.
Ten youths trained both held on separate days (crossover design)
30 min of continuous cycle ergometer 70% VO2max) and 30
min of intermittent squat (± 70% of 1RM). Energy expenditure was
higher for the aerobic situation (441 ± 17 kcal) versus the ST (269
± 13 kcal). However, the author concludes that although energy
expenditure was lower in ST, this mode of exercise produced an
expenditure for interest for the purpose of health and, chronically,
unique benefits that only aerobics would not enable, such as power,
endurance and muscular strength6. Importantly, a limitation of study
is that the author did not match the duration of movement execution
of ST, as it was intermittent, the total time spent on this exercise
was lower (6.21 ± 1.3 minutes ) compared to the aerobic (30 mi-
nutes). Furthermore, the intensities used can not be considered the
same (70% 1RM versus 70% VO2max), as they have very different
metabolic behaviors, whereas 70% 1RM represents an intensity
well above the anaerobic threshold6.
Another aspect to consider is that, according to Scott22 (2002),
VO2during the ST does not properly reflect the energy expenditure,
since factors such as occlusion of blood flow during intense mus-
cular contraction and the absence of steady-state "reflect limitation
of VO2to quantify energy expenditure in ST. Thus, the caloric ex-
penditure would be underestimated for this type of exercise when
the VO2is used and blood lactate concentration would be more
appropriate for this aims22.
Strength training and EPOC
The excessive oxygen consumption after exercise (EPOC) refers
to the greater use of this gas relative to resting values, soon after
physical exercises. Interestingly, the return of VO2to the rest pattern
can take anywhere from a few minutes23 until to several hours24.
The basical and traditional explanation for EPOC occurrence in-
volve regeneration of creatine phosphate, lactate removal and hor-
mones, restoring the muscle stores of oxygen and return tempera-
ture, as well as heart and respiratory rates to resting values. It has
also made clear in the literature, is the fact that more intense exer-
cise provides greater EPOC when compared to less intense25. As
the VO2is related to energy expenditure, physical activities that
provide greater EPOC would be contributing more to raise the TTE
and, thus, potentiate to the weight loss.
Accordingly, studies have been conducted to investigate the
effect of ST on EPOC. One showed that 45 minutes of ST in trained
young women created a greater EPOC and fat oxidation during the
2 hours after ST than control day measures26.
Other authors24 reported that EPOC can last up to 38 hours after
a single session of high intensity of ST in healthy men and young
(31 min circuit, four passages in bench press, dead lift and squat,
with 10RM until momentary concentric failure). Undoubtedly these
positive findings raise hypotheses about the real efficacy of ST in
the process of weight loss by means of EPOC, and shows that
values from previous studies27 (16 hours) were much lower.
When the ST occurs in the circuit, the pause between each
station must also be considered. Haltom et al.28 (1999) compared
20 versus 60 seconds (both eight exercises with 75% from 20RM)
and saw that the EPOC was greater for the slightest pause (10.3 ±
0.6 L.min-1) compared the largest (7.4 ± 0.4 L.min-1). This finding
also demonstrates the effect of intensity on EPOC, since the interval
between sets is a variable that determines the intensity in ST. Inte-
restingly, although the EPOC was higher with the slightest pause,
when the total energy expenditure (exercise + recovery) was com-
puted, the protocol with the highest pause (60 seconds) spent more
energy (277 kcal) than the 20 seconds (242 kcal). Thus, it is impor-
tant to analyze the energy expenditure as a whole (exercise and re-
Another relevant factor in the control of body mass is the substrate
oxidation that occurs in response to ST. Studies have shown increased
lipid oxidation after a single session of ST when compared to pre-
exercise time and/or group control measures26,29. This is because,
in recovery, the lipids become the predominant fuel to limit the use
of carbohydrate and regenerate depleted glycogen stores in ST30.
Analyzing the studies reviewed, we conclude that strength trai-
ning can actually help weight loss as an excellent complement to
aerobic exercise training and diet. The mechanisms that govern
this process are (a) increasing or maintaining their resting metabolic
rate, (b) increase in total energy expenditure considering their own
strength activity and (c) also the effects related to excessive oxygen
consumption after exercise. Moreover, the periodization of the trai-
ning program appears to be ideal for long-term success because it
allows combinations of the beneficial effects of strength training
related to weight loss.
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Corresponding author:
Gustavo Ribeiro da Mota
Department of Sport Sciences
Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro
Av. Frei Paulino, 30 – Abadia
Uberaba-MG, CEP 38025-180
Received July 2, 2010
Accepted September 8, 2010
340 J Health Sci Inst. 2010;28(4):337-40
Mota GR, Orsatti FL, Costa TNF, Marôcolo Júnior M.
... Sabe-se que o treinamento resistido pode afetar dois dos três determinantes do gasto de energético diário total. O primeiro ocorre pelo aumento do efeito térmico do exercício, o que leva a uma maior utilização de substrato energético advindo de lipídios (WANG et al., 2000;MOTA et al., 2010). Esse efeito térmico ocorre de maneira aguda e está associado a dois fatores: o substrato energético utilizado durante o exercício e o elevado consumo de oxigênio após o exercício. ...
... O segundo determinante do gasto energético diário que sofre influência do treinamento resistido é o aumento da metabólica de repouso (WANG et al., 2000). Esse efeito pode até ocorrer de maneira crônica, devido ao aumento da massa muscular, que por sua vez leva a um aumento da taxa metabólica de repouso e consequentemente eleva o gasto energético diário, contribuindo para a diminuição da massa corporal e do percentual de gordura (MOTA et al., 2010;GUILHERME;JÚNIOR, 2006). ...
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No Brasil, cerca de 82 milhões de pessoas estão com sobrepeso ou obesidade. O treinamento de força vem sendo aplicado no combate à obesidade, contudo não se sabe ao certo se o método de treinamento flushing pode ser utilizado como estratégia para o emagrecimento. Logo, o objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o impacto do método flushing sobre o IMC e a composição corporal de indivíduos obesos. Foi feito um estudo descritivo-comparativo, de característica de corte longitudinal, em que participaram 6 mulheres com idade de 21 a 30 anos. O programa de treinamento teve duração de 6 semanas, com a frequência de 3 vezes por semana. Em cada sessão foram realizados 4 blocos de 4 exercícios cada, de 2-3 séries, com cadência de 2 segundos para fase concêntrica e 2 segundos para fase excêntrica e sobrecarga entre 55% a 65% de 1 RM, até a fadiga voluntária. Não houve intervalo de descanso entre os exercícios que compõem cada bloco. Ao final de cada bloco, os voluntários fizeram um intervalo de recuperação de 120 segundos de forma ativa, caminhando em esteira rolante. Antes e após o período de treinamento, foram medidas a massa corporal, a estatura e as dobras cutâneas. Foram calculados o índice de massa corporal (IMC) e o percentual de gordura por meio do protocolo de 7 dobras. Para a comparação entre os momentos, utilizou-se teste t pareado. De acordo com os resultados, houve diminuição da massa corporal, do IMC e da gordura corporal após o período de treinamento (Massa corporal: Momento pré: 88,3 ± 11,3 vs. Momento pós: 84,3 ± 10,3 kg; IMC: Momento pré: 33,4 ± 3,3 vs. Momento pós: 31,2 ± 2,9 kg; % de gordura: Momento pré: 29,9 ± 2,3 vs. Momento pós: 27,6 ± 2,2 mm). O presente estudo demostrou que o método flushing auxiliou na diminuição do percentual total de gordura dos indivíduos e na diminuição do IMC, mas o período de quatro semanas de treinamento não foi o suficiente para os indivíduos saírem da categoria obesidade do IMC.
Backgrounds & aims: Obesity and sarcopenia are independent illnesses associated with contemporary dietary and physical activity behaviors, aggravated by aging. Their coexistence is termed sarcopenic obesity (SO). Hence, increasing protein intake and resistance training (RT) are interventions that could counteract these illnesses. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the effects of whey protein (WP) supplementation associated with RT on body composition, muscular strength, functional capacity, and plasma-metabolism biomarkers in older women with SO. Methods: Twenty six sarcopenic (appendicular lean soft tissue ALST < 15.02 kg) obese (body fat mass ≥ 35%) older women were randomly assigned to receive daily, either 35 g of WP (WP group) or placebo (PLA group), combined with supervised RT (8 exercises, 3 × 8-12 rep, 3 times a week), during a 12-week protocol. Blood samples, blood pressure, dietary intake, functional capacity tests, the one repetition maximum (1RM) test, and body composition were assessed before and after the intervention period. Two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures was applied for comparisons. Results: The WP group presented greater (P < 0.05) increases in ALST (WP = 6.0% vs. PLA = 2.5%) and decreases in (P < 0.05) total (-3.3% vs. -0.3%) and trunk fat mass (WP = -5.1% vs. PLA = -1.1) and IL-6 (WP = -34.6% vs. PLA = 9.3%) compared with the PLA group. Both groups demonstrated improved (P < 0.05) scores for muscular strength, waist-hip ratio, functional capacity, and other plasma-metabolism biomarkers without significant differences between conditions. Conclusion: Whey protein combined with RT increased ALST, and decreased total and trunk fat mass, improving sarcopenia and decreasing SO in older women, with a limited impact on inflammation. Registered under Identifier n° NCT03752359.
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Overweight and obesity affects more than 66% of the adult population and is associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Weight reduction reduces health risks associated with chronic diseases and is therefore encouraged by major health agencies. Guidelines of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) encourage a 10% reduction in weight, although considerable literature indicates reduction in health risk with 3% to 5% reduction in weight. Physical activity (PA) is recommended as a component of weight management for prevention of weight gain, for weight loss, and for prevention of weight regain after weight loss. In 2001, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) published a Position Stand that recommended a minimum of 150 min wk(-1) of moderate-intensity PA for overweight and obese adults to improve health; however, 200-300 min wk(-1) was recommended for long-term weight loss. More recent evidence has supported this recommendation and has indicated more PA may be necessary to prevent weight regain after weight loss. To this end, we have reexamined the evidence from 1999 to determine whether there is a level at which PA is effective for prevention of weight gain, for weight loss, and prevention of weight regain. Evidence supports moderate-intensity PA between 150 and 250 min wk(-1) to be effective to prevent weight gain. Moderate-intensity PA between 150 and 250 min wk(-1) will provide only modest weight loss. Greater amounts of PA (>250 min wk(-1)) have been associated with clinically significant weight loss. Moderate-intensity PA between 150 and 250 min wk(-1) will improve weight loss in studies that use moderate diet restriction but not severe diet restriction. Cross-sectional and prospective studies indicate that after weight loss, weight maintenance is improved with PA >250 min wk(-1). However, no evidence from well-designed randomized controlled trials exists to judge the effectiveness of PA for prevention of weight regain after weight loss. Resistance training does not enhance weight loss but may increase fat-free mass and increase loss of fat mass and is associated with reductions in health risk. Existing evidence indicates that endurance PA or resistance training without weight loss improves health risk. There is inadequate evidence to determine whether PA prevents or attenuates detrimental changes in chronic disease risk during weight gain.
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There is a paucity of research concerning energy expenditure during and after circuit weight training (CWT). There is evidence that duration of rest between sets affects metabolic responses to resistive exercise. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of rest-interval duration upon the magnitude of 1 h of excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Seven healthy men completed two randomized circuit weight training sessions using 20-s and 60-s rest intervals (20 RI, 60 RI). Sessions included two circuits of eight upper and lower body resistive exercises in which 20 repetitions were performed at 75% of a previously determined 20 repetition maximum. The 1 h EPOC of 10.3 +/- 0.57 L for the 20 RI session was significantly higher than 7.40 +/- 0.39 L for the 60 RI session. The net caloric expenditure during 1 h of recovery from the 20 RI session was significantly higher than that of the 60 RI session (51.51 +/- 2.84 vs 37.00 +/- 1.97 kcal); however, total gross energy expenditure (exercise + 1 h recovery) was significantly greater for the 60 RI protocol (277.23 kcal) than the 20 RI protocol (242.21 kcal). Data demonstrate that shortening the rest interval duration will increase the magnitude of 1 h EPOC from CWT; however, the exercise + recovery caloric costs from CWT are slightly greater for a longer rest interval duration protocol. These data suggest that total caloric cost be taken into account for CWT.
Worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased greatly during the past three decades. The increasing occurrence in children of disorders such as type 2 diabetes is believed to be a consequence of this obesity epidemic. Much progress has been made in understanding of the genetics and physiology of appetite control and from these advances, elucidation of the causes of some rare obesity syndromes. However, these rare disorders have so far taught us few lessons about prevention or reversal of obesity in most children. Calorie intake and activity recommendations need reassessment and improved quantification at a population level because of sedentary lifestyles of children nowadays. For individual treatment, currently recommended calorie prescriptions might be too conservative in view of evolving insight into the so-called energy gap. Although quality of research into both prevention and treatment has improved, high-quality multicentre trials with long-term follow-up are needed. Meanwhile, prevention and treatment approaches to increase energy expenditure and decrease intake should continue. Recent data suggest that the spiralling increase in childhood obesity prevalence might be abating; increased efforts should be made on all fronts to continue this potentially exciting trend.
Long-term resistance training (RT) may result in a chronic increase in 24-h energy expenditure (EE) and fat oxidation to a level sufficient to assist in maintaining energy balance and preventing weight gain. However, the impact of a minimal RT program on these parameters in an overweight college-aged population, a group at high risk for developing obesity, is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effect of 6 months of supervised minimal RT in previously sedentary, overweight (mean +/- SEM, BMI = 27.7 +/- 0.5 kg x m(-2)) young adults (21.0 +/- 0.5 yr) on 24-h EE, resting metabolic rate (RMR), sleep metabolic rate (SMR), and substrate oxidation using whole-room indirect calorimetry 72 h after the last RT session. Participants were randomized to RT (one set, 3 d x wk(-1), three to six repetition maximums, nine exercises; N = 22) or control (C, N = 17) groups and completed all assessments at baseline and at 6 months. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in 24-h EE in the RT (527 +/- 220 kJ x d(-1)) and C (270 +/- 168 kJ x d(-1)) groups; however, the difference between groups was not significant (P = 0.30). Twenty-four hours of fat oxidation (g x d(-1)) was not altered after RT; however, reductions in RT assessed during both rest (P < 0.05) and sleep (P < 0.05) suggested increased fat oxidation in RT compared with C during these periods. SMR (8.4 +/- 8.6%) and RMR (7.4 +/- 8.7%) increased significantly in RT (P < 0.001) but not in C, resulting in significant (P < 0.001) between-group differences for SMR with a trend for significant (P = 0.07) between-group differences for RMR. A minimal RT program that required little time to complete (11min per session) resulted in a chronic increase in energy expenditure. This adaptation in energy expenditure may have a favorable impact on energy balance and fat oxidation sufficient to assist with the prevention of obesity in sedentary, overweight young adults, a group at high risk for developing obesity.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether aerobic fitness level would influence measurements of excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) and initial rate of recovery. Twelve trained [Tr; peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) = 53.3 +/- 6.4 ml . kg-1 . min-1] and ten untrained (UT; VO2 peak = 37.4 +/- 3.2 ml . kg-1 . min-1) subjects completed two 30-min cycle ergometer tests on separate days in the morning, after a 12-h fast and an abstinence from vigorous activity of 24 h. Baseline metabolic rate was established during the last 10 min of a 30-min seated preexercise rest period. Exercise workloads were manipulated so that they elicited the same relative, 70% VO2 peak (W70%), or the same absolute, 1.5 l/min oxygen uptake (VO2) (W1.5), intensity for all subjects, respectively. Recovery VO2, heart rate (HR), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were monitored in a seated position until baseline VO2 was reestablished. Under both exercise conditions, Tr had shorter EPOC duration (W70% = 40 +/- 15 min, W1.5 = 21 +/- 9 min) than UT (W70% = 50 +/- 14 min; W1.5 = 39 +/- 14 min), but EPOC magnitude (Tr: W70% = 3.2 +/- 1.0 liters O2, W1.5 = 1.5 +/- 0.6 liters O2; UT: W70% = 3.5 +/- 0.9 liters O2, W1.5 = 2.4 +/- 0.6 liters O2) was not different between groups. The similarity of Tr and UT EPOC accumulation in the W70% trial is attributed to the parallel decline in absolute VO2 during most of the initial recovery period. Tr subjects had faster relative decline during the fast-recovery phase, however, when a correction for their higher exercise VO2 was taken. Postexercise VO2 was lower for Tr group for nearly all of the W1.5 trial and particularly during the fast phase. Recovery HR kinetics were remarkably similar for both groups in W70%, but recovery was faster for Tr during W1.5. RER values were at or below baseline throughout much of the recovery period in both groups, with UT experiencing larger changes than Tr in both trials. These findings indicate that Tr individuals have faster regulation of postexercise metabolism when exercising at either the same relative or same absolute work rate.
In this brief review we examine the effects of resistance training on energy expenditure. The components of daily energy expenditure are described, and methods of measuring daily energy expenditure are discussed. Cross-sectional and exercise intervention studies are examined with respect to their effects on resting metabolic rate, physical activity energy expenditure, postexercise oxygen consumption, and substrate oxidation in younger and older individuals. Evidence is presented to suggest that although resistance training may elevate resting metabolic rate, it does not substantially enhance daily energy expenditure in free-living individuals. Several studies indicate that intense resistance exercise increases postexercise oxygen consumption and shifts substrate oxidation toward a greater reliance on fat oxidation. Preliminary evidence suggests that although resistance training increases muscular strength and endurance, its effects on energy balance and regulation of body weight appear to be primarily mediated by its effects on body composition (e.g., increasing fat-free mass) rather than by the direct energy costs of the resistance exercise.
Thirty physically active healthy men (20.1 +/- 1.6 yr) were randomly assigned to participate for 10 wk in one of the following training groups: endurance trained (ET; 3 days/wk jogging and/or running), resistance trained (RT; 3 days/wk resistance training), or combined endurance and resistance trained (CT). Before and after training, basal metabolic rate (BMR), percent body fat (BF), maximal aerobic power, and one-repetition maximum for bench press and parallel squat were determined for each subject. Urinary urea nitrogen was determined pre-, mid-, and posttraining. BMR increased significantly from pre- to posttraining for RT (7,613 +/- 968 to 8,090 +/- 951 kJ/day) and CT (7,455 +/- 964 to 7,802 +/- 981 kJ/day) but not for ET (7,231 +/- 554 to 7,029 +/- 666 kJ/day). BF for CT (12.2 +/- 3.5 to 8.7 +/- 1.7%) was significantly reduced compared with RT (15.4 +/- 2.7 to 14.0 +/- 2.7%) and ET (11.8 +/- 2.9 to 9.5 +/- 1.7%). Maximal aerobic power increased significantly for ET (13%) but not RT (-0.2%) or CT (7%), whereas the improvements in one-repetition maximum bench press and parallel squat were greater in RT (24 and 23%, respectively) compared with CT (19 and 12%, respectively). Urinary urea nitrogen loss was greater in ET (14.6 +/- 0.9 g/24 h) than in RT (11.7 +/- 1.0 g/24 h) and CT (11.5 +/- 1.0 g/24 h) at the end of 10 wk of training. These data indicate that, although RT alone will increase BMR and muscular strength, and ET alone will increase aerobic power and decrease BF, CT will provide all of these benefits but to a lesser magnitude than RT and ET after 10 wk of training.