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Abstract

Vitamins are classified in a total of 13 substances or groups of substances. Four vitamins are fat-soluble (vitamin A, D E, and K) and the nine others (vitamins of the B-complex and vitamin C) are water-soluble. The water-soluble vitamins and vitamin K are normally synthesised by the rabbit's digestive flora; but in cases of high risk of digestive disorders (e.g. just after weaning), dietary supplementation may be advisable. In addition, a vitamin C supplementation (25 to 30 mg per rabbit and per day) can help the animal in stress situations (heat stress, ...). The vitamin A requirement is largely satisfied if the diet contains 10 000 IU vitamin A per kg or 30 ppm of beta-carotene. Additional provision of vitamin A is unnecessary for growing rabbits and may be toxic to the foetus in pregnant does. The dietary recommended vitamin D level is 800 to 1000 IU/kg. If the dietary concentration is greater than 2000 IUi/kg, abnormal calcification of soft tissues (aorta, kidneys, ...) is generally observed. The recommendation for vitamin E is 50 mg/kg. A diet that contains only 15 mg/kg of vitamin E induces deficiency symptoms (muscular dystrophy, sudden death, reproduction disorders, ...). A massive introduction of vitamin E is not toxic but may improve rabbit meat shelf-life, by reduction of the rate of lipid oxidation
... TBARS analysis is one of the oldest and most commonly used methods of assessing lipid oxidation in food, and it is based on the spectrophotometric determination of MDA, a product of oxidation, directly in the food [2]. The TBARS test is often used to evaluate oxidative status owing to its simple procedure and its high correlation with sensory scores [21]; however, it has often been the object of criticism. In fact, MDA only forms from fatty acid chains containing at least three double bonds, such as linolenic acid. ...
... In the EcoE premixture, the amount (50,000 mg/kg) of vitamin C (VC) corresponded to 5 and 10 mg/kg of feed in the EcoE100 and EcoE200 diets, respectively. The small amount of VC present in EcoE, lower than the minimum requirements for rabbits [21], suggests excluding that any effects found with the administration of EcoE could be attributed to VC. ...
Article
The effects and specificity of dietary supplementation of EconomasETM (EcoE), mainly consisting of organic selenium (0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg feed; Se) or of vitamin E (100 or 200 mg/kg feed; VE), on lipid oxidation were evaluated in rabbit hamburgers during refrigerated storage. Oxidation data obtained by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) spectrophotometric analysis and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography (GC) to determine hexanal content were compared. The relationships between oxidation levels, colour and pH and the discriminability of EcoE- or VE-treatment compared with control were also examined. TBARS content decreased in both VE and EcoE groups, while hexanal showed lower values only in the VE100 dietary group. The colour parameters were compatible with acceptable product quality and seemed to parallel the TBARS values up to the second day storage. Both VE and EcoE improved oxidative stability without affecting the sensory properties, but the VE effect appeared to more specifically hamper lipid oxidation, as evidenced by the determination and quantification of hexanal, a specific product of fatty acid peroxidation.
... Suggesting that the use of vitamin A could improve the growth performance and health of rabbits under heat stress. In addition, vitamin D, vitamin K and nicotinic acid also play an important role in regulating heat stress response and preventing high body temperature (129,130), but more researches about these vitamins are needed. ...
Article
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Heat stress has become a widespread concern in the world, which is one of the major environmental stressors and causes substantial economic loss in the rabbit industry. Heat stress leads to multiple damages to the health of rabbits, such as organ damage, oxidative stress, disordered endocrine regulation, suppressed immune function and reproductive disorders, ultimately, induces the decreased production performance and increased mortality. Nutritional approaches, including feeding strategies, adjusting feed formula, and supplementing vitamins, minerals, electrolytes, Chinese herbal medicines, and functional active substances to the feed, were reported to mitigate the detrimental effects of heat stress in rabbits. Therefore, elucidating the damage of heat stress to rabbits; proper management and nutritional approaches should be considered to solve the heat stress issue in rabbits. This review highlights the scientific evidence regarding the effects of heat stress on rabbit's immune function, endocrine, blood biochemical changes, antioxidant capacity and production performance, and the potential mitigation strategies of nutritional intervention to alleviate heat stress in rabbits; which could contribute to develop nutritional strategies in relieving heat stress of rabbits.
... Rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (15 rabbits each) that were immunized with recombinant HBsAg (Euvax BLG Chem. 10 μg/0.5 ml; purchased from the Vacsera, vaccination centers in Cairo) at a dose (0.34 ug/kg of body weight) by intramuscular injection as a total of 3 doses (baseline, 1st and 2nd doses) at 0, 1 and 3 weeks sequentially. The first group represented a negative control group (without vitamin D support); the second group (UVB exposed) was exposed to UVB lamp for 10 days according to protocol of UV irradiation (15 min at a wavelength 254 nm, power 20 w and 30-cm distance) [15]; and the third group (vitamin D supplemented) was administered with vitamin D orally at a dose of 1680 IU/1.3 kg (calculated as 0.60 ml of the provided vial/250 ml drinking water) [16]. The 2nd and 3rd groups were exposed to UVB irradiation and administered with oral vitamin D, respectively, for 10 days before being immunized with vaccine dose, as shown in Fig. 1. ...
Article
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The implications of vitamin D deficiency on the immune system have become clearer in recent years, being associated with less immune response following HBV vaccine. We aimed to elucidate the effect of vitamin D supplementation and UVB exposure on short- and long-term performance of hepatitis B vaccine. Forty-five male rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups that were immunized with recombinant HBsAg. The first group (group I) represented a negative control group, whereas group III rabbits were administered with commercially available 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D as an alternative for UVB exposure in group II. Results showed that vitamin D concentrations were significantly higher in UVB exposed group compared to both negative control and vitamin D-supplemented groups during short- and long-time intervals. In addition, means of anti-HBsAg isotypes’ levels and anti-HBsAg IgG avidity% were significantly higher in negative control group compared to other groups during short- and long-time intervals. Moreover, vitamin D serum concentration was positively correlated with anti-HBsAg IgG level and avidity % in both negative control and vitamin D-supplemented groups, while it was negatively correlated with anti-HBsAg IgM level in negative control group. It can be concluded from the above results that UVB radiation may have both augmenting and suppressive effects and that circulating serum vitamin D concentration may have a positive association with premium immune modulation following HBV vaccination.
... Recently, there has been growing interest in using natural feed additives to enhance animal performance and meat quality for human consumption [1][2][3][4]. Water-soluble vitamins such as vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid or simply ascorbate) are normally synthesized by the rabbit digestive flora and the dietary supplementation of 25-30 mg/rabbit/day may be advisable in cases of the digestive disorders, as after weaning [5]. Furthermore, its activity in neutralizing reactive oxygen species, as a natural free radical scavenger [6,7], through the oxidizing of ascorbic acid to monodehydroascorbate reacts with free radicals [8]. ...
Article
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The effect of dietary orange peel (OPE) and tomato pomace extract (TPE) supplementations on growth performance, plasma biochemicals, carcass characteristics and antioxidant status of growing male rabbits were investigated. A total of 96 rabbits (5 weeks old) were distributed into four groups. The first group received untreated pelleted diet (control). The second group was fed a diet containing ascorbic acid (AA; 1.0 g/kg diet), while the third and fourth groups consumed diets supplemented with 200 gm of OPE or (TPE, respectively. Our results indicated that OPE and TPE contained 59, 14.03 mg ascorbic acid/100 g DM, respectively. Growth performance, except feed conversion ratio, and carcass weight were improved by dietary supplementations. Dietary sup-plementations decreased kidneys, abdominal, back fats and ether extract of meat. Plasma protein and globulin levels were high in rabbits fed AA and TPE-supplemented diets. Low plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were observed in rabbits fed the supplemented diets. Plasma AA was increased in rabbits fed AA and OPE-supplemented diets. Rabbits fed OPE and TPE-supplemented diets had great SOD activity. The best economic efficiency was recorded by rabbits fed the supplemented diets. Dietary supplementations of OPE and TPE could effectively improve growth performance, antioxidative status, modulate AA level in plasma and meat and lower plasma total cholesterol and LDL.
... Recently, there has been growing interest in using natural feed additives to enhance animal performance and meat quality for human consumption [1][2][3][4]. Water-soluble vitamins such as vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid or simply ascorbate) are normally synthesized by the rabbit digestive flora and the dietary supplementation of 25-30 mg/rabbit/day may be advisable in cases of the digestive disorders, as after weaning [5]. Furthermore, its activity in neutralizing reactive oxygen species, as a natural free radical scavenger [6,7], through the oxidizing of ascorbic acid to monodehydroascorbate reacts with free radicals [8]. ...
Research
Full-text available
The effect of dietary orange peel (OPE) and tomato pomace extract (TPE) supplementations on growth performance, plasma biochemicals, carcass characteristics and antioxidant status of growing male rabbits were investigated. A total of 96 rabbits (5 weeks old) were distributed into four groups. The first group received untreated pelleted diet (control). The second group was fed a diet containing ascorbic acid (AA; 1.0 g/kg diet), while the third and fourth groups consumed diets supplemented with 200 gm of OPE or (TPE, respectively. Our results indicated that OPE and TPE contained 59, 14.03 mg ascorbic acid/100 g DM, respectively. Growth performance, except feed conversion ratio, and carcass weight were improved by dietary supplementations. Dietary supplementations decreased kidneys, abdominal, back fats and ether extract of meat. Plasma protein and globulin levels were high in rabbits fed AA and TPE-supplemented diets. Low plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were observed in rabbits fed the supplemented diets. Plasma AA was increased in rabbits fed AA and OPE-supplemented diets. Rabbits fed OPE and TPE-supplemented diets had great SOD activity. The best economic efficiency was recorded by rabbits fed the supplemented diets. Dietary supplementations of OPE and TPE could effectively improve growth performance, antioxidative status, modulate AA level in plasma and meat and lower plasma total cholesterol and LDL.
... Group II: Five rabbits which were daily intubated with bisphenol A (dissolved in olive oil) at a dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight (minimal toxic dose) according to Sadek et al. (2014). Group III: Five rabbits which were daily intubated with bisphenol A (dissolved in olive oil) at a dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight and ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) (dissolved in distilled water) at a dose level of 20 mg/kg body weight according to Lebas (2000). Up to 8 weeks the whole length of spermatogenic cycle in rabbit. ...
... Les microorganismes ont également un rôle dans l'absorption de certains minéraux tel que le phosphore. Par ailleurs, dans de bonnes conditions sanitaires, la biosynthèse microbienne des vitamines B et K couvre les besoins des animaux (Lebas, 2000). ...
Thesis
Les attentes sociétales s’orientent vers une consommation saine, et provenant de systèmes agricoles durables. En filière cunicole, la maîtrise des pathologies digestives nécessite le recours à l'antibiothérapie curative ou préventive. La recherche d’alternatives à l’utilisation d’antibiotiques en élevages cunicoles est donc primordiale pour augmenter la durabilité de cette production. Les stratégies de limitation de la quantité d’aliment ingérée sont une des solutions possibles à ce problème, puisqu'elles améliorent la résistance du jeune lapin aux troubles digestifs. Ce travail de thèse a pour objectif d’étudier les mécanismes sous-jacents à cet effet favorable des stratégies de rationnement, et aussi d'analyser le comportement alimentaire du lapin restreint en relation avec son bien-être. Cet objectif se scinde en deux parties étudiées. La première partie a pour but de déterminer quelle caractéristique de la restriction alimentaire limite les troubles digestifs en engraissement. La seconde partie s’intéresse aux paramètres biologiques potentiellement influencés par cette stratégie d’alimentation. Les paramètres considérés sont reliés à plusieurs domaines de biologie : enzymologie, histométrie, écosystème bactérien cæcal. Une restriction de l'ingéré de -25% réduit la croissance mais améliore significativement l’efficacité digestive (de 4 à 6% entre 28 et environ 50 jours d'âge) des lapins en engraissement, qui peut s'expliquer par une plus forte digestibilité des fractions protéique (4,5%), énergétique (5,3%) et fibreuses (NDF : 8,9%, ADF : 9,7%, hémicelluloses: 7,9%, cellulose : 11,5%). Cependant, la structure, la diversité et la densité de la communauté bactérienne cæcale sont peu modifiées chez l'animal restreint sain. Des modifications du comportement alimentaire ont été soulignées au cours de ce travail. Ainsi, le rythme d’ingestion, fonction du rythme nycthéméral pour les lapins nourris à volonté, est dépendant du moment de distribution de l’aliment pour les animaux restreints. Après 18 jours de restriction, les lapins ingèrent un tiers de la quantité qui leur est distribuée en 2 heures, et la totalité en moins de 10 heures. Mais aucune agressivité ou compétition n’a été observée entre les animaux restreints. Plusieurs pistes peuvent expliquer l’efficacité de cette stratégie d’alimentation sur la santé digestive du lapereau. Ainsi, les résultats obtenus au cours de la reproduction d’une colibacillose (Escherichia coli O128:C6) suggèrent une stabilisation de l’écosystème iléal par la restriction alimentaire après l’infection. D'autre part, au niveau cæcal l'activité des communautés bactériennes serait modulée, même si pour ce modèle, l'effet d'une ingestion limitée semble faible sur le statut sanitaire. Enfin, l’alternance de périodes de satiété et de périodes de faim stimule la libération sanguine d’hormones (ghréline notamment) qui pourraient moduler la fonction immunitaire. En perspectives, il serait pertinent d'étudier plus précisément les fonctions liées au statut immunitaire ou endocrinologique. De plus, l'étude plus approfondie de la communauté bactérienne cæcale, en ciblant certaines espèces, pourrait apporter un complément d’informations sur les interactions entre ingestion et symbiote digestif et lors d'une approche comparée de 2 modèles pathogèniques : EPEC vs. EEL.
... Lebas (2000) указал, что кроличья диета с 20 % обезвоженной люцерной будет давать β-каротин в эквиваленте 20 000-30 000 МЕ витамина А / кг (т. е. в 10 раз больше, чем требуется). ...
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Обсуждается возможность повышения антиоксидантных свойств кормов за счет использования многолетних трав, веточных кормов, овощных культур, отходов сельскохозяйственных производств и др. Рассматриваются примеры включения в рационы сельскохозяйственным животным антиоксидантных добавок. Рекомендуется научным сотрудникам сферы кормопроизводства, преподавателям, аспирантам, магистрам, студентам, работникам сельского хозяйства.
... In this case, a deficiency of vitamins of B group and of vitamin C could arise, lowering the resistance to attack and delaying recovery. Therefore, supplementation of vitamins B and C could be of interest during infectious episode knowing that the risk of poisoning from an excess of these vitamins seems to be slight (Lebas, 2000). Table 1 and 2 represent the effect ofsome mineralsand vitaminson immuneresponse. ...
Conference Paper
Twelve female rabbits (average body weight 1350-1500 g) used in this investigation to study the effect of different levels of vitamin C on some production traits and blood parameters in Iraqi local rabbits. After the preliminary period, rabbits divided into 4 groups (each 3 animals): Group A drenched only 5 ml distilled water (control), and groups B, C and D were drenched 5 ml contain 100 mg, 200 mg and 300 mg, respectively, of vitamin C daily after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. Supplementation of 200 mg vitamin C significantly increase rabbits live body weight, total weight gain, feed intake, and improving feed conversion ratio comparing with group B and control group after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment with vitamin C. After 4 weeks of vitamin C treatment, results show increasing in average total body weight and feed conversion ratio, with decreasing in average total feed intake and total weight gain comparing with the first two weeks of the experiment for the same groups. Generally, group C show significantly increasing in RBC, WBC, PVC, Hb, and blood platelets comparing with other groups, while, control group show the lower values. In addition, results show increasing in all blood parameters after 4 weeks of treatment in contrast with the first 2 weeks of vitamin C intake. It can be concluded that adding 200 mg or 300 mg of vitamin C could improve production and blood parameters in local Iraqi rabbits.
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