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Abstract

Near-death experiences (NDEs) have been described consistently since antiquity and more rigorously in recent years. Investigation into their mechanisms and effects has been impeded by the lack of quantitative measures of the NDE and its components. From an initial pool of 80 manifestations characteristic of NDEs, a 33-item scaled-response preliminary questionnaire was developed, which was completed by knowledgeable subjects describing their 74 NDEs. Items with significant item-total score correlations that could be grouped into clinically meaningful clusters constituted the final 16-item NDE Scale. The scale was found to have high internal consistency, split-half reliability, and test-retest reliability; was highly correlated with Ring's Weighted Core Experience Index; and differentiated those who unequivocally claimed to have had NDEs from those with qualified or questionable claims. This reliable, valid, and easily administered scale is clinically useful in differentiating NDEs from organic brain syndromes and nonspecific stress responses, and can standardize further research into mechanisms and effects of NDEs.
... Near-death experiences are profound subjective experiences reported by some individuals who have been close to death, including being 'clinically dead' and subsequently resuscitated (Holden, Greyson et al., 2009). These experiences feature common phenomenological aspects, including ineffable peace and joy (affective features), a sensation of being outside of one's body (paranormal features), a sense of time distortion and sudden understanding (cognitive features), and encounters with deceased relatives or religious figures (transcendental features) (Greyson, 1983a;Moody, 1975;Zingrone & Alvarado, 2009). ...
... We used the NDE Scale (Greyson, 1983a) to identify NDEs and quantify specific NDE features. We used the Death Attitude Profile-Revised (Wong et al., 1994) and Death Anxiety Scale (Templer, 1970) to assess a range of death-related attitudes. ...
... Participants were mailed or emailed a brief questionnaire about demographics and details of their close brush with death, as well as three standardised self-report questionnaires: the NDE Scale (Greyson, 1983a), the Death Attitudes Profile -Revised (Wong et al., 1994), and the Death Anxiety Scale (Templer, 1970). Participants completed these questionnaires at a time and place of their choosing and returned them by mail or email. ...
... Characteristics of recent near-death experiences have been described in various ways (e.g., [57][58][59][60]). In earlier times, patients who had been resuscitated after cardiac arrest were the major subjects of the research, and the veracity of a near-death experience was judged with the Greyson scale [61]. In AWARE, the largest-ever project in this area, started by the University of Southampton in the UK in 2008, interviews with 330 patients who were resuscitated after cardiac arrest revealed that 140, or about 40% of them, reported that they were conscious while suffering cardiac arrest [62]. ...
... In AWARE, the largest-ever project in this area, started by the University of Southampton in the UK in 2008, interviews with 330 patients who were resuscitated after cardiac arrest revealed that 140, or about 40% of them, reported that they were conscious while suffering cardiac arrest [62]. Given the variety of near-death experiences [61], recent research has included the self-reporting of NDE-like experiences without any critical conditions such as cardiac arrest [63], 4 The fundamental question means the origin of questions that cannot be investigated any further. 5 I take makoto in Japanese, following Ono (1962), to be a pure act, the work of a beautiful soul. ...
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Humanity is facing a crisis of survival. In order to save humanity and nature, we must rebuild their foundations. This paper proposes integral studies and integral practices as a possible new paradigm for the 21st century. First, we investigated the necessity of integral studies and integral practices, which were suggested by the following three evidences: (1) limitations of the Spiritual Revolution and modern philosophy, (2) limitations of the Scientific Revolution and modern science, and (3) contemporary practical problems that threaten the future of humanity and nature. Second, we investigated the purpose and the principle of integral studies and integral practices from a viewpoint of the nature of both human beings and universe. One of the fundamental questions for humanity is how to overcome the egoism of individuals as well as the entire human race. In this avenue, we think the first step is to transcend toraware, which is a Japanese word meaning both “states of being caught” and “what catches us”. The state of being caught manifests itself when the ego emerges while we begin to distinguish between the self and others. Therefore, integrity and intrinsic nature become principles of integral studies and integral practices. Consequently, integral studies and integral practices serve for the sake of nature including humanity. Third, we discussed the methodology of integral studies and integral practices. We argue its core is integral exploration and reframing of the self and others, ourselves and the world (universe), and humanity and nature. It consequently reveals integrity and harmonizes intellect, emotion, and volition as well as goodness, truth, and beauty while revealing integrity and opening up or unfolding the intrinsic nature of the individual and the collective. Finally, we addressed limitations and future agendas of integral studies and integral practices. We suggest it is essential to raise and discuss fundamental questions on humanity and nature as well as to elucidate the truly unknown, which cannot be understood within existing frameworks. However, whether it is correct or not will come to be verified over time. No one in the history of humanity has ever attained universal truth, which is absolutely true in light of absolute criteria that are not relativized by differences in space, time, or people, or which is absolutely true even without referring to any criteria. Therefore, it is necessary for each of us to discern what is right and maintain a critical gaze.
... In NDEs, -an acronym coined by Dr. Raymond Moody (1975) -the body is a key element (Holden et al., 2009). This non-ordinary state of consciousness emerges in response to a real or perceived proximity to death and entailsamong other phenomenological correlates (Greyson, 1983) -the perception of leaving the body boundaries, traveling through a tunnel, and of being in front of an irreversible threshold (Martial et al., 2020). Individuals who survive them share a transformative sense of cosmic unity, transcendence of time and space, deep positive mood, sense of sacredness, noetic quality of intuitive illumination, paradoxicality, ineffability, transiency, and persistent positive aftereffects (Noyes and Slymen, 1979;Greyson, 2006). ...
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The concept of transformative experience (TE) has been widely explored by several disciplines from philosophy to neurobiology, and in different domains, from the spiritual to the educational one. This attitude has engendered heterogeneous models to explain this phenomenon. However, a consistent and clear understanding of this construct remains elusive. The aim of this work is to provide an initial comprehensive interdisciplinary, cross-domain, up-to-date, and integrated overview on the concept of TEs. Firstly, all the models and theories on TEs were reviewed to extract and analyze TEs’ main components emerging from different disciplines. Then, this preliminary analysis was integrated with an in-depth examination of redundancies and particularities across domains and disciplines, to provide an integrated theoretical framework of TEs and a preliminary interdisciplinary operational definition of TEs. This examination, in turn, can help organize current research and theories, thus providing suggestions for operationalizing TEs as well as encouraging new interdisciplinary research endeavors.
... Importantly, both such a constellation of acute features and long-term changes are overwhelmingly comparable with experiences from classical psychedelic drugs, which are now surfing a new wave of intense research attention. For instance, according to the NDE scale (Greyson, 1983), experiences elicited by the serotonergic psychedelic Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) are found to be insignificantly different to life-threatening near-death experiences (Timmermann et al., 2018), and trip reports from the dissociative anaesthetic ketamine, kappa-opioid agonist salvia divinorum and a host of other serotonergic psychedelics (e.g. psilocybin, the psychedelic prodrug in magic mushrooms) are also identified as being the most semantically similar to NDEs . ...
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The near-death experience (NDE) is an example of an extraordinary human experience which also confers a pattern of positive psychospiritual after-effects. Both its phenomenological features and long-term changes are very comparably identified after experiences with classical psychedelic drugs, which are now surfing a new wave of intense research attention. Both experience types are overwhelmingly positive in such after-effects, yet in the minority of cases of challenging experiences they may also have deleterious outcomes. Psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy provides preparational and integrational sessions around the experience, which should be precisely mirrored for near-death experiencers, so as not only to maximise psychospiritual benefit, but minimise the potential for harm. In addition to this, the NDE is arguably a more potent inducer of transformation, and as such clinical psychedelic work could be optimised by as closely simulating the NDE as possible. This is a pre-publication version of the following article: Michael, P. (2022). Thanatotherapy: How Psychedelic-assisted Psychotherapy and the Near-death Experience can Mutually Benefit One Another. Psychotherapy Section Review, 67, 99–108.
... Other findings further underscore the anomalous character of some NDEs. Notably, Lange et al. (2004) found that for those with 'true' NDEs (versus "false-positives or false-negatives"), Greyson's (1983Greyson's ( , 1985Greyson's ( , 1990) NDE Scale satisfactorily conformed to a probabilistic Rasch (1960Rasch ( /1980 model. With increasing intensity, these NDEs reflected peace, joy, and harmony, followed by mystical or religious insight, while the most intense NDEs referenced an awareness of things occurring in a different place or time. ...
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The idea of ‘life after death’ transcends philosophy or religion, as science can test predictions from claims by both its advocates and skeptics. This study therefore featured two researchers with opposite views, who jointly gathered hundreds of research studies to evaluate the maximum average percentage effect that seemingly supports (i.e., anomalous effects) or refutes (i.e., known confounds) the survival hypothesis. The mathematical analysis found that known confounds did not account for 39% of survival-related phenomena that appear to attest directly to human consciousness continuing in some form after bodily death. Thus, we concluded that popular skeptical explanations are presently insufficient to explain a sizable portion of the purported evidence in favor of survival. People with documented experiences under conditions that overcome the known confounds thus arguably meet the legal requirements for expert witness testimony. The equation that led to our verdict can also purposefully guide future research, which one day might finally resolve this enduring question scientifically. Keywords: anomalous experience, empiricism, paranormal belief, probability, survival
... Other findings further underscore the anomalous character of some NDEs. Notably, Lange et al. (2004) found that for those with 'true' NDEs (versus "false-positives or false-negatives"), Greyson's (1983Greyson's ( , 1985Greyson's ( , 1990) NDE Scale satisfactorily conformed to a probabilistic Rasch (1960 model. With increasing intensity, these NDEs reflected peace, joy, and harmony, followed by mystical or religious insight, while the most intense NDEs referenced an awareness of things occurring in a different place or time. ...
... Near-death experiences have also been reported in patients in nonlife-threatening conditions during isolation, depression, or meditation, or without any obvious reason (van Lommel 2014). According to Bruce Greyson, the experiential elements of NDEs are classified into four main categories: cognitive features, including things such as time distortion; affective features, including feelings of love and cosmic unity; paranormal features; and transcendental features such as mystical encounters with spirits and an uncrossable border (Greyson 1983). In out-of-body experiences (OBEs), patients can experience veridical perceptions from a position outside and above their lifeless body (Greyson 2015;van Lommel 2013). ...
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There has been a continuous discussion of religious experience since William James, culminating in a rich and varied literature on the epistemology of religious experience in the late twentieth century. There has also been a burgeoning literature on near-death experiences (NDEs), largely on neurology and physiology and sometimes as possible counterevidence to naturalism. One important subject is largely missing, and that is a discussion of NDEs as religious experiences, and what light that might shed on their epistemic status. This paper is an attempt to fill that gap. In part one, we will delineate the topic of NDEs and what medical science has to say about them. In part two, we will lay out a general view of the epistemology of religious experience. In part three, we will apply that understanding of religious experience to NDEs and draw what lessons we may
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ZET Amaç: Kardiyak arrest (KA) geçiren ve kardiyopulmoner resüsitasyon uygulanan hastaların kognitif süreçler yaşayabileceği, bazılarının ise arrest süresince yaşadıkları olayları bilincin varlığını gösterecek şekilde ve doğru olarak anlatabildikleri belirtilmektedir. Bu araştırmada kardiyak arrest sonrası yaşama dönenlerde ölüm eşiğine yakınlaşma deneyimlerinin incelenmesi amaçlandı. Gereç ve Yöntem: Araştırma niteliksel tipte yapıldı. Özel bir hastanenin kardiyoloji yoğun bakım kliniklerinde yatışı yapılmış ve bu süreçte arrest olup başarılı resüstasyon ile yaşama geri dönmüş 12 hasta örneklemi oluşturdu. Örneklem seçiminde amaçlı örnekleme yöntemi kullanıldı. Bu kliniklerin alınma nedeni araştırmacılardan birinin bu kurumda çalışıyor olması ve bu hastalara başarılı resüstasyon yaparak yaşama geri döndürmüş olmasıdır. Veriler yüz yüze derinlemesine görüşme yöntemi ile Mart-Mayıs 2019 tarihleri arasında toplandı. Derinlemesine görüşmede; literatür incelemesi ve uzman görüşü alınarak belirlenen anahtar sorular ve her bir anahtar soruyu açıcı rehber soruların bulunduğu " Yapılandırılmamış Soru Formu", "Bireysel Bilgi Formu ile Bilgilendirme ve Onam Formu kullanıldı. Literatüre dayalı olarak oluşturulan taslak form üzerinde iki akademisyen ve alandan bir uzman hekim ile görüşüldü, anlam bozuklukları ve eksiklikler giderildi. Görüşmeler hastanenin toplantı odasında gerçekleştirildi. Yapılan görüşmelerin her biri yaklaşık 40-50 dakika sürdü ve görüşmeler hem katılımcılar hem de araştırmacılar tarafından yeni bir bilgi kalmayıncaya kadar devam edildikten sonra sonlandırıldı. Görüşmelerde; gizlilik esasına dayalı olarak katılımcılara kod verildi (Kod: K.1, E.1) ve ses kaydı alındı. Araştırmada görüşmeler sonunda elde edilen veriler ses kayıt cihazından bilgisayara aktarıldı. Verilerin analizinde kodlamaya dayalı içerik analizi kullanıldı. Bu analizde birbirine benzeyen veriler belirli kavramlar ve temalar altında sınıflandırıldı ve anlaşılır biçimde düzenlenerek yorumlandı. Bireysel bilgilerin frekans ve yüzdeleri hesaplanıp ifade edildi. Elde edilen veriler ayrıntılı olarak raporlaştırıldı ve doğrudan alıntılara yer verilerek araştırmanın geçerliliği sağlandı. Bulgular: Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgulara göre katılımcıların %75'i erkek, yaş ortalaması 63, %50'si üniversite mezunu, dini eğilim olarak %41,7'si Deist, %50'si, Dindar olarak kendilerini tanımladı. Araştırmaya katılanların %75'i bunu bir ölüm deneyimi olarak değerlendirdi. Katılımcıların görüşme sorularına verdikleri yanıtlar genel olarak incelendiğinde bu süreçte "rahatlama" ve "huzur hissi" nin olduğu, "zamanın hızla geçtiği", "derin bir karanlıktan ışığa çıkıldığı", "ağrı ve acının hissedilmediği", hayata ikinci kez dönmenin "mutluluğunu" yaşamın çok değerli olduğunu ifade ettikleri belirlendi. Sonuç: Kardiyak arrest sonrası yaşama dönenlerde ölme eşiğine yaklaşma deneyimlerinin incelendiği bu çalışmada katılımcıların büyük kısmı bu süreci "ölüm deneyimi" olarak kabul ettiklerini belirtti. Ayrıca görüşme yapılan hastaların kardiyak arrest sürecinde yaşadıkları olayları tanımlama şekilleri ve ifadeleri bilincin varlığını gösterecek şekilde; "huzur hissi", "derin bir karanlıktan ışığa çıkış" ifadeleri ile açıkladıkları belirlendi. Araştırmanın daha geniş örneklemle tekrarlanmasının yanı sıra, arrest sürecinde görev alan sağlık profesyonellerinin bu konuda bilgilendirilmeleri önerilmektedir. ABSTRACT Objectıves: Patients with cardiac arrest (CA) who undergo cardiopulmonary resuscitation may experience cognitive processes, and some may accurately describe the events experienced during the arrest, indicating the presence of consciousness. The aim of this study was to investigate the approaches to near death experiences in patients who returned to life after cardiac arrest. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in qualitative type. The sample consisted of 12 patients hospitalized in the 6 cardiology intensive care clinics of a private hospital who were arrested and returned to life with successful resuscitation. Purposeful sampling method was used in sample selection. The reason for these clinics is that one of the researchers is working at this institution and has successfully resuscitated these patients and returned them to life. Data were collected between March and May 2019 by face-to-face interview method. In-depth interview; Key questions determined by literature review and expert opinion and forms containing guiding questions for each key question were used. These forms were Semi-Structured Questionnaire, Individual Information Form and Informing and Consent Form. Two academicians and one specialist physician were interviewed on the draft form based on the literature, meaning disorders and deficiencies were resolved. Interviews were held in the meeting room of the hospital. Each of the interviews lasted approximately 40-50 minutes and was terminated after the interviews were continued by both participants and researchers until there was no more information available. Interview; On the basis of confidentiality, participants were given a code (Code: K.1, E.1) and audio recording was taken. The data obtained from the interviews were transferred from the voice recorder to the computer. Coding-based content analysis was used for data analysis. In this analysis, similar data were classified under certain concepts and themes and interpreted in a comprehensible manner. Frequency and percentages of individual information were calculated and expressed. The data obtained were reported in detail and the validity of the study was ensured by direct quotations. Results: According to the findings of the study, 75% of the participants were male, the average age was 63, 50% were university graduates, as religious tendency, 41.7% Deist and 50% as religious. 75% of the respondents evaluated this as a death experience. When the answers given by the participants to the interview questions were examined in general, it was determined that there was "a feeling of relaxation and serenity", "time passed rapidly, light emitted from a deep darkness", "pain and pain were not felt", and the happiness of returning to life for a second time was very valuable. Conclusion: In this study where the experience of approaching the threshold of dying was examined in those who returned to life after cardiac arrest, most of the participants stated that they accepted this process as a "death experience.. In addition, the forms and expressions of the interviewed patients describing the events they experienced during the cardiac arrest process indicate the presence of consciousness; The feeling of peace, from a deep darkness to light with expressions were identified. In addition to repeating the study with a larger sample, it is recommended that health professionals involved in the arrest process be informed about this issue.
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