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This study aimed to reveal the relationship between distributed leadership and organizational trust perceptions of teachers. The study also aimed to find out if there are any differences among teachers' perceptions about distributed leadership behaviors of principals and organizational trust, and that of their colleagues. Two instruments were used to gather data. The first instrument "Distributed Leadership in Schools" and second instrument "Omnibus T Scale" The surveys used in the analysis were gathered from 218 teachers working in elementary schools. The results suggest that participating teachers felt leadership in their schools was distributed, and that participants trust in their colleagues and principals. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Prof. Dr. Huseyin Uzunboylu
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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 46 ( 2012 ) 3316 – 3319
1877-0428 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Prof. Dr. Hüseyin Uzunboylu
doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.058
WCES 2012
Distributed leadership and organizational trust: the case of
elementary schools
Kadir Beycioglu a
*
, Niyazi Ozer b, Celal Tayyar Ugurlu c
aDokuz Eylul University, Buca Faculty of Education, Izmir 35160, Turkey
bInonu University, Faculty of Education, Malatya 44200, Turkey
cCumhuriyet University, Faculty of Education, Sivas 58100, Turkey
Abstract
This study aimed to reveal the relationship between distributed leadership and organizational trust perceptions of teachers. The
of
principals and organizational trust, and that of their colleagues. Two instruments were used to gather data. The first instrument
Distributed Leadership in Schools The surveys used in the analysis were gathered
from 218 teachers working in elementary schools. The results suggest that participating teachers felt leadership in their schools
was distributed, and that participants trust in their colleagues and principals.
12 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Keywords: Distribute leadership, organizational trust, trust in collleagu es, trsut in principals, elemantary schools;
1. Introduction
Distributed leadership is a current and one of the most debated issues in educational leadership literature (Beycioglu
& Aslan, 2010; Goldstein, 2003; Gronn, 2002; Gronn, 2008; Harris, 2004; Harris, 2005a; Harris, 2005b; Harris,
2008; Heck & Hallinger, 2009; Lakomski, 2008; Leithwood, Mascall & Strauss, 2009; Spillane, 2006). Similarly,
organizational trust is another impo
Goddard, Tschannen-Moran, & Hoy, 2001; Hoy & Tschannen-Moran, 1999; Hoy & Tschannen-Moran, 2003;
Tarter, Bliss, & Hoy, 1989; Tarter, Sabo, & Hoy, 1995; Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 1998).
Assuming that there would be a positive correlation between leadership distribution and trust in schools, this study
aimed to reveal the relationship between distributed leadership and organizational trust perceptions of teachers. The
study also aimed to f
behaviors of principals and organizational trust, and that of their colleagues.
Distributed Leadership in Schools
Second instrument was developed by Hoy & Tschannen-Moran and adapted into Turkish by
t al. (2006) to determine the organizational trust in schools. The surveys used in the analysis were gathered
from 218 teachers working in elementary schools. The data is now being analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, and
correlation analyses, and the results will have been gathered by the end of October, 2011.
*
Kadir Beycioglu. Tel.: +90-533-2306679
E-mail address: beycioglu@gmail.com
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
© 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Prof. Dr. Hüseyin Uzunboylu
Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
3317
Kadir Beycioglu et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 46 ( 2012 ) 3316 – 3319
We assumed that this study would be an asset to the literature of educational administration and leadership because
it is one of the first studies in Turkish school context researching distributed leadership and organizational trust.
2. Methodology
The participants of the study comprised a total of 218 (F=118, M=100) primary school teachers working in Sivas
province, an eastern city of Turkey, during 2011-2012 semester. Two instruments were used to gather the data. The
Distributed Leadership in Schools
extent of distributed leadership perceptions of teachers in schools. This scale consisted of ten items and estimated
by Hoy & Tschannen-Moran (2003)
(2006). Adapted version of T scale consisted of 20 items and three sub-scales namely, trust in colleagues, trust in the
principal and trust in clients (students and parents). For the research purposes only trust in colleagues and trust in the
principal sub-scales were used in this study. The data gathered were analyzed using t-test and correlational analysis.
For the perceived team spirit variable, independent t-test was used. To determine the relationship between
distributed leadership and faculty trust in principal and colleagues, correlation analyses were done.
3. Findings and results
Descriptive Statistics
N
Minimum
Maximum
Mean
Std. Deviation
Distributed Leadership
218
16,00
50,00
41,15
7,57
Trust in Colleagues
218
10,00
35,00
29,48
4,90
Trust in Principal
218
9,00
25,00
21,74
3,52
As seen in table, participating teachers get a mean score of 41,15 from distributed leadership scale, 29,48 from trust
in colleagues sub-scale, and 25.00 from trust in principal sub-scale. These results suggest that participating teachers
felt leadership in their schools was distributed. Trust in colleague and principal was another concern of the study.
These results showed that participants trust in their colleagues and principals.
Distributed Leadership, Faculty Trust in Principal and Colleagues by Perceived Team Spirit
One of the purposes of this study was to investigate whether there would be a significant difference between
Before Do You
Perceive a Strong Team Spirit in Your School?
analyzed. To this end a t-test was used. Results are shown in Table 2.
Table 2. Ana
Do You Perceive a Strong Team Spirit in
Your School?
N
X
Sd
df
t
p
Yes
192
41,92
7,26
216
4,239
,00
No
26
35,46
7,44
Yes
192
30,24
4,43
216
6,888
,00
No
26
23,85
4,50
Yes
192
21,89
3,53
216
1,688
,09
No
26
20,65
3,24
*p<,05
trust in colleagues and distributed leadership
differed significantly in terms of perceived team spirit variable, the mean scores did not differ significantly for the
3318 Kadir Beycioglu et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 46 ( 2012 ) 3316 – 3319
trust in principal sub-
who did not feel a team spirit at his/her school, teachers who felt a strong sense of team spirit get higher scores from
both trust in colleagues and distributed leadership.
Scales
2
3
1) Distributed Leadership
,566**
,790**
2) Trust in Colleagues
1
,606**
3) Trust in Principal
1
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level
Correlation analyses of the data showed that teacher trust in colleagues was moderately positively related to trust in
principal (r=.606) and distributed leadership (r=.566). Trust in principal, also, was highly positively related to
distributed leadership (r=-.790).
Conclusions & Recommendations
The results of this study revealed that participating teachers felt leadership in their schools was distributed, and that
participants trust in their colleagues and principals.
considered, results revealed views on trust in colleagues and distributed leadership differed
significantly. However, the mean scores did not differ significantly for the trust in principal sub-scale. Teachers who
felt a strong sense of team spirit got higher scores from both trust in colleagues and distributed leadership.
Correlation analyses fund that teacher trust in colleagues and principals was moderately positively related
distributed leadership.
The findings of this study showed that distributed leadership in schools positively effects trust among colleagues and
in principals. This urges the policy makers of education system to take action to create and cultivate distributed
leadership behaviors in schools which is supposed to support collaborative school culture and school development.
References
, 9(2), 764-775.
Bryk, A. S., & Schneider, B. (2002). Trust in schools: A core resource for improvement. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
Goddard, R.D., Tschannen-Moran, M., & Hoy, W.K. (2001). The relationship of trust to student achievement in urban elementary schools: A
Multilevel analysis. Elementary School Journal, 102(1), 3-17.
Goldstein, J. (2003). Making Sense of Distributed Leadership: The Case of Peer Assistance and Review. Educational Evaluation and Policy
Analysis, 25(4), 397-421.
Gronn, P. (2002). Distributed leadership. In K. Leithwood & P. Hallinger (Eds.). Second International handbook of educational leadership and
administration. (653-696) Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.
Gronn, P. (2008). The future of distributed leadership. Journal of Educational Administration, 46 (2), 141-158.
Harris, A. (2004). Distributed leadership and school improvement. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 32, 11-24.
Harris, A. (2005a). Distributed leadership. In B. Davies (Ed.). The essentials of school leadership. (160-172) Thousand Oaks, London: Corwin
Press/Paul Chapman Publishing.
Harris, A. (2005b). Distributed school leadership: . London, New York: Routledge.
Harris, A. (2008). Distributed leadership: According to the evidence. Journal of Educational Administration, 46 (2), 172-188.
Heck, R. H. & Hallinger, P. (2009). Assessing the Contribution of Distributed Leadership to School Improvement and Growth in Math
Achiev ement. American Educational Research Journal, 46 (3), 659-689.
Hoy, W. K. & Tschannen-Moran, M. (1999). Five faces of trust: An empirical confirmation in urban elementary schools. Journal of School
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Hoy, W. K. & Tschannen-Moran, M. (2003). The conceptualization and measurement of faculty trust in schools. Wayne K. Hoy & Cecil Miskel
(Ed.). Studies in leading and organizing schools (pp. 181 207).
Lakomski, G. (2008). Functionally adequate but casually idle: w(h)ither distributed leadership. Journal of Educational Administration, 46 (2),
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Book
The first International Handbook of Educational Leadership and Administration (Leithwood et al.) was published in 1996 and quickly became something of a best seller for reference works within education. Such success, we suggest, was at least partly due to the unprecedented global waves of concern for improving schools launched in the mid 1980's, combined with a widespread belief in leadership as the single most powerful contribution to such improvement. The roots of this belief can be found in evidence produced by the early "effective schools" research, although there is a "romance" with leadership! as an explanation for success in many non-school enterprises, as well. During the two-year period during which this current handbook was being written, activity in the realms of school leadership, school improvement, and leadership development gained further momentum. The English government created its new National College of School Leadership, and several Asian nations announced new initiatives in leadership selection, preparation, and development.
Chapter
The first known reference to distributed leadership was in the field of social psychology in the early-1950s. The concept then lay dormant for more than three decades until it surfaced briefly once again in social psychology, and then again in the early-1990s in organisation theory. Awareness of distributed leadership amongst educationalists also dates from about this time. Roughly a decade later, interest in distributed leadership had quickened to the point where at least one national professional association for school administrators had incorporated the concept into its leadership priorities for the new millennium. The association in question, the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO), was one of two national bodies in the USA, the other being the National Policy Board in Educational Administration (NPBEA), at the forefront of the reform movement during the 1990s to introduce national standards for school leaders. The joint efforts of the CCSSO and the NPBEA finally bore fruit in 1996 when the 24 member states comprising the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) adopted the document Standards for School Leaders. In its statement of priorities for 2000, the fourth of the six undertakings to which the CCSSO committed itself was to ensure that a range of key educational stakeholders have “leaders working effectively in ‘multiple leadership’ or ‘distributed leadership’ teams” (Council of Chief State School Officers, 2000, p. 5).