Conference PaperPDF Available

Enhancing Communicative Competence among Iranian students through Virtual L2 Education for the Global Village

Authors:
  • Islamic Azad University of Sabzevar, Iran
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1Communicative Competence
2 Dell Hymes
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3 Wolfgan Gehring
4 Klaus Stierstorfer
5 Intercultural Competence
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E;8"8@?888)?F(/#)#?(&(B&?U9@5#-&B@
+"BF,?C-#?(=
c=%?/*aCB-&U(UBiH((F2FK@(P9/=
=88(P)8N) BeH/KL/>#h"@?>#(/)9)&CB-&F
((FG/2)=
>&?/U4()?)?F9()+curriculum,8U#N)8[N8J8(P\]8]
((FLB%?3=&(BCB-&B&#F B)?F((FgM?9(#vN)))?8B
9[TLE-*-%NPBeHZ[\/FV)?V)T)C=8`-8)8?RB4)?F]8
?/8"88BF>8#8%-(?/?V))K*V)"@??F9?(]AH-?*K
%23?B =E9 F?E9GFRB=N8?84?8F-?8JL8))
 J TESOL2K9~]?+mqqq,8I8/F28 JN<;M?F&d
i)BN)H/GFZ.[N)g84g!?*F9N/%6?\(N)2)k%
F"LLEB8?8/GN1&&(B?/%/L;-))-&)•B#?88[?8=
89[5CV)/?]n9*)95#N)?/?]?F9()9:;4()?FJQK
/[-)6H5;P)5Ca?n9%6U/UJ-&%G/-4-#DE
(%?(N)2N)/&@'((F=
p=%&.!?M5#
K)))
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0J=-*-&)( B[9h9)LB
\= !KCg B- /-)s%-)?)-&B&9)LB
c=KL/RB?R-&B&>!F?()&
6 David Graddol

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=)?g/i7(PFg49&?TPBO' V)$!
:= JN! /-#?GJ>&*(#*-)?PB
=#"&9)LB7&F-F-)?
="!C-N*-wJ(UBG/-&B&-*
h=?PJ;F?()&KP*-)?99f9(#vT)B
K=?•22L/UGB-&/&B&?PB
8T8LE8"8G/-&#8)"G/-&(#*)(%]*#TLEB?[-&-)?8F8%
&(#*[)(%!)RB4)(/*-?)/88[! /-U*-#?GJ
H=Z8.[g84-&8%?8g"Y%UGB"&9)LB(P)BF5#-)@5#
/(%CB".-*%=*8)8&(B?%0/1:;N)?8/
9/ -EZ[&(B%?/[H?)9%=N)2J8F<;B7
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>LB0/1^
m= -wJ(UB-#U !>#G
o= -)"4BDE>a(BC
p= -)M?
y= e4()
z= -?*-#F)2 !
= 237[7! /!%
iU#/F2
my
+o||p,G/-)[\/FRAC %N(]^
m= 9)LBe(/-)%=
o= F"&-L/UGBeI((F=
p= 0/1-#'(%=
y= H[FP?P-#?/*)(F=
z= (P;EB>&-&B&e=
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 Research, Analysis & Communication
International Society for Technology in Education
 Neal A Glasgow & Cathy D. Hicks (2003) ; what successful teachers do, Corwin Press Inc. California


[g4eKN)p69H?=
m= TLEB^-0/1'("!Ce((F=08)PB08/1-8#"!CN)
9%=
o= 2EB?)4B^/#TLEB})/?=88)?8-8L/8E?898)e
g /#=
p= RB^e)/[#})/e#=
z=p=:C+Language Ladder ,
TLEBi)BM"!CN 4/ +CILT,Ko||€9[:;:C=N8)
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B/ F&-&?F*? *? #G/UNU 9%i)=8/:8CN)
?o||z?/mz=8N8)8(98N8?8E:CN)8BK8[N(8?8 #8B
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M-&B&VB7F9E@78H88V8)e88)V8)N/8%>#8Gh[=
K/to||€:CN)p-/<;I8JD8/eHx8(]87-8*78 J7)8J/)78(Hw7
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y= )?/Hy"&
z= :;NE/\]]&B&e4(U
= e4(Uon-line '?D[-)
9*CB-&B&9)LB&(B)&CN(]-5#=T8)!:8C?88*:8CN8)--/
[H=".-& /iton-lineNPBT)!I(/-"U"sJ(F=
3Ho||€!A #-)-&7J(7-(J)-(#===%0)PB)/:;=8)8#U#?3
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=?*-&?F9MB(F>#78((F08)PB?/*8H:;-g49)J)t J=
B?':CN)%0)PB:;92)vIB^
m=<;pbm)/+-<;,
o=<;byBL+V)<;,
p=<;qbrD/+<;,
r= <;mobm|?/*H+?<;,
x= <;mzbmo/)%+&]k:;‚e%,
q= <;mrbm€DB+9G#k:;‚9#,m€
(]B&:;CN(]-)?  %N^
17. Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research – the National Centre for Languages (CILT) (2006).
Languages 2006: Digest of Policy, Research and Statistics London: CILT
16 


m==)e4(0/1D)%U
o=)"G/-#T;B
p=[CB-#)B0Fg(#*4)
2 P"LLEB"4B-&)#U#N(]?39GBu 4>8PBN..1/DB
>P/[&?U%A #-( Bg#9B88-&8%Z8.[-Q8-&B
9%F=8&J8ƒ8iUPJ88U>8LBƒ8?88 B"8.-)?F-??
&"8)a8?888A #-8( B-&%&-/>F??/B
>)t9-%?[=
B4C5D!(5EFG6
8C?8C8Be8B98)LB58#-)0/12!?Y?JL8M8-8)8F
%%Z[;=.!) Globalized ,88N8)8B9EB#)(FM-)
9?/*=8)U)w8J(UB-?8-&AH #-4B/P(@-eLN)28*`
=FB(F>#?F9-?-)9 #Z.[N)O8&?8F98-
8K8F)8/Ei)8B?88a8O>8!O8 #?OV)-U #0/1g!)
%g4+=content-based teaching =,[j.1B-#?F9..1/9Bg/N)?/J
(%?/%2F5%-F-&B&?=?88..1B8Oi)8B&#N)(F>#
 g4/:;@-EPB&(B)4%(%[?/%..1B%=N/8V)>&*9)&
(/8#88*"U888[?/8%/=8U/UJOG/8g8JZ8.[N8)+e-
courses,%NB-BF?=*?FFT)L&(B%&)-
?8 #-88U)O"U2Z[UEOF>a($O(1(%T)C
 "6J=G/8IJ;'( B(/#0d(F>#&<;M9GF-LBe1
2[(8%8F8[9)8?8&B8F*8#\]]?/Jgk-*u(B.EBgBu%
U#?3)?"![U #((F=O9)\N)8.EBg8B8(Fj188B
".?])+face-to face,)O8Fc[U/UJ"@?'(?]-$ #
9*/[=
(%?/%eHegk?BN)?)?LLE9)H=V)GV)&(BN)
) Z[OF="!?gk)9 Y)=9%?/%##E"CB.!=
9"9!-N/*)T;B-FeL=
*'(^
m=/Y E+mpxr,-&B&IFl(#*KL/9 #[-&e#XH?4y€Z=xyb€r
o==O#N)+mpxy,-kHK F? BCBe(F?)a)?B/?&B
R ces:eferen:

1. Bachman, Lyle. (1990) Components of communicative language ability in
communicative language use. P.87,.


2. Bos, N. (2000). High school students' critical evaluation of scientific resources on the
World Wide Web. Journal of science education and technology, 9 (2), 161-173.
3. Bowens, E. M. (2000). Meeting standards with technology. Learning and leading with
technology: Serving teachers in classroom, 27 (8), 6-9., 17..
4. Brown, Douglas. (1994) Principles of language teaching and learning, 3rd ed., Prentice
Hall Regents, tr. Mansour Fahim, Rahnama publication, Iran.
5. Ur, Penny. (1998) A course in language teaching. 3rd ed., Cambridge University Press,.
6 .Graddol, David.( 2006) English next, Why global English may mean the end of English
as a foreign language. London British Council. 
7. Hymes, Dell. (1972). On Communicative competence. In J. Pride & J. Holmes (eds),
Sociolinguistics. Harmondsworth. Pinguin, 269- 293
8. Mistler Jakson, M. & Songer, N. (2000). Student motivation & Internet technology: Are
students empowered to learn science? Journal of Research in science technology, 37(5),
459-479.
9.Nunan, D. (1991) Communicative tasks and the language curriculum, TESOL, Quarterly,
25 (2), 279-295,.
10. Stierstorfer, Klaus. (2002). Interkulturelle Kompetenz. Gunter Narr Verl., Tübingen.
Internet Sites:
1. www.dfes.gov.uk/languages/DSP_languagesladder.cfm
2. www.iste.org
>3 Y^
V) %?  Y^
?/*^ www.dfes.gov.uk/languages


Mapping of qualification levels
NQF NC
Levels
General
Qualifications
LL stages CEF
(approx)
Entry
Level
1 - 3
Entry 1 - 3
Breakthrough:
1-3
A1 (A2)
Level
1
4 - 6
Foundation
GCSE
Preliminary:
4-6
A2 (B1)
Level
2
7 - EP
Higher GCSE
Intermediate:
7-9
B1
Level
3
AS/A/AEA
Advanced:
10-12
B2
Level
4
Proficiency:
13
C1
Level
5
Mastery: 14
C2
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The Kids as Global Scientists (KGS) project engages students in the study of atmospheric science through the use of current imagery and on-line communication in a reform-minded, inquiry-based curricular program. This article presents case study data on one sixth-grade classroom of KGS participants during the 8-week program. Six students representing three motivation levels were selected for intensive study to help illustrate how different students view learning science and the use of technology both before and after a technology-rich program. Pre- and postassessment scores were analyzed for the entire class, and the six students' comments from individual interviews served as one example of voices for each motivation group. Results indicated that students made significant gains in weather content knowledge as measured by written assessments, and interviews revealed a high level of student motivation and satisfaction with the project. We conclude with a discussion of the program characteristics we believe are important for creating a learning environment that fosters the motivation and achievement we observed. © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 37: 459–479, 2000.
Article
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This research explores a new web-based curriculum idea, that of having students write and publish critical web “reviews” of scientific resources as a means of both practicing critical evaluation of web resources, and of making an authentic value-added contribution to the web. This paper presents content analyses of selected sections of 63 web reviews published by eleventh grade students in a project-based science class. Two aspects of critical evaluation are focused upon: summarization of content and evaluation of credibility. Content analyses show that student summaries were usually accurate, but had room for improvement especially in areas of comprehensiveness and level of detail. An ideal model of a content review is developed from analysis of a second set of reviews. When asked to evaluate credibility, students struggled to identify scientific evidence of claims in web resources, but analysis of web documents shows that this is often because such evidence is missing. Students could accurately determine the publishing source of web documents, but challenges arose in identifying potential biases. Recommendations for future iterations of this curriculum idea are presented throughout. A companion paper that will appear in this journal will examine how student reviews serve the function of social filtering on the web. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/45185/1/10956_2004_Article_222061.pdf
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Over the last 25 years the communicative task has emerged as a significant building block in the development of language curricula and also as an element for motivating process-oriented second language acquisition research. This paper reviews the influence of the communicative task on curriculum development and summarizes the research base for task-based language teaching. In the final part of the paper, an agenda for future research is set out.
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Reimpresión en 2001 Incluye bibliografía e índice
Components of communicative language ability in communicative language use
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