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... La segunda variable que afecta al "éxito académico y social" es la "implicación de los progenitores en el centro educativo" (0,751) que presenta una influencia positiva. Este resultado se ha encontrado en Jeynes (2003Jeynes ( y 2005, Hill y Tyson (2009), Castro et al. (2015) o Tan et al. (2020), quienes describen la existencia de un efecto positivo cuando los progenitores asisten y participan en las actividades realizadas en el centro educativo. No obstante, otros estudios no han encontrado significativa esta relación (Jeynes, 2007;Mattingly et al., 2002). ...
... No obstante, la variable "nivel de ayuda a la tarea" no sufre ningún cambio significativo. Estas dos afirmaciones juntas evidencian la aceptación de la hipótesis principal que planteaba que la implicación familiar en el proceso de aprendizaje trae consigo beneficios de carácter social y académico, respaldado por estudios como los de Jeynes (2003de Jeynes ( , 2007de Jeynes ( , 2012, Castro et al., (2015) y Tan et al. (2020). ...
... Esta conclusión corrobora los resultados obtenidos en trabajos como los Tan et al. (2020), Martín-Lagos (2018) o Castro et al. (2015) donde se pone de manifiesto igualmente que la implicación de las familias desde el centro educativo, junto con las interrelaciones y vínculos que se crean en el mesosistema escuela-familias, es trascendente, sobre todo, cuando el objetivo primordial consiste en el éxito integral para el alumnado. ...
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Esta investigación, contextualizada en un entorno socioeconómico medio-bajo, propone un modelo estadístico que comprende la implicación familiar y el efecto de variables moderadoras. Asimismo, se crea y evalúa un Plan de Actuación para las familias y el alumnado fomentando la implicación familiar. El estudio con 231 estudiantes de 1.º y 3.º ESO (48,1% chicos y 51,9% chicas) adopta un diseño cuantitativo, longitudinal y cuasiexperimental, con un grupo de control y otro experimental, y datos pre y post intervención. Se recopila información sociodemográfica, familiar y emocional, junto con las calificaciones y las ausencias. Se estima un modelo causal de ecuaciones estructurales que relaciona el éxito académico y social, con variables emocionales, socioafectivas y cognitivas. El “éxito académico y social” está compuesto por la “implicación de los progenitores en la escuela” (0,826), el “rendimiento” (0,237) y el “sentimiento de pertenencia a la familia” (-0,297). Estando este último afectado por la “madurez emocional” (0,252) del estudiante. Después del Plan de Actuación aumenta del tamaño del efecto de la “implicación de los progenitores en la escuela” (+0,181) y del “sentimiento de pertenencia del alumnado a su familia” (+0,030) sobre el éxito académico y social, destacando la importancia de la implicación familiar durante Secundaria.
... Parental communication in children's affairs both at home and school is believed to improve children's well-being, academic achievement, and future productivity as postulated by Emerson et al. (2012). An assertion by Castro et al. (2015) identified a correlation between parental engagement levels and learning achievement in learners, as attributed to high academic aspirations, communication about the school, stimulation of reading habits and supervision of homework. The frequency of parentteacher contact worth of parent-teacher communication increases parents' understanding of the benefits of engaging in the education of children. ...
... Communication about the school, stimulation of reading habits, and supervision of homework is confirmed by Castro et al. (2015) to assist children in after-school mathematics activities. Parents take part in communications with the school and evaluation of their children's school mathematics activities' curriculum to help them learn. ...
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Parental Communication (PC) in children’s education is instrumental in determining achievement in learning outcomes; while appropriate parental engagement is related to positive learner achievement, inappropriate communication inhibits learner achievement in education. Parents in Chwele zone ECDE centres hardly provide feedback following communications from the school concerning their children’s progress, a scenario thought to be attributed to by lack of awareness. This study examined the effect of parental communication on learner achievement in mathematics activities in the Chwele zone. A descriptive survey design was employed, targeting 27 teachers in charge, and 2097 parents in 27 preschools. Convenience sampling was used to get 10 teachers in charge of preschools and 150 parents from the 10 centres as respondents. Questionnaires and interview guide tools were administered to the teachers in charge, and parents, respectively to collect data. The instruments were formulated from the study’s objectives and given to an expert to check their appropriateness. Some qualitative data were sorted, coded, and organised into various themes to quantify them. The quantitative data were analysed using means, frequencies, and percentages, presented by the use of tables, graphs, charts and descriptions guided by Lev Vygotsky’s theory of childhood psychological development. Findings indicated that the common form of communication by parents was note writing, at only 28% parents, or else only 19% parents visited centres, and 53% parents did not have time for that, registering a considerable rate of ignorance, as a hindrance in children’s mathematics activities’ instruction. It was concluded that parents communicated poorly in preschool mathematics activities matters. The study recommended that teachers should intensify parental sensitisation on fruitful modes of communication in order to maximise parental involvement in children’s satisfactory achievement in Mathematics activities
... Parental involvement in school affairs has a noticeable relationship with AA [41,42]. It enhances students' ability to cope with schooling activities and promotes appropriate behavioral attitudes that lead to success [43]. ...
... It enhances students' ability to cope with schooling activities and promotes appropriate behavioral attitudes that lead to success [43]. Parents who are more involved usually have higher expectations regarding their children's academic path, and these high expectations are linked to increased motivation for work and better results [42]. Participating in school activities seems to be more influential on AA for socioeconomically disadvantaged students [44,45], and schools play an essential role in helping develop parenting skills [46], helping to diminish the gap derived from pre-existing conditions of students' background. ...
Article
Academic achievement is of great interest to education researchers and practitioners. Several academic achievement determinants have been described in the literature, mostly identified by analyzing primary (sample) data with classic statistical methods. Despite their superiority, only recently have machine learning methods started to be applied systematically in this context. However, even when this is the case, the ability to draw conclusions is greatly hampered by the "black-box" effect these methods entail. We contribute to the literature by combining the efficiency of machine learning methods, trained with data from virtually every public upper-secondary student of a European country, with the ability to quantify exactly how much each driver impacts academic achievement on Mathematics and mother tongue, through the use of prototypes. Our results indicate that the most important general academic achievement inhibitor is the previous retainment. Legal guardian's education is a critical driver, especially in Mathematics; whereas gender is especially important for mother tongue, as female students perform better. Implications for research and practice are presented. Doi: 10.28991/ESJ-2022-SIED-010 Full Text: PDF
... legame tra parental involvement (coinvolgimento dei genitori) e i possibili benefici legati ad esso, come i risultati scolastici, la motivazione, il comportamento prosociale e il benessere degli studenti, cercando di comprendere perché alcuni tipi di coinvolgimento siano più influenti rispetto ad altri (Avvisati et al., 2014;Berkowitz et al., 2021;Castro et. al., 2015;Domina, 2005;Garbacz et al., 2018;Jeynes, 2017;Moroni et al., 2015). Diversi studi dell'OCSE -Organizzazione per la Cooperazione e lo Sviluppo Economico (OECD, 2016, 2019) -si sono soffermati sull'importanza della partecipazione dei genitori come partners attivi nel processo educativo e sulle strategie per incoraggiarne partecipazione e ...
... Molti degli studi sulla partecipazione dei genitori si sono concentrati sul concetto di coinvolgimento come motore del rendimento scolastico degli studenti, con l'obiettivo di stabilire in che misura il coinvolgimento possa contribuire a migliorare l'apprendimento degli studenti (Castro et al., 2015). I risultati appena esposti mostrano che i genitori contribuiscono a tale miglioramento, influenzando la qualità della motivazione dei propri figli, quando fanno percepire loro un buon livello di academic socialization, nello specifico quando parlano con loro delle attività scolastiche. ...
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This study aims to investigate the relation between students’ perception of their parental involvement in education and their motivation and well-being at school. For the survey, a parental involvement questionnaire (Clinton & Hattie, 2013) was adapted, administered to a sample of 361 middle school students, along with measures of motivation to learn and subjective well-being. Parental involvement, in terms of academic socialization (Hill & Tyson, 2009), includes communicating to students about expectations, aspirations and future plans, with stronger effects than other types of involvement (help with homework or meeting with teachers). The results show the positive effect of parental involvement on motivation and well-being at school, particularly when a greater discussion of school activities is perceived by students, bringing out differences between classes.
... Communication between teachers and parents in the Greek education environment creates a positive impact on both social institutions of school and family. Parents' participation in the education process is considered important when it takes place with a view of getting information about the child's learning progress, providing support to school activities and smooth operation (Castro et al., 2015;Wilder, 2014;Jeynes, 2016). According to studies, the benefits of communication between teachers and parents are reflected in the improvement of children's school performance ( Otani, 2019), in the improvement of their conduct in the school environment but also at home (Mata et al., 2018), in their social adjustment (Epstein, 2018; Thompson et al., 2017) and in the achievement of the ultimate goal, which is children's academic success (Jeynes, 2015;Castro et al., 2015;Lawson, 2003). ...
... Parents' participation in the education process is considered important when it takes place with a view of getting information about the child's learning progress, providing support to school activities and smooth operation (Castro et al., 2015;Wilder, 2014;Jeynes, 2016). According to studies, the benefits of communication between teachers and parents are reflected in the improvement of children's school performance ( Otani, 2019), in the improvement of their conduct in the school environment but also at home (Mata et al., 2018), in their social adjustment (Epstein, 2018; Thompson et al., 2017) and in the achievement of the ultimate goal, which is children's academic success (Jeynes, 2015;Castro et al., 2015;Lawson, 2003). ...
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This paper studies the advantages and reasons hindering communication between teachers and parents. Two hundred and twenty-two teachers and thirty-three primary school principals consider communication with parents important, because this communication creates a sense of security in students, improving their learning skills and conduct. Teachers consider that effective communication between teachers and parents benefits the school unit itself, contributing to its efficiency. The reasons hindering communication with parents mentioned by teachers include parents’ lack of time to visit the school unit, parents’ low social or education background, their children’s poor performance or conduct. Teachers disagree that the education system structure constitutes a problem in their communication with parents, stressing that many parents do not understand the importance of their communication with the school unit attended by their children. Finally, teachers consider guidance plays an important part, as it helps mitigate the problems hindering efficient communication between teachers and parents.
... Yet families can readily support early, informal STEM in already-existing family activities that include STEM, such as cooking, grocery shopping, outdoor play, and games (McClure et al., 2017;Pattison et al., 2020). Decades of empirical evidence shows that parental involvement in learning is related to children's academic achievement (Castro et al., 2015;Ma et al., 2016). Parents are more likely to get involved in their child's learning in preschool than later grades (Welsh et al., 2020), making this an important period for family engagement programs. ...
... These treatment findings and attendance patterns have implications for broader family engagement approaches. Parent involvement is linked to children's academic achievement (Castro et al., 2015;Ma et al., 2016). Although we found no significant effects of the TT STEM program, proving take-home family kits produced larger effect sizes. ...
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Broadening participation in early science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) learning outside of school is important for families experiencing poverty. We evaluated variations of the Teaching Together STEM pre-kindergarten program for increasing parent involvement in STEM learning. This informal STEM, family engagement program was offered in 20 schools where 92% of students received free/reduced lunch. The core treatment included a series of family education workshops, text messages, and family museum passes. The workshops were delivered at school sites by museum outreach educators. We randomly assigned schools to business-as-usual control or one of three additive treatment groups. Using an additive treatment design, we provided the core program in Treatment A, we added take-home STEM materials in Treatment B, and added materials + parent monetary rewards in Treatment C. The primary outcome was parent involvement in STEM (n = 123). There were no significant impacts of any treatment on parent involvement; however, the groups that added take-home materials had larger effect sizes on parent involvement at posttest (ES = −0.08 to 0.18) and later, kindergarten follow-up (ES = −0.01 to −0.34). Adding parent monetary rewards only produced short-term improvements in parent involvement that faded at follow-up. We discuss implications for other community-sponsored family engagement programs focused on informal STEM learning, including considering characteristics of families who were more versus less likely to attend. These null findings suggest that alternatives to in-person family education workshops should be considered when parents are experiencing poverty and have competing demands on their time.
... A number of reasons are put forward for the link between parental education and retention in school. Some researchers indicate that non-educated parents cannot provide the support or often do not appreciate the benefits of schooling [47]. They posit that parents' level of education instills passion for education in the parents which in turn assists in retaining the female. ...
... There is considerable evidence that parent engagement in their child's learning has positive effects on student achievement (Benner et al., 2016;Castro et al., 2015;Hill & Tyson, 2009). Parent engagement may be defined as the engagement of parents or primary carers in education-related activities that are expected to foster academic achievement and the social and emotional wellbeing of children (Fishel & Ramirez, 2005). ...
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This chapter examines parenthood, arguably one of the most significant life course transitions in an individual’s life with consequences not just for the adults involved, but also children whose developmental outcomes are strongly influenced by parenting styles, practices and resources. We examine how parenting practices are influenced by social disadvantage, including disadvantage at the individual, family and community levels, arguing that this influence is complex and multi-directional, with reciprocal associations among children, parents, family systems and the broader social and economic ecology. Parenting support programs are an important means of interrupting the intergenerational transmission of disadvantage, but these programs require rigorous evaluation to ensure optimal use of resources and outcomes for children. We conclude by drawing attention to the need for programs that support parenting across all stages of the life course, including during emerging adulthood and grandparenthood.
... There is considerable evidence that parent engagement in their child's learning has positive effects on student achievement (Benner et al., 2016;Castro et al., 2015;Hill & Tyson, 2009). Parent engagement may be defined as the engagement of parents or primary carers in education-related activities that are expected to foster academic achievement and the social and emotional wellbeing of children (Fishel & Ramirez, 2005). ...
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Married couples generally experience higher levels of subjective wellbeing than cohabiting couples or single people, though the relationship between wellbeing and partnering is context-specific. Marriage has different benefits for different demographic and subgroups and varies by gender, nativity, birth region, and country contexts. We find that across several measures of socioeconomic wellbeing, married individuals show better outcomes than their cohabiting counterparts and single individuals. Married individuals are more likely to be employed, own a home, and have access to emergency funds, net of various socioeconomic and demographic controls. These advantages remain even when we consider their outcomes after they have transitioned to marriage controlling for unobserved and observed bias. We find no substantive differences in health and wellbeing across individuals of different marital statuses. We conclude that policies aimed at supporting individuals to achieve fulfilling lives must recognise increased diversity in partnership arrangements and provide strong supports to those who choose not to pursue traditional marital arrangements.
... Over the last decade, much research attention has been paid to different factors affecting students' learning outcomes at the secondary education level. For instance, it has been documented that students' learning outcome is affected by factors such as parental involvement (Castro et al., 2015;Otani, 2019;Tazouti & Jarlégan, 2019), methods of teaching (Robert & Owan, 2019;Wilder, 2015), parents' socioeconomic status (Lee, 2022), teachers' use of instructional materials (Ihejiamaizu & Ochui, 2019;Owan, Agurokpon et al., 2022) and principals' leadership techniques (Cornelissen & Smith, 2022;Jang & Alexander, 2022;Owan & Agunwa, 2019;Owan, Asuquo et al., 2022). ...
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Research has assessed the diverse characteristics of principals and teachers in analysing students' educational outcomes at various levels. However, these studies often focus on the cognitive domain of learning, ignoring the affective and psychomotor aspects. Bridging this gap, we used hierarchical linear regression to link two inputs of teachers and administrators to students' learning outcomes generally and across the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. A total of 1,872 respondents comprising school principals (N = 87), teachers (n = 870), and senior secondary class II (SSII) students (n = 915) from 87 public secondary schools in Calabar Education Zone, Nigeria, participated in the study. Three sets of questionnaires were used for data collection. The questionnaires all had acceptable item and scale content validity indices. Principal Axis Factoring and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were used to assess the dimensionality and acceptability of the established models. Reliability was determined using the Cronbach alpha approach for internal consistency. Results indicated (relatively and cumulatively) that teachers' attitudes to work and social relations significantly predicted students' educational outcomes generally and across the three learning domains. Attitude to work was the strongest predictor of the two teachers' input. Also, administrators' leadership styles and attitudes towards accountability (relatively and jointly) predicted students' learning outcomes holistically and across the three domains significantly. Leadership style was the most substantial administrators' input, trailed by their attitude towards accountability. The study has practical implications for teachers to adjust their work attitudes and social relations and for principals to be accountable and maintain effective leadership practices in schools.
... There are many different causes leading to someone being labelled as 'unsuccessful at school' . Causes of school failure with three broad groups of factors: family (parents' education level, parents' employment, material income, number of household members, completeness of the family, psychosocial climate in the family, family relations, parents' expectations) (Castro et al., 2015;Fan et al., 2011); school (teachers' preparation for educational work and the quality pp. 277-297 of that work, organization of teaching, application of modern methods, forms and tools in teaching, interpersonal relations between students and teachers, general atmosphere in the school, expectations of teachers) (Asikhia, 2010); and students' personal characteristics (intelligence, values, interests, expectations) (Saklofske et al., 2012;Topor et al., 2010). ...
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Understanding the factors which affect students' school achievement is an important knowledge source for strategic planning and encouraging changes in education. In this paper, we focused on examining the factors related to personal characteristics. The aim of this research was to determine the relation between school failure and achievements in certain functional abilities, such as: academic skills (reading, writing), attention, communication (receptive and expressive speech), class participation, and behavior. The sample included 195 younger school-age children of both genders. Students' functional abilities were assessed by the S.I.F.T.E.R. scale (Screening Instrument for Targeting Educational Risk). The results showed that school achievement correlated with all assessed functional abilities. The coefficient of multiple determination showed that 48% of individual differences in children's school achievement can be explained by individual differences in the given model of functional abilities. It should also be emphasized that only two functional abilities, attention and communication, were singled out as statistically significant particular predictors.
... There is considerable evidence that parent engagement in their child's learning has positive effects on student achievement (Benner et al., 2016;Castro et al., 2015;Hill & Tyson, 2009). Parent engagement may be defined as the engagement of parents or primary carers in education-related activities that are expected to foster academic achievement and the social and emotional wellbeing of children (Fishel & Ramirez, 2005). ...
Chapter
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Adolescence is a time when developmental and contextual transitions converge, increasing the risk for adverse outcomes across the life course. It is during this period that self-concept declines, mental health problems increase and when young people make educational and occupational plans for their future. Considerable research has shown that parent engagement in their child’s learning has positive effects on academic and wellbeing outcomes and may be a protective factor in adolescence. However, it is during adolescence that parent engagement typically declines. Most studies focus on early childhood or use cross-sectional designs that do not account for the high variability in both the child’s development and the parent-child relationship over time. In this chapter, we examine the association between parent engagement and students’ outcomes—self-concept, mental health, and educational aspirations—drawing on national data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, while accounting for the school context—school belonging, peer connection problems, and bullying—and parenting styles using panel fixed effects models. We then explore perceptions of parental engagement and educational aspirations among a sample of adolescent students from highly disadvantaged backgrounds using interviews from the Learning through COVID-19 study. Findings show that parent engagement is important for students’ outcomes such as self-concept, mental health and aspirations in early and middle adolescence, even when accounting for family and school context factors. Further, parent engagement in late adolescence, with students from highly disadvantaged backgrounds, continues to be important for positive student outcomes.
... Parental involvement in children's education is widely acknowledged as a crucial factor influencing youth development. In particular, parental involvement has been found to coincide with children's academic achievement (Castro et al., 2015;Fan & Chen, 2001;Jeynes, 2003Jeynes, , 2012Jeynes, , 2015Jeynes, , 2016Jeynes, , 2017Kim, 2020;Kim et al., 2019;Ma et al., 2016). After the transition from primary to secondary school, the importance of academic achievement continuously increases (e.g., Barber & Olsen, 2004). ...
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Background. The relation between parental involvement and student achievement has been of research interest for many decades. Although the idea of reciprocal processes between parent and child was proposed 40 years ago, very few efforts have been made to investigate reciprocal relations between parental involvement and student achievement. Aims. Using Self-Determination Theory, this study investigated the longitudinal associations of the manner of parental involvement (i.e., autonomy-supportive or controlling) in children’s academic problems with children’s academic achievement. This study further addressed the recently intensely debated methodological issue of examining reciprocal relations by comparing a random intercept cross-lagged panel model (RI-CLPM) with the traditional cross-lagged panel model (CLPM). Sample and Methods. A RI-CLPM and a traditional CLPM were applied to 5-year longitudinal data including 1,465 secondary school students (Mage at T1 = 10.82 years, SD = 0.62). In both models, we controlled for students’ gender, school type, socioeconomic status, and cognitive ability. Results. The results show that the RI-CLPM fitted the data better than the CLPM. Trait-like stability was found for both forms of parental involvement and academic achievement. At the between-person level, controlling involvement related to lower achievement, whereas no correlation between autonomy-supportive involvement and achievement was found. At the within-person level, there were positive reciprocal relations between autonomy-supportive involvement and achievement, whereas controlling involvement was not associated with achievement. Conclusions. This study contributes substantially to the understanding of the relations between parental involvement in children’s academic problems and children’s academic achievement by simultaneously taking between-person differences and within-person processes into consideration.
... Ces deux formes d'implication parentale à domicile ont pour seul objectif, la réussite scolaire de l'apprenant. Même si certaines études ont émis des réserves par rapport à l'effet de l'implication parentale sur le rendement scolaire (Castro et al. 2015, Wilder 2014, in Arapi, Pagé et Hamel 2018, p.99), le consensus des chercheurs penche pour l'effet positif de l'implication parentale sur le rendement scolaire. En d'autres termes, les cours de répétition à domicile, les aides aux devoirs et les contrôles des cahiers à domicile influencent positivement les résultats scolaires chez les écoliers du primaire. ...
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Parent involvement is theoretically known to contribute to children’s educational success; consequently, the lack of or poor parent involvement may potentially cause school failure. The current research aims at testing this proposition by comparing two primary schools that serve the same area of Glo-Djigbé in Abomey-Calavi municipality: Ste Marcelline Catholic school, where parent involvement is part of the school culture, and Glo-Djigbé/A public primary, consonant with poor parent involvement. A mixed methodological approach consisted of the use of a questionnaire, semi-directed interview, and direct observation, enabling the comparison of the practices of occurring parent involvement and the school performance of fifth and sixth graders in both schools; altogether, a sample of 124 different stakeholders took part in the research. As a result, the school with higher parent involvement (95%) got total success for all their candidates in the CEP national exam, constantly in five successive years, whereas the second school with poor parent involvement tried to obtain 73% of its candidates to pass within the same period. Though the positive effect of parent involvement
... There is considerable evidence that parent engagement in their child's learning has positive effects on student achievement (Benner et al., 2016;Castro et al., 2015;Hill & Tyson, 2009). Parent engagement may be defined as the engagement of parents or primary carers in education-related activities that are expected to foster academic achievement and the social and emotional wellbeing of children (Fishel & Ramirez, 2005). ...
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In this chapter, we describe the life course approach and explain key concepts and principles. We also review variations in life course theory across disciplines including differences in terminology and understanding of core elements of life course theory. We outline why the life course approach is useful for examining intergenerational transmission of inequality and why a focus on family background is important. We review research on intergenerational inequality, family dynamics and variations across social groups and conclude by briefly outlining new directions in life course theory toward a more integrated theoretical framework.
... It belongs to a category of social cognition, including the sender and the expected. When the two are the same individual, it is called "self-education expectation, " and when the expectation is sender by parents and the expectation is expected by children, it is called "parental education expectation" (Wang and Benner, 2014;Castro et al., 2015). The identity control theory points out (Peter, 1991) that parental education expectation is seen as a reflective evaluation of important others, and it is an important type of social environment information input; self-education expectation is regarded as an individual's identification standard of the current social role. ...
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The current study uses a two-wave longitudinal survey to explores the influence mechanism of the family environment on adolescents’ academic achievement. The family environment is measured by parents and children’s reports, including family atmosphere, parent–child interaction, and family rules, to reveal the mediating effect of adolescents’ positive or negative peers between the family environment and academic achievement, and whether the gap between self- and parental educational expectation plays a moderating effect. This study uses the data of the China Education Panel Study (CEPS); the survey samples include 9,449 eighth-grade students (Mage = 13.55 years, SD = 0.70), establishing a multilevel moderated mediating effect model. The results showed (1) the family environment and peer interaction quality can positively predict adolescents’ academic achievement. (2) Using the KHB test, peer interaction quality plays a partial mediating role in the process of family environment positively affecting academic achievement, and the mediating ratio is 27.5%. (3) The educational expectation gap moderates the effect of the family environment on academic achievement and also on peer interaction quality. Therefore, from the perspective of environment and important others, to correctly grasp the academic achievement of junior high school students in the process of socialization, it is necessary to recognize that the family environment, peer interaction quality, and educational expectation gap play an important role.
... Additional research has also shown that involving families in their children's education, particularly when the child is at an early age, can positively influence a child's performance in school and beyond (Castro, M. et al., 2015;Fan & Chen, 2001). In particular, research suggests that collaboration between students and adults, as well as with peers, during technology use is beneficial to student learning (Heft and Swaminathan, 2002;NAEYC and FRC, 2012;Zur, 2015). ...
... Parental involvement refers to the parents' tendency to be involved in child rearing and school activities. It is one of the central aspects of parenting (e.g., Shelton et al., 1996) and is related to a range of adaptive outcomes for children and adolescents in psychological, behavioral, and academic domains (Brody & Flor, 1998;Castro et al., 2015;Eckshtain et al., 2010;Kawabata et al., 2011;Parent et al., 2014). Similarly, positive reinforcement is another adaptive parenting behavior, representing the degree to which parents show interest in and offer reinforcement for a child's desirable behaviors (e.g., complementing a child when the child does something well; . ...
Article
A large body of research has shown that parents play a vital role in the development of adolescents' depression. However, previous research has overlooked the effects of a potentially critical factor, namely, parental perceptions, and beliefs about adolescents' depression. The present study examined whether parental perceptions of an adolescent's depressive symptoms predict longitudinal changes in adolescents' symptoms (i.e., the parental perception effect). The longitudinal relationship between adolescents' depressive symptoms and parental perceptions of the adolescents' symptoms was analyzed in three independent groups of parent-adolescent pairs (in total N = 1,228). Parental perception and monitoring effects were found in Studies 1B and 2 only in the depressive mood subscale. While a decreased enjoyment subscale showed a perception effect in Study 1A, we obtained null results from other studies. We synthesized the results by applying meta-analytic structural equation modeling to obtain a more robust estimate. The analysis qualified both perception and monitoring effects in both subscales. Our results suggest that when parents believe that their adolescent child is depressed, adolescents are cognitively biased by their parental perceptions over time, resulting in more severe depressive symptoms. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... There is considerable evidence that parent engagement in their child's learning has positive effects on student achievement (Benner et al., 2016;Castro et al., 2015;Hill & Tyson, 2009). Parent engagement may be defined as the engagement of parents or primary carers in education-related activities that are expected to foster academic achievement and the social and emotional wellbeing of children (Fishel & Ramirez, 2005). ...
Chapter
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The period during which young people are financially and residentially dependent on their parents is lengthening and extending into adulthood. This has created an in-between period of “emerging adulthood” where young people are legal adults but without the full responsibilities and autonomy of independent adults. There is considerable debate over whether emerging adulthood represents a new developmental phase in which young people invest in schooling, work experiences, and life skills to increase their later lifetime chances of success or a reflection of poor economic opportunities and high living costs that constrain young people into dependence. In this chapter we examine the incidence of emerging adulthood and the characteristics and behaviours of emerging adults, investigating data from the Household, Income, and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. We find that a majority of young Australians who are 22 years old or younger are residentially and financial dependent on their parents and thus, emerging adults. We also find that a substantial minority of 23- to 25-year-olds meet this definition and that the proportion of young people who are emerging adults has grown over time. Emerging adults have autonomy in some spheres of their lives but not others. Most emerging adults are enrolled in school. Although most also work, they often do so through casual jobs and with low earnings. Young people with high-income parents receive co-residential and financial support longer than young people with low-income parents. Similarly, non-Indigenous young people and young people from two-parent families receive support for longer than Indigenous Australians or young people from single-parent backgrounds. The evidence strongly supports distinguishing emerging adulthood from other stages in the life course.
... There is considerable evidence that parent engagement in their child's learning has positive effects on student achievement (Benner et al., 2016;Castro et al., 2015;Hill & Tyson, 2009). Parent engagement may be defined as the engagement of parents or primary carers in education-related activities that are expected to foster academic achievement and the social and emotional wellbeing of children (Fishel & Ramirez, 2005). ...
Chapter
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Having a job is an important indicator of economic and social wellbeing, and two-earner families are becoming the norm rather than the exception. As a result, many more women, including mothers, are in the labour force now than ever before. Balancing family and work responsibilities therefore becomes ever more important, not just for women but also men who are sharing the caring load with their partners, especially when young pre-school children are present. However, employment is not equally distributed across families, and some families have noone in a job which leads to financial vulnerability. Even one-earner families that depend on a low-skilled, low-wage earner may struggle to get by and provide their children with the opportunities to succeed in life and achieve mental, physical and financial wellbeing. This may lead to the intergenerational transmission of disadvantage and poor outcomes from parents to children. Gender inequality and ongoing inequalities relating to gender divisions in work and family may lead to women being particularly vulnerable in terms of earnings capacity and retirement savings when a relationship ends. One-parent families are specifically at risk as they often have no partner with whom to share the care-taking role, making work-family balance difficult to achieve. In this chapter we review the Australian evidence on these issues and provide policy implications.
... There is considerable evidence that parent engagement in their child's learning has positive effects on student achievement (Benner et al., 2016;Castro et al., 2015;Hill & Tyson, 2009). Parent engagement may be defined as the engagement of parents or primary carers in education-related activities that are expected to foster academic achievement and the social and emotional wellbeing of children (Fishel & Ramirez, 2005). ...
Chapter
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Whether the children of immigrant populations, including refugees, integrate into the host society is a key challenge facing all countries with large immigrant populations. In Australia, this is crucial given rising numbers and anxieties over refugee settlement in recent decades. Forced migration and displacement due to violence, persecution, or natural disasters with families undertaking perilous journeys fleeing their homes often could mean a turning point and at the same time a stressful event that may have severe negative psychosocial and long-term effects. This can be particularly acute among refugee children, who are typically the least prepared to migrate, have experienced hardship associated with violence and persecution, and must grow up in a new country. From a life course perspective, the integration and wellbeing of refugee children is shaped by the timing and context of migration, including their age at migration and country of origin. In this chapter we draw on longitudinal data from Building a New Life in Australia (BNLA) to offer new evidence in our understanding of the integration and wellbeing of refugee children in Australia and policy recommendations to address the social disadvantages facing this population. Our findings indicate that refugee children are outperforming their parents, making intergenerational progress. However, we find some major differences by gender and national origin across a range of outcomes.
... In fact, some researchers found that increases in parent involvement did not predict changes in elementary school children's academic achievement (Carmichael & MacDonald, 2016;El Nokali, Bachman, & Votruba-Drzal, 2010). According to some researchers (Castro et al., 2015;Ma, Shen, Krenn, Hu & Yuan, 2016;Wilder, 2014), there is a positive relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement generally. Nonetheless, the strength of the relationship varies depending on the specific definitions of parental involvement and achievement used in the study. ...
... The ramifications are evident as one parent states, 'If you don't give them something to do they'll just get into trouble' (Williams, 2010). In addition to play and activities, home involvement with school/homework is helpful to success (Castro et al., 2015;Dong et al., 2020;Tan et al., 2019), as is a consistent parenting style for disciplining daily study and lifestyle habits (Kaiser et al., 2019). Generally, children's academic scores increase if they come from parents that are gainfully employed, encourage reading in the home and role model purposeful behaviour (Agupusi, 2019). ...
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Sole parenthood has been rising and more than one third of sole parents live in poverty and experience housing stress. Housing and the wider environment in which sole parent families find themselves influences their wellbeing and ability to succeed (social mobility). This study is an examination of the effect of housing stress on sole parents and their perspectives about housing solutions as a social impact strategy. The research design combined: 1. A literature review about housing stress and its effect in causing a deterioration of well-being, welfare dependency and poverty, and 2. Interviews with six sole parents about whether they experienced a deterioration in well-being as a result of housing stress and how housing could have improved their life-course. The data gathered was analysed using World Health Organisation guidelines and social impact factors. The findings suggest that the majority of sole parents require a socialised environment (intergenerational living) to break the cycle of disadvantage, rather than independent, isolatory living conditions. This has implications for how community housing is delivered in Australia for sole parent families. Visualising a pathway out of poverty was found to be key for feelings of self-efficacy and thereby empowering earning, learning and parental aspirations. Housing must address four major themes for it to be transformational 1. economical, 2. aspirational, 3. relational and 4. appropriately designed. Sole parents want to live in a community with a social impact culture and sense of determination for achieving goals. This study recommends that future research should examine the symbiotic placement of sole parents and children with seniors into community housing (social mixing for social impact). Market failure to supply affordable accommodation requires a policy response from Government to ensure sole parents can self-actualise a pathway out of poverty.
... A substantial body of research shows that the benefits of education are maximised when parents and teachers work together (Pushor & Amendt, 2018). These benefits include improved literacy (Egbert & Salisbury, 2009), greater academic success (Castro et al., 2015;McCoach et al., 2010), increased self-esteem (Albright & Weissberg, 2009), and improved well-being (El Nokali, Bachman, & Votruba-Drzal, 2010). ...
Chapter
Parent-teacher collaborations have important benefits for students and may be especially beneficial for children with disability in inclusive settings. At the secondary level of schooling, collaborations can be more difficult to achieve because of developmental expectations for older students and more complex school structures. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of parent-teacher collaborations that are based on mutual trust, respect and understanding. Drawing on data from a recent study of parents and teachers in inclusive secondary schools, we focus on obstacles to successful partnerships. For parents, these obstacles include poor communication and lack of trust. Teachers often appear to view parents as needy and demanding, without acknowledging the potential value of their input. We conclude that parents and teachers seem to be differently invested in the development of collaborative relationships and that meaningful partnerships cannot be achieved without parental input being actively sought, valued and enabled by teachers.
... Despite evidence of the impact of parental involvement on children's learning and development (DCSF 2008;Castro et al. 2015), it seems initial teacher education programmes (ITE) do not prepare thoroughly enough their future teachers for such an important work (De Bruïne et al. 2014;Epstein 2013). In fact, pre-service teachers' preparation for family-school partnerships (FSP) in ITE is still a challenge . ...
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The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of embedding the computer-based 'Parent, Family, and Community Engagement Simulation Series' within teacher education curricula in higher education institutions in the US and in Spain. A quantitative survey design was used to explore student teachers' perceptions of the simulation experience. The sample consisted of 95 undergraduate education students from Chicago State University (US) and Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (Spain). Participants attended a session where they played a 21-34-minute simulation, and afterwards completed an online questionnaire. As a result of the study, it was found that the simulation helps students learn strategies to promote family engagement and deepen their knowledge to promote positive, goal-oriented relationships with families. Based on the results, it can be asserted that the simulation also supports student teachers' in-depth learning when practicing active listening skills and relationship-building strategies.
... School performance in childhood and adolescence is associated with a variety of external factors within the individual's social environment (e.g., Berkowitz et al., 2017;Castro et al., 2015;Christenson et al., 1992;Hattie, 2009;Thomson, 2018). Family and home characteristics are amongst the most frequently discussed potential influences on academic outcomes, thus they may be relevant factors to understand how interindividual differences in school performance arise. ...
Preprint
Early exposure to home chaos relates to poor school performance. This is often interpreted as a causal influence in educational research, however underlying common genetic and environmental factors might affect both constructs, thus confound the effect. Genetics explain about 60% of variation in school performance, while (non-) shared environment constitutes the remaining variance. Also differences in home chaos – often considered an “environmental” factor – are partially influenced genetically. Thus, we investigate the presumed causal effect of home chaos on school grades, while controlling for genetic and environmental confounders. We analyzed longitudinal data on school grades and home chaos in the TwinLife study (twins aged 11 and 13). Applying a biometric cross-lagged model allowed us to combine variance decomposition with estimating stability, correlational and cross-lagged paths while controlling for genetic and environmental confounders. Results suggest that genetic confounding fully explains the effects of chaos on grades, also implying mechanisms of gene-environment interplay.
... The importance of family factors in the explanation of academic achievement has also been analysed in this study, as the relationship between parents and children can be one of the most significant throughout a person's life (Vasquez et al., 2016). Regarding said factors, the overall results are, again, in line with the findings of existing reviews, which reveal a mediumlow predictive capacity for this dimension (Sirin, 2005;Castro et al., 2015;Pinquart, 2016;Vasquez et al., 2016;Tan, 2017). However, in contrast to the similar patterns which personal variables follow in each of the countries analysed, there are notable differences between the explanatory capacity of family variables across the territories. ...
Article
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The explanation of underachievement and the search for its associated factors have been of constant interest in educational research. In this regard, the number of variables that have been involved in its description and explanation has increased over the years, as has the number of studies at an international level on this topic. Although much research has focused on identifying the personal, family, and school aspects that exert the greatest influence on students’ low academic performance, the literature shows the need to study the differential effects of said variables according to the countries in which the studies are conducted. The objective of this article is therefore to analyse cross-national differences in the effect of personal, family, and school characteristics on students’ academic underachievement based on data derived from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018. Furthermore, it aims to identify the profile that characterises students with the lowest academic performance and to estimate the importance of the selected variables in explaining low achievement across countries. To reach these goals, the multivariate technique of decision trees through the binary CART (Classification and Regression Trees) algorithm was used, allowing the estimation of both a global model and nine specific models for each of the selected countries. The results show that, despite slight differences between the countries analysed, the variables that define the general profile of students with the lowest achievement and which have shown the strongest predictive capacity for low performance are mainly linked to the students themselves. These variables are followed in importance by family aspects, which present great differences between the territories that compose the sample. Finally, teacher and school variables have shown to have a low explanatory capacity in this study. It can therefore be concluded that, although personal characteristics continue to be those that best explain academic performance, a series of contextual variables, especially related to families, appear to influence academic achievement differentially and may even hide or cancel out certain personal characteristics.
... In common sense, we could think contribution of parenting as the dynamic support in all parts of their kids' emotional, social and educational growth. Parental contribution can be a lever to boost the educational achievements (Castro et al., 2015). ...
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This study intended to explore the impact of different parenting styles on academic achievements of the university students. Randomly selected 91 male and 109 female students from different departments of the Islamia University of Bahawalpur were participated in the study. The data was collected with their consent through two scales. The first scale was parental Authority Questionnaire Revised version used to measure Parental authority. Second was Academic Performance scale which used to measure academic performance of students. The results were derived through statistical analysis of the data, using SPSS software. As hypothesized, it was found out that the authoritative parenting style boosts the academic achievements of the university students. Parenting styles also have significant impact on the academic achievements. Gender and family system was found significantly different but the locality of the students was insignificant. Present research has contributed in gaining the deeper understanding of the constructs understudy.
... There is considerable evidence that parent engagement in their child's learning has positive effects on student achievement (Benner et al., 2016;Castro et al., 2015;Hill & Tyson, 2009). Parent engagement may be defined as the engagement of parents or primary carers in education-related activities that are expected to foster academic achievement and the social and emotional wellbeing of children (Fishel & Ramirez, 2005). ...
Chapter
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In this chapter we use rich longitudinal data to examine the typical growth of vocabulary in children as they age from 4 years onwards. Vocabulary is a robust indicator of language development and of early cognitive growth. The data demonstrate the surprising variability among children of similar ages in their early cognitive growth. This variability leads to difficulties in predicting early vulnerability and in subsequently selecting children for targeted interventions. By examining the developmental circumstances that accelerate or retard changes in the growth of this aspect of language development we assess the implications of the findings for the subsequent population reach and actual participation of children in programs designed to reach those who are variously vulnerable.
... There is considerable evidence that parent engagement in their child's learning has positive effects on student achievement (Benner et al., 2016;Castro et al., 2015;Hill & Tyson, 2009). Parent engagement may be defined as the engagement of parents or primary carers in education-related activities that are expected to foster academic achievement and the social and emotional wellbeing of children (Fishel & Ramirez, 2005). ...
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In this chapter we provide a brief summary of the key themes of the book, identify emerging directions and challenges in life course theory and data designs and highlight some policy challenges for researchers going forward.
... There is considerable evidence that parent engagement in their child's learning has positive effects on student achievement (Benner et al., 2016;Castro et al., 2015;Hill & Tyson, 2009). Parent engagement may be defined as the engagement of parents or primary carers in education-related activities that are expected to foster academic achievement and the social and emotional wellbeing of children (Fishel & Ramirez, 2005). ...
Chapter
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The intergenerational transmission of socio-economic status is driven to a significant extent through parents with higher socio-economic status providing advantages to their children as they move through the education system. At the same time, attainment of higher education credentials constitutes an important pathway for upwards social mobility among individuals from low socio-economic family backgrounds. Given the critical importance of higher education for socio-economic outcomes of children, this chapter focuses on young people’s journeys into and out of university. Drawing on the life course approach and opportunity pluralism theory, we present a conceptual model of the university student life cycle that splits individuals’ higher education trajectories into three distinct stages: access, participation and post-participation. Using this model as a guiding framework, we present a body of recent Australian evidence on differences in pathways through the higher education system among individuals from low and high socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds. In doing so, we pay attention to factors such as family material circumstances, students’ school experiences and post-school plans, and parental education and expectations—all of which constitute important barriers to access, participation and successful transitions out of higher education for low SES students. Overall, our results indicate that socio-economic background plays a significant role in shaping outcomes at various points of individual’s educational trajectories. This is manifested by lower chances amongst low-SES individuals to access and participate in higher education, and to find satisfying and secure employment post-graduation. Our findings bear important implications for educational and social policy.
... There is considerable evidence that parent engagement in their child's learning has positive effects on student achievement (Benner et al., 2016;Castro et al., 2015;Hill & Tyson, 2009). Parent engagement may be defined as the engagement of parents or primary carers in education-related activities that are expected to foster academic achievement and the social and emotional wellbeing of children (Fishel & Ramirez, 2005). ...
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Loneliness is emerging as a significant issue in modern societies with impacts on health and wellbeing. Many of the existing studies on loneliness focus on its contemporaneous correlates. Drawing on life course and cumulative disadvantage theory and data from qualitative interviews with 50 older adults living in the community, we examine how past events shape variations in later-life loneliness. We identify four factors that are of significance for understanding loneliness: (1) Formation of social networks; (2) history of familial support; (3) relocation and migration, and (4) widowhood and separation. Our findings point to the importance of maintenance of social ties over the adult life course while at the same time highlighting how disruptions to social networks impact on later-life loneliness. We also find that loneliness and disadvantage, like other social or health outcomes, compound over time.
... There is considerable evidence that parent engagement in their child's learning has positive effects on student achievement (Benner et al., 2016;Castro et al., 2015;Hill & Tyson, 2009). Parent engagement may be defined as the engagement of parents or primary carers in education-related activities that are expected to foster academic achievement and the social and emotional wellbeing of children (Fishel & Ramirez, 2005). ...
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There is an emerging academic and public policy discourse about better research engagement, impact and policy translation. In this chapter we examine the place of research in making ‘real world’ impact on the social policies and practices affecting Australian families, especially the transmission of (dis)advantage over the life course and across generations. We begin by briefly reflecting on the influence of ‘policy research’ in shaping Australia’s early social development through the 1907 Basic Wage Case by Justice Higgins (The Harvester judgement), which placed the intersection of work and family life at the centre of economic and social policy debates. While historical, these reforms laid the foundations for what can be seen as tentative life course social policy frameworks engaged in the dynamics of family life from birth to death, changing family structures, and increasing economic and gender inequality. We then examine selected historical and contemporary social policy episodes consistent with the book’s central themes where research from academia, the public sector and civil society has been impactful in key national and state-based policy systems such as social security, balancing work and family, child care, addressing gender inequality and support for vulnerable and complex families.
... There is considerable evidence that parent engagement in their child's learning has positive effects on student achievement (Benner et al., 2016;Castro et al., 2015;Hill & Tyson, 2009). Parent engagement may be defined as the engagement of parents or primary carers in education-related activities that are expected to foster academic achievement and the social and emotional wellbeing of children (Fishel & Ramirez, 2005). ...
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Connection with Country, community, and culture lies at the heart of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ health and wellbeing. Although there is some evidence on the role of cultural identity on the mental health of Indigenous adults, this relationship is relatively unexplored in the context of Indigenous Australian children. Robust empirical evidence on the role of cultural identity for social and emotional wellbeing is necessary to design and develop effective interventions and approaches for improving the mental health outcomes for Indigenous Australian children. Drawing on data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC), we explore social and emotional wellbeing in Indigenous Australian children and assesses whether cultural identity protects against social-emotional problems in Indigenous children. The results show that Indigenous children with strong cultural identity and knowledge are less likely to experience social and emotional problems than their counterparts. Our work provides further evidence to support the change from a deficit narrative to a strengths-based discourse for improved health and wellbeing of Indigenous Australian children.
Article
Purpose Instructional leadership is an educational leadership approach in which principals are regularly and actively involved in a wide range of activities aimed at improving teaching and learning. The current study sought to answer how the principal's role in promoting parental involvement is part of their instructional leadership responsibility. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 24 Israeli principals. Data analysis was a three-step process: sorting, coding, and categorizing. Findings This study revealed that principals encouraged two types of parental involvement: academic-oriented, designed to support student learning and achievement, and non-academic-oriented, designed to accomplish other goals. From the instructional leadership perspective, principals should mainly prioritize academic-oriented parental involvement. Implications and further research are discussed. Originality/value The question of how the role of principals in encouraging parental involvement can become a part of principals' instructional leadership has not yet been explored. The present study narrows this gap in the existing research literature.
Article
The demand for logistics is increasing rapidly these days, thus the knowledge of logistics plays an important role. There are many types of businesses involving logistic activities which require competent logisticians. Students who graduate from logistics or supply chain programmes are expected to have the knowledge of logistics when they work and later become competent. There is a gap where logistics programmes at higher education institutions need relevant curriculum so that the graduates excel not only in theory but also in practical subjects. This research paper aims to explore the perceptions of undergraduate students on the knowledge of logistics in a Malaysian private university. A Theory of Education Productivity is adopted as guidance in the study. Three independent factors are derived from the theory, namely aptitude, instruction and environment. Using non-probability sampling and regression analysis, these three factors have an influence on the knowledge of logistics for undergraduates. Implications of the findings are also discussed.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to propose and examine the relationship between students’ perception of service quality and dimensions and their academic achievement. Design/methodology/approach Based on the resource-based view, a conceptual relationship between service quality and dimensions and academic achievement is proposed and tested with a sample of 380 STEM university students who attended secondary schools in a region of Spain. Findings Service quality and four of its dimensions (i.e. empathy, reliability, responsiveness and assurance/confidence) could contribute to students’ academic achievement. The expected effect of tangible elements on academic achievement was not supported by the data. Results were controlled for student’s personal factors that have proven important in explaining academic achievement in previous studies (i.e. need for cognition, need for emotion and self-efficacy). Originality/value Previous research has extensively studied factors affecting students’ academic achievement. However, the direct relationship between service quality and student’s academic achievement has been rarely proposed and examined. Service quality has been mostly viewed as a precursor of student satisfaction and loyalty. This research views service quality as a school higher-order capability that supplements students’ capabilities.
Article
This article examines family involvement and English learners’ academic, behavioural and socioemotional outcomes through a synthetic analysis of 28 empirical studies (conducted between 1991 and 2019, mostly in the United States) with participants from kindergarten, elementary (primary), middle and high schools. These studies considered family involvement under spontaneous (non-interventional) and interventional conditions. Two types of studies (observational and experimental) were analysed to understand the relationships between one or more kinds of parental involvement and children’s outcomes. For the observational studies (21), the authors conducted a meta-analysis of effect sizes by measuring Pearson’s r correlation coefficient. Since most studies reported multiple effect sizes, the authors used a robust variance estimation (RVE) approach with correlational weights to handle the statistical dependency in their overall and moderator analyses. Due to the small number of experimental studies (7), a quantitative measurement of effect size was not feasible for these; therefore, the authors used a systematic review to report their findings on this part of their sample. For the observational studies, the random-effects model reported a positive, yet small effect size of r¯ = 0.15. The strongest associations between family involvement and children’s outcomes were found when parents/caregivers had high educational expectations (r¯ = 0.22, p < .01) and encouraged aspiration in their children (r¯ = 0.22, p < .01). The experimental studies reported 26 positive effects against three negative effects. Overall, the authors’ findings suggest that family involvement is associated with improved outcomes for English learners in academic, socioemotional and behavioural domains.
Article
According to the internal/external frame of reference (I/E) model (Marsh, 1986), individuals’ academic self-concept is strongly influenced by comparing their achievement in one domain with their achievement in other domains and with the achievement of others. Research has typically found contrast effects such that high-achieving others have a negative effect on students’ academic self-concept. Yet, what happens if the “other” is somebody very similar to oneself as in the case of monozygotic twins? We postulate and examine the mirror effect, which means that rather than serving as a contrast, the effect of the co-twin’s achievement parallels the effect of a monozygotic twin’s own achievement on academic self-concept. We used data from two school-aged cohorts (11- and 17-year-olds) from a representative sample (N = 4,202) of monozygotic and dizygotic twins in Germany. We regressed twins’ math and German self-concepts on their own and their co-twins’ mathematics and German achievement. Internal and external comparison effects as postulated in the I/E model were replicated for both monozygotic and dizygotic twins across both age groups. In line with our hypothesis, the mirror effect was found in monozygotic twins only: Co-twins’ achievement and twins’ own achievement showed a parallel pattern of positive effects on academic self-concept within each domain and negative effects on academic self-concept between domains, duplicating the I/E pattern. The mirror effect tended to be more pronounced for older monozygotic twins. We argue that the mirror effect is likely caused by high interpersonal similarity and constitutes a rare exception to the broad generalizability of contrast effects as assumed in the I/E model.
Article
Research Findings: As China scrapped its decades-old one-child policy, the present study examined how family socioeconomic status was linked to preschoolers’ self-regulated learning through parental educational expectation and home-based involvement in one- and multi-child families in mainland China. Based on a sample of 1,363 preschoolers involved in the 2018 wave of the China Family Panel Studies, the results showed that Chinese parents of only children exhibited higher levels of home-based involvement in their children’s education than did parents with two or more children. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that parental educational expectation and home-based involvement fully mediated the connections between parental education and self-regulated learning of young children. Moreover, the exact nature of these links differed across one- and multi-child families, which were more complex for children who had at least one sibling. The effect of home-based parental involvement was stronger in multi-child families than in one-child families. Practice or Policy: Findings from this study support the importance of parental involvement in supporting children’s learning in the home environment. Further, the findings suggest family support programs should be tailored to the characteristics and needs of the target families in the Chinese sociocultural context.
Chapter
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all United States PreK-12 students were forced to move from in-person to remote learning at the beginning of March 2020. Schools scrambled to identify ways to continue educating their students. Families, particularly those from low socioeconomic and diverse backgrounds, as well as those with students with disabilities, struggled to balance their work schedules with their children’s remote class and service schedules, as well as ensuring that their children received the necessary instructional support and special education services. The purpose of this chapter is to share how one community-based parent support group in the United States empowered and prepared Chinese immigrant families for supporting their children with disabilities during remote learning. This community-based parent support group also offered technological and advocacy training that had a substantial influence on equipping these families to support remote learning for their children with disabilities as well as advocate for the special education services and inclusive support their children required. Recommendations on what schools can do to eliminate the barriers parents face are provided.
Article
In Europe, Roma and immigrant students continue to experience great inequities, as they face the probabilities of educational failure, segregation, and early school leaving. Previous research has shed light on the multiple factors that perpetuate this situation. However, the role played by family involvement and family educational expectations have been considered to a lesser extent. This research delves into how Family Education programmes provided by eight Spanish schools are playing a central role in increasing Roma and Moroccan families’ expectations of their children’s education. Based on the communicative methodology, this study was conducted in schools located in five Spanish regions. The schools serve minority students from low-socioeconomic status (SES) families and provide Family Education programmes in their own facilities. We applied a convergent mixed methods design, implementing qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques (semistructured interviews, communicative focus groups, communicative daily life stories, and questionnaires). The sample included Roma and Moroccan family members with low SES and teachers involved in Family Education. The results suggest that Family Education is increasing minority families’ educational expectations of their children’s education. Three elements have been identified as facilitators: 1) the co-creation of a high expectations climate in the schools; 2) the improvement of family members’ academic skills; and 3) the generation of new role models.
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After-school programmes (ASPs) help to facilitate students' learning. DREAMS ASP facilitates schoolchildren with holistic development interventions at different locations. Due to the pandemic, DREAMS conducted their ASP in the online mode. The present study aims to narrate the case of ASP in the virtual mode and discuss participants' experiences on holistic development at one of its locations. The study employed qualitative study designs. The sample of the study included participants from DREAMS ASP site at Kerala, India. The study interviewed four mentors, seven participants, and their parents to understand participants' holistic development. However, the study excluded physical and spiritual aspects of holistic development. It found that the virtual DREAMS ASP was joyful, and there was a significant, positive change in all the selected dimensions of holistic development as reported by mentors, children, and parents. The study encourages future researchers to provide opportunities and frameworks to conduct more ASPs in India.
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The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between parents' educational expectations and academic self-efficacy mediated by task value, achievement goals and parental involvement in education in first grade high school students in Farooj city, Iran. In so doing, a correlational design was used. The statistical population of the study was all first grade high school students in 2021 of Farooj city (N = 2278). Using cluster random sampling method, 329 people (165 girls and 164 boys) were selected as the research sample. The participants completed the Morgan and Jinks (1999) Academic Self-Efficacy Scale, Achievement Goal. Questionnaire (AGQ)-Elliot and McGregor (2001), Pintrich et al. Task Value Subscale (1991), Jacob's (2010) Scale of Educational Aspirations and Expectations for Adolescents (SEAEA), and Manz et al. (2004) Family Involvement Scale. Data analysis was performed using structural equation modeling. Results indicated educational expectations did not have a direct effect on academic self-efficacy, but it had a significant indirect effect on academic self-efficacy through homework value (p <0.05) and through parental involvement in educational activities (p <0.05). Furthermore, results showed that parents' educational expectations did not have a significant effect on academic self-efficacy through the achievement goals. In general, parents' expectations shape learners' beliefs about the importance of the lessons as well as the degree of involvement and participation in academic activities, and these beliefs in turn affect students' academic self-efficacy.
Article
Purpose This study aimed to explore the relationships between school cost, school quality, and students' achievement in private schools in the UAE. Moreover, it also aimed to determine the extent to which socio-economic factors influence student outcomes. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative survey research design was employed by distributing a survey to students' parents in private schools (n = 400) who were selected randomly. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Therefore, descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, linear regression, and multiple regression analysis were used to provide a comprehensive understanding of the relationships between the variables. Findings A significant positive association was found between school costs and school quality. Furthermore, parents reported that their children's outcomes were significantly associated with the costs that they paid to schools. Additionally, school quality had a significant impact on students' achievement and explained approximately 38% of the variation in students' achievement. The results also demonstrated a significant association between school cost, parents' income, and students' outcomes. Originality/value This study explores the relationships between school cost, school quality, and students' achievements. Additionally, it examines the influence of socioeconomic factors on the relationships between the study variables. The context of this study is the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
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Although the relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement is widely studied, there has been little attention to testing the role of student motivation and academic engagement as a mediators of this relationship. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement, with regard to mediating role of motivation and academic engagement. For this purpose, in a descriptive-correlational study, 375 high school students of Kashmar and one of their parents were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling method. The participants completed Parental Involvement Questionnaire (based on parent report), Parental Involvement Questionnaire (based on student report), Academic Motivation Scale, Engagement Scale and Academic Achievement. Data were analyzed by Lisrel and SPSS22 software, using structural equation modeling. The results of this study showed that proposed model has an acceptable fit with the data. In addition, motivation and academic engagement mediated the relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement of high school students. In sum, results of this study emphasized the importance of communication and parental involvement in students’ academic activities.
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The alternative modes of learning during the pandemic have inevitably changed the practices teachers and parents are accustomed to. This paper explores how Filipino early childhood teachers related with the parents and families, emphasizing their roles in remote learning setups at the height of the pandemic. Open-call surveys (n=147) and focus group discussions (n=15) were utilized to obtain the experiences and perceptions of the teachers. Results reveal that early childhood teachers usually interacted with mothers regarding remote learning programs. Using various online and offline modes of communication, the teachers shared about the child's learning activities, guided the parents, and sought regular feedback from the parents. The teachers also perceived changes in the roles of both teachers and parents, which brought opportunities and challenges as they navigated the remote learning setup. Interestingly, the teachers and parents shared a unique kind of relationship in the context of a remote learning setup. Future studies could investigate the nuances in the ways early childhood teachers see their relationships with parents.
Article
This study aimed to describe the perceptions of latchkey early adolescents related to their unsupervised experiences after school. The sample consisted of 16 early adolescents (8 female-8 male) who accepted to participate in the research voluntarily, aged from 11 to 14 years old, attending a secondary school in the city of Denizli/Turkey. The qualitative research methodology was used in this research and the phenomenological was chosen as a study design. Based on interpretative phenomenological analysis following the semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded, the results revealed the following six main themes: positive self patterns, negative self patterns, lack of perceived social support, perceived academic achievement, communication, and emotional state.
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School, Family, and Community Partnerships: Preparing Educators and Improving Schools addresses a fundamental question in education today: How will colleges and universities prepare future teachers, administrators, counselors, and other education professionals to conduct effective programs of family and community involvement that contribute to students’ success in school? The work of Joyce L. Epstein has advanced theories, research, policies, and practices of family and community involvement in elementary, middle, and high schools, districts, and states nationwide. In this second edition, she shows that there are new and better ways to organize programs of family and community involvement as essential components of district leadership and school improvement. THE SECOND EDITION OFFERS EDUCATORS AND RESEARCHERS: •A framework for helping rising educators to develop comprehensive, goal-linked programs of school, family, and community partnerships. •A clear discussion of the theory of overlapping spheres of influence, which asserts that schools, families, and communities share responsibility for student success in school. •A historic overview and exploration of research on the nature and effects of parent involvement. •Methods for applying the theory, framework, and research on partnerships in college course assignments, class discussions, projects and activities, and fi eld experiences. •Examples that show how research-based approaches improve policies on partnerships, district leadership, and school programs of family and community involvement. Definitive and engaging, School, Family, and Community Partnerships can be used as a main or supplementary text in courses on foundations of education methods of teaching, educational administration, family and community relations, contemporary issues in education, sociology of education, sociology of the family, school psychology, social work, education policy, and other courses that prepare professionals to work in schools and with families and students.
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Using the 1992 National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) data set, this study assessed the effects of parental involvement on the academic achievement of African American 12th grade youth, using several models. The results indicate that parental involvement had a positive impact on the educational outcomes of these youth. However, this influence was no longer statistically significant when variables for socioeconomic status (SES) were included in the analysis. All the sets of results were reasonably consistent across the different kinds of academic variables. The analyses also indicated that parents were slightly more likely to be involved in the education of their daughters than they were in the education of their sons. The results of these sets of analyses were discussed.
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This research examines whether parental homework involvement mediates the relationship between family background and educational outcomes such as academic achievement and academic self-concept. Data from two studies in which grade 8 students (N = 1274 and N = 1911) described their parents' involvement in the homework process were reanalyzed via structural equation modeling. Perceived parental homework interference and perceived homework-related conflict were negatively related to students' academic development, whereas perceived parental support and perceived parental competence to help with homework were positively related to academic outcomes. Although there were small associations between some aspects of parental homework involvement and family background variables, parental homework involvement did not mediate the relationship between family background and educational outcomes. Findings highlight the need for differentiated conceptualizations of parental homework involvement as well as detailed analyses of the processes underlying the association between family background and educational outcomes.
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We assert that the most important questions concerning parental involvement in children's education address why parents choose to become involved and why their involvement, once underway, often positively influences educational outcomes. We present a model suggesting that parents become involved primarily because (a) they develop a personal construction of the parental role that includes participation in their children's education, (b) they have developed a positive sense of efficacy for helping their children succeed in school, and (c) they perceive opportunities or demands for involvement from children and the school. Parents then choose specific forms of involvement in response to the specific domains of skill and knowledge they possess, the total demands on their time and energy, and specific requests for involvement from children and the school. The model suggests that parental involvement then influences children's developmental and educational outcomes through such mechanisms as modeling, reinforcement, and instruction, as mediated by the parent's use of developmentally appropriate activities and the fit between parental activities and the school's expectations. The major educational outcomes of the involvement process are children's development of skills and knowledge, as well as a personal sense of efficacy for succeeding in school. Major implications of the model for research and practice are discussed.
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This study examined the relationship between parental influence and the school readiness of African American boys, using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: ECLS-K. Parents' influence, via their academic beliefs and behaviors, was associated with the cognitive performance of African American boys during kindergarten. While previous research has produced similar results, the present study indicates there are differences in which academic beliefs and parenting behaviors are most effective in facilitating school readiness and early achievement. Emphasizing the importance of academic skills for African American boys was associated with higher reading and mathematics achievement as well as prior enrollment in center-based child care. Parenting behaviors, such as discussing science topics, reading books, and discussing family racial and ethnic heritage, differed in their significance in predicting cognitive outcomes. Implications for differences in the kinds of parental involvement in the education of African American boys are discussed.
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For many years, educators, parents, and social scientists have conceptualized engaged parents as those who help their children with their homework, frequently attend school functions, and maintain household rules that dictate when their young engage in schoolwork and leisure. Recent meta-analyses on parental involvement confirm the salience of more subtle social variables, which Bandura and Walters asserted may be even more important than overt parental behavior in fostering positive student outcomes. These results indicate that factors such as parental expectations, the quality of parent–child communication, and parental style may be more highly related to student achievement than various more overt expressions of this involvement.
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Parental involvement in education is a key focus of current policies and programs aimed at improving the academic outcomes of students at risk for academic underachievement. This study examines six forms of parental involvement in education to determine which forms of involvement have the strongest relationships with youths' academic outcomes. Using nationally representative data (N = 1,609) from the National Education Longitudinal Survey, this study focuses specifically on Mexican American families and youths, a population at high risk for academic underperformance. Findings show that the positive effects of parental involvement among Mexican American parents occur through involvement in the home, whereas parental involvement in school organizations is not associated with youths' achievement. Parents' investment of financial resources in their children's education was found to have a somewhat higher impact on achievement than forms of involvement that require parents' investment of time. Findings also suggest that the impact of these forms of parental involvement occurs prior to high school.
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Purpose of Study There are many factors that influence the academic success and motivation of students. Social cognitive theory contends that individuals learn and perform based upon a triadic reciprocality of personal factors, behavior, and the environment (Bandura, 1986). Personal factors such as beliefs, behaviors, and the environment equally influence one another. Existing literature suggests that highly motivated students may attain more academic success (Grolnick & Kurowski, 1999; Grolnlick & Ryan, 1989; Grolnick, Ryan, & Deci, 1991); Grolnick & Slowiaczek, 1994). Thus, parenting practices that influence or teach adaptive motivational and achievement outcomes are an aspect of a student's success that are in need of consideration. This study will examine motivational outcomes, as predicted by parenting practices that may influence student behavior. The purpose of this study is to expand upon the existing research on the relation between parenting practices and motivation. Specific consideration will be given to the parenting practices of parenting style and parent involvement, and two views of motivation, goal orientation, and autonomy. The relations among the styles of parenting, the level and type of parental involvement, and three goal orientations and autonomy will be examined. Styles of parenting are generally described as patterns or configurations of parenting behaviors. Specifically, the parenting styles of authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive, as described by Baumrind (1967), will be considered for this study. The parental involvement that will be examined by the present study will include involvement such as attending school functions, helping with homework, or simply showing interest in what is occurring in school may be important to a student's academic career. Parental involvement with both social aspects and intellectually stimulating activities beyond schoolwork will also be assessed as proposed by Grolnick and Slowiaczek (1994). Several different theories attempt to explain what motivates individuals to initiate, persist at, and follow through with certain activities or tasks. Achievement goal theory (Ames & Archer, 1988; Middleton & Midgley, 1997) and self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) are the two views of motivation that will be focused on throughout the present study. Achievement goal theory highlights the purposes behind achievement behaviors (Ames & Archer, 1988; Pintrich & Schunk, 1996). Achievement goal theory examines the purpose behind certain achievement behaviors and the standards of evaluation students use to assess their performance. Self-determination theory examines the social and contextual factors that affect an individual's self-motivation and psychological development (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Ryan & Deci, 2000). Self-determination theory includes three innate needs that each individual is believed to have: competence, relatedness, and autonomy. These are the innate psychological needs. The need for autonomy will be the aspect of self-determination theory that will be examined here. This study will contribute to the existing knowledge regarding the relation between INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF WHOLE SCHOOLING Vol 3 No. 2 2007 2 parenting practices and motivational processes that foster optimal motivation. Specifically, the study considers parenting practices, such as parental involvement and styles of parenting, to see how predictive they are of goal orientations and the autonomy component of self-determination theory. In particular, this study will be guided by research questions that consider whether or not a relation exists between parenting styles and parental involvement, and a student's goal orientation. In addition, the relation between parenting styles and parental involvement, and student's level of autonomy will be explored in the present study. Finally, the relation between a student's goal orientation and level of relative autonomy will be considered. Potential implications of this study may address the issues surrounding the importance of parenting practices in the academic career of a student.
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Major Department: Sociology Using the theory of social and cultural reproduction originally posited by Pierre Bourdieu, I test the idea that social status and individual culture affect academic achievement. The data used for this analysis was from the first panel of the Education Longitudinal Study (ELS), a survey sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education and based on a nationally representative sample of 16,719 tenth-grade respondents in 2002. As one would expect, the measure of student's ability was the only variable that remained significant throughout for both classes and racial groups throughout all statistical models. The difference in the importance of upper class students and lower class is dependent on race. These findings are bolstered by other studies that show parental involvement has been shown to mediate the effects of race and socioeconomic resources in achievement gaps it could also be used as a possible strategy for reducing the achievement gap even in the presence of cultural capital.
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The impact of parental involvement on student academic achievement has been recognized by teachers, administrators, and policy-makers who consider parental involvement to be one of the integral parts of new educational reforms and initiatives. This study synthesized the results of nine meta-analyses that examined this impact and it identified generalizable findings across these studies. The results indicated that the relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement was positive, regardless of a definition of parental involvement or measure of achievement. Furthermore, the findings revealed that this relationship was strongest if parental involvement was defined as parental expectations for academic achievement of their children. However, the impact of parental involvement on student academic achievement was weakest if parental involvement was defined as homework assistance. Finally, the relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement was found to be consistent across different grade levels and ethnic groups. However, the strength of that relationship varied based on the type of assessment used to measure student achievement.
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There is inconsistency in the current literature regarding the association between dimensions of parenting processes and academic achievement for adolescents. Further, few studies have extended such an association into young adulthood. In this study, we examined the effect of three dimensions of parenting processes, including school-specific involvement, general parental support, and parental expectations, on academic achievement in adolescence and in young adulthood. Using a large, nationally representative, and longitudinal sample, we found that results from regression analyses suggested that all three dimensions of parenting processes had a significant effect on adolescents' academic success. In particular, school-specific involvement had a stronger effect than general parental support and parental expectations. Further, parenting processes were indirectly associated with academic achievement later in young adulthood, partially through academic achievement in adolescence. Implications of the findings are also discussed.
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This meta-analysis of 51 studies examines the relationship between various kinds of parental involvement programs and the academic achievement of pre-kindergarten-12th-grade school children. Analyses determined the effect sizes for various parental involvement programs overall and subcategories of involvement. Results indicate a significant relationship between parental involvement programs overall and academic achievement, both for younger (preelementary and elementary school) and older (secondary school) students as well as for four types of parental involvement programs. Parental involvement programs, as a whole, were associated with higher academic achievement by .3 of a standard deviation unit. The significance of these results is discussed.
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We investigated relationships between students’ perceptions of parental involvement in schooling, their Spanish classroom environment and student outcomes (attitudes and achievement). Modified Spanish versions of the What Is Happening In this Class?, Test of Spanish-Related Attitudes-L1, a parental involvement questionnaire and a Spanish achievement test were administered to 223 Hispanic Grade 4–6 students in South Florida. The factor structure and internal consistency reliability of the questionnaires was supported. Strong associations were found for parental involvement with students’ learning environment perceptions and student outcomes, and for Spanish classroom environment with student outcomes. When the unique and common variances in student outcomes explained by the classroom environment and the home environment were examined, the home environment was more influential than the classroom environment in terms of students’ attitudes, but the classroom environment was more influential than the home environment in terms of achievement.
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Guided by a developmental–ecological framework and Head Start's two-generational approach, this study examined two dimensions of Head Start program quality, classroom quality and parent involvement and their unique and interactive contribution to children's vocabulary, literacy, and mathematics skills growth from the beginning of Head Start through the end of first grade. The study is a secondary data analysis of FACES 1997, a national descriptive study of Head Start children, families, and programs. The piecewise 3-level growth curve model suggested that Head Start children demonstrated positive academic growth trajectories over time, with vocabulary and literacy skills showing more rapid growth in Head Start years than in later grades. Younger children consistently showed more rapid growth than older children, especially during kindergarten and first grade. Head Start classroom quality and parent involvement uniquely and interactively predicted children's academic growth across time, but in rather complex ways.
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Studies of the effect of parental involvement on students’ achievement in a variety of contexts can provide valuable insights into how the relationship between parental involvement and students’ achievement may depend on specific local contexts of education and family. Drawing on the theoretical perspectives derived from social capital model, this study examines the effects of three types of parental involvement on students’ achievement. Dataset drawn from student questionnaire of 1551 tenth-grade students and their parents were used to investigate the determinants and the effects of parental resourcing on students’ achievement in comparison to other types of home-based and school-based involvement. Multiple regression analyses show that parental efforts in resourcing public schooling are significantly associated with students’ achievement. Features of Cambodian education in which parental resourcing becomes an important strategy for parents to enhance educational quality are described, and the broader implications of the findings are discussed.
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Parent involvement (PI) in education is associated with positive outcomes for students; however, little is known about how parents decide to be involved in children's education. On the basis of the K. V. Hoover-Dempsey and H. M. Sandler (1995, 1997) model of parent decision making, the authors examined the relationship among 4 parent variables (role construction, sense of efficacy, resources, and perceptions of teacher invitations) with PI activities at home and school. The authors surveyed parents of elementary students from an urban district. Specific invitations from teachers had the largest effect on the 3 types of parent involvement. Parents' sense of efficacy and level of resources were less influential than anticipated. The authors discuss implications of the findings for teacher and school practices, policy development, and future research.
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This research examines whether parental homework involvement mediates the relationship between family background and educational outcomes such as academic achievement and academic self-concept. Data from two studies in which grade 8 students (N=1274 and N=1911) described their parents’ involvement in the homework process were reanalyzed via structural equation modeling. Perceived parental homework interference and perceived homework-related conflict were negatively related to students’ academic development, whereas perceived parental support and perceived parental competence to help with homework were positively related to academic outcomes. Although there were small associations between some aspects of parental homework involvement and family background variables, parental homework involvement did not mediate the relationship between family background and educational outcomes. Findings highlight the need for differentiated conceptualizations of parental homework involvement as well as detailed analyses of the processes underlying the association between family background and educational outcomes.
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This study examined how child temperament was related to parents' time spent accessible to and interacting with their 2-year-olds. Bivariate analyses indicated that both fathers and mothers spent more time with temperamentally challenging children than easier children on workdays, but fathers spent less time with challenging children than easier children on non-workdays. After accounting for work hours, some associations between temperament and fathers' workday involvement dropped to non-significance. For fathers, work hours also moderated the relation between irregular temperament and workday play. For mothers, work hours moderated the relation between both difficult and irregular temperament and workday interaction. Mothers also spent more time with girls (but not boys) who were temperamentally irregular. Results speak to the influence of child temperament on parenting behavior, and the differential construction of parenting roles as a function of child characteristics and patterns of work.
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A key goal of much educational policy is to help parents become involved in children’s academic lives. The focus of such efforts, as well as much of the extant research, has generally been on increasing the extent of parents’ involvement. However, factors beyond the extent of parents’ involvement may be of import. In this article, the case is made that consideration of the how, whom, and why of parents’ involvement in children’s academic lives is critical to maximizing its benefits. Evidence is reviewed indicating that how parents become involved determines in large part the success of their involvement. It is argued as well that parents’ involvement may matter more for some children than for others. The issue of why parents should become involved is also considered. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.
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New emphasis is being placed on the importance of parent involvement in children’s education. In a synthesis of research on the effects of parent involvement in homework, a meta-analysis of 14 studies that manipulated parent training for homework involvement reveals that training parents to be involved in their child’s homework results in (a) higher rates of homework completion, (b) fewer homework problems, and (c) possibly, improved academic performance among elementary school children. A meta-analysis of 22 samples from 20 studies correlating parent involvement and achievement-related outcomes reveals (a) positive associations for elementary school and high school students but a negative association for middle school students, (b) a stronger association for parent rule-setting compared with other involvement strategies, and (c) a negative association for mathematics achievement but a positive association for verbal achievement outcomes. The results suggest that different types of parent involvement in homework have different relationships to achievement and that the type of parent involvement changes as children move through the school grades.
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This article reviews psychological theory and research critical to understanding why parents become involved in their children’s elementary and secondary education. Three major constructs are believed to be central to parents’ basic involvement decisions. First, parents’ role construction defines parents’ beliefs about what they are supposed to do in their children’s education and appears to establish the basic range of activities that parents construe as important, necessary, and permissible for their own actions with and on behalf of children. Second, parents’ sense of efficacy for helping their children succeed in school focuses on the extent to which parents believe that through their involvement they can exert positive influence on their children’s educational outcomes. Third, general invitations, demands, and opportunities for involvement refer to parents’ perceptions that the child and school want them to be involved. Hypotheses concerning the functioning of the three constructs in an additive model are suggested, as are implications for research and practice. Overall, the review suggests that even well-designed school programs inviting involvement will meet with only limited success if they do not address issues of parental role construction and parental sense of efficacy for helping children succeed in school.