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Loss and damage from typhoon-induced floods and landslides in the Philippines: Community Perceptions on climate impacts and adaptation options


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Loss and damage from floods and landslides are escalating in the Philippines due to increasing frequency and intensity of typhoons. This paper investigates the types and scale of loss and damage in two municipalities that were affected by typhoon-induced floods and landslides in 2004 and 2012. It assesses peoples preferences on adaptation measures and perceptions on human-nature links on occurrence of disasters. It reveals that human loss and property damage are causing psychological distress to affected people, undermining capacity to adapt to the next disasters. Many vulnerable people are not aware of the link between climate and land use change. Moreover, many depend on unsustainable land use for source of livelihoods particularly after disasters. The preference for measures to reduce landslide risks through reforestation and logging/mining prevention is thus low. Insurance is not a preferred mechanism for reducing risks because regular payment of premium is not affordable to vulnerable people.
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nt. J. Global Warming, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2016 33
Copyright © 2016 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Loss and damage from typhoon-induced floods and
landslides in the Philippines: community perceptions
on climate impacts and adaptation options
Lilibeth A. Acosta*
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK),
Telegraphenberg A62, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
School of Environmental Science and Management,
University of the Philippines in Los Banos (UPLB), Philippines
*Corresponding author
Elena A. Eugenio
School of Environmental Science and Management,
Institute of Biological Sciences,
College of Arts and Sciences,
University of the Philippines in Los Banos, Philippines
Paula Beatrice M. Macandog and
Damasa B. Magcale-Macandog
Institute of Biological Sciences,
College of Arts and Sciences,
University of the Philippines in Los Banos, Philippines
Elaine Kuan-Hui Lin
George Perkins Marsh Institute,
Clark University, USA
Center for Sustainability Science,
Academia Sinica, Taiwan
34 L.A.
costa et al.
Edwin R. Abucay and Alfi Lorenz Cura
Department of Community and Environmental Resource Planning,
College of Human Ecology,
University of the Philippines in Los Banos, Philippines
Mary Grace Primavera
Institute of Biological Sciences (IBS),
College of Arts and Sciences,
University of the Philippines in Los Banos, Philippines
Abstract: Loss and damage from floods and landslides are escalating in the
Philippines due to increasing frequency and intensity of typhoons. This paper
investigates the types and scale of loss and damage in two municipalities that
were affected by typhoon-induced floods and landslides in 2004 and 2012. It
assesses people’s preferences on adaptation measures and perceptions on
human-nature links on occurrence of disasters. It reveals that human loss and
property damage are causing psychological distress to affected people,
undermining capacity to adapt to the next disasters. Many vulnerable people are
not aware of the link between climate and land use change. Moreover, many
depend on unsustainable land use for source of livelihoods particularly after
disasters. The preference for measures to reduce landslide risks through
reforestation and logging/mining prevention is thus low. Insurance is not a
preferred mechanism for reducing risks because regular payment of premium is
not affordable to vulnerable people.
Keywords: adaptation; adaptive capacity; climate change; conjoint analysis;
disasters; floods and landslides; Haiyan; loss and damage; mitigation;
Philippines; risks; typhoons.
Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Acosta, L.A.,
Eugenio, E.A., Macandog, P.B.M., Magcale-Macandog, D.B., Lin, E.K-H.,
Abucay, E.R., Cura, A.L. and Primavera, M.G. (2016) ‘Loss and damage from
typhoon-induced floods and landslides in the Philippines: community
perceptions on climate impacts and adaptation options’, Int. J. Global
Warming, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp.33–65.
Biographical notes: Lilibeth A. Acosta is Senior Scientist in PIK and
Scientific Coordinator/Adjunct Professor in UPLB. She completed her degrees
in the fields of agriculture, development and economics from UPLB in the
Philippines (BSc), University of Cambridge in England (MPhil) and University
of Bonn in Germany (PhD). Her fields of expertise include sustainability and
vulnerability in the context of climatic, economic and land-use changes with
special focus on mitigation and adaptation, bioenergy and biodiversity, and
rural development and food security. She conducts integrated assessment
modelling using statistical (e.g., cluster, conjoint, logit, path analyses), fuzzy
logic, GIS, linear programming and agent-based techniques.
Loss and damage from typhoon-induced floods and land
lides 35
Elena A. Eugenio is a Research Associate in UPLB. She earned her Bachelor of
Science in Plant Pathology from the Department of Agriculture and is currently
taking up her Master in Environmental Science in the School of Environmental
Science and Management in UPLB. She is currently collaborating in
international and interdisciplinary projects on integrated sustainability
assessment of bioenergy potentials and livelihood vulnerabilities to typhoon
associated hazards in Asia. She coordinates online and field surveys and
conducts statistical analysis in these projects.
Paula Beatrice M. Macandog is a Research Associate in UPLB. She earned her
Bachelor of Science in Economics cum laude and Master of Science in
Agricultural Economics from UPLB. She is conducting researches on payments
for ecosystem services (PES) in the Philippines to estimate willingness to
pay of households for ecosystem services from agroforestry systems,
integrated sustainability assessment of bioenergy potentials, and livelihoods
vulnerabilities to typhoon associated hazards in Asia.
Damasa B. Magcale-Macandog is a Professor in UPLB. She earned her
Doctoral in Botany (Plant Ecology) from the University of New England in
Australia; Master of Science in Soil Science (soil fertility) and Bachelor of
Science in Agriculture (major in soil science) from UPLB. She has been
conducting various researches related to agricultural, biological, agroforestry,
ecological, land use change, climate change, bioenergy and biodiversity studies
for the past twenty years.
Elaine Kuan-Hui Lin earned her PhD degree from the National Taiwan
University and did her post-doctoral research in Clark University, USA. She is
currently a Research Scientist in George Perkins Marsh Institute and a visiting
scholar in IRDR-ICoD in Taipei. Over these years, she has been devoted to
studying the philosophy and theoretical development of vulnerability and
adaptation studies and applied the threads of thoughts on observing
vulnerabilities of rural communities, particularly in central-northern mountain
of Taiwan and more recently in the Philippines, where people are confronted
with severe typhoon and associated geological hazards.
Edwin R. Abucay holds an MS in Environmental Science and is currently
an Assistant Professor in UPLB. He has more than ten years of research
experience in locally and internationally funded projects. His expertise
include geographic information system and remote sensing in environmental
and resource management; vulnerability assessments related to climate
change; land use planning; watershed management; land use change
analysis; agent-based modelling; indigenous knowledge on agriculture and
environment; environmental and ecological modelling; information and
database development, management and programming.
Alfi Lorenz Cura is a graduating student of Bachelor of Science in Human
Ecology Major in Human Settlements Planning in UPLB. He conducted and
co-authored in several studies and researches about the community, ecoprofile
and scalogram analysis, and community’s integrated development plan. He just
recently published his undergraduate thesis about post-disaster response and
land use management in New Bataan, Compostela Valley.
Mary Grace Primavera earned her BS in Computer Science from UPLB and
currently works as Research Assistant in the Institute of Biological Sciences,
College of Arts and Sciences in UPLB.
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costa et al.
1 Introduction
Catastrophic reports on natural disasters like drought, heat waves, storm/cyclones, floods
and landslides are one of the most common media headlines worldwide. Since 1970s the
Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) through its Emergency
Events Database (EM-DAT) has been recording losses and damages in different countries
from these disaster events among others number of killed or affected people and costs of
economic damage. EM-DAT statistics show that major drought and storm disasters
between 1900 and 2014 occurred in least developed and less developing countries
(CRED, 2014), where people have lower capacity to adapt (Warner and Geest, 2013) or
where regions are close to vulnerability thresholds (Acosta-Michlik et al., 2008; Acosta
and Galli, 2013). While the increasing frequency and intensity of these disasters have
been confirmed and affirmed to be impacts of anthropogenic climate change, human loss
and economic damage that results from them have not been appropriately compensated
by developed countries (Stabinsky et al., 2012), which are largely responsible for higher
anthropogenic emissions (den Elzen et al., 2013). International organisations (i.e.,
ActionAid, CARE International, Germanwatch and WWF) have emphasised that in some
countries the magnitude of impacts on land, property, ecosystems and communities will
cause irreversible losses that will prevent return to normal life even with effective
mitigation and adaptation measures (Sharman et al., 2012).
For many years global climate change negotiations under the UN Framework on
Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC) have focused on the need for enhancing
understanding of how to assess and address loss and damage. The idea on loss and
damage has been discussed in several climate negotiations in Conference of Parties or
COP (e.g., 2007 Bali COP13, 2010 Cancún COP16, 2011 Durban COP17, 2012 Qatar
COP18, and 2013 Warsaw COP19). In the last conference in Warsaw, there was an
official mandate to establish institutional arrangements to address loss and damage
associated with the impacts of climate change including functions and modalities, which
will be supported by the work of the UNFCCC in this area (Warner et al., 2013). There
was a suggestion to establish an International Mechanism on Compensation and
Rehabilitation to provide comprehensive framework on loss and damage and to address
four distinct types of permanent loss and damage (Stabinsky et al., 2012):
1 loss and damage that can be addressed through insurance or other risk-transfer
2 economic loss and damage from extreme events and slow-onset processes not
covered through risk-transfer mechanisms
3 economic loss that is difficult to quantify
4 non-economic losses such as loss of ecosystems, cultural heritage, values, and local
and indigenous knowledge.
Loss and damage from typhoon-induced floods and land
lides 37
Despite the discussions on loss and damage assessments and the suggestion to establish
loss and damage compensation framework, there are no universally agreed definition for
the term ‘loss and damage’ (Nishat et al., 2013; Roberts et al., 2014). Below are few
definitions for loss and damage in the field of climate change:
effects that would not have happened in a world without climate change, which have
not been mitigated, and which cannot be (or have not been) adapted to (Craeynest,
entire range of damage and permanent loss ‘associated with climate change impacts
in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of
climate change’ that can no longer be avoided through mitigation nor can be avoided
through adaptation (Hoffmaister and Stabinsky, 2012)
negative effects of climate variability and climate change that people have not been
able to cope with or adapt to (Warner and Geest 2013)
adverse effects of climate variability and climate change that occur despite global
mitigation and local adaptation efforts (van Der Geest et al., 2014).
Behind these definitions is the assumption that mitigation and/or adaptation measures
were inadequate or ineffective. Nishat et al. (2013) explained that the failure of both
mitigation and adaptation efforts to minimise the impacts of climate change resulted in
the emergence and increasing prominence of loss and damage in the international climate
Establishing an operational structure and procedure like the Warsaw compensation
mechanism will require assessments on what loss and damage would mean not only to
the climate negotiators but more importantly to the affected people. To provide factual
assessments that will be useful for policy discussions and negotiations to address loss and
damage, case studies were conducted in nine countries including Bangladesh (Rabbani
et al., 2013), Bhutan (Kusters and Wangdi, 2013), Burkina Faso (Traore and Owiyo,
2013), Ethiopia (Haile et al., 2013), Gambia (Yaffa, 2013), Kenya (Opondo, 2013),
Micronesia (Monnereau and Abraham, 2013), Mozambique (Brida et al., 2013) and
Nepal (Bauer, 2013). The overall aim of these studies was to understand the patterns of
loss and damage in human systems when there are barriers and constraints to adaptation
(Warner and Geest, 2013). The assessments were conducted using both qualitative and
quantitative research tools based on a working definition of loss and damage of Warner
et al. (2013). Empirical evidence from these case studies shows that loss and damage
occurs when there are barriers that impede planning and implementation of adaptation,
and when physical and social limits to adaptation are reached or exceeded. While these
studies have provided initial insights on assessing loss and damage, substantiation from
other parts of the world that are equally, if not more, vulnerable to climate change
impacts should be further collected and investigated to help develop globally acceptable
framework on loss and damage. This paper thus aims to provide additional evidences on
loss and damage from and recommendations on compensation and rehabilitation
framework for one of the most typhoon-risk countries in the world – the Philippines. In
view of the damaging impacts of typhoons, the CRED has listed the Philippines as the
world’s most disaster-prone country in 2009. But typhoon Haiyan in 2013, which is the
world’s strongest storm recorded at landfall, showed that typhoons can become
38 L.A.
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horrifyingly devastating and thus pushing even the most typhoon-resilient people into its
social, economic, ecological and even psychological limits.
The paper presents case studies in two municipalities (i.e., Infanta, Quezon and
New Bataan, Compostela Valley) in the Philippines that experience typhoon-induced
floods and landslides. It aims to understand how the extent of loss and damage affects the
preferences and opinions of flood- and landslide-affected communities on adaptation
options and strategies. The knowledge will inform how relevant are the four types of
permanent loss and damage suggested above to the affected people in the Philippines.
The paper is organised as follows: Section 2 provides an overview of the typhoons and
disasters in the Philippines in the last two decades; Section 3 describes the assessment
methods in the two municipalities; Section 4 presents and discusses the results of loss and
damage assessments; and Section 5 provides conclusions and recommendations.
2 Philippine typhoons and disasters
Floods and landslides are most frequently occurring natural disasters, accounting for the
largest share 49.4% of natural disasters, 51.9% of total disaster victims, 42.2% of the
total reported number of people killed and 16.3% of total damages globally in 2012
(CRED, 2014). They are classified as hydrological disasters. In the Philippines, floods
and landslides are closely related to typhoon events, which are classified as
meteorological disasters. Typhoon-induced floods and landslides are caused by heavy
rainfalls. The Philippine is considered to be one of the disaster prone countries in the
world due to its geo-physical location and socio-economic conditions. According to the
German Watch (Kreft and Eckstein, 2014), the Philippine ranks second in its 2012
Climate Risk Index, which indicates the level of exposure and vulnerability to extreme
events and should be understood as warning to be prepared for more frequent and/or
more severe events in the future. The Philippines’ exposure to disasters is to a significant
extent due to the country’s geographical and physical characteristics, lying along the
world’s busiest typhoon belt and on vastness of warm ocean water in Western Pacific
Ocean (ADPC, 2003). With its more than 7,000 islands and with long bare coastlines due
to mangrove destructions, the Philippines is vulnerable to storm surges. Mangrove forests
play an important role in ecosystems because they provide buffer protection for coastal
communities from storm surge and sea level rise. Over the past 50 years, the Philippines
has lost up to 80% of its mangrove forests through aquaculture and commercial fish
farming, human settlement and economic infrastructure (Endangered Species, 2014).
Most of the typhoon-induced floods and landslides were however caused by large scale
upland deforestation, many through uncontrolled illegal logging or mining and shifting
cultivation (Pulhin and Inoue, 2008; Lasco and Pulhin, 2009; Pulhin and Dressler, 2009).
Half of the 20 million Filipinos living in upland forest watershed areas are dependent on
shifting cultivation for their livelihood (Lasco et al., 2001). The forest cover in the
Philippines has declined continuously by an average of 150,000 hectares per year (Lasco
and Pulhin, 2009), decreasing from the estimated 27.5 million hectares in 1900 to only
6.7 million hectares in 1990 (GTZ and DENR, 2009).
Loss and damage from typhoon-induced floods and land
lides 39
An average of 20 typhoons makes a landfall in the Philippines every year. The Annex
presents the most destructive typhoons that caused floods and landslides, which in turn
caused severe destruction of houses and livelihoods as well as injuries and deaths of
people in the country since 1990. Not only the intensity of typhoons but also the loss and
damage have been increasing in the last two decades. For example, the most devastating
typhoon (i.e., Mike) that hit the Philippines in the 1990s has affected 5.5 million people
and damaged 50,000 houses (Annex). In 2012, Bopha has been considered ‘super
typhoon’ with a Category 5 typhoon, the highest scale under the Saffir-Simpson
Hurricane Wind Scale (NOAA, 2012). The winds had an average speed of 185 km/hr and
gusts reached 210 km/hr. It was considered the most powerful typhoon for over a century
until 2012, affecting more than 6 million people, killing at least 1,000 people, damaging
more than 200,000 houses, and destroying about 1 billion US$ of agricultural products,
infrastructure and private properties in Eastern Mindanao [NDRRMC (2012) as cited in
Manuta (2013)]. But just a year after, experience from Haiyan revealed that typhoon
intensity can be even more devastating, leaving traumatic experience to larger number of
population. According to NOAA (2014), Typhoon Haiyan, which hit the eastern Visayas
region of the Philippines on the 8th of November 2013, may be the strongest recorded
tropical cyclone to make landfall with sustained speed up to 195 mph (315 km/h).
It affected 16 million people, damaged over 1 million houses and caused at least
6,000 deaths (Annex). The economic damage is estimated to be at least 10 billion US$,
which is equivalent to around 5% of the country’s annual economic output or GDP
(Munich-Re, 2014). According to an OXFAM report (Chughtai, 2013), preparations and
early warnings saved many lives and massive relief effort had done well to help millions
of people to survive and recover. However, repercussions of typhoon Haiyan go beyond
the initial destruction because it has also pushed millions of poor people into deepening
debt and destitution – making them even more vulnerable to the next disaster (Chughtai,
While the loss and damage from typhoon Haiyan were mainly due to tsunami-like
storm surge with a height of at least 5 metres (Economist, 2013; NASA, 2013), those
from other typhoons were caused by tremendous floods and landslides from heavy and
continuous rainfall particularly in areas with uncovered forest. For example, the
daily threshold level of 150 mm rainfall was exceeded during the typhoons Bopha
(200–330 mm), Ketsana and Parma (455–1,000 mm), Durian (466 mm) and Winnie
(328–342 mm). The Annex describes the socio-economic costs of floods and landslides
resulting from significant damages to agriculture and infrastructure, and large number of
human losses. After Haiyan, the typhoons Ketsana and Parma that hit Metro Manila,
Bicol and Central Luzon in 2009 cost the highest economic damage of 4.3 billion US$,
followed by typhoon Bopha that raged Compostela Valley in Davao in 2012 causing a
damage of 1 billion US$. Aside from economic damages, typhoons also displaced great
number of affected families leaving them homeless. Next to Haiyan and Bopha, typhoon
Mike caused large misery in 1990 leaving more than 5 million affected families and
50,000 damaged houses. Between 1990 and 2012 the largest number of dead and missing
people was recorded after typhoon Thelma in 1991, when massive landslides and
mudflows have estimated to have killed up to 8,000 people in Ormoc, Leyte.
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3 Methods
3.1 Case study areas
3.1.1 Infanta, Quezon
Infanta is located 144 km northeast of Manila and 136 km north of Lucena City
(Figure 1). It has a total land area of 34,276 hectares and total population of about 65,000
(NSO, 2014). The number of families in the municipality is 15,181, while the houses are
13,486. There is thus almost 1:1 ratio of families to houses, with average family size of
4.14. Half of the residents in Infanta rely on tertiary types of economic activity such as
wholesale and retail; transportation, storage and communication; finance, insurance, real
estate and business service; and community, social and personal services. The other half
earns through primary and secondary types of livelihood. Out of this latter group of
residents, 28% is still practicing agriculture; hunting and forestry; and fishing, while 22%
has ventured into mining and quarrying; manufacturing; electricity, gas and water; and
construction (Infanta Government, 2014). Infanta is a floodplain that lies along the coast
of the Pacific Ocean and rests at the foot of the Sierra Madre Mountain Range. More than
41% of this land area is low lying with elevations of less than 100 m. Those areas with
elevations of more than 100 m are located only in Magsaysay village, which comprises
the remaining 59% (NAMRIA, 1994). Infanta is characterised by Type II climate, with
no dry season but has a pronounced maximum rain period from November to January.
From the period 1971–2000 the measured average annual rainfall is 4,150 mm (Infanta
Government, 2014).
Figure 1 Locations of case study areas in the Philippines, with percent of people affected by
Haiyan typhoon and level of poverty incidence (see online version for colours)
Source: Philippine map with people affected by Haiyan and poverty incidence
is from the Rapid Assessment Report #1, 14 November 2013 of the
OML Center (
Loss and damage from typhoon-induced floods and land
lides 41
Four successive typhoons brought about damages to the lives and properties of
communities in Infanta between November 14 and December 3, 2004 (Annex). The
calamity caused major physical damages and claimed lives of more than 1,000 people. As
reported by the Philippine Office of Civil Defense, more than 2.3 million people were
affected and about 105 million US$ (or 4.6 billion Pesos) were lost in terms of
infrastructure and agriculture damages (Cruz et al., 2005). Referring to the data
from National Disaster Coordinating Council, Gaillard et al. (2007) mentioned that
5,087 houses were destroyed in Infanta, 1,638 houses in Real and 3,116 houses in
General Nakar. These were the three most affected municipalities in Quezon. But Infanta
was hardest hit with 12,007 affected families and 176 casualties; i.e., 112 recovered
bodies, 53 reported missing and 11 injured (David and Felizardo, 2006). Three villages,
which were most affected and damaged in Infanta, were selected as case study areas.
They are located along the Agos River, the major river that separates Infanta from the
adjacent town of General Nakar (Figure 1). The elevation and position with reference to
the Agos River were the criteria considered for choosing the study sites, apart from the
extent of damage. The villages are Magsaysay, Ilog and Pinaglapatan:
Magsaysay: It is an upland area located more than 100 m above sea level and has the
highest elevation among the three villages. Its location is the farthest from the town
proper of around 5 to 10 km. With a total land area of 22,602 hectares, Magsaysay
accounts for 40% of Infanta’s total land area. It is the largest among the three
villages in terms of not only area but also population. Magsaysay is inhabited by
2,824 people and comprised of 627 households.
Ilog: It is a lowland area located in the middle of Infanta and surrounded by a
river (or ilog in native language). Among the three villages, Ilog is nearest to the
town centre at around 1–2 km. It has a land area of 156 hectares, which is mainly
agriculture. The dominant land form is broad alluvial plains with river terraces and
river fans, which represent the deposition of the river systems. Ilog is inhabited by
1,920 people and comprised of 410 households.
Pinaglapatan: It is one of the six coastal villages in Infanta and where the Agos
River is connected to the Philippine Sea. Being a coastal area, its elevation is lower
than the villages of Ilog and Magsaysay. Pinaglapatan has the smallest land area
among the three villages with only 73 hectares. Like other coastal villages in Infanta,
mangroves and fishponds are dominant along its coasts. They are important sources
of income for 1,142 people or 225 households in the village.
3.1.2 New Bataan, Compostela Valley
New Bataan is classified as a first class municipality in the province of Compostela
Valley. The municipality is situated northwest of Davao Oriental province (Figure 1),
south of municipality of Compostela and west of municipality of Maragusan (CLUP,
2010). The town has a total land area of 55,315 hectares. According to the census
conducted in the year 2010 by the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB),
New Bataan has a total population of 47,470 and a total household of 10,562 with an
average household size of five persons. The municipality is considered an agricultural
area with its vast tract of land suitable for cultivation, about 13,591 hectares or 24.57% of
its total land area. Half of the total economically active population are farmers and the
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other half are employees including teachers, government and private employees (CLUP
2010). The municipality of New Bataan falls under the Type II Climate, which is
characterised by no dry season with a very pronounced maximum rain period. The rainy
season generally occurs in December to January (sometimes also between October to
February) and there is no single dry month in the region.
On December 4, 2012 Compostela Valley was unexpectedly struck by Typhoon
Pablo, affecting more than thousands of families and ruining large number of local
livelihoods (Annex). Although communities were given advanced warnings and prepared
themselves for expected disaster, the typhoon caused heavy damage in many provinces of
Mindanao with 1,067 deaths, 800 missing and 160 million US$ (or 7 billion Pesos) worth
of damage to infrastructure and agriculture (Manuta, 2013). The province of Compostela
Valley had the most number of recorded deaths (236 people). Within the province, the
municipality of New Bataan was severely affected by flash floods, mudslides, and strong
winds. Flood water reportedly came down from the mountain slopes, bringing with it
mud, logs and rocks. Fallen trees and rocks that blocked the main roads also made it hard
for rescuers to immediately reach the area. Many of the affected families, mostly farm
workers in plantations, have lost their sources of livelihood (CDRC, 2013). Among the
most affected villages, three were selected as case study sites in New Bataan, namely
Andap, Cabinuangan and Cogonon:
Andap: It is situated at the mouth of a mountain drainage network and at the base of
steeply-sided slopes. It is nested on an alluvial fan, normally found at the base of
mountains where water drains. Andap is a rural village covering the largest area of
the municipality with 11,240.55 hectares, i.e., 20.32% of the total land area. It has a
total population of 7,550 with 1,574 households. There were at least 70 people who
died and about 290 people missing after the typhoon. More than 1,250 houses were
either partially or totally damaged.
Cabinuangan: It is an urban area serving as main growth centre of the municipality.
Cabinuangan has a total population of 10,390 with 2,364 households. It has a total
land area of 2,997.74 hectares where 3.24% is forest area. The typhoon caused
66 deaths, 144 missing people and about 1,900 damaged houses in the village.
Cogonon: It is one of the smallest villages with 652.17 hectares, accounting for
only 1.18% of the total land area in the municipality. Cogonon has a total population
of 1,223 with 285 households. No casualties were so far reported but there were
about 300 damaged houses in the village. It is one of the poorest villages in New
3.2 Survey administration
The survey instrument used in this study was a structured questionnaire combined with
open-ended questions. It was pretested in Village Andap in New Bataan, Compostela
Valley in June 2013. Over the course of the survey preparation, the questionnaire was
revised and improved so that it is designed to gather relevant information on individual
experiences and preferences on adaptation strategies. Specifically, it consisted of seven
Loss and damage from typhoon-induced floods and land
lides 43
1 socio-economic and demographic profiling
2 overview of livelihood activities
3 typhoon-induced disaster experiences
4 disaster recovery and adaptation strategies
5 health and social networks
6 conjoint analysis survey
7 opinions on impacts of Typhoon Haiyan in the Visayas regions.
With the support of local government officials, the household surveys in Infanta, Quezon
and New Bataan, Compostela Valley were successfully implemented in November 2013.
Multiple-stage sampling was applied in selecting survey respondents. The first stage
involved stratification at the municipal level using extent of damage and economic
characteristics as criteria for stratification. The sampling resulted in the selection of the
villages of Ilog, Magsaysay and Pinaglapatan as case study sites for Infanta, Quezon and
the villages of Andap, Cogonon and Cabinuangan for New Bataan, Compostela Valley.
The second stage sampling aimed to determine the appropriate sample size in each
village. The sample size was calculated using the Cochran method at a 95% confidence
level and 8% confidence interval. The following equation was applied:
Households affected by landslides denoted by P and Q was defined as 1 – P, when the
values of P and Q are between 1 and 0, inclusively; where
maximum tolerable error
tabular value of the Z statistics at a certain level of
total number of households
The resulting sample size for Infanta and New Bataan were 109 and 140, respectively.
Specifically, the sample sizes in each village were as follows:
Infanta: Pinaglapatan – 36, Ilog – 39, Magsaysay – 34
New Bataan: Andap – 35, Cabinuangan – 70, Cogonon – 35.
The third sampling stage involved stratification at the village level to capture
different livelihood sources in the survey. Stratification at this level aimed to determine
whether the nature of livelihood influences preferences for adaptation strategies.
Finally, random sampling was employed in identifying respondents to be included
in the survey using the research randomiser of the Social Psychology Network
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3.3 Conjoint analysis
Conjoint analysis (also known as choice models or experiments) is a practical technique
for measuring preferences and assessing trade-off decisions. It is widely used in different
scientific fields (e.g., psychology, economics, and environment) to transform subjective
choice responses into estimated parameters. Farber and Griner (2000) provide a summary
of its application to environmental valuation. In conjoint analysis the attributes of an
environmental good are used to understand the general trade-offs which an individual is
willing to make (Hanley et al., 1998). Considerable attention has been given to this
technique both in academe and industry to measure preferences through utility trade-offs
among products and services (Lee et al., 2006; Green and Srinivasan, 1990), particularly
in agro-environments (e.g., Tano et al., 2003; Stevens et al., 2002; Moran et al., 2007;
Blamey et al., 2000; Acosta-Michlik et al., 2011; Acosta et al., 2012, 2014). The
preferences are assumed to be influenced by the individual’s subjective perceptions on
the presented choices. Thus, the preference structure is a function of the individual’s
economic, social and cultural conditions, which affect his or her decision. Public
preferences have an important role in decision-making because they may in fact highlight
stark policy trade-offs (Hall et al., 2004). In choice-based conjoint analysis, a set of
attributes and their respective levels define the respondents’ choices. In this paper,
the attributes correspond to household assistance, livelihood assistance, agriculture
assistance, sources of assistance and risk reduction measure for flood/landslide impacts
(Table 1).
Table 1 Attributes and attribute levels in the conjoint questionnaire
Sources of
Risk reduction
1 Food supply Crop
Machine/tools Relatives/
Prevent logging
2 Medicine
Seed/seedlings Farm
Stop mining
3 Shelter/housing Agro-forest
Government Regulate
4 Money/loan Family
NGOs Reforestation
5 Alternative
Crop insurance Church Reduce soil
The combinations of attribute levels define the choice tasks in the conjoint surveys
(Figure 2). Seven choice tasks were presented to each respondent, where each choice task
has different combinations of attribute levels. The choice tasks were computer-generated
using the SSIWeb Sawtooth. The software was used not only to construct the choice tasks
and prepare the conjoint questionnaire, but also to analyse the responses of the
respondents (i.e., compute utilities and preference weights) as described below. We used
complete enumeration for random task generation method and traditional full profile for
design module setting. Moreover, the software package includes a statistical test (i.e.,
Loss and damage from typhoon-induced floods and land
lides 45
logit efficiency) to validate the survey design in terms of the optimal number of options,
choice tasks, and questionnaire versions. The validation results showed relatively good fit
for a survey design with 35 versions (each version has different sets of choice tasks) and
200 respondents. On the basis of these results, we aimed to survey a minimum of
200 respondents in the two municipalities.
Figure 2 Example of choices in a conjoint task of the survey questionnaire (see online version
for colours)
Adaptation strategies
1 2 3
Household assistance
Livelihood assistance
Agriculture assistance
Source of assistance
Landslide risk reduction
Food supply
Crop production
Prevent logging
Medicine supply
Livestock production
Farm associations
Stop mining
Agro-forest production
Regulate squatters
Tick only one choice
A conjoint study leads to a set of part-worths or utilities, which measure the relative
desirability or worth of an attribute level (Orme, 2010, 2006). The higher the utility, the
more desirable is the attribute level. The respondents’ choices were analysed using a
hierarchical Bayes choice-based conjoint (HCBC) model that is able to capture
preferences of individuals (i.e., respondent level) and groups of individuals (i.e., segment
level) (Orme, 2009):
YX ε=+
z δ=+
Where in the first equation, Y
is a vector of the responses from the choice tasks, X
is a
matrix of the attribute levels,
is the p-dimensional vector of regression coefficients
representing the utilities, and ε
is a p-dimensional vector of random error terms. In the
second equation, Θ is a p by q matrix of regression coefficients (i.e., utilities), z
is a
q-dimensional vector of covariates and δ
is a p-dimensional vector of random error
terms. The HCBC model is called hierarchical because it models respondents’
preferences as a function of a lower- or individual-level (within-respondents) model and
an upper-level (pooled across respondents) model (Orme and Howell, 2009). According
to Lenk et al. (1996), hierarchical Bayes analysis creates the opportunity to recover both
the individual-level part-worths and heterogeneity in part-worths, even when the number
of responses per respondent is less than the number of parameters per respondent. This
makes the model in equations (1) and (2) very useful in cases of small respondent
population, where i = 1…n is the number of respondents. Equation (1) reflects the
individual-level model and assumes that the respondent chooses options according to the
sum of utilities as specified in logit models. Equation (2) is an upper-level model that
describes the heterogeneity in the individual utilities across the population of
46 L.A.
costa et al.
4 Results and discussion
4.1 Socio-ecological profile
The social profile of the respondents is described in Table 2. The respondents in Infanta
are relatively older than those in New Bataan. The largest proportion with age above
50 years is found in the village of Ilog in Infanta. Overall, there are more respondents
who have completed elementary education in New Bataan than in Infanta. Moreover,
there are more respondents who have reached or completed college and university studies
in the former municipality. Education is considered source of knowledge and awareness,
thus many respondents in New Bataan can be assumed to have more capacity to adapt to
climate change impacts. The household size of families in Infanta is generally larger,
where more than 10% of the respondents having more than nine household members.
More than half of the respondents have been residing for more than 30 years in both
municipalities. They are thus very familiar not only with social but also ecological
environment in their respective areas. Satellite images of affected communities in Infanta,
Quezon and New Bataan, Compostela Valley after the landslide events are shown in
Figure 3. In Infanta, the river has expanded tremendously and many agricultural areas
were flooded or covered with drifted logs, uprooted trees and thick mud [Figure 3(a)]. It
was not possible to cultivate the areas for many years leaving many farmers with no
source of livelihoods. In Andap village in Compostela Valley, the change in the ecology
was even more dramatic with not only agricultural but also residential areas covered with
heavy rocks and thick mud [Figure 3(b)]. The agricultural areas will probably not be
easily cultivated again in the near future. Many residents in Andap who survived the
floods and landslides were permanently relocated.
Table 2 Social characteristic of respondents in the case study villages in the Philippines
Infanta New Bataan
Pinaglapatan Ilog Magsaysay Cabinuangan Cogonon Andap
30 and below 2.78 5.13 11.76 12.86 14.29 22.73 10.92
31–50 52.78 33.33 35.29 48.57 32.14 50.00 42.79
51–70 41.67 48.72 38.24 31.43 42.86 18.18 37.12
71 and above 2.78 12.82 14.71 7.14 10.71 9.09 9.17
No formal
3.57 0.43
Elementary 50.00 30.77 41.18 22.86 28.57 47.83 34.35
High school 38.89 43.59 47.06 40.00 50.00 43.48 43.04
technical school
12.82 2.94 11.43 3.57 8.70 7.39
11.11 12.82 8.82 25.71 14.29 14.78
Notes: Values refer to proportion of respondents per village. Thus, in each village the
values of categories for each variable add up to 100%.
Loss and damage from typhoon-induced floods and land
lides 47
Table 2 Social characteristic of respondents in the case study villages in the Philippines
Infanta New Bataan
Pinaglapatan Ilog Magsaysay Cabinuangan Cogonon Andap
HH size
4 and below 41.67 43.59 42.42 48.57 50.00 60.87 47.16
5 to 8 47.22 46.15 45.45 51.43 46.43 34.78 46.72
9 and above 11.11 10.26 12.12 3.57 4.35 6.11
Years residing
10 and below 5.56 2.63 29.41 7.14 7.14 9.09 9.65
11 to 30 27.78 34.21 32.35 27.14 39.29 36.36 31.58
31 to 50 41.67 28.95 29.41 52.86 25.00 50.00 39.91
51 and above 25.00 34.21 8.82 12.86 28.57 4.55 18.86
Total respondents 36 39 34 70 28 22 229
Notes: Values refer to proportion of respondents per village. Thus, in each village the
values of categories for each variable add up to 100%.
Figure 3 Changes in ecology of villages after the floods and landslides in (a) Infanta and
(b) New Bataan (see online version for colours)
Source: (a) SPOT 5 satellite imagery from Center for Space and Remote
Sensing Research, National Central University, Taiwan;
LandSat 8 from USGS (;
National Mapping Resource and Information Agency, Philippines;;;;
photo taken by Ninfa Z. Bito as cited in David and Felizardo (2006)
(b) LandSat 8 from USGS (;;;; photo taken by daebo75 on
2 January 2013 as cited in
48 L.A.
costa et al.
Figure 3 Changes in ecology of villages after the floods and landslides in (a) Infanta and
(b) New Bataan (continued) (see online version for colours)
Source: (a) SPOT 5 satellite imagery from Center for Space and Remote
Sensing Research, National Central University, Taiwan;
LandSat 8 from USGS (;
National Mapping Resource and Information Agency, Philippines;;;;
photo taken by Ninfa Z. Bito as cited in David and Felizardo (2006)
(b) LandSat 8 from USGS (;;;; photo taken by daebo75 on
2 January 2013 as cited in
4.2 Loss and damage in communities
Table 3 presents the losses of respondents from floods and landslides due to deaths of
family members, relatives and neighbours. Only few respondents in Infanta have lost
members of their families. In the village of Andap in New Bataan, more than 15% of the
respondents have lost at least two family members. While the respondents’ family
members who died from the disaster were low, the deaths of relatives and neighbours
were high in both municipalities. The number of losses outside family members is higher
in New Bataan than in Infanta. In the village of Cogonon and Andap, many respondents
have lost more than 40 neighbours. The disaster impacts in the latter village were
however most extreme in terms of human losses, with more than half of the respondents
having dead neighbours. Table 4 shows the property damages of respondents in the six
villages in Infanta and New Bataan. Most of their houses have been destroyed by floods
and landslides. In Infanta, the respondents in the village of Magsaysay have extreme
damage where more than half of their houses were not only partially but totally damaged.
In New Bataan, the disaster impacts were very extensive where more than 95% of the
houses were destroyed in the village of Andap. However, many of respondents with
totally destroyed houses were able to reconstruct their houses, mainly through the support
from family, religious and other private organisations. In Cogonon, only half of
respondents were able to have their houses reconstructed. The highest human loss and
Loss and damage from typhoon-induced floods and land
lides 49
property damage was experience in Andap, which may explain why it was the focus of
many external support.
Table 3 Number of family members, relatives and neighbours who died from disaster
Infanta New Bataan
Pinaglapatan Ilog Magsaysay Cabinuangan Cogonon Andap
None 100.00 97.44 85.29 92.86 100.00 73.91 92.61
One 2.56 14.71 5.71 8.70 5.22
2 to 5 1.43 13.04 1.74
11 to 20 4.35 0.43
None 94.44 66.67 76.47 68.57 89.29 8.70 70.00
One 5.56 7.69 11.76 11.43 21.74 9.57
2 to 5 12.82 8.82 15.71 10.71 21.74 11.74
6 to 10 5.13 2.94 2.86 17.39 3.91
11 to 20 7.69 1.43 21.74 3.91
41 to 70 4.35 0.43
71 to 100 4.35 0.43
None 97.22 76.92 94.12 98.57 60.71 79.57
One 2.78 5.88 3.57 1.74
2 to 5 12.82 10.71 4.35 3.91
6 to 10 2.56 1.43 3.57 1.30
11 to 20 2.56 7.14 4.35 1.74
21 to 40 5.13 0.87
41 to 70 3.57 8.70 1.30
71 to 100 3.57 13.04 1.74
Above 100 7.14 69.57 7.83
Total respondents 36 39 34 70 28 22 229
Notes: Values refer to proportion of respondents per village. Thus, in each village the
values of categories for each variable add up to 100%.
Table 4 Houses damaged and lost, by level of damage and by village
Loss and damage
Infanta New Bataan
Pinaglapatan Ilog Magsaysay Cabinuangan Cogonon Andap
Extent of
house damage
Not destroyed 8.33 7.69 8.82 7.14 14.29 7.83
Slightly destroyed 38.89 23.08 14.71 41.43 46.43 30.43
Heavily destroyed 22.22 20.51 11.76 25.71 21.43 4.35 19.57
Totally destroyed 30.56 48.72 64.71 25.71 17.86 95.65 42.17
Notes: Values refer to proportion of respondents per village. Thus, in each village the
values of categories for each variable add up to 100%.
50 L.A.
costa et al.
Table 4 Houses damaged and lost, by level of damage and by village (continued)
Loss and damage
Infanta New Bataan
Pinaglapatan Ilog Magsaysay Cabinuangan Cogonon Andap
Ability to
reconstruct house
Not reconstructed 27.78 17.95 29.41 22.86 50.00 8.70 25.65
Reconstructed 72.22 82.05 70.59 77.14 50.00 91.30 74.35
Total respondents 36 39 34 70 28 22 229
Notes: Values refer to proportion of respondents per village. Thus, in each village the
values of categories for each variable add up to 100%.
Table 5 Most important loss and damage experienced by the respondents
Infanta New Bataan
Pinaglapatan Ilog Magsaysay Cabinuangan Cogonon Andap
No drinking water 2.78 5.13 2.94 14.29 39.29 8.70 11.74
No water for use 7.14 17.86 4.35 4.78
Lack of electricity 7.69 8.82 1.43 3.04
Lack of transport
Road destruction 2.56 0.43
Damages of house 8.33 10.26 14.71 8.57 7.83
House relocation
Homelessness 13.89 17.95 11.76 21.74 9.13
Temporary shelter 2.78 9.13
Lost of livelihood 19.44 5.13 17.65 3.57 21.74 0.43
No food 41.67 43.59 35.29 68.57 35.71 26.09 46.96
No medical support
Destruction of farm 5.56 2.56 2.94 1.74
Destroyed forest 2.56 3.57 0.87
Soil erosion 2.78 0.43
Others 2.78 2.56 5.88 17.39 3.48
100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Note: Values refer to proportion of respondents per village.
In addition to property damages, the villages in Infanta and New Bataan have
experienced other infrastructural and ecological losses and damages (Table 5), which
were considered as sources of discomforts in the daily lives of the respondents. None of
the respondents considers lack of transport, relocation of house and lack of medical
support as important concerns after the flood and landslide events. Lack of food was a
major problem for many respondents in all three villages in Infanta. The extent of the
problem was however felt by even more respondents in Cabinuangan in New Bataan
where almost 70% considers lack of food as their most important concern. This was
Loss and damage from typhoon-induced floods and land
lides 51
however not the case in the other two villages, in particular Andap. Consultation with
local experts revealed that few days after the floods and landslides in the municipality,
most relief goods were sent to most affected villages including Andap. Other villages had
to wait for days or even beg along the street for them to get relief support. However,
about 18% of the respondents in Andap have other important concerns including house
damages and human losses. After lack of food, the next most important concern in many
villages was lost of livelihood particularly in the villages of Pinaglapatan, Magsaysay and
Andap. But lost of houses was equally important for the respondents in the villages of
Ilog and Andap. Unlike other villages, lack of water for drinking and other uses was an
important problem by many respondents in Cogonon. The physical destructions on farm,
forest and soil after floods and landslides were a major concern for only few respondents.
An often overlooked impact of floods and landslides on the previously affected
people is psychological damage, which can affect them again during occurrence of other
typhoons. Referring to typhoon Haiyan, which have caused immense devastation in the
central part of the Philippines few months before the conduct of the survey, we asked the
respondents how they felt during and after the typhoon. Many of them expressed fear
although the central paths of typhoon Haiyan were far from their regions (Figure 1). The
feeling of fear was particularly high in the villages of Cabinuangan and Andap (Figure 4).
Self-pity was the next most important emotion among respondents particularly in
Pinaglapatan and Cogonon. While hopelessness was a common feeling in all villages in
Infanta, it was not the case in New Bataan. It was the feeling of anxiety which affected
many respondents in the villages of Cogonon and Andap in New Bataan. These various
apprehensions felt by respondents are indicators of psychological distress that can affect
capacity to adapt. Norris et al. (2008) explained that varying degrees of wellness of
individuals (and communities) before as well as after disasters must be taken into account
in assessing post-disaster adaptation. Moreover, they emphasised that natural disasters are
especially likely to engender severe psychological distress when they occur in the
developing world.
Figure 4 Respondents’ prominent feelings during and after devastation of typhoon Haiyan
(see online version for colours)
52 L.A.
costa et al.
4.3 Preferences on adaptation assistance
The results of the analysis from conjoint surveys reveal that about half of the respondents
in all six villages prefer to receive household assistance after flood or landslide events
(Figure 5). However, the source of the assistance is not very relevant to them with only
6% giving preference to this attribute. Across the different villages the diversity of
preferences is most evident for household assistance. The preference for this type of
assistance is highest in Andap, followed by Cogonon and Magsaysay. The preference for
household assistance is relatively low in Cabinuangan where many respondents give
more importance to landslide risk reduction. In Andap, where the village centre vanished
from huge stones and thick mud after the landslide [Figure 3(b)], the respondents have
lowest preference for landslide reduction measures. During the consultation through
participatory rural appraisal (PRA) prior to the survey, residents in the village expressed
their concerns about logging and mining activities in the adjacent mountains. They also
expressed concern about lack of livelihood support in the village. The results of the
survey reveal, however, that the extent of the human loss and property damage in the
village makes household assistance a top priority. Preference for livelihood assistance is
highest in the village of Ilog.
Figure 5 Preferences for types and sources of adaptation (see online version for colours)
Loss and damage from typhoon-induced floods and land
lides 53
Table 6 presents the utility values for the attribute levels (i.e., conjoint choices) under the
three types of adaptation assistance (i.e., household, livelihood and agriculture). The large
utility values for choices of household assistance further reveal the high level of
preferences attributed by the respondents to this attribute. However, the preferences vary
significantly across the six villages. Food supply has large utility for the respondents in
Cogonon with a value of 74. This is followed by Magsaysay where food supply has a
utility value of 40. After food supply, alternative livelihood is the most preferred
assistance for the household particularly in the villages of Andap and Pinaglapatan with
utility values of at least 25. Medicine is least preferred household assistance in villages
like Andap, Magsaysay and Pinaglapatan. Money and loan have positive utility only in
Andap, while shelter and housing only in Cabinuangan. In New Bataan the largest
number of relocated residents is from Andap. Hence the low preference for shelter and
housing indicates that the respondents in this village have received appropriate relocation
assistance, but would require other types of assistance including food supply, alternative
livelihood and money/loan. For the second type of assistance, many respondents in
Andap give highest preference to crop production as livelihood assistance (Table 6).
Before the landslide farming was the main livelihood in Andap, but now large farm areas
are covered with huge stones and cannot be cultivated. Due to the proximity of Ilog to
Infanta’s municipal centre, respondents in this village give highest preference to
non-agriculture job. Farming was the main livelihood source before the landslide but
many farms in Ilog were also covered by mud and huge logs after the landslide. The
respondents in the urban village of Cabinuangan and upland village of Magsaysay also
give highest preference to non-agriculture job. The respondents in Magsaysay have least
preference to agroforest production. Assistance on agroforest production is only highly
preferred in Cogonon. The respondents in Pinaglapatan have highest utility value for
livestock production, which can provide them additional or alternative income from
For the third type of assistance, i.e., agricultural assistance, crop insurance has the
highest utility in all case study villages in Infanta but relatively low in Compostela Valley
particularly in the poorest village of Cogonon (Table 6). The provision of seeds/seedlings
is the most preferred agricultural support by respondents in Cogonon and Andap, while
machine and tools are mostly needed by respondents in Cabinuangan. Although livestock
assistance is not considered top priority for respondents, it has positive utility value in all
villages and is the second most preferred assistance in several villages. The provision of
fertilisers and pesticides is the least preferred assistance in all villages. In the conjoint
surveys, the respondents were also asked to choose one among five possible sources of
household, livelihood and agricultural assistance (Table 6). Government is considered
either the most or second most preferred source of assistance by respondents in all
villages, except for Andap. In the latter village, the most preferred sources of assistance
are farm associations and NGOs. In Ilog the NGOs have the highest utility value
followed by the government, while in Magsaysay and Cogonon the exact opposite is the
case. Religious organisations have positive utilities only in two villages in Infanta.
54 L.A.
costa et al.
Table 6 Conjoint utilities for different attribute levels, by village
Attribute levels
Infanta New Bataan
Pinaglapatan Ilog Magsaysay Cabinuangan Cogonon Andap
Household assistance
Food supply 29.68 30.38 39.68 17.88 73.62 28.28 32.89
Medicine supply –24.21 –15.98 –32.22 –3.59 –12.57 –35.77 –17.46
Shelter/housing –21.60 –5.69 –12.07 7.91 –26.50 –31.96 –10.14
Money/loan –10.07 –18.51 –7.48 –9.96 –13.98 5.88 –9.97
Alternative livelihood 26.19 9.79 12.10 –12.24 –20.58 33.58 4.68
Livelihood assistance
Crop production 2.45 6.42 2.11 7.92 0.45 10.31 5.28
Livestock production 5.02 –0.90 –2.13 –3.60 –11.24 –6.97 –2.84
–0.49 –4.47 –3.91 –5.84 5.68 –0.71 –2.57
Family business –9.64 –11.48 –1.13 –10.32 5.17 –2.00 –6.33
Non-agriculture job 2.67 10.43 5.06 11.84 –0.07 –0.64 6.47
Agriculture assistance
Machine/tools 3.50 1.54 –7.25 8.15 1.27 –2.50 2.12
Seed/seedlings 0.74 2.09 3.21 –14.92 14.31 7.14 –1.14
Livestock/animals 6.04 2.04 6.33 3.32 5.25 0.14 3.89
Pesticides/fertilisers –18.50 –13.19 –13.26 –2.28 –6.76 –7.78 –9.39
Crop insurance 8.22 7.52 10.97 5.72 –14.07 2.99 4.51
Source of assistance
Relatives/friends 5.83 –0.87 –3.77 –2.67 –7.94 –2.32 –1.81
Farm associations –14.72 –9.42 –3.95 –10.21 0.86 3.44 –7.14
Government 4.55 3.16 7.90 16.80 7.24 –3.63 8.05
NGOs 1.90 4.24 4.80 1.46 4.46 3.36 3.05
Church 2.44 2.89 –4.98 –5.39 –4.62 –0.85 –2.15
Landslide risk
Prevent logging 4.15 –5.11 –7.69 –2.62 –12.09 0.51 –3.57
Stop mining –7.48 –10.89 –2.88 –0.10 –4.25 –4.94 –4.48
Regulate squatters –10.33 –12.65 –5.03 –16.88 –5.50 –3.56 –10.67
Reforestation 5.99 14.83 0.52 5.29 2.88 –6.43 4.85
Reduce soil erosion 7.67 13.82 15.09 14.31 18.96 14.42 13.88
Notes: The utility values were computed using zero-centred difference as rescaling
method. In each attribute, the values of the utilities for all six levels thus sum up to
zero. The utilities are measures of preferences where
1 utilities with positive values are preferred over those with negative values
2 for positive utilities, the larger the utility values the higher the preference
The signs and values of the utilities together thus measure the respondents’
willingness to trade-off less preferred attribute level for more preferred ones.
Loss and damage from typhoon-induced floods and land
lides 55
Finally, based on the results of conjoint surveys for reducing landslide risks, the utility
values for reducing soil erosion are highest in all villages, except for Ilog
(Table 6). This reflects the extent of and thus concern on soil erosion, which has been
labelled the country’s worst environmental problem [Tujan (2000) as cited in Schmitt
(2009)]. Referring to the report of the Philippine Forest Management Bureau, Schmitt
(2009) explained that between 71 and 84 million tons of soil are eroded from the
country’s agricultural lands every year and that the eroded soil leads among others to
landslides. In the lowland village of Ilog reforestation is the most preferred measure to
reduce landslide risks. Discussion with residents in Ilog during the survey revealed that
they think illegal logging in the upland village of Magsaysay contributed to the
landslides. But for the respondents in Magsaysay preventing logging is the least preferred
measure to reduce landslide risks. Majority of respondents in this village reached only
elementary and high school education (Table 1), so raising awareness on the link between
logging and landslide is critical. Illegal logging has been identified as one of the major
causes of forest denudation, which is associated to catastrophic floods and landslides in
the Philippines (Pulhin and Inoue, 2008; Cedamon et al., 2011). Many respondents also
depend on forests for their living so capacity building on sustainable agroforest livelihood
should be provided. However, assistance on agroforest production is least preferred by
respondents in Magsaysay. Reforestation is considered the second most important
measure after reduction of soil erosion, except in Andap. Regulating illegal construction
of houses in upland areas has only low utility for respondents in all villages. This can be
explained by the prevalence of informal settlers in the Philippines (Cruz, 2010). Many
upland farmers are considered kaingin (i.e., slash and burn) squatters who are not
recognised by the government (Cedamon et al., 2010), unless they are covered by the
government’s forest programs providing them limited tenure (Pulhin and Inoue, 2008).
Forest squatters face particularly high insecurity with regard to duration of land tenure
(Harrison, 2003), which contributes to the lack of incentive among upland farmers to
participate in agroforest initiatives.
4.4 Opinion on disaster events
Awareness on the relationship of the impacts of changes in climate and land use to
disaster events is critical to reducing landslide risks. We thus asked the opinions of the
respondents on the link between climate change and typhoons as well as the reasons for
the typhoon-induced disasters in the Philippines. Figure 6 reveals that most respondents,
in particular those in New Bataan, think that climate change is related to the increasing
intensity of typhoons. But in Infanta, at least 15% of respondents in all three villages do
not know if there is a link between climate change and typhoons. This may reflect the
higher level of awareness in New Bataan, which could be attributed to larger number of
respondents in this municipality who have higher education. About 20% of the
respondents in Magsaysay and Andap are not sure about the issue between climate
change and typhoons. Among all villages, respondents in Magsaysay are least aware on
this issue. Table 7 reveals that, except for Pinaglapatan, at least 20% of the respondents in
all villages think that the disasters in the Philippines are related to religion (e.g., lack of
faith in God, selfish society, etc.). Many respondents who think that destruction of
environment is linked to deforestation, logging and mining are found in the three villages
in Infanta. The level of awareness on the link between fragile environment and disaster
events is relatively lower in New Bataan. The proportion of respondents who answered
56 L.A.
costa et al.
‘do not know’ on the reasons for disasters related to typhoons is highest in Pinaglapatan
(22%) and Andap (18%). Considering the vulnerability of New Bataan to landslide,
it is critical to build awareness of people about disaster risks. Based on the geohazard
maps published by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR),
New Bataan is in permanent danger due to its very high susceptibility to landslides
(Villanueva, 2012). In particular, the village of Andap is situated at the apex of alluvial
fans and in the path of potential debris flows (Ferrer et al., 2014).
Figure 6 Opinions on the link between climate change and typhoons (see online version
for colours)
Table 7 Opinions on the reasons for typhoon-related disasters in the Philippines, by village
Infanta New Bataan
Pinaglapatan Ilog Magsaysay Cabinuangan Cogonon Andap
1 Climate change 19.44 7.89 15.63 22.86 17.86 18.18 17.70
2 Environment
38.89 31.58 37.50 17.14 28.57 18.18 27.43
3 Both 1 and 2 5.56 5.26 3.13 2.86 7.14 4.55 4.42
4 Natural reasons 5.56 10.53 9.38 12.86 3.57 9.09 9.29
5 Geographic
6 Religious 5.56 21.05 21.88 18.57 21.43 18.18 17.70
7 Others 2.78 2.63 11.43 7.14 13.64 6.64
8 Do not know 22.22 13.16 12.50 12.86 14.29 18.18 15.04
100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Note: Values refer to proportion of respondents per village.
5 Conclusions
The paper analysed loss and damage in two municipalities in the Philippines which were
affected by floods and landslides resulting from combined impacts of climatic extremes
(typhoons) and land use change (deforestation). The mitigation measures necessary to
Loss and damage from typhoon-induced floods and land
lides 57
avoid disasters like these should thus not only be huge reduction in emissions, which are
expected from developed countries, but also strict control of deforestation and extensive
reforestation, which are critical problems in many developing countries. The results of
the study show that many vulnerable people are not yet aware of the complex link
between climate and land use change. Raising awareness should thus be considered an
important component of any mitigation strategies. This is particularly important in rural
and farm areas where people are less educated and do not have access to information
from media and science. The government should initiate awareness campaigns to people
in vulnerable communities on the implications of geohazard risks, as indicated in the
DENR’s geohazard maps.
Many loss and damage in society (lives, livelihood) and economy (production,
infrastructure) are easily quantifiable and often reported and recorded. However,
psychological distress which is important for adaptation to recurring disasters is not given
much attention. Many post-disaster adaptation measures like food relief and temporary
shelters are often given to affected people, but not psychological assistance to help them
recover from traumatic experience. The study revealed that many people affected by
typhoon-related landslides are emotionally and psychologically distressed from re-
occurrence of strong typhoons. This is non-economic loss or damage that should be taken
into consideration in any mechanism on compensation and rehabilitation.
The means to address loss and damage should be adapted to the local needs and
values of local communities. The paper analysed the preferences for adaptation measures.
Providing loan is not a preferred adaptation measure by the farmers because, after losing
their properties and sources of livelihoods, they will not have the capacity to repay the
debts and interests. Insurance did not also come out as an important mechanism for
reducing disaster risks in all villages. Regular crop insurance, for example, will require
payments from the farmers, but their small income does not allow such mechanism to
work. Production support in the form of seeds/seedlings, livestock or tools are preferable
because it will allow them to recover from livelihood loss or damage, which farmers
cannot easily afford to replace or recover. Risk-transfer will thus work only within a
‘polluter pays principle’ mechanism where the major emitters, either countries or
industries, should pay for the insurance premium. The affected people or countries should
then be allowed claims from insurance in case of loss and damage from climate change
related disasters.
The loss of ecosystems and indigenous knowledge is not only a consequence but also
cause of ‘loss and damage’ in disaster events. The loss of indigenous knowledge on the
ecological values of forests has led to destruction of upland ecosystem, which is vital
to protecting lowland areas. Although half of the surveyed respondents think that
typhoon-related disasters are linked to climate change and environment destruction, only
few consider reforestation and logging/mining prevention as important measures to
reduce landslide risks. The main problem is not only lack of knowledge but lack of
alternative livelihoods. Several farmers in Andap, the village with largest loss and
damage from landslide impacts, are forced to work in mining in the nearby upland
village, where some of them think the huge stones that covered their village came from.
Loss and damage should thus address the cause of the problem, which in developing
countries in many cases is the lack of sustainable alternative livelihoods after the disaster.
This is an economic loss that needs to be taken into consideration in the international
mechanism on compensation and rehabilitation.
58 L.A.
costa et al.
Following these conclusions, we would like to make important policy
recommendations that are relevant for designing support framework for International
Mechanism on Compensation and Rehabilitation:
a capacity-building for local communities to build awareness on the direct links
between environment (e.g., forest ecosystem and environment protection) and
disasters is an indispensable rehabilitation support
b creating reliable global database on quantity and value of loss and damage
covering not only human loss (e.g., deaths) and economic damage (e.g., properties,
infrastructure) but also health injuries (e.g., physical, mental) is important for rapid
estimation of compensation and prompt delivery of rehabilitation support
c insurance system requiring affected communities to prepare paper work and wait
longer time before receiving compensation is not effective and desirable for poor
people who do not have capital reserve or alternative livelihood
d rehabilitation support through immediate replacement of lost or damaged sources
of livelihood is important in helping affected people to continue sustainable (e.g.,
farming, agro-forestry) and avoid destructive (e.g., logging, mining) livelihoods.
The authors would like to thank the people who participated and local officials who
supported the conduct of the survey and PRA. The paper is based on the project on
Livelihoods Vulnerabilities to Typhoon Associated Hazards in Southeast Asia: A
comparative study in Taiwan and the Philippines with funding support from the
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Loss and damage from typhoon-induced floods and land
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Floods and landslides caused by typhoons in the Philippines, 1990–2013
Typhoon name
International Local
Flood/landslide locations
Number affected
Number damage
Economic damage
(million US$)
2013 Haiyan Yolanda Central Visayas 16,000,000 1,100,000 5,000–10,000 6,000–10,000
2012 Bopha Pablo Compostella Valley, Davao 6,200,000 89,666 1,000 1,867
2009 Ketsana, Parma Ondoy, Pepeng Metro Manila, Bicol Region
and Central Luzon
4,478,284 ND 4,300 200–1,000
2006 Chanchu Caloy Guinsaugon, Southern
42,123 600–3,542 2 41
2006 Durian Reming Albay 25,020 65,617 114* 500–700
2006 Xangsane Milenyo Mt. Makiling in Laguna 116,675 23,790 1 125–197
2004 Winnie, Muifa,
Merbok, Nanmadol
Winnie, Unding,
Violeta, Yoyong
Infanta, Quezon 12,007 76,062 15–18 340
2000 Kai-tak Edeng Payatas 1,156,031 213 3* 42
1995 Angela Rosing Bicol ND 96,000 242* 900
1993 Flo Kadiang Northern and Central Luzon ND ND 196* 576
1991 Thelma Uring Ormoc, Leyte 598,454 4500 28 3,000–8,000
1990 Mike Ruping Cebu 5,498,290 50,000 14 748
Note: *Converted into US$ using current exchange rate.
Source: ADB (2011), Alconaba (2013), Alojado (2010), Bacani (2013), Bhattacharyya (2013), Brown (2013), CDRC (2013), Conde (2009), De Jesus (2013),
Earth Observatory (2006), Fano et al. (2007), GFDRR (2009), GMA (2013), Guinto (2006), IFRC (2006), InterAksyon (2013), IRIN (2010), Michael
and Padua (2012), NASA (2009), PAGASA (2006), Panela (2012), Sabillo (2013), USAID (204), and Vanzi (2000)
... The high adaptive capacity of the population reflects the awareness of students and school administrators of climate change and disasters as supported by the study of Papa (2019), which also revealed higher awareness of students and administrators of public secondary schools and private education institutions in Negros Occidental, respectively. The study of Acosta et al. (2016) also supported this finding that high adaptive capacity is attributed to the respondents being highly educated and knowledgeable of previous disasters. Reams, Lam, Cale, and Hinton (2013) affirmed that environmental education programs deliver information about hazards within the community, including threat levels. ...
... These challenges are also cited in the study of Acosta et al. (2016) that human loss and property damage caused psychological distress to affected people undermining the capacity to adapt to the next disasters. The lack of resources was highlighted by the Commission on Audit (COA), who recommended that the government should focus on preparing for, responding to, and recovering from any catastrophic disaster. ...
This descriptive comparative research determined the vulnerability and risk index including the adaptive capacity of the university exposed elements: population, natural resources, and facilities. A researcher-made survey questionnaire was used to determine the adaptive capacity of these elements and was administered to 598 respondents composed of students, faculty, and non-teaching personnel from the three campuses. An assessment survey was also conducted over three groups of purposively selected students, personnel, and external stakeholders for vulnerability and risk. Using descriptive and inferential analysis, the study yielded a high adaptive capacity for all exposed elements and a significant difference when the respondents were grouped into campuses. Likewise, all campuses have a very low vulnerability and low risk to landslide but have a different risk to flooding: B has a high risk, A is moderate, while C has no risk. Findings suggest that each campus has to be treated differently to address priority areas.
... (c) private properties -2,857,522,703.00 resulted to the declaration of National Calamity under Presidential Proclamation No. 522, dated December 7, 2012, signed by His Excellency Benigno C. Aquino III, President of the Republic of the Philippines [8]. ...
... Unfortunately, the typhoon, as mentioned above, carries a maximum sustained wind of 185 kph near the center and gustiness of 220 kph, where the majority of the houses were damaged, trees were uprooted, and rockslide and landslides occurred, devastating several municipalities in Region XI, particularly in the provinces of Davao Oriental and Compostela Valley [9]. As per recorded, Compostela Valley (ComVal) suffered the most damage with around P11.590 billion, while Davao Oriental (DavOr) P6.069 billion and Davao del Norte (DavNor) incurred an estimated around P2.780 billion in agriculture [8]. In the case of Davao del Norte, the province is situated in the southeastern part of Region XI, bounded by Agusan del Sur on the North, Bukidnon on the Northeast, Davao City on the West, Davao Gulf on the South, and the Province of Compostela Valley on the East was also affected by the said Typhoon Pablo. ...
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This case study aimed to determine the rehabilitation program for typhoon Pablo victims in the province of Davao del Norte. Using the purposive sampling technique, twelve (12) informants were interviewed in three (3) municipalities, namely the municipality of Kapalong, San Isidro, and Talaingod, Davao del Norte covering three (3) commodities such as; banana, cacao, and coffee rehabilitation program. A qualitative research instrument was used to capture all data relevant to their experiences, challenges, and overcoming strategies. Thematic analysis by Creswell (2009) was employed to analyze the data. Under the experiences, the result revealed the following themes; living comfortably after the typhoon, damaged farmlands and crops, income loss in agriculture, generation of alternative income and employment, the existence of disaster resiliency and management, provision of inputs, and cash assistance and implementation of the rehabilitation program. Furthermore, the challenges experienced by the victims are climate change, market instability, financial incapacity, lack of information and education, low-quality seedlings and high cost of production, lack of crop insurance, and delayed distribution of seedlings. The overcoming strategies they identified were as follows; develop a positive attitude toward family welfare, develop ways for sustainable farming, availing of the loan program, and intensify coordination for assistance. Finally, the success stories revealed the following cluster; development of self-reliance and perseverance, recovery as a result of hard work and assistance, development of a positive outlook for the future, and government response helped to expedite rehabilitation. The implementation of the typhoon Pablo rehabilitation program must couple with appropriate policy frameworks and political and financial support for the farmers to bridge the gap. Thus, creating a sustainable agricultural program and planning a disaster response will benefit the farmers in the long term. Farmers, scientists, and institutions continually aim to uncover techniques that boost crop yields, improve agricultural productivity, minimize loss due to disease, insects, and disasters, create more efficient equipment, and improve food quality overall. Lastly, the Department of Agriculture, Local Government Units, National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council, Non-government Organizations, and other concerned agencies can help the farmers live a decent life by providing appropriate intervention and assistance that promote the interests and needs of the agricultural sector.
... In Central Asia, the Sahel and South Asia, three global poverty hotspots, change impacts were shown to undermine traditional knowledge about livelihoods in ways that jeopardise future culture cohesion and sense of place (Tucker et al., 2015). Acosta et al. (2016) identified loss to productive sites in the Philippines with landslides destroying agriculture, leaving many farmers without livelihoods. Similarly, Beckman and Nguyen (2016) in Vietnam identified an example where communal dams had been destroyed in floods leading to lack of irrigation for communal sites and local loss of farmland for farming communities. ...
... Further warnings about social capital as an adaptation enabler come from Acosta et al. (2016) who recognise that it may be detrimental to private adaptation in some cases. Their research in rural Ethiopia found that qualitative measures of trust predict contributions to public goods, supporting theories about collective action, but that the effects of social capital are not homogenous: it can be helpful in some contexts, but unhelpful, or even detrimental in others. ...
... This meant common occurrences of earthquakes and storms. With floods and storms came landslides which often resulted in significant loss of life and social, economic, and environmental assets [3]. Given the impact of landslides on the lives of Filipinos, it was important to examine how this hazard is communicated to the people. ...
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Dynaslope Project, a government-funded program implemented by the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), develops and deploys an early warning system (EWS) for deep-seated landslides. It uses landslide sensor technology and community involvement in its EWS implementation in 50 sites all over the country. As the pandemic altered people’s modes of communication, it is important to understand how these changes relate to communicating landslide early warning information (LEWI). This research answered: How can the Dynaslope Project effectively communicate landslide risk during the COVID-19 pandemic? Specifically, it a) identified their preferred communication channels and tools during the pandemic, b) enumerated the stakeholders’ perceived participation and communication barriers, and c) measured the degree of trust of the stakeholders in the Project, the LEWI it released, and other key messages. This research was guided by the Actor-Network Theory and the concept of co-orientation which posited that, instead of a single entity defining a network or a system, it was the interactions between people, objects, and institutions that created a collective network and continuously negotiated a coherent understanding. The study employed a descriptive quantitative methodology. It used stratified random sampling to select the participants. Among the major findings include the stakeholders’ preference for offline communication like SMS and calls, the presence of communication and participation barriers including weak or no phone reception and limited access to up-to-date communication devices and the internet, and a high level of trust in the Dynaslope Project because it was implemented by a science-based national agency PHIVOLCS.
... In a matter of less than three decades, poverty incidence is down to 7.6% in 2018, which is significantly lower than the national average of 16.6% (PSA, 2018). Although agriculture still forms a significant share in Infanta's local economy, agriculture's contribution has dwindled over the years from 70% in 1996 (Thrupp, 1996) to 28% in 2014 (Acosta et al., 2016). This trend is consistent with macro-level trends in the Philippines of a shrinking agricultural sector with much of its labor force being absorbed by the service sector (Habito, 2016;World Bank, 2017a;ADB, 2020). ...
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In the agrifood systems of developing countries, local adaptation actions and pathways often interact with other climate and development responses, creating new trade-offs, uncertainties, and potentially maladaptive outcomes. While knowledge on the interacting pathways of adaptation is expanding, previous studies have focused on complex systems dynamics, and studies that address the human, social, and political forces that drive the cascading of risks between different coupled social-ecological systems are few. This paper aims to examine climate adaptation trade-offs, uncertainties, and maladaptation through an interdisciplinary analysis of two interacting pathways of transformational adaptation in the Philippines: the post 2004 disaster rural transformations in the coconut-producing municipality of Infanta and a state-led urban water resilience strategy for the capital region of Metro Manila. Data were collected from January 2021 to March 2022 through ethnographic field visits, participant observation, focus group discussions, semi-structured interviews, geospatial analysis, multicriteria mapping sessions, and review of planning documents and secondary data sources. Key findings suggest that the pathways of transformation and their entanglement are rooted in historical processes of change and that maladaptation is contingent on the political relations between the “central” and “peripheral” pathways. Overall, the paper offers a significant contribution to adaptation research in the agrifood systems of developing countries as it calls for a deeper kind of collective reflexivity and action that can transform narrow notions and practices of resilience and sustainable development.
... nuanced, occurring in emerging rather than established urban areas. These losses are also concentrated in rural regions that are more isolated where vulnerability is heightened due to lower incomes and dependence on locally based resource extraction economies, including farming and fishing [1]. In rural areas of the Philippines only 29% of people have never been poor, while in urban areas, including the National Capital Region (NCR), 76% have never been poor [5]. ...
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Storms continue to be the deadliest type of weather-related disasters globally. The Philippines is one of the most at risk countries to disasters, yet there continues to be gaps in understanding where and why people are killed in typhoons – the country's most prominent natural hazard. This research sought to understand how typhoon mortality varies across the Philippines at the municipal level, focusing on differences in rural and urban municipalities between 2005 and 2015. Generalised linear regression models (GLMs), including Poisson and negative binomial (NB), were used to analyse the relationship between typhoon mortality and level of urbanisation while controlling for social vulnerability and typhoon exposure. Findings indicate that typhoon mortality is disproportionality concentrated in emerging, rather than established, urban centres. Deaths from typhoons were significantly higher per capita in older age groups and amongst men, with drowning accounting for 71% of deaths, although there is uncertainty in these later trends which show the need for investment in national disaster databases. Our results make contributions to understanding of urban-rural patterns of disaster risk and the determinants of typhoon mortality in the Philippines.
... In the global context, only a few studies have been conducted on climate-induced loss and damage (Acosta et al., 2016;Clarke et al., 2021;Doelle & Seck, 2020;Singh et al., 2021;Thomas & Benjamin, 2020;Warner & van der Geest, 2013). Most of the studies on loss and damage focused on non-fishery related households due to the impacts of climatic hazards. ...
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Loss and damage have become a vital contemporary issue in climate change studies and actions in developing countries. However, studies are scant on this in the fisheries sector around the world. In Bangladesh, there is no study on the loss and damage in fisheries dependent communities. This study assesses economic and non-economic loss and damage to coastal shrimp farms due to cyclone Bulbul in Gabura Union of Shyamnagar Upazila, Satkhira district, using a mixed method approach. Results show that all shrimp farms’ dependent communities are affected by cyclone Bulbul to some extent. About 14%, 57%, and 29% of the farms were totally, heavily and moderately damaged due to farm inundation and dyke damage. The estimated mean loss and damage per shrimp farm was worth USD 4,633. Around 31% and 72% of the farms’ fencing nets and traps were lost, which was worth USD 333 per farm. There were also loss and damage to other resources such as houses, solar panels, livestock and agricultural crops where the estimated mean loss and damage per household was worth USD 3,170. This study reported that the rich shrimp farmers encountered proportionately more economic loss and damage than their poor counterparts. However, this does not mean that the poor suffered less. The current study found a range of non-economic loss and damage in different aspects of the shrimp farmers’ household members such as unbearable mental pain, deterioration of health, physical injuries, disabilities, etc. and access to services (e.g., inadequate food, lack of safe drinking water, lack of medical facilities, disruption of education systems), social infrastructure (e.g., damage of roads and markets) and disturbance of cultural functions. The findings suggest that urgent short- and long-term actions may be taken to save the aquaculture farms and dependent livelihoods from economic and non-economic loss and damage to cyclones in future.
Conference Paper
Lightning events are consequential in investigating meteorological phenomena. These prompted various scientific investigations and research efforts conducted across the globe along with the development of physical devices to locate, detect, track, and gather information about lightning. The need to analyze, visualize and share this information is easily attainable with the rise in technological platforms and the availability of open-source software. In the Philippines, since it is among the most disaster-prone countries in the world because of its geographical location, the government has taken steps to address the problem using the data collected from the sensors deployed throughout the country. These sensors record weather and lightning data every minute, and a daylong generated dataset can quickly become overwhelming when analyzed and interpreted. To better view and comprehend the weather and lightning data, we propose an interactive web application designed and constructed utilizing free and open-source software (FOSS) tools and frameworks such as Python, Django, ReactJS, and Leaflet.
Conference Paper
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Due to the geographic placement of the Philippines, an average of 20 typhoons visited the country every single year. These typhoons brought about major changes affecting economic interests, destroying properties, and claiming lives. With the lineup of typhoons Sendong (Washi) and Odette (Rai), the tropical depression Vicky (Krovanh), and the super typhoons Pablo (Bopha) and Yolanda (Haiyan), there is a need to reinforce efforts in managing the before, during, and after the onslaught scenario of these natural phenomena. The construction of Flood Control Structures (FCS) is a way to minimize or mitigate the effects of typhoons. The question would then be on whether or not these structures were effective. In this study, the FCS was evaluated by using the terrain of high-resolution LiDAR DTM integrated with the Elevation Models processed from UAS-acquired images and using it as input for HEC-RAS. A 60m-altitude was chosen during the image acquisition with an 80% endlap and sidelap. Only two FCS were available in the study area, and they will be evaluated in their flood extent per barangay. For the entirety of the study area, only two FCS in Maningalao and EG Montilla were available. The images were then processed using Agisoft Metashape Professional software to produce the DSM, DTM, and Orthomosaic of the FCS. DSM was used in the evaluation of the terrain with the FCS and DTM was integrated to the LiDAR DTM to represent the terrain without FCS. By using a hypothetical rainfall event of 25-year, 50-year and 100-year return periods, it was revealed that for the terrain without FCS in (1) Maningalao, the flood extent per return periods were 419.79 ha, 424.73, and 430.24 ha, respectively, and in (2) EG Montilla were 276.14 ha, 278.90 ha, and 280.42 ha, respectively. For the terrain with FCS, the extent for: (1) Maningalao were 417.72 ha, 424.55 ha, and 430.82 ha, respectively, and (2) EG Montilla were 275.93ha, 278.83 ha, and 280.41 ha, respectively. Between the simulation of the two terrains, there were clear differences for the 25-year period. However, during the 50-year return period, these differences were significantly reduced and during the 100-year return period, the differences were insignificant. Moreover, the study aimed to provide a map indicating the low to high susceptible areas to flooding for the establishment of flood control structures. After the determination of the seven parameters or factors that needed to be considered, a weighted overlay tool with weights set to equal influence was then used. A final map was then generated after adding a map constraint of the 100-year flood event map of the municipality. Results indicated that there are only 11 barangays that contain highly susceptible areas of which Poblacion and Maningalao are the only barangays whose highly susceptible sites lie in a riverbank of the Agusan River and Magus creek, respectively. Furthermore, it can be inferred from the resulting map that areas nearest to evacuation centers and dense residential buildings have been classified as more susceptible sites due to the narrowness and exclusivity of these parameters.
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Disaster loss indicators compatible with DesInventar Sendai were delineated to facilitate reporting to the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR), and enable monetary valuation of disaster impacts in Malaysia. A standard means of collecting disaggregated information to ensure compliance to SFDRR targets is a challenge for many governments. A systematic review of the literature facilitated the extraction of an array of disaster loss indicators, which were compared to four global disaster databases and three national datasets for compatibility. Suitable indicators, validated through focus group discussions, were used to develop a data collection template with embedded models, which enables rapid calculation of disaster loss after an event. The template will support the advancement of evidence-based policymaking and reporting to the SFDRR.
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This brief explores the range of approaches that can be deployed to address climate change induced loss and damage in Bangladesh
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This paper analyses the dynamics of devolution process in the management of the Philippine forestry sector over the last few decades. It synthesizes relevant policy documents, grey and published literature, results of multi-stakeholder consultations and interviews with selected people instrumental in the forestry devolution process. The study reveals that the forest devolution process is driven by a combination of environmental, socio-economic, and political factors both at the national and international levels. The dynamics, forms and effects of the devolution process are shaped by the interaction of multiple stakeholders and their varying interests and priorities thus making it a very complicated process, difficult to predict, and its outcomes, hard to control. Despite wide coverage of areas devolved to local communities totaling to close to 6 million hectares, the paper concludes that current nationwide outcomes of state-sponsored forest devolution in the Philippines is yet far from achieving its stated objectives. Recent experiences in terms of suspension of resource use rights and cancellation of Community-Based Forest Management Agreements (CBFMA) indicate that political interests at the national level remain to be the major basis for policy decisions over the local people’s needs. Despite current limitations, the Philippine experience offers some valuable lessons to other countries of similar situation on how state-sponsored forest devolution strategies could be enhanced to improve rural livelihoods and promote forest rehabilitation and protection.
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The paper discusses the concept, methods and application of the Crisis Probability Curves (CPCs) to assess vulnerability to droughts in selected regions in India, Portugal, and Russia using published data on susceptibility and water stress indices. The CPCs, which are estimated from regression models and represented in a diagram as contour plots, are a spatiotemporal vulnerability yardstick that estimates vulnerability levels and thresholds to the combined impacts of environmental stress and human susceptibility (or lack of adaptive capacity). As compared to the CPCs for Russia, those for India and Portugal tilt more towards the water stress axis. This implies that the level of vulnerability in the latter countries tends to be more sensitive to the changes in water stress level than socio-economic susceptibility. For a particular water stress level, however, the probability of crisis occurring in India is higher than in Portugal. India has thus the lowest vulnerability threshold. Using pooled and panel regression, the information for three case study regions was combined to develop a common measure of vulnerability thresholds. Building common or generic thresholds will allow comparison of vulnerability across regions, which can be useful for policy in terms of developing priority list for providing adaptation support in vulnerable regions. However, the results revealed that there is a risk of under-or overestimating vulnerability thresholds when comparing regions not only with different level, but also varying sources of vulnerability. Thus, more crucial than developing generic vulnerability thresholds is highlighting differential vulnerability through selection of appropriate susceptibility indicators.
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Forest ecosystems can both be sources and sinks of carbon. Here, we review the state of knowledge on carbon budgets of Philippine forests types. The following are the main findings of the review: Carbon (C) density in aboveground biomass (AGB) declines by about 50% after logging, deforested areas covered with grasses and annual crops have C density less than 15 MgC/ha, conversion of natural forests to tree plantations and perennial crops reduce C density by about 50%, reforestation activities in degraded areas increase C density with a mean annual accumulation of up to about 10 MgC/ha/yr for fast growing species and 3 MgC/ha/yr for slow growing species, and silvicultural treatments such as mycorrhizal inoculation can increase C accumulation. In spite of the new information generated in the last few years, there is still a great need to quantify carbon stocks and rate of sequestration of the various forest types in the country.
Three successive typhoons from November 13 to December 03, 2004 crippled the coastal towns of Real, Infanta, and General Nakar in Quezon and Dinggalan in Aurora. Extra ordinary heavy rains had brought flash floods, landslides, slope failure and debris flow which devastated the communities leaving numerous death and damages to properties. Due to the magnitude of disaster, the paper limited the discussion on Agos River which affected Infanta, Quezon, where three meter high flash floods rampaged the communities. In preparation of the rainy season, non-structural measures using local resources and means help lessen the danger pose by the unpredictable inclement weather. Local warning system engaging the participation of the residents, disaster awareness and evacuation procedures through timely information with the aide of hazard maps, establishment of evacuation centers in safe places, and reforestation of the basin are the urgent alternative suggestions to gnawing fear of another disaster.