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The Economic Contribution of Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya.

Authors:
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
25
The Economic Contribution
of Copyright-Based Industries
in Kenya
Dickson Nyariki1
Oliver Wasonga
Calleb Otieno
Eric Ogadho
Charles Ikutwa
Julius Kithinji March 2009
1 The main author is an Associate Professor and teaches economics at the University of Nairobi; P.O. Box 29053-00625, Nairobi; email
address dicksonnyariki@yahoo.com, dmnyariki@uonbi.ac.ke
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements v
Summary vi
1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and Context 1
1.2 Objectives and Structure of the Study 2
1.3 Scope of Study 3
2. COPYRIGHT POLICY AND LAW IN KENYA 5
2.1 Policies Related to Creative and Copyright Industries 5
2.2 Copyright Law 5
2.2.1 The Subject Matter and Beneficiaries of Copyright Law 5
2.2.2 Overview of the Kenyan Copyright Law 6
2.2.3 Economic Considerations of the Kenyan Copyright Law 8
3. COPYRIGHT-BASED INDUSTRIES IN KENYA 9
3.1 Composition of Copyright-Based Industries 9
3.2 Types of Copyright-Based Industries 9
3.2.1 Core Copyright-Based Industries 9
3.2.2 Interdependent Copyright-Based Industries 10
3.2.3 Partial Copyright-Based Industries 10
3.2.4 Non-Dedicated Support Industries 11
3.3 Comparison of Industry Classification for Kenya with the WIPO Guide 11
3.4 Copyright Factors 13
3.5 Comparison of Kenya’s Coding and the WIPO Guide (2003) ISIC System 15
4. DATA COLLECTION AND METHODS OF ANALYSIS 18
4.1 Sources of Information 18
4.2 Methodology 18
4.2.1 Data Collection 18
4.2.2 Dealing with Missing Data 18
4.2.3 Calculation of Indicators of Economic Contribution 19
4.3 Survey Challenges 21
5. ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF COPYRIGHT-BASED INDUSTRIES IN KENYA IN 2007 23
5.1 Overall Performance of Copyright-Based Industries 23
5.2 Economic Contribution of Copyright-Based Industries Compared to Other Sectors 28
5.3 Economic Contribution of Decomposed Core Copyright-Based Industries 32
5.4 Economic Contribution of Interdependent Copyright-Based Industries 38
5.5 Economic Contribution of Partial Copyright-Based Industries 44
5.6 Economic Contribution of Non-Dedicated Support Industries 47
5.7 Foreign Trade in Copyright-Based Goods and Services 49
5.8 International Comparisons 52
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The Economic Contribution of
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Tables
Table 1: Copyright-based industries in Kenya 11
Table 2: Classification of copyright-based industries in Kenya compared to the WIPO Guide classification 12
Table 3: Copyright factors for partial copyright-based industries in Kenya 13
Table 4: Copyright factors adopted for the Kenyan study 14
Table 5: Kenya’s industry coding compared to WIPO (2003) ISIC 15
Table 6: Economic contribution of copyright-based industries in Kenya in 2007 (KSHs, numbers, %) 24
Table 7: Economic contribution of decomposed core copyright-based industries in Kenya in 2007 34
Table 8: Contribution of decomposed core copyright-based industries to employment in Kenya in 2007 37
Table 9: Contribution of decomposed core copyright-based industries to employee
income in Kenya in 2007 38
Table 10: Contribution of decomposed interdependent copyright-based industries
to value-added in Kenya in 2007 40
Table 11: Contribution of decomposed interdependent copyright-based industries
to employment in Kenya in 2007 42
Table 12: Contribution of decomposed interdependent copyright-based industries
to employee incomes in Kenya in 2007 43
Table 13: Contribution of decomposed partial copyright-based industries
to employment in Kenya in 2007 (numbers, %) 45
Table 14: Contribution of decomposed partial copyright-based industries
to employee incomes in Kenya in 2007 (million KSHs, %) 46
Table 15: Contribution of decomposed non-dedicated support industries
to value-added in Kenya in 2007 (KSHs) 48
Table 16: Contribution of decomposed non-dedicated support industries
to employment and employee income in Kenya in 2007 (numbers, million KSHs) 49
Table 17: Kenya’s exports, imports and trade balance of copyright-based goods
and services in 2007 (‘000 KSHs, %) 50
Table 18: Average daily circulation of leading dailies in Kenya in 2007 (‘000 copies) 58
Table 19: Average circulation of daily and weekly newspapers in Kenya (‘000 copies), 2003-2007 59
Table 20: Readership of a number of newspapers in Kenya in 2005 (%) 59
Table 21: Radio and television frequencies assigned in Kenya, 2003-2007 64
Table 22: Television viewership in Kenya in 2007 (%) 64
Table 23: Radio station listenership (% share of ear) in Kenya in 2007 65
Table 24: Fee payable according to different ERP conditions in Kenya in 2007 65
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6. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOME CORE COPYRIGHT-BASED INDUSTRIES IN KENYA 56
6.1 Press and Literature 56
6.1.1 The Press Market 56
6.1.2 The Book Market 59
6.2 Music, Theatrical Productions and Opera 60
6.2.1 The Music Industry 60
6.2.2 Theatres 61
6.3 Film Production and Video 62
6.4 Radio and Television 63
6.5 Collective Management Societies 65
7. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 69
APPENDIX 71
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Acknowledgements
I acknowledge with thanks the assistance given by many organizations, individuals and government officials
in the course of this study. Special thanks go to Marisella Ouma, Acting Executive Director of Kenya Copyright
Board (KCB), for granting us her time to answer many queries and for availing useful information on
copyright-based industries in Kenya. In particular, I am immensely appreciative of her effort in spending long
hours drafting and signing many introductory letters to potential providers of data, and in being readily
available for consultations.
This report may not have been possible without the support of the Kenya Revenue Authority (KRA). The
Authority provided information on the Kenyan classification of copyright-based industries and data on
Value-Added Tax (VAT) and sales, which made it possible to compute value-added and gross output. I am
especially grateful to Jonah Ogaro and his team for working tirelessly on the long list of activities, amidst
their tight official schedules. I must also acknowledge my former University of Nairobi students, who I
engaged as Research Assistants, for data collection. These were Eunice Nginya, Michael Katete, Josephine
Were and Juliana Wanyama. They did not only do an excellent job in collecting data and information in
the face of difficulties but also participated in numerous discussion meetings, and often had the grace
and patience to bear with me even when I had shown obvious frustrations. Many thanks too go to all
government officials and individuals in the private sector whose names I am not able to mention for
finding time to assist us in obtaining data and information for this study.
The UN World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Office in Geneva facilitated this study in a
number of ways. I greatly appreciate the information provided through publications, reports and
discussions, and the comments received from the team associated with this study, particularly Dimiter
Gantchev and Christopher Kalanje. Dimiter Gantchev (the current Acting Director, Creative Industries
Division) deserves special mention. In addition to his expert contributions, I am deeply obliged to him
for his patience and understanding; he encouraged me to soldier on even when the exercise appeared
impossible. I am particularly thankful to him for enabling me to attend the October 2008 Expert Meeting
in Singapore. The meeting made many issues clear and demystified apparent obstacles in the study that
hitherto seemed insurmountable. I further recognize Stephen Siwek (WIPO’s International Consultant) for
his special role. He went through our drafts with a keen eye for detail, offering worthy criticism and
guiding comments, and pointing out errors that would not otherwise have been noticed. The quality of
this publication owes a lot to him.
This study was conducted with funding from WIPO. We therefore express our gratitude at the challenging
but important opportunity the organization provided us to undertake this study. However, the views
expressed in this study are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the WIPO Secretariat or
of the Member States of WIPO.
Dickson Nyariki
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Figures
Figure 1: Economic contribution of copyright-based industries in Kenya in 2007 (%) 24
Figure 2: Share contributions within copyright-based industries in Kenya
based on total value-added (GDP) in 2007 25
Figure 3: Share contributions within copyright-based industries in Kenya
based on total gross output in 2007 (%) 26
Figure 4: Productivity within copyright-based industries in Kenya in 2007 (total added value per employee) 27
Figure 5: Productivity of copyright-based industries compared to the national productivity
in Kenya in 2007 (total added value per employee) 28
Figure 6: Contribution of copyright-based industries to Kenya’s economy in 2007
compared to other sectors on the basis of GDP (%) 29
Figure 7: The contribution of copyright-based industries to Kenya’s economy in 2007
compared to other sectors based on employment (‘000) 30
Figure 8: Contribution of copyright-based industries to Kenya’s economy compared
to other sectors on the basis of employee incomes (KSHs millions) 31
Figure 9: Productivity of copyright-based industries in Kenya
(total added value in KSHs millions/employee) compared to other sectors in 2007 32
Figure 10: Economic contribution of core copyright-based industries in Kenya in 2007 (%) 33
Figure 11: Structure of core copyright-based industries in Kenya in 2007 based on value-added (%) 35
Figure 12: Structure of core copyright-based industries in Kenya in 2007 according to gross output (%) 36
Figure 13 : Structure of core copyright-based industries in Kenya in 2007
based on the number of employees (%) 37
Figure 14: Economic contribution of interdependent copyright-based industries in Kenya in 2007 (%) 39
Figure 15: Contribution of decomposed interdependent copyright-based industries
to value-added in Kenya in 2007 (%) 41
Figure 16: Contribution of decomposed interdependent copyright-based industries
to gross output in Kenya in 2007 (%) 42
Figure 17: Contribution of decomposed interdependent copyright-based industries
to employment in Kenya in 2007 (%) 43
Figure 18: Contribution of decomposed interdependent copyright-based industries
to employee incomes in Kenya in 2007 (%) 44
Figure 19: Economic contribution of partial copyright-based industries in Kenya in 2007 (%) 45
Figure 20: Economic contribution of non-dedicated support industries in Kenya in 2007 (%) 48
Figure 21: Contribution of copyright-based industries to exports and imports in relation
to the total national economy in Kenya in 2007 (%) 50
Figure 22: Proportions contributed by copyright-based industries to exports,
imports and foreign-trade balance in Kenya in 2007 (%) 51
Figure 23: International comparison of the contribution of core copyright-based industries to GDP (%) 53
Figure 24: International comparison of the contribution of core copyright-based industries
to employment (%) 54
Figure 25: International comparison of the total copyright-based industries to GDP and employment (%) 55
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
30
copyright-based industries exceeded the interdependent copyright-based and non-dedicated support
industries in the contribution to employment and employee incomes.
Within the copyright-based industries, the core copyright-based industries made the highest contribution of
43% to the total copyright-based GDP, followed by the interdependent copyright-based industries, which
contributed 41%. With respect to gross output, the core copyright-based industries contributed an even
higher share of 49% compared to the contribution of interdependent industries of 31% of the total
copyright-based gross output. The partial copyright-based and non-dedicated support industries made
contributions of 12% and 8% respectively.
Of the copyright-based industries, the most productive, in terms of the total added value per employee, was
the interdependent industries with a contribution of KSHs 2,446,188, followed by the core copyright-based
industries with a contribution of KSHs 1,620,426, all the copyright-based industries combined with a
contribution of KSHs 1,371,436, and the total national economy with a contribution of KSHs 840,569 per
employee. This shows that the productivity of all the copyright-based industries was more than one-and-a-
half times that of the national productivity, while the productivity of the core copyright-based industries and
the interdependent copyright-based industries was twice and three times that of the national productivity
respectively. Also, compared to the other major sectors of the economy, copyright-based industries
performed impressively in terms of productivity. The core copyright-based industries were second best with
a productivity value of KSHs 1.62 million per employee, compared to the best-performing sector—finance,
real estate and business services—with a productivity value of KSHs 1.94 million per employee.
The contribution of the copyright-based industries to the national economy on the basis of GDP was higher
than that of the agricultural sector (2.3%), education (2.5%), and healthcare (3.9%), and compared
favourably with the contributions of the other main sectors of the Kenyan economy, such as fisheries (5.4%)
and manufacturing (6.2%). The contribution of copyright-based industries of 62,131 people to the national
employment was also higher than that of the electrical-and-water sector (19,000 employees) and the
mining-and-quarrying sector (6,300 employees). Furthermore, the contribution of copyright-based industries
to the national employee income (KSHs 19.12 billion) was more than that from the mining-and-quarrying
(KSHs 1.35 billion) and electrical-and-water (KSHs 8.37 billion) sectors, individually as well as combined.
The core and partial copyright-based industries contributed proportionally more value of exports than
imports compared to the total national exports and imports, which were 1.30% and 0.22% for the core
and 6.54% and 0.99% for the partial, respectively. Similarly, all copyright-based industries combined
proportionally produced higher export value relative to the total national export value (9.35%) than import
value relative to the total national import value (7.86%). The national economy exhibited a huge foreign
trade deficit compared to the copyright-based industries, implying that the copyright-based industries are
doing better than the overall national economy. However, the copyright-based industries have a relatively
high import component, particularly within the interdependent category, that reduces its value-added and
gross output.
Most of the statistics and computed economic contributions of copyright-based industries in Kenya
compared reasonably well with those of other countries. In 2007, Kenya’s core copyright-based industries
made a contribution of over 2.3% to GDP. Compared with the results of similar studies conducted earlier in
other countries, this figure was larger than those for Colombia (1.9%), Jamaica (1.7%), Bulgaria (1.6%),
Mexico (1.6%) and Ukraine (1.5%). According to the studies so far carried out based on the WIPO Guide,
Ukraine core copyright-based industries make the lowest contribution (1.5%) to GDP, while Australia make
the highest (7.3%), followed by the USA (6.5%). These statistics, therefore, indicate that Kenya lies
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
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Summary
Copyright-based industries form part of creative industries, which are economic activities based on the
creation, management, use and trade in original creations expressed in tangible form. Creative industries are
referred to as copyright-based industries and products there-from as copyright-based goods when they are
protected under intellectual property rights. There is a growing interest in the copyright-based industries
today due to the recognition that creativity is the very basis for social, economic and cultural development
of nations. Based on the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Guide (2003), studies have been
conducted to quantify the contributions of copyright-based industries in several European, Latin American
and Asian countries. Currently, there are a number of similar studies going on in Africa.
The overall objective of the Kenyan study was to quantify the economic contribution of copyright and
related rights-based industries in the country by estimating their value-added to GDP, share of national
employment, and revenue generated from foreign trade. The findings of this study are expected to inform
policy formulation processes towards an improved policy framework for the operation of the creative sector
in the country. In accordance with the WIPO Guide, this study categorized the copyright and related
rights-based industries into core, interdependent, partial, and non-dedicated support industries.
This study relied mainly on secondary data for 2007 obtained from various government departments and
other relevant institutions. The main sources of data included the Kenya Revenue Authority (KRA); Kenya
National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS); Attorney General Chambers; Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research
and Analysis (KIPPRA); Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR); Kenya Association of Manufacturers
(KAM); and the Music Copyright Society of Kenya (MCSK). Other secondary sources of data were past and
current research and government reports. In addition, internet searches were employed to access available
information on the contribution of creative industries to the national economy.
The results show that the total value-added of copyright-based industries in 2007 amounted to about KSHs
85.21 billion, which represented 5.32% of Kenya’s GDP. The contribution to the country’s total value-added
by the core industries was KSHs 36.94 billion (2.3%), by the interdependent industries KSHs 34.78
billion (2.17%), the partial industries KSHs 6.56 billion (0.41%), and the non-dedicated support
industries KSHs 6.92 billion (0.43%). The entire copyright-based industries contributed KSHs 114.23
billion out of the national gross output of KSHs 3,041.38 billion, which represented 3.76% of the gross
output. Out of this total, the core copyright-based industries made a contribution of KSHs 57.2 billion,
which formed 1.88%. With respect to the income for employees, the copyright-based industries made a
total of KSHs 19.12 billion, making a proportion of about 1.97% compared to the total national economic
value of KSHs 749.82 billion. The total employee income for core industries was KSHs 7.61 billion, which
was 1.02% of the national employee income. Generally, those employed in the non-dedicated support
industries were the highest paid workers in the copyright-based industries in Kenya.
Copyright-based industries employed 62,131 people. These comprised 3.26% of the total national
workforce. Within this number, employee numbers in the core copyright industries were 22,799,
constituting 1.2% of the total national workforce.
The core copyright-based industries outperformed the other three categories of copyright-based industries
in all the main economic contributions considered in this study—GDP, gross output, employment and
employee incomes. The interdependent copyright-based industries did better than the partial copyright-
based and non-dedicated support industries in the contribution to GDP and gross output. The partial
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
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1. Introduction
1.1 Background and Context
Copyright industries form part of creative industries, which are economic activities based on the creation,
management, use and trade in original creations expressed in tangible form. When the produced
expressions are protected under intellectual property (IP) rights, then such industries are referred to as
copyright industries and the products there-from as copyright goods. Copyright is a legal term describing
rights given to creators for their literary and artistic works. It is a type of property that is founded on a
person’s creative skill and labour. It is designed to prevent the unauthorized use by others of a work, that is,
the original form in which an idea or information has been expressed by the creator. According to the WIPO
Guide (2003), copyright is not a tangible thing. It is made up of a bundle of exclusive economic rights to do
certain acts with an original work or other copyright subject-matter. These rights include the right to copy,
publish, communicate (e.g., broadcast, make available online) and publicly perform the copyright material.
The copyright creators also have a number of non-economic rights.
The kinds of works covered by copyright include: literary works such as novels, poems and plays; reference
works; newspapers; computer programs and databases; films, musical compositions and choreography;
artistic works such as paintings, drawings, photographs and sculptures; advertisements; architecture; and
maps and technical drawings. Creative industries—most of which are based on copyright and related
rights—are said to have considerable impact on national economies. National studies in many countries
have revealed that these industries are major contributors in terms of their relative aggregate value-added
to a country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as well as their contribution to employment and foreign trade.
For example, as shown in a report by Siwek (2004), one of the highest contributions of the core copyright-
based industries to the national economy in terms of gross added value has been in the UK (7.1%). Another
has been the USA with a contribution of about 6% in 2002. The contribution of total copyright-based
industries in the USA in terms of GDP in the same year was an impressive 12%.2
Thus, copyright today is seen as more than a legal system providing a secure and stable environment for
creative activity in different markets. The growing interest is largely due to a number of factors, namely a)
the increased recognition of the role of IP in post-industrial society, where more attention is being paid to
non-material production factors; b) the expansion of the scope of copyright protection as a result of digital
technology, which has seen the economic gains from different technology-based products rise to very
significant levels; c) the recognition of copyright-protected material as one of the main components in
electronic commerce and digital transactions courtesy of the digital revolution; and d) the recognition
of the fact that creativity is the very basis for the social, economic and cultural development of nations.
The nature of copyright and the scope of its protection, enforcement and infringement have been the
subject of extensive research. Recently, however, the focus has shifted towards the economic characteristics
of copyright. The first studies to quantify the economic contribution and significance of copyright-based
industries were published in Canada and Sweden in the 1970s. These were followed by further works from
the USA, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Holland, Germany and Austria in the 1980s. More studies
based on an integrated, standardized methodology have since been conducted in the 1990s in Finland,
Japan, Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Chile.3The analysis of the contribution of copyright
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
35
somewhere in the middle of the lower half in terms of performance. With respect to employment contribution
by the core copyright-based industries, Kenya did not do as well as with GDP contribution. Kenya’s
contribution of 1.2% of employees, compared to the national employment, was only better than Ukraine’s
(1.16%). However, the core and interdependent copyright-based industries combined accounted for 4.5%
of Kenya’s GDP, well above many countries in comparison. A comparison of the contribution of the total
copyright-based industries to GDP and employment between Kenya and the USA, Singapore, Hungary,
Jamaica, and Colombia reveals that Kenya performed favourably. It did better than Jamaica, compared
closely with Colombia, and did not rank far behind Singapore and Hungary.
In summary, therefore, the contribution of copyright-based industries in Kenya in 2007 was as follows:
On the basis of GDP, their contribution within the country was higher than that of the agricultural sector,
education, and healthcare, and compared favourably with the fisheries and manufacturing sectors. With
respect to employment, the industries engaged a higher number of people than the electrical-and-water
and mining-and-quarrying sectors.As far as productivity is concerned, in terms of GDP per employee, the
industries performed one-and-a-half times better than the national economy. Internationally, the industries
performed averagely in terms of GDP, but did better than a number of countries in Europe, South America,
Asia, and the Caribbean.
A few discrepancies were noted in the data used in this study, mainly as a result of databases in Kenya
being piecemeal and scattered in different government agencies. This presented difficulties in estimating the
full contribution of the copyright-based industries to GDP. The contribution of these industries to the total
value-added, therefore, is likely higher than what was shown.
Despite some inadequacies in the policies governing the operations of copyright-based industries in Kenya,
their economic contribution is reasonably significant. The economic contribution of copyright-based
industries in Kenya is higher than a number of important sectors in the country and compares well with
those of several countries in Europe, Asia and the Americas for which similar studies have been conducted.
In order to promote the growth and development of already vibrant copyright-based sectors in Kenya,
appropriate and operational policy frameworks are imperative.
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
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2 Information based on Siwek, S.E. (2004): Report on “The Economic Contribution of Copyright-Based Industries in the US.” Prepared
for the International Intellectual Property Alliance.
3 Penyigey, K. and Munkácsi, P. (2005). “The Economic Contribution of Copyright-Based Industries in Hungary.” In: National Studies on
Assessing the Economic Contribution. WIPO, page 287.
e. The fifth part discusses the results of analysis on the economic contribution of copyright and related
rights-based industries in Kenya, adapting the general guidelines presented in the Guide to the Kenyan
situation, in terms of value-added generated by copyright and related rights-based industries, their
contribution to employment generation, productivity of the various copyright-based sub-sectors, the
foreign trade of copyright and related rights-based industries, and a brief comparison of the Kenyan
and international studies carried out on the basis of the WIPO Guide.
f. Part six provides a description of the development of some core copyright-based industries in Kenya.
g. The final part presents the conclusions of the study and policy recommendations.
1.3 Scope of Study
The current study attempted to quantify as extensively as possible the economic contribution of copyright-
protected goods and services in Kenya in 2007. The study included the following steps:
a. The first step included the identification of the copyright and related rights-based industries to be
studied using as reference Annex I of the WIPO Guide as well as the selected copyright and related
rights-based industries which were given more detailed analysis. The categorization of the copyright
and related rights-based industries followed the categories presented in the Guide—core,
interdependent, partial and non-dedicated copyright industries.
b. Based on the decision on item (a) above, data collection was undertaken. This involved compiling
statistical data by industry classes and collecting additional statistics by preparation and use of
appropriate questionnaires (see Appendix I for a sample questionnaire). The data were then disaggregated
to the required level of detail. Interviews and questionnaires were used to address specific areas.
Consultations with the relevant industry sectors, through industry associations, and the relevant
public-sector institutions and/or ministries were part of the process.
c. The third step was measurement and calculation of the contribution of the copyright and related
rights-based industries studied to the national total added value, gross output, employment,
employee income and foreign trade, using a selected approach under the WIPO Guide. The
estimation of the relative size of copyright and related rights-based industries covered the size of
the copyright and related rights-based industries against macro-economic variables such as GDP,
gross output and employment.
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
37
industries to national economies in EU countries was published in 2003.4In 2003, WIPO issued a
methodological guide with a view to revealing the economic contribution of copyright-based industries
under the title: “Guide on Surveying the Economic Contribution of Copyright-Based Industries”.5The
Singapore, Canada, and USA reports, which were also based on the Guide, were published in 2004,
followed by the Latvian report in early 2005.
The motivation behind research on the economic roles of copyright-based industries is to make
economic policymakers aware of the economic importance of these industries. This is expected to
encourage mainstreaming of copyright-based industries in the development policies of a given country.
It is against this background that WIPO and the Government of Kenya commissioned the current study
in light of the increasing importance of copyright-based goods and services to the economy, and as an
element towards introducing an improved policy framework for the operation of the creative sector in
the country. It is expected that the results of this study will serve as an important input in promoting
the growth and development of the copyright-based sectors in the country. The Kenyan study is based
on the WIPO Guide (2003).
In this study, copyright covers creative work such as a writer putting words down on paper, a photographer
taking a photograph, or a software designer creating a code. Related rights include rights of performing
artists, rights of television and radio broadcasters, rights of producers of phonograms, and rights of producers of
motion pictures. The term ‘copyright’ is used in most cases to cover both copyright and related rights.
1.2 Objectives and Structure of the Study
The key objectives of this study were to:
a. Quantify the economic contribution of copyright and related rights-based industries in the country
by estimating their value-added to GDP, share of national employment, and revenue generated from
foreign trade.
b. Analyze and elaborate on selected copyright and related rights-based industries of importance to
Kenya, their national market structure, value chain, demand and supply patterns, labour market,
policy framework, support from public and civil sectors including the role of collective management
organizations and other copyright-related organizations, financing mechanisms, and implications of
the digital environment, among others.
c. Propose policy, strategy and institutional interventions to encourage the growth and development
of copyright-based industries in the country.
The structure of the study is in seven parts:
a. The first part consists of an introduction and a presentation of the objectives and structure of the
study.
b. The second part presents an overview of the copyright policy and law in Kenya.
c. The third part describes the copyright and related rights-based industries in Kenya, presents the
copyright factors used, and provides a comparison of Kenya’s industry coding system and that of the
WIPO Guide (2003).
d. Part four provides details of data collection and methods of analysis.
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
36
4 Picard, R.G., Toivonen, T.E. and Grönlund, M. (2003). “The Contribution of Copyright and Related Rights to the European Economy.”
European Commission, Directorate General (Internal Market).
5 World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) (2003). “Guide on Surveying the Economic Contribution of the Copyright-Based
Industries.” WIPO, Geneva.
that the work must originate from the author—it must have its origin in the labour of the author. The ideas
in the work do not have to be new but the form of expression, be it literary or artistic, must be an original
creation of the author.
2.2.2 Overview of the Kenyan Copyright Law
In Kenya, the law governing copyright is the Copyright Act 2001 (Act No. 12 of 2001) and the Copyright
Regulations of 2004, published on 18th February 2005. Kenya’s copyright law forms part of civil law, which
is designed to settle property-related and personal matters. Copyright protection law is absolute in its
structure, establishing a negative obligation which is very similar to an ownership title in character. The
beneficiaries of copyright protection, as in most countries, are the authors—the creators of individual,
original works in literature, science and art—who are entitled to moral and economic rights.
The Copyright Act of 2001 replaced the Copyright Act Cap. 130 of Kenya, which was in force between 1st
April 1966 and 31st January 2003. As in countries like Hungary, the copyright law in Kenya has evolved
over the decades in response to new challenges, some of them arising from changes in technology. The
Copyright Act Cap. 130 underwent amendments in 1975, 1982, 1989 and 1995. The Act was amended
in order to update it and enhance penalties for infringement of copyright and related rights, and also to
expand the scope of protection. For instance, in 1995, the amendment extended copyright protection to
computer programs. However, in 2001, it was repealed by Section 52 of the Copyright Act of 2001. The
provisions of Section 51 of the Act state that “No copyright or right in the nature of copyright shall subsist
otherwise than by virtue of this Act or some other enactment in that behalf”. This section expressly provides
for abrogation of common-law rights relating to copyright. The Copyright Act 2001 greatly enhanced
penalties for infringement of copyright and is now in conformity with the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual
Property Rights (TRIPs) Agreement, the WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT) (1996) on the protection of the rights
of authors in literary and artistic works, and the WIPO Performance and Phonograms Treaty (WPPT) (1996).
The Copyright Act 2001 introduced several provisions aimed at making it easier to enforce. Some of the
provisions include:
1) The establishment of the Kenya Copyright Board (KCB). Having recognized the negative impacts of
piracy in the copyright industry on the economy and on the creativity of the authors, the KCB was
created as a corporate and autonomous body for administration and enforcement of copyright and
related rights.
2) The appointment of copyright inspectors and prosecutors trained to enforce the Act under the KCB.
3) The establishment of a databank of authors and their works to provide a point of reference for the
public and potential users of copyright works as a way of reducing piracy.
4) The enhancement of penalties with imprisonment of up to 10 years and fines up to KSHs 800,000
in order to deter piracy.
5) The introduction of authentication devices to distinguish genuine from pirated works.
6) Registration and supervision of collective management societies to strengthen the rights holders by
bringing them together.
7) The establishment of a competent authority headed by qualified personnel to adjudicate on arising issues.
8) Jurisdiction to hear copyright cases, where only experienced magistrates hear and determine court cases.
The Copyright Act 2001 received the Presidential assent on 31st December 2001 and was brought into
force without the requisite implementing regulations on 1st February 2003. Therefore, as in most
The Economic Contribution of
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2. Copyright Policy and Law in Kenya
2.1 Policies Related to Creative and Copyright Industries
Even though there have been concerted efforts recently by the Government of Kenya to develop policy
focused on creative and copyright-based industries, there has been no national policy on these industries in
the past. The absence of a National IP Policy has meant that Intellectual Property is not well mainstreamed
into the National Development policies and programmes. Its value is thus not adequately recognized by
policymakers as an important tool for national development that needs to be promoted and protected.
Because of inadequacies in the existing policies, most of the creative industries may not be operating
optimally and therefore a lot of the contribution of these industries is treated as informal and may not be
captured by the government through taxes.
It has been shown through research that strengthening IP protection can stimulate direct foreign investments
(DFI), technology transfer and increased funding for research and development. Thus, a number of recent
efforts have been made by the Kenya Government that recognize the role creative and/or copyright-based
industries play in the creation of wealth and therefore reduction of poverty. The government has proposed
policies that favour the poor and has suggested that poverty alleviation can be achieved by strengthening
the IP system. The government has therefore established three institutions that administer and promote
intellectual property rights (IPRs). These are the Kenya Industrial Property Institute (KIPI), which administers
and promotes industrial property rights that include trademarks and patents; the Kenya Copyright Board
(KCB), which is responsible for the administration of copyrights and related rights; and the Kenya Plant
Health Inspectorate Service (KEPHIS), which is responsible for the protection of new plant varieties.
The enactment of the Copyright Act 2001 by the Kenya Government is said to have contributed to a
rapid growth in the local music industry, and has increased income and employment opportunities. The
strengthening of registration of industrial designs is also deemed to have had a positive role in increasing
confidence in ownership of products produced by local small and medium enterprises has both strengthened
its IP system and provided opportunities for reducing poverty.6
2.2 Copyright Law
2.2.1 The Subject Matter and Beneficiaries of Copyright Law
The copyright law is based on certain fundamental ideas about creativity and possession. It arises from the
notion that anything we create is an extension of “self” and should be protected from unauthorized use.
Copyright law, however, protects only the form of expression of the ideas but not the ideas themselves.
It protects the owners of the rights against those who “copy”, or those who take and use the form in
which the original work has been expressed by the author. It therefore deals with the intellectual
creators in their creation.
Copyright protection includes every production in the literary, scientific and artistic domain whatever the
mode of expression. For a work to enjoy copyright protection it must be an original creation. This means
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6 Otieno-Odek, J. (2007). IPRs and Poverty Alleviation. Paper Presented at a Breakfast Meeting on IPRs and Poverty Alleviation, 24 April
2007, Norfolk Hotel, Nairobi.
reproduced and performed in public and also to object to any distortion or mutilation of the work when
it is used. Such protection is granted under the law on copyright (moral rights).
Finally, the works of the authors of a country enable the country’s manners, customs and cultural heritage
to become better known both inside and outside the country. Consequently, any country wishing to
stimulate and inspire its own authors in their creativity must necessarily provide for copyright protection.
(For more on Kenya’s copyright law, see Appendix II.)
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developing countries, the Kenyan Copyright Act has experienced a number of difficulties related to its
enforcement. Notable obstacles include:
1) Lack of public awareness, which has led to a thriving business in pirated works (thereby reducing legal
employment opportunities), loss of revenue to the government, and death of talent in the copyright
industry.
2) Lack of training and awareness on the part of most rights holders. Most of the agreements assigned
either for licensing or assignment of copyright do not satisfy the legal requirements to be admissible
in court.
3) Lack of training on the part of enforcement officers on copyright laws, implying lack of knowledge
on how to gather relevant evidence and lack of awareness of seriousness of copyright infringement.
4) Evidentiary rules requiring detailed and complicated proof of copyright and copyright ownership for
creative works cause unwarranted loss of time, effort and money by the rights holder.
5) Lack of intellectual property expertise is another difficulty faced in enforcing copyright infringements.
6) Lack of intellectual property policy has meant that intellectual property is not mainstreamed into
national development.
7) Weak coordination among enforcement agencies.
8) It is often difficult to prove the amount of actual damage suffered by the rights holder.
9) High cost of litigation renders rights holders unable to instruct advocates to represent them in court
in case of infringement of their rights.
8) Legal procedures to obtain information from or about infringers are missing. The ability to obtain
information necessary to detect and detain all actors in the distribution chain and to identify the
sources of supply of illegal goods is important if piracy is to be fought effectively.
9) There are emerging issues in enforcement with the advancement of technology. For example, piracy
has taken a new dimension and has become more sophisticated and lucrative. This has led to the trade
in pirated materials becoming a very attractive business.
2.2.3 Economic Considerations of the Kenyan Copyright Law
Copyright constitutes an essential element in the economic development process of Kenya. As is always the
case with other countries, some people in Kenya possess the natural gift of intellectual creation more than
others. Protection under the Kenyan copyright law encourages them to create further works, thus enriching
Kenya’s store of literature, music and art, as well as promoting economic development. Certainly, the
overwhelming numbers of authors of creative works are interested in having some control over how their
creations are used and in reaping some economic benefits from that use. This aspect of the Kenyan
copyright law as a stimulus for intellectual creativity is of fundamental importance.
In addition, the considerable investments which are sometimes necessary for the creation and
dissemination of works of the mind will be more easily obtainable if effective protection exists under
the law. In some sectors, for instance book-printing, film-making and record manufacturing, such legal
protection is in fact indispensable—it is simply not possible to engage in these expensive activities if no
satisfactory legal protection exists which gives the possibility to take action against those who use the
products without permission.
Furthermore, if the copyright protection exists in a work, the author is encouraged not only to create the
work but also to make it public and disseminate it widely, because he knows that he will not lose control
over it simply because it is made known to others. Such a wide dissemination of works is generally of great
benefit for the society as a whole.
An author’s work is generally the personal expression of his thoughts and of his personality and he should
therefore be able to claim respect for it—that is, to decide whether, when and how his work may be
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
40
iii. Motion pictures and video.
iv. Radio and television.
v. Photography.
vi. Software and databases.
vii. Visual and graphic arts.
viii. Advertising.
ix. Copyright collecting societies.
3.2.2 Interdependent Copyright-Based Industries
The interdependent copyright-based industries are defined by the WIPO Guide (2003) as “industries that
are engaged in production, manufacture and sale of equipment whose function is wholly or primarily to
facilitate the creation, production or use of works and other protected subject matter.” These industries
wholly depend on core copyright industries for existence.
This category of industries includes:
i. Manufacture, wholesale and retail of TV sets, radios, VCRs, CD players, DVD players, electronic
game equipment and other similar equipment.
ii. Manufacture, wholesale and retail (sales and rental) of computers and equipment.
iii. Manufacture, wholesale and retail (sales and rental) of musical instruments.
iv. Manufacture, wholesale and retail (sales and rental) of photographic and cinematographic
instruments.
v. Manufacture, wholesale and retail (sales and rental) of photocopiers.
vi. Manufacture, wholesale and retail of blank recording materials.
vii. Manufacture, wholesale and retail of paper.
3.2.3 Partial Copyright-Based Industries
Industries in which only a specific proportion of their production is associated with products protected by
copyright and related rights are referred to as partial copyright-based industries. The ratio is indicated by
a copyright factor which shows what percentage of the product is under protection of copyright. The
following industries fall under this category, according to the WIPO Guide (2003):
i. Apparel, textiles and footwear.
ii. Jewellery and coins.
iii. Other crafts.
iv. Furniture.
v. Household goods, china and glass.
vi. Wall coverings and carpets.
vii. Toys and games.
viii. Architecture, engineering, surveying.
ix. Interior design.
x. Museums.
3.2.4 Non-Dedicated Support Industries
The non-dedicated support industries are those in which a portion of their activities is related to facilitating
broadcast, communication, distribution and sale of products and works and other protected subject matter.
The following industries fall under this category according to the WIPO Guide (2003):
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3. Copyright-based Industries in Kenya
3.1 Composition of Copyright-Based Industries
As alluded to earlier, copyright-based industries include all the activities and industries that produce works
(creations) protected by the copyright law and the industries that consume or utilize such products. The
copyright law ensures that the rights of those engaged in creations in copyright and related industries are
protected and that the creator of such works benefits both morally and financially from the consumption of
works they have created.
The creation of works under the protection of copyright law presents a starting point in terms of economic
weight and effect of copyright. The creation of copyright-protected works is essentially associated with other
activities that increase added value. The consumption of literary and artistic creations and works cannot be
possible without interposing certain associated activities (e.g. wrapping, copying, distribution, etc.).
The law covers creative works such as the activities of writers, authors, software designers, etc. These
activities are important factors in the economic development of nations worldwide, Kenya included. Apart
from meeting social and cultural functions, the production of these works is key to enhancing economic
value through generating added value.
3.2 Types of Copyright-Based Industries
The methodological guide published by WIPO (2003) distinguishes four main categories of copyright-based
industries depending on the type of association to copyright. They are:
I Core copyright-based industries.
II Interdependent copyright-based industries.
III Partial copyright-based industries.
IV Non-dedicated support industries.
Creations and works protected by the copyright law do not carry equal weight in different sectors of the
economy. There are those that are totally based on copyright-protected creative works. These include,
according to the WIPO Guide, core copyright-based industries and interdependent copyright-based
industries. In other sectors, copyrighted creations are only partly represented or have no role to play at all.
These include partial and non-dedicated copyright-based industries.
3.2.1 Core Copyright-Based Industries
Core copyright-based industries are industries fully engaged in the creation, manufacturing and production,
performance, broadcasting and communication, and exhibition or distribution and sale of works and other
creations under the scope of copyright. They are areas in the economy whose activities are based on works
protected by copyright and related rights. They form the core of copyright-based industries and activities in
them are almost exclusively associated with creations protected by copyright, hence their full activities and
performance are taken into consideration when establishing the economic contribution of copyright-based
industries. The following industries fall into this category according to the WIPO Guide:
i. Press and literature.
ii. Music, theatrical productions and opera.
The Economic Contribution of
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3.4 Copyright Factors
A copyright factor is a percentage indicating the proportion of copyright activities in a given industry.
It is an expression of the extent of dependence of the product of the given industry on copyright.
According to WIPO recommendations, the copyright factor may take a value between 0 and 1 depending
on the industry. Thus, industries that only produce products and works and other protected subject matter
have a copyright factor of 1, while those having nothing to do with copyright have a factor of 0. This
The Economic Contribution of
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45
i. General wholesale and retailing.
ii. General transportation.
iii. Telephony and internet.
3.3 Comparison of Industry Classification for Kenya with the WIPO Guide
Table 1 summarizes all the copyright-based industries included in the Kenyan survey. The industries were
determined according to the WIPO Guide but taking into account the specific characteristics of the Kenyan
statistical system.
A comparison of the industries recommended by WIPO and those used in the Kenyan survey is given in
Table 2. As can be seen from the table, these industries roughly correspond. There are a few differences,
however. For example, the manufacture of musical instruments is in the interdependent category as per the
WIPO classification but is missing in the Kenyan classification. Also, in the Kenyan survey results, interior
designs have been included under the visual and graphic arts. Wholesale and retail in the Kenyan statistics
are included in the core copyright industries.
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Table 1: Copyright-based industries in Kenya
Table 2: Classification of copyright-based industries in Kenya compared to the WIPO Guide classification
multiplying the total added value, output, employee income, and number of employees by the copyright
factor of the industry studied. Thus, the actual significance of copyright-based industries in the national
economy is determined to some degree of accuracy.
The Economic Contribution of
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47
means that all industries producing creative works protected by copyright have a copyright factor of 1.
These include core copyright and interdependent copyright industries.
In partial and non-dedicated copyright-based industries, a large share of their goods and services has no
relation to copyright at all. The copyright factors for partial industries used in this study were generated by
computing means of partial copyright factors for Hungary, Singapore and Latvia. The copyright factors for
these countries were chosen because they showed some degree of consistency in their ranges. Although the
data from our survey did not capture all the partial industries and therefore was not adequate for
generating the copyright factors, there were some indicative similarities between the observed and
computed copyright factors from Hungary, Singapore and Latvia. The computed means of copyright factors
from the three countries were therefore adopted to calculate the fractions of partial industries that are
attributable to copyright-based industries (see Table 3). Several similar studies, carried out recently, have
adopted the same approach to generate copyright factors (see, for example, Leenheer et al., 2008).7
The following formula suggested by Chow8and adopted at the Experts Meeting in Singapore in October
2008 was used to compute the copyright factor for non-dedicated support industries (NDSI):
The non-distribution GDP in Equation (1) is given by GDP minus (value-added of general transportation plus
general wholesale and retail plus telephony and internet) plus value-added of distribution industries in the
core, interdependent and partial sub-sectors. (Examples of distribution industries in the core group are
wholesale and retail of press and literature—book stores, newsstands, etc.)
A full range of copyright factors used in the Kenyan study is provided in Table 4. The appropriate added
value, output, employee income, and number of employees of copyright-based activities were computed by
The Economic Contribution of
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46
Table 3: Copyright factors for partial copyright-based industries in Kenya
Table 4: Copyright factors adopted for the Kenyan study
7 Leenheer, J., Bremer, S. and Jules Theeuwes, J. (2008). “The Economic Contribution of the Copyright-Based Industries in the
Netherlands: A Study Based on the WIPO Guide.” The Netherlands.
8 Professor Chow Kit Boey is a co-author of the 2004 report on “The Economic Contribution of Copyright-Based Industries in
Singapore,” which was one of the first published reports to use the WIPO Guide (2003).
The Economic Contribution of
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3.5 Comparison of Kenya’s Coding and the WIPO Guide (2003) ISIC System
The Kenyan classification, compared to the WIPO Guide (2003), is highly aggregated. A full range of these
comparisons is given in Table 5. In a number of cases, this poses some difficulties in disaggregating the
various sub-sectors and activities of copyright-based industries for the purposes of computing activity-
specific contributions to the national economy. Thus, Kenya’s adoption of the ISIC system lags behind
and needs updating to be in line with the current UN system of classification.
The Economic Contribution of
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Table 5: Kenya’s industry coding compared to WIPO (2003) ISIC
relevant industry with respect to one of the economic indicators was available, the proportional contribution
based on that indicator was used to obtain its contribution in another indicator. In circumstances where
data from different sources were contradictory, the researchers had the discretion to select data from
the source deemed more reliable and representative of the activity in question.10
4.2.3 Calculation of Indicators of Economic Contribution
As in all the previous studies in this field, the indicators of the contribution of Kenyan copyright industries
to the national economy are turnover (gross output), value-added, number of persons employed and
employees’ incomes. The value-added is obtained when labour costs (including social-security contributions
and taxes) are added to the operating margin and the income from the sale of fixed assets is deducted from
this sum. The GDP share of Gross Value-Added (GVA) is calculated to reveal the economic contribution of
the copyright-based industries to the domestic economy.
GDP can be measured using three approaches—the output or production approach, the expenditure
approach, and the income approach. The production approach views GDP as the sum of value-added (VA)
of all industries, i.e., the difference between output and intermediate consumption. In the expenditure
approach, GDP is viewed as the sum of all expenditure categories, including government and household
consumption, fixed capital formation, changes in inventories, and exports minus imports. The income
approach considers GDP to be the sum of the income due to households (compensation of employees, i.e.,
wages and salaries, bonuses and other benefits) and corporations (profits or gross operating surpluses) and
taxes on production and imports (indirect taxes). All the three approaches would yield the same estimates of
GDP. However, as different sources of data are used, differences between them inevitably arise. Singapore is
one of the few countries that compile GDP estimates using all the three approaches.11
The output or production approach was adopted in the Kenyan case. GDP at basic prices was derived by
converting the Value-Added Tax (VAT) into value-added and then summing it up. Figures on VAT, which is
uniformly charged at 16% across items, were obtained from the KRA. In addition to the value-added, the
workforce of the copyright industries was calculated and compared with the total workforce in Kenya.
Employee incomes were also treated the same way.
The overall methodological approach consisted of three principal components:
a. Derivation of specific data for the various copyright and related rights-based industries, mainly from
the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) and the Kenya Revenue Authority (KRA), and other
relevant government sources. For selected copyright and related rights-based industries (partial and
non-dedicated) for which only a part of the output is copyright-related, relevant copyright factors for
partial industries were calculated using means of similar factors for three countries—Singapore,
Hungary and Latvia—considered to be closely comparable. For the non-dedicated support industries,
Equation (1) was applied.
b. The total impact, which comprised the direct, indirect and induced impacts. These impacts were for
output, added value, incomes, employment and foreign trade. The impacts were measured as follows:
i. The direct impact as represented by the operating revenue of copyright
and related rights-based activities;
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4. Data Collection and Methods of Analysis
4.1 Sources of Information
The current study relied mainly on secondary data obtained from various government departments,
institutions and NGOs. Sources of data and information included the Kenya Revenue Authority (KRA);
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS);9Ministry of Gender, Sports, Culture and Social Services; Ministry
of Trade and Industry; Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife; AG Chambers; relevant research institutions and
institutes such as the Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA), Institute of Policy
Analysis and Research (IPAR), Kenya Industrial Research and Development Institute (KIRDI), and Kenya
Industrial Estate (KIE); Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM); Jua Kali Association; and the Music
Copyright Society of Kenya (MCSK). Other secondary sources of data included past and current research
and government reports, and study reports based on the WIPO Guide. In addition, internet searches were
employed to access available information on the contribution of creative industries to the national economy.
4.2 Methodology
4.2.1 Data Collection
In this report, the economic contribution of copyright and neighbouring rights is measured according to
the guidelines drawn up by WIPO. The study includes core copyright industries, interdependent copyright
industries, partial copyright industries and non-dedicated support industries. A pilot survey at the initial
stages of the study, using a questionnaire, was carried out to identify sources of secondary information
and provide more insights into the nature and organizational structure of the copyright industries in
Kenya. The primary data collected were later used to fill the gaps identified in the secondary data. With
these data, there was an attempt to derive the factors used to adjust the contribution of partial copyright-
based and non-dedicated support industries to the national economy. While some of
the factors generated were found to be close to a few of the already published ones, most of them were
inconsistent with those used in most studies—such as those for the Singaporean, Hungarian and Latvian
studies. This may have been because the data collected were not sufficient to compute reliable factors.
4.2.2 Dealing with Missing Data
In a number of cases, data on one or several industries were missing. In a few cases, recorded data were
contradictory, even from the same source. There were also situations where copyright-based industries’ data
were combined with those that did not fall under copyright-protected industries. Yet again, some data from
different sources were conflicting. For example, data on VAT for particular activities/industries, which were
used to calculate value-added at basic prices, contradicted the sales—in the sense that the value of sales
(representing gross output) turned out to be less than the value-added—which should not be the case.
In a few cases, data on sales were missing all together.
In cases where sales were missing or were shown to be less than added value, the calculated added value
based on VAT was used. This meant that there was an undervaluation of the value of sales in that particular
activity. Where data for an activity were available on (for example) employment but missing on VAT or sales
(or vice versa), the proportional contribution in one economic indicator (for example, employment) of that
specific industry was used to estimate another economic indicator (for example, value-added). Also, where
a copyright-based industry was combined with that which was not copyright-based and a value for the
The Economic Contribution of
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50
9 The KNBS provided two publications from which most data on employment, employee incomes and sector contributions were
obtained: Economic Survey (2007), pages 49-262; and Statistical Abstract (2008) on “Annual Production Accounts”, pages 32 and 33.
10 Thus, in a number of cases, gross output was not calculated in conformity with the WIPO Guide.
11 Statistics Singapore Newsletter (July 2000). “National Accounts: Measuring Gross Domestic Product (GDP).” Singapore Department of
Statistics, Singapore.
recorded is the number of internet users and licensed Internet Service Providers (ISPs). Costs of inputs
(expenditures) are also scanty, unavailable or highly aggregated, making it difficult to analyze the individual
contributions. Input-output data are not compiled in government records—thus input-output analysis (using
the Liontief matrix) to estimate multipliers is not possible with limited or inconsistent data.
Another challenge, albeit a minor one, is that Kenya’s industry coding is not in harmony with the UN coding;
for example, Kenya’s code for printing is 3420, while the current ISIC coding is 2221. This can cause
confusion. There is also a lack of related studies in similar environments (sub-Saharan Africa) from which
to learn lessons for any new survey conducted in those environments.
Because of inadequate data, information and policies, there has been mushrooming of unscrupulous self-
imposed industry regulators. These tend to block information flow to artists, so as to control them. Further
to this, the quantification of exported artistic work is difficult due to a lack of data and also because some
of the exportation is not done legally (not on record).
Yet another challenge is that related to piracy. Although not the subject of this survey, as mentioned in
previous paragraphs, piracy has made it difficult to estimate the true contribution of copyright-based
industries to GDP. For example, most of the music and video products in Kenya are said to be pirated. With
the advancement of technology, piracy has taken a new dimension and has become sophisticated and
lucrative, making trade in pirated material a very attractive business, with even organized gangs being
involved; therefore, enforcement has become more challenging and risky.
The Economic Contribution of
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ii. The indirect impact that arises from additional revenue generated from other sectors providing
goods and services to copyright and related rights-based sectors; and
iii. The induced impact, limited to the group of non-dedicated support industries.
c. Employment data were compiled for estimation of the employment impact while trade data were
collected for the foreign trade measure.
It was not possible to perform an input-output analysis due to unavailability of adequate data from the
standard data sources. We do recognize, however, the importance of this approach in analyzing the
knock-on (multiplier) effects and therefore the comparative advantage in investing in copyright industries
as opposed to other industries. We therefore suggest that follow-up studies seek information from
professional and trade organizations, as this was not possible within the framework of the current study.
This study does not include copyright piracy or other illegal uses of copyright-protected works and other
protected subject matter, because such activities were beyond the scope of the current study.
4.3 Survey Challenges
A number of challenges that deserve mention were faced during the Kenyan survey. Some of these may
be unique to Kenya and similar developing countries, while some may be common to all countries.
In Kenya, the rate of growth of creative industries is quite fast, and there is increased awareness of their
contribution to the national economy. However, the high growth rate is making it hard for the government
to capture the activities and their contribution in its accounts. Also, the inadequacies of existing policies
have made the creative industries operate in an uncoordinated manner, again leading to low focus on their
activities for the purposes of making them contribute to the national revenue. In addition, the absence of an
IP Policy, which has led to inadequate mainstreaming of intellectual property into the national development
programmes, has meant that the value of intellectual property is not appropriately recognized by
policymakers, and may not necessarily be fully captured in the national accounts.
Another problem, that may be common to all countries, is the unwillingness by those involved in the
industry to disclose information for reasons of avoiding taxation. Particularly common is that most of the
artists avoid taxes and even resist exposing themselves, mainly because they want to protect their products
from piracy. Also, some retailers of creative works are either operating illegally or stock pirated materials,
and would normally avoid disclosure. This would naturally result in poor or no documentation, therefore
leading to no or inadequate database.
In the Kenyan databases, the contribution of creative industries is highly aggregated, e.g. partial and non-
dedicated—transport and telecommunication. It is therefore difficult to establish the contribution of specific
activities/industries to the GDP. This would lead to over- or under-estimation or double-accounting of the
contribution of certain industries. Some of the creative industries are traditional and for prestige. Thus, only
cultural value—and no monetary value—is attached to these industries, which include traditional healing,
music, dancing and drama. Such industries are found away from cities, where there is little ability and
willingness to pay.
The lack of a concrete databank on the contribution of creative industries in Kenya is a major challenge. For
example, there is no database of authors and their works. This might be one of the major reasons for the
rise in piracy, because members of the public or potential users of copyright works do not have a point of
reference to find out who owns what in the copyright industry. Data on software are scanty; what is
The Economic Contribution of
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52
Figure 1 illustrates clearly the contributions made by the various copyright-based industries in Kenya. In the
performance indicators considered in this study, the core copyright-based industries outperformed the other
three categories of copyright-based industries in the contribution to gross output and employee incomes,
the interdependent copyright-based industries outperformed all the other groups in GDP contribution, while
the partial copyright-based industries exceeded all the others in their contribution to employment.
Within the copyright-based industries, the core industries made the highest contribution to the national
economy, followed by the interdependent industries—the former contributed 43% while the latter made
a contribution of 41% of the total copyright-based GDP (at basic prices). The partial and non-dedicated
copyright-based industries each made a contribution of 8%. This is illustrated in Figure 2. With respect to
gross output, the core copyright-based industries again contributed the highest share of 49% of the total
copyright-based gross output, compared to the contribution of interdependent industries of 31% (Figure 2).
The partial and non-dedicated copyright-based industries in this respect also made reasonable contributions
of 12% and 8% respectively.
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
55
5. Economic Contribution of Copyright-based Industries
in Kenya In 2007
Overall Performance of Copyright-Based Industries
The economic contribution of the copyright-based industries in Kenya as shown by the values of value-
added, employment, and employee incomes is significant. The total value-added (GDP at basic prices) of
copyright-based industries in 2007 amounted to KSHs 85,208.7 million, which represented 5.32% of the
total GDP of KSHs 1,603,176 million (at basic prices). Among the copyright-based industries, the
contribution to the country’s total value-added by the core industries was KSHs 36,944.1 million (2.30%),
KSHs 34,784.8 million (2.17%) by the interdependent industries, KSHs 6,559.7 million (0.41%) by the
partial industries, and KSHs 6,920.1 million (0.43%) by the non-dedicated industries (see Table 6).
When the core and interdependent copyright-based industries whose activities are 100% copyright-dependent
are considered, the two contribute about 4.47%. Thus, even without including the contributions of partial
and non-dedicated copyright-based industries whose combined contribution is low (0.84%), assuming the
copyright factors used for apportionment reasonably represent their share contributions, this is a strong
indication of the level of contribution of copyright-based industries in Kenya.
In terms of gross output (at basic prices), the entire copyright-based industries contributed KSHs 114,231.6
million out of the total national output of KSHs 3,041,382 million, which represented 3.76% of the national
economic output. Out of this total, the core copyright-based industries made a contribution of KSHs
57,196.4 million, which formed 1.88% of the total national output. There is, however, a high likelihood
that sales figures were under-reported.
With respect to the income for employees, the copyright-based industries made a total of KSHs 19,118.9
million in 2007, making a proportion of about 1.97% compared to the total national economic value of
KSHs 749,818.5 million. Among the copyright-based industries, the total employee income for core
industries was KSHs 7,609 million, which was about 1.02% of the national employee income.
In 2007, copyright-based industries employed 62,131 people. This made up about 3.26% of the total
national workforce (government and private sector employees). Within this number, the core copyright
industries employed 22,799 people, making up 1.2% of the total national workforce.
Overall, considering that the full contribution of the copyright-based industries may not be captured under
the Kenyan circumstances, these industries may be contributing upwards of 7% to the national economy
in terms of GDP, with the core copyright-based industries making a contribution of about 3–4%.
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
54
Table 6: Economic contribution of copyright-based industries in Kenya in 2007 (KSHs, numbers, %)
Figure 1: Economic contribution of copyright-based industries in Kenya in 2007 (%)
For comparison, Figure 5 illustrates the productivity of the various copyright-based industries and that
of the total national economy in Kenya in 2007. Again, the most productive were the interdependent
copyright-based industries with a contribution of KSHs 2,446,188, followed by the core copyright-based
industries with a contribution of KSHs 1,620,426, all the copyright-based industries combined with a
contribution of KSHs 1,371,436, and the total national economy with a contribution of KSHs 840,569
per employee. This shows that the contribution of the copyright-based industries is significant.
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
57
Figure 4 shows employee productivity shares within the copyright-based industries in Kenya with respect to
total added-value. Productivity, which is usually distinguished from production, is, in general terms, the ratio
of output to input, often physical but also monetary and even sometimes non-material. Output per unit
capital or per unit labour/employee is a good indicator of the productivity and sustainability of a sector,
as falling output might mean a deterioration of the resource base within that sector.
In terms of the total added value per employee in 2007, of the copyright-based industries, the most
productive category was the interdependent industries with a contribution of 43%, followed by the core
copyright industries with a contribution of 28%, the non-dedicated industries with 23%, and the partial
industries with only 6% (Figure 4).
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
56
Figure 2: Share contributions within copyright-based industries in Kenya based on total value-added (GDP) in 2007
Figure 3: Share contributions within copyright-based industries in Kenya based on total gross output in 2007 (%)
Figure 4: Productivity within copyright-based industries in Kenya in 2007 (total added value per employee)
Figure 5: Productivity of copyright-based industries compared to the national productivity in Kenya in 2007
(total added value per employee)
Concerning the contribution to employee income, in 2007 the copyright-based industries combined
generated KSHs 19,118.9 million compared to the national employee income (government and private
sector) of KSHs 749,818.5 million (Figure 8, Table 6). This accounted for about 2% of the total national
employee income. This amount was greater than that generated from either the mining-and-quarrying
sector or the electrical-and-water sector. The core copyright-based industries alone generated about KSHs
7.61 billion, making an overall contribution of 1.02% to the national employee income. This proportion was
also larger than that of the contribution to employee income of the mining-and-quarrying sector, and close
to the contribution of the electrical-and-water sector.
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
59
5.2 Economic Contribution of Copyright-Based Industries Compared to Other Sectors
The contribution of the copyright-based industries to the national economy on the basis of GDP compared
to a selected number of main sectors in Kenya is shown in Figure 6. This contribution shows that copyright-
based industries in 2007 did better than the agriculture-and-forestry, education, and healthcare sectors and
compared favourably with the contributions of fisheries and the other main sectors of the Kenyan economy,
such as manufacturing and construction. In fact, the total added value generated by the core copyright-
based industries alone was equal to that generated by the agriculture sector, and almost equal to that
contributed by the education sector. The core and interdependent copyright-based industries collectively did
almost as well as the agriculture and education sectors combined, and better than the health-and-social-
work sector.
On the basis of employment, the copyright-based industries collectively employed 62,131 people in 2007
compared to the national workforce (government and private sector employment) of 1,907,250 (Figure 7,
Table 6). This was about 3.3% of total employment. These employment figures were higher than those of
the building-and-construction sector. They were also higher than those of the mining-and-quarrying and
electrical-and-water sectors combined. The core copyright-based industries alone employed 22,799 people,
comprising about 1.2% of the total national employment. This figure exceeded the contributions to
employment of the mining-and-quarrying and electrical-and-water sectors respectively.
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Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
58
Figure 6: Contribution of copyright-based industries to Kenya’s economy in 2007 compared to other sectors
on the basis of GDP (%)
Figure 7: The contribution of copyright-based industries to Kenya’s economy in 2007 compared
to other sectors based on employment (‘000)
5.3 Economic Contribution of Decomposed Core Copyright-Based Industries
In the order of the magnitude of their value-added contributions, the main core copyright-based activities in
Kenya include printing, publishing and allied services (KSHs 13.053 billion); retail sale of books, newspapers
and stationery (KSHs 11.947 billion); data processing and tabulating services (KSHs 5.564 billion); amusement
and other recreational services (KSHs 2.927 billion); and radio and television broadcasting (KSHs 1.676 billion).
Others are motion picture distribution and projection (KSHs 0.390 billion); business, professional and labour
associations (KSHs 0.221 billion); theatrical producers and entertainment services (KSHs 0.180 billion); authors,
music composers and other artists (KSHs 0.177 billion); and motion picture production (KSHs 0.176 billion).
Collectively, the decomposed core copyright-based activities/industries contributed KSHs 36.944 billion of
value-added in 2007, which translated to about 2.3% of the total national added value. The gross output
of all the core copyright-based industries was KSHs 57.196 billion, accounting for about 1.88% of the gross
economic output of the entire national economy (see Figure 10).
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
61
For comparison, Figure 9 illustrates the productivity of the core and total copyright-based industries
alongside other sectors contributing to the national economy in Kenya in 2007. Both the overall and core
copyright-based industries exhibited impressive productivity. The productivity index of the core copyright-
based industries, calculated as a fraction of added value in million Kenya Shillings per employee, was better
than those of 11 out of 13 major sectors contributing to the national economy. It was, however, suspected
that the employee numbers in the creative industries in general were difficult to capture and were likely
under-reported, leading to high productivity values.
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
60
Figure 8: Contribution of copyright-based industries to Kenya’s economy compared to other sectors
on the basis of employee incomes (KSHs millions)
Figure 9: Productivity of copyright-based industries in Kenya (total added value in KSHs millions/employee)
compared to other sectors in 2007
According to the contribution to gross output within the core industries in 2007, the largest revenues were
realized in the retail sale of books, newspapers and stationery (57%), followed by printing, publishing and
allied services (23%), data processing and tabulating services (10%); amusement and other recreational
services (5%), and radio and television broadcasting (3%), in that order (Figure 12). The rest of the
activities/industries in the core category contributed 1% or less of the total gross output. As in other
relatively developed countries such as Hungary, this illustrates the leading positions the press (particularly
print media), literature and databases hold. The print media are long established, while the data processing
and associated software services are a strongly emerging group of activities.
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
63
Regarding employment, the core copyright-based industries in Kenya collectively employed 22,799 persons,
who formed about 1.2% of total national employees (Figure 10, Table 6). In respect of the contribution to
employee income in 2007, the core copyright-based industries generated KSHs 7.609 billion, making about
1.02% of the total national incomes generated for employees.
In comparison to the contribution to total value-added and gross output, the core copyright-based industries
made a lower contribution to employment and employee incomes. This contrasted with the results of some
of similar studies, such as that for Hungary in 2002, which showed a higher contribution to both employment
numbers and incomes for employees.13 The results for Kenya also showed the contribution of employee
numbers to be higher than the contribution to employee incomes. In this respect, the Kenyan scenario
compared favourably with that of the more industrialized countries such as the USA. It is argued that the
Hungarian situation is a reflection of the fact that the core copyright-based industries use a larger labour-
force than the average industry. It is further argued that this apparent loss in productivity may be due to
the lower level of mechanization and automation of the core copyright-based industries compared to
industrialized countries, and the slow establishment of new, labour-saving technologies because of lack of
finance. If the Kenyan outcome is not attributable to data problems, the differences observed may be due
to the lower volumes involved in the Kenyan case and may also be an indication that the copyright-based
industries are not very well established. Furthermore, the number of people employed in the copyright-
based industries is likely larger than that reported in government statistics.
Table 7 shows the contribution of the decomposed core copyright-based industries/activities in 2007 in
Kenya. Printing, publishing and allied services contributed KSHs 13,053 million to GDP in 2007, followed by
the retail sale of books, newspapers and stationery (KSHs 11,947 million). Further illustration is given in
Figure 11, which presents the structure of core copyright-based industries. As shown in the figure, within
the category of core copyright-based industries, printing, publishing and allied services contributed 36% to
GDP; the retail sale of books, newspapers and stationery contributed 32%; data processing and tabulating
services 15%; amusement and other recreational services 8%; radio and television broadcasting 5%; and
photographic studios and commercial photography 2%. The rest of the specific industries in the core
category contributed 1% or less.
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
62
Figure 10: Economic contribution of core copyright-based industries in Kenya in 2007 (%)
13 Penyigey, K. and Munkácsi, P. (2005). “The Economic Contribution of Copyright-Based Industries in Hungary.” In: National Studies on
Assessing the Economic Contribution, WIPO.
Table 7: Economic contribution of decomposed core copyright-based industries in Kenya in 2007
Figure 11: Structure of core copyright-based industries in Kenya in 2007 based on value-added (%)
The contribution of the decomposed core copyright-based industries to employee income in 2007 is shown
in Table 9. Again, printing, publishing and allied industries had the largest contribution (KSHs 1,837.6 million),
followed by business, professional and labour associations (KSHs 1,255.9 million); amusement and recreational
services (KSHs 913.8 million); and data processing and tabulating services (KSHs 732.1 million), in that order.
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
65
With respect to the contribution to employment within the core industries in 2007, printing, publishing and
allied services had the largest number of employees (9,051 people), followed by amusement and recreational
services (3,005); business, professional and labour associations (2,912); and data processing and tabulating
services (2,684), in that order (Table 8). Figure 13 provides an illustration of the structure of these core
copyright-based industries according to their contribution to employment.
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Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
64
Table 9: Contribution of decomposed core copyright-based industries to employee income in Kenya in 2007
Figure 12: Structure of core copyright-based industries in Kenya in 2007 according to gross output (%)
Table 8: Contribution of decomposed core copyright-based industries to employment in Kenya in 2007
Figure 13 : Structure of core copyright-based industries in Kenya in 2007 based on the number of employees (%)
(KSHs 382,869); manufacture of photographic and optical goods (KSHs 65.8 million); manufacture of
professional and scientific equipment (KSHs 78.2 million); and manufacture of radio, TV and communication
equipment (KSHs 539.3 million) (Table 10). This is only about 2% of the total contribution of value-added
by the interdependent copyright industries. The Kenyan economy is heavily dependent on durable
manufacture goods in the copyright-based industries primarily sourced externally, and this is the main
reason for high proportions of the retail activities and their value contribution in the interdependent
copyright-based industries.
Figure 15 illustrates activity contributions to total value-added. It clearly depicts that compared to the rest of
the activities under the category of interdependent copyright-based industries, hardly any value-added came
from the manufacture of musical instruments, manufacture of professional and scientific equipment, and
manufacture of graphic and optical goods respectively. Also very little value-added contribution was made
from the manufacture of radio, TV and communication equipment, and manufacture of office, computing
and accounting machinery. The same trend is seen in the contribution of these activities to total gross
output (Figure 16).
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
67
5.4 Economic Contribution of Interdependent Copyright-Based Industries
The analysis of the economic contribution of interdependent copyright industries includes activities involving
the production, manufacture, and sale of instruments and equipment either wholly or principally designed
to promote the creation, production, or use of copyrighted works and other protected subject matter.
In 2007, Kenya’s output value of interdependent copyright-based industries amounted to over 34.89 billion
Kenya Shillings, accounting for about 1.15% of the gross national economic output (Figure 14). With this
gross output, the interdependent copyright industries made a contribution in terms of added value of
slightly over 34.78 billion, which constituted about 2.17% of the national GDP. In terms of employees, the
interdependent copyright industries engaged 14,220 people, making a contribution of about 0.75% of
salaried employees in the country. With respect to income for employees, these industries gave KSHs 3.78
billion in the form of salaries, making about 0.5% of the total national income to employees.
Assuming that all the sales (output) and value-added were captured in the government statistics provided,
a close look at Figure 14 reveals that the contribution of the interdependent copyright-based industries in
terms of gross output to the national economy is just over 50% of their contribution to the GDP. It is more
than twice its contribution (2.3 times) to employee income and more than its contribution to salaried
employees by one-and-a-half times. One of the possible reasons for lower contribution of these industries
in terms of gross output to the national economy compared to the GDP’s contribution is that not all the
sales from the interdependent copyright-based industries were captured. Alternatively, this scenario may be
mainly a result of heavy involvement in the retail and wholesale activities, from where most of the value-
added is obtained, as shown in Table 10 and Figure 15. Thus, due to the nature of the Kenyan economy,
which is basically reliant on large proportions of foreign components for the production and/or manufacture
of instruments and equipment that fall under the category of interdependent industries, this outcome can
be explained by the fact that the activities in this sub-sector are mostly in the sale of final goods and/or the
assembly of imported parts.
The assessment in the foregoing paragraph is supported by the data that show that among the highest
contributors to both gross output and value-added in the interdependent copyright-based industries
category in 2007 was the retail sale of household appliances and radio and TV goods (KSHs 14.7 billion to
GDP), making more than 42% of the total contribution of the interdependent copyright-based industries in
terms of added value. In contrast, the lowest contribution came from the manufacture of musical instruments
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
66
Figure 14: Economic contribution of interdependent copyright-based industries in Kenya in 2007 (%)
Table 10: Contribution of decomposed interdependent copyright-based industries to value-added
in Kenya in 2007
Figure 15: Contribution of decomposed interdependent copyright-based industries to value-added
in Kenya in 2007 (%)
With respect to employee income, the manufacture of electrical machinery and appliances made the highest
contribution in 2007 by registering employee income of KSHs 1,289.4 million (0.17%), which was close to
35% of the total employee income in the interdependent copyright-based industries category. It was
followed by the manufacture of pulp, paper and paperboard (about 0.11%). The two sectors combined
contributed over 50% of employee income in this category of industries (Table 12 and Figure 18).
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
69
As shown in Table 11 and Figure 17, the sector with the highest number of employees in 2007 was the
manufacture of pulp, paper and paperboard articles, making up about 0.24% of total salaried employment.
This was followed by the manufacture of pulp, paper and paperboard (about 0.21%), and by wholesale and
retail of electrical machinery and appliances (0.16%). These three combined made a total contribution of
over 60% of employees in the group of interdependent copyright-based industries.
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Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
68
Figure 16: Contribution of decomposed interdependent copyright-based industries to gross output
in Kenya in 2007 (%)
Table 11: Contribution of decomposed interdependent copyright-based industries to employment
in Kenya in 2007
Figure 17: Contribution of decomposed interdependent copyright-based industries to employment
in Kenya in 2007 (%)
Table 12: Contribution of decomposed interdependent copyright-based industries to employee incomes
in Kenya in 2007
Table 13 shows the contribution of decomposed partial copyright-based industries, with copyright factors
applied. Spinning, weaving and finishing articles made the highest contribution of 6,035 employees (0.32%),
followed by sawmill planing and other wood mills with 2,027 employees (0.11%), manufacture of plastic
with 1,880 employees (0.1%), and manufacture of fabricated metal products with 1,870 employees (0.1%).
All these sectors combined formed about 60% of the total contribution to employment within the group
of partial copyright-based industries.
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
71
5.5 Economic Contribution of Partial Copyright-Based Industries
As described earlier, the category of partial copyright-based industries is composed of industries whose
portion of its activities is related to copyright protected work. To obtain the partial contribution of these
industries, a copyright factor is applied. In the Kenyan case, the factor applied is the average of the
factors applied in the Singaporean, Hungarian and Latvian studies, for lack of a more appropriate one.
Generally, the partial copyright-based industries are expected to contribute much lower than the core
and interdependent copyright industries because only a small fraction of their activities is meant for the
production of copyrighted materials and services. This is illustrated in Figure 19, which shows that in 2007
these industries contributed KSHs 6,559.7 million value-added or just over 0.4% of GDP to the Kenyan
economy. The value of gross output was about KSHs 13.4 billion, translating to 0.44% of gross national
output. The contribution to employee income was slightly above KSHs 4.3 billion, representing 0.58% of
the total national income. Applying the copyright factor, the partial copyright industries engaged 19,878
people, registering the highest number within the category of copyright-based industries. This number made
up about 1.04% of the total salaried employees.
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
70
Figure 18: Contribution of decomposed interdependent copyright-based industries to employee incomes
in Kenya in 2007 (%)
Figure 19: Economic contribution of partial copyright-based industries in Kenya in 2007 (%)
Table 13: Contribution of decomposed partial copyright-based industries to employment in Kenya
in 2007 (numbers, %)
5.6 Economic Contribution of Non-Dedicated Support Industries
Within the category of the non-dedicated support industries, the main activities are in transport and
communications. The sum of GDP for core, interdependent and partial copyright-based industries is KSHs
78.3 billion, while the non-distribution GDP is KSHs 1,621.8 billion. Using the copyright factor formula as
shown in Equation (1), the NDSI factor is given by:
The derived factor (4.8%) in Equation (2) compares well with those for countries that have already carried
out similar studies, such as Singapore (5 to 6.2%), Hungary (5.7%), Latvia (3.1 to 5.8%), and Lebanon (3.8
to 4.1%). The highest NDSI copyright factor so far recorded is that for Malaysia (8.8%) while the lowest are
those for Bulgaria (2.1%) and Latvia (3.1%).14
According to this classification, the contribution in terms of transport is made to broadcasting and
distribution of copyright materials and products. In 2007, all the NDSI made a contribution of about KSHs
6,920.1 million, which was 0.43% of the national GDP; and KSHs 8.8 billion in terms of gross output,
which constituted 0.29% of the national gross output. It also made a contribution of KSHs 3.4 billion in
terms of employee income, translating into 0.45% of the national employee income; and engaged 5,234
employees, which was about 0.27% of the overall number of salaried employees (Figure 20).
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
73
As shown in Table 14, a trend almost similar to that of the number of employees is seen in employee income.
Among the decomposed partial copyright-based industries, spinning, weaving and finishing articles made
the highest contribution of KSHs 684.8 million (0.09%), followed by the manufacture of fabricated metal
products with a contribution of KSHs 409 million (0.05%), knitting mills with KSHs 404.9 million (0.05),
and manufacture of furniture and fixtures with KSHs 404.8 million (0.05%).
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
72
Table 14: Contribution of decomposed partial copyright-based industries to employee incomes in Kenya
in 2007 (million KSHs, %)
(2)
14 WIPO Guide-based reports for Latvia (2000) and Bulgaria (2007) have been published in the Creative Industries Series 1 (2004)
and Series 2 (undated) respectively.
In terms of employee numbers and income in the NDSI category, again communication engaged the highest
number of people (1,945) and paid the highest total income (about KSHs 1,463.3 million). This was
followed by general retail, with 554 employees and an income of about KSHs 277 million (Table 16).
5.7 Foreign Trade in Copyright-Based Goods and Services
Table 17 provides an analysis of the copyright-based industries in terms of their exports, imports and trade
balances. Among the copyright-based industries, only core and partial groups recorded a positive trade
balance. The value of exports in the core copyright-based industry group in 2007 was about KSHs 3.4
billion, which accounted for 1.3% of the total national exports. On the other hand, the value of imports
was about KSHs 1.34 billion, comprising 0.22% of all imports. The core copyright-based industries registered
a favourable (positive) trade balance (value of exports minus value of imports) of about KSHs 2.06 billion.
In the group of partial copyright-based industries, the value of exports was about KSHs 17.1 billion, which
accounted for 6.54% of the total national exports, while the value of imports under this category was
about KSHs 6 billion, making up 0.99% of all national imports. The relative contribution of partial
copyright-based industries to exports was 5 times that of core copyright-based industries. This suggests that
partial copyright-based industries had a higher local component whose market was external compared to
the core group of industries.
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
75
The contribution of the decomposed industries in the NDSI category with respect to value-added is given in
Table 15. The highest contributing sectors were communication (about KSHs 4.54 billion), freight transport
by road (about KSHs 0.91 billion), and land transport (about KSHs 325.7 million).
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
74
Figure 20: Economic contribution of non-dedicated support industries in Kenya in 2007 (%)
Table 15: Contribution of decomposed non-dedicated support industries to value-added in Kenya
in 2007 (KSHs)
Table 16: Contribution of decomposed non-dedicated support industries to employment and employee
income in Kenya in 2007 (numbers, million KSHs)
for the production and/or manufacture of instruments and equipment that fall under the category of
interdependent copyright-based industries, and that they are mostly involved in the sale of final goods
and/or assembly of imported parts.
Figure 22 provides a clear picture of the proportional contributions to foreign trade by copyright-based
industries. For the various categories, the core copyright-based industries contributed the highest proportion
of exports (about 60%); and the interdependent group contributed the highest proportion of imports
(about 80%) and foreign trade deficit (over 70%).
The main activity contributing to exports in the category of the core copyright-based industries is printed
matter. In 2007 it contributed to the tune of KSHs 3.4 billion. Import costs in this category were from books
and pamphlets, amounting to over KSHs 1.3 billion. In the category of interdependent copyright-based
industries, the main sources of export value were paper and paper products, while the main import costs
came from electric power machinery and switch gear (over KSHs 11 billion), and paper and paper products
(over KSHs 23 billion) (see also Appendix V).
With respect to partial copyright-based industries, the main export value was derived from assorted
manufacture goods (over KSHs 16 billion), aluminium ware (over KSHs 413 million), footwear (over KSHs
151 million), and wood carving (about KSHs 124 million). The main costs of imports in this category were
incurred in the procurement of rubber and tyre tubes (about KSHs 2 billion), bar roads, angles, shapes and
sections (KSHs 1.8 billion), tin-coated plates and sheets (about KSHs 0.5 billion), and wire products (over
KSHs 471 million). The major contributors to exports among the activities in the non-dedicated support
industries were machinery and transport equipment (about KSHs 422 million). The greatest contributors to
imports in this category included passenger motor cars (more than KSHs 1.1 billion), roads and vehicles and
parts (more than KSHs 1 billion), buses, trucks and lorries (over KSHs 642 million), and telecommunication
equipment (about 630 million) (Appendix V).
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
77
The contribution of the various copyright-based industries in terms of exports and imports relative to the
total national economy is diagrammatically represented in Figure 21. The figure illustrates that, besides the
core and partial copyright-based industries contributing proportionally more value of exports than imports
compared to the national economy, all copyright-based industries combined produced relatively higher
export value than import value compared to the whole economy. This is also shown by the huge national
trade deficit compared to that in the copyright-based industries. Proportionally, the imports were more than
double (2.3 times) the exports in the overall economy, while they were less than double (1.9 times) in the
total copyright-based industries, implying that, comparatively, the copyright-based industries are doing
better than the overall national economy.
The highest foreign trade deficit (negative balance of trade) in 2007 was recorded in the category of
interdependent copyright-based industries. The values of exports and imports were about KSHs 3.55 billion
and KSHs 36.4 billion respectively, giving a foreign trade deficit of KSHs 32.86 billion. The non-dedicated
support industries also registered a trade deficit amounting to approximately KSHs 3.39 billion.
As noted earlier, the copyright-based industries have a relatively high import component, particularly within
the interdependent category (Table 17), and therefore this reduces their value-added and even gross output.
This also confirms the fact that these industries principally rely on large proportions of foreign components
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
76
Table 17: Kenya’s exports, imports and trade balance of copyright-based goods and services in 2007
(‘000 KSHs, %)
Figure 21: Contribution of copyright-based industries to exports and imports in relation to the total national
economy in Kenya in 2007 (%)
Figure 22: Proportions contributed by copyright-based industries to exports, imports and foreign trade
balance in Kenya in 2007 (%)
With respect to employment contribution by the core copyright-based industries, Kenya did not do as well
as with GDP contribution. With a value of 1.195% (Table 6), it only did better than Ukraine, which recorded
a contribution of 1.16% in 2005 (Figure 24).
A comparison of the contributions of the total copyright-based industries to GDP and employment
between Kenya and the USA, Hungary (EU country), Singapore (Asian), Jamaica (Caribbean), and
Colombia (South American) reveals that Kenya performed favourably. It did better than Jamaica and did
not rank far below Singapore (Figure 25). Structurally, the copyright-based industry sector in Kenya is
similar to those of the USA and Jamaica, showing that proportionally the industries contribute more
to GDP than they do to employment.
The Economic Contribution of
Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
79
5.8 International Comparisons
After analysing the national composition and contribution of the copyright-based industries in Kenya, this
section looks at similar studies in a number of countries carried out at different points in time and compares
their overall results with the results of the Kenyan study.15 These countries include Singapore, the first country
to apply the WIPO Guide, the USA, Hungary, Jamaica, Colombia, the Netherlands and a number of other
EU countries for which we obtained data from published reports. As Kenya is the first sub-Saharan African
country to complete this kind of study, there are no relevant studies from the region with which to compare.
Most of the statistics and computed economic contributions of copyright-based industries in Kenya are
reasonably consistent with those of most other countries. In 2007, Kenya’s core copyright industries made a
contribution of about 2.3%. This figure was higher than those of five countries—Colombia (1.9%), Jamaica
(1.7%), Bulgaria (1.6%), Mexico (1.6%), and Ukraine (1.5%). The value is also close to those for Russia
(2.4%) and Lebanon (2.5%). Amongst the available results from studies based on the WIPO Guide, Ukraine’s
core copyright-based industries make the lowest contribution to gross added value, while Australia’s make
the highest (7.3%). The available statistics, therefore, indicate that, out of 18 countries, Kenya lies somewhere
in the middle of the lower half in terms of performance (Figure 23).
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Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya
78
Figure 23: International comparison of the contribution of core copyright-based industries to GDP (%)
15 While the statistics generally provide a picture of the international situation, the fact that they represent different years of study
(shown in brackets in the figures) is a disadvantage.
Figure 24: International comparison of the contribution of core copyright-based industries to employment (%)
6. The Development of some Core Copyright-based Industries
In Kenya
This chapter presents a brief picture of the development of some of the main/core copyright-based
industries in Kenya. The information presented relies mainly on literature and statistics taken from
government reports and industry sources and the results of primary data from questionnaire interviews.
Without seeking to be too detailed, this chapter, albeit in a brief form, compiles information on the most
important issues regarding press and literature, music, theatrical production, opera, film production and
videos, radio and television, and business and professional associations.
6.1 Press and Literature
According to the records from the Kenya Revenue Authority (KRA), the press and literature group
of industries/activities consists of the following major categories:
a. Printing, publishing and allied services.
b. Retail sale of books, newspapers and stationery.
c. Business, professional and labour associations.
In Kenya, newspaper printing, book publishing, card printing and all other forms of printing and publishing
are lumped together under Printing, Publishing and Allied Services. Their sales are lumped together as Retail
Sale of Books, Newspapers and Stationery. However, efforts are being made to disaggregate these further
for the purposes of future industry analysis.
6.1.1 The Press Market
The history of the press in Kenya is rather recent. It started with the arrival of Pentecostal missionaries nearly
a century-and-a-half ago, as the missionaries embarked on teaching new converts how to read and write,
primarily so that the new converts could read biblical literature for themselves. The initial publications then
contained religious materials. To date, the church still publishes some religious materials.
Since independence in 1963, the development of the Kenyan press market has been influenced by different
opposing political views. During the single-party era, the ruling party ensured that the press sector was
monitored and closely controlled so that the single-party ideologies were propagated. During the same time
there were some opposing views from a group of people who were fighting for increased space for
reporting. This took place amid strong opposition from the government. The country at this time was
undergoing economic, political and social transformation, which brought about a fresh momentum to the
Kenyan press market. During this period, the readers developed a specific liking for certain available press
products that opposed, or looked like they were opposed to, the status quo. Thus, while a small proportion
of the Kenyan population liked the state-sponsored press, a vast majority had started to develop a liking for
an alternative press.
Kenya has four major daily national newspapers in English and one in Kiswahili, all published in Nairobi
with a combined daily circulation of almost 400,000.16 The English dailies are the Daily Nation, The Standard,
Kenya Times, and People, while Taifa Leo is the Swahili daily. The Daily Nation and Taifa Leo are published
by the Nation Media Group (NMG), the largest private/independent media company in Kenya. The
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The Economic Contribution of
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Figure 25: International comparison of the total copyright-based industries to GDP and employment (%)
16 Most of the data in this section on the development of the press have been obtained from the Media Council of Kenya Report of
2005: “A Baseline Survey of Media in Kenya,” August 2005.
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Standard newspaper is published by The Standard Company, which is also an independent company. The
Kenya Times, on the other hand, which was associated with the Kenya African National Union (KANU)
government, is managed by the former ruling party, KANU. There are also a number of other smaller
daily, weekly and monthly publications.
The Standard is the oldest mass-circulating newspaper in Kenya, founded in 1902 by a Parsee migrant, A.M.
Jeevanjee. It catered mainly for civil servants and the business community in Mombasa. The need for a
newspaper arose when the British settlers came to Kenya together with Indians to work on the construction
of the railway line from the coast to open up the interior parts of the countryside for settlement. After the
completion of the railway line, these Indian workers settled in Mombasa and formed the backbone of the
civil service. Two years later, The Standard was sold to the partnership of Mayer and Anderson, who
renamed it The East African Standard, marking the beginning of the European press, concerned with
happenings in Britain and urging subservience to the settlers, a tune that for a long time became the tone
of other settler-controlled media, including Mombasa Mail and Nairobi News. The East African Standard
became the largest and most influential publication in colonial East Africa. In 1967, Lonrho (a company)
acquired the newspaper and turned it into a tool to safeguard its interest in the region. In the mid-1990s,
following the reorganization at the Lonrho headquarters in London, The Standard was sold again, this time
to a group of Kenyan political businessmen who had then gained control of the Kenya Times Network (KTN)
television channel. Today, The Standard, with a daily circulation of 54,000, has outlasted its competitors.
Besides The Standard and KTN, this media house also operates the Capital FM radio station, currently
licensed to broadcast in Nairobi. Capital FM launched its operations in September 1996.
The Daily Nation newspaper, published by the NMG, was first registered in 1959 by Michael Curtis and
Charles Hayes. In 1960, it was purchased by the spiritual leader of the Ismaili community, Aga Khan. It was
the first paper to adopt a policy of Africanization by publishing a Swahili version, Taifa Leo. Today, the Daily
Nation has a daily circulation of 184,000 copies, while Taifa Leo has a daily circulation of 35,000 copies,
making the Nation Kenya’s most widely printed newspaper. The Nation, although targeting the Kenyan
market, is also circulated throughout the East African region. The NMG also publishes the East African, a
conservatively designed weekly focusing on the economic news of East Africa.
The NMG also owns the East African Magazine Ltd, publishers of True Love and Drum magazines. The
circulation of these magazines increased by 24% and advertising revenue increased by 93% in the first half
of 2007 compared to the same period in 2006. In the first half of 2007 the Daily Nation returned a 26%
increase in advertising revenue compared to the same period in 2006. The circulation revenue also increased
by 6%, with NMG’s newly launched Business Daily newspaper showing a promising start.17 Further to this,
the NMG owns Nation TV and Nation FM radio called Easy FM, which were licensed in 1998 and went on
air a year later. His Highness the Aga Khan is the biggest shareholder in NMG.
The People Daily, owned by Kenneth Matiba, Kenya’s major presidential candidate in 1992, started as a
weekly before it turned into a daily newspaper with a Sunday edition in December 1998. It has a daily
circulation of 60,000. Initially founded to serve as the voice of the opposition politics and to report materials
that the Nation and The Standard feared to touch, the People Daily has since faced lean times. The biggest
challenge facing the paper is its inability to attract sufficient revenue from advertising due to the perception
that it is partisan.
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The Kenya Times newspaper was first published as Nairobi Daily, which was intended to be a quality
afternoon paper by Hilary Ng’weno—the first African editor of the Nation. It was, however, bought by the
then ruling party, Kenya African National Union (KANU), in 1983. The paper has over the years suffered an
identity crisis, as most people see it as the mouthpiece of the former ruling party. Currently, it has a daily
circulation of about 50,000. Table 18 shows the average daily circulation of the leading dailies in 2007.
According to Kenya’s Economic Survey of 2008, the circulation of copies for morning newspapers published
in English and Kiswahili grew by 10.2% and 13.7% respectively in 2007. Weekly newspapers (periodicals)
grew by 40.8% in 2007 compared to a decline of 9.8% in 2006. The substantial increase in newspaper
readership in 2007 was due to its being an election year. As expected, newspaper readership rises during
this time. Table 19 shows details of the average daily and weekly circulation of newspapers in the country
since 2003.
In the 1990s, with the advent of multiparty politics, the Kenyan press market grew, encouraged by more
press freedom compared to the days when the press was gagged. The period also saw increased competition
of different press products, leading to the expansion of the market.
In a recent survey carried out by the Media Council of Kenya (August, 2005), using a sample of 506
respondents, it was shown that the competition for the Kenyan press market is mainly between two leading
dailies—the Daily Nation and The Standard. Other dailies like the Kenya Times, People Daily, and the Nation’s
Taifa Leo also have a considerable readership in the country (Table 20). During the same period, there has been
an emergence of the gutter press, some of them operating illegally and erratically in their publication. This has
made it difficult for the government to track them. The government has thus felt the need to moderate and/or
regulate the sector by introducing stringent but controversial measures to be followed when printing
newspapers. The statistics for the gutter press are currently unavailable.
Table 18: Average circulation of leading dailies in Kenya in 2007 (‘000 copies)
Table 19: Average circulation of daily and weekly newspapers in Kenya (‘000 copies), 2003-2007
17 Saturday Nation, July 28, 2007. Music Sector. “Act Tough on Music Piracy,” page 26, by Maurine Ongwae.
The trend of going to dance halls and discos changed drastically in the 1990s due to the liberalization of the
music sector, changes in living standards, and penetration of good-quality sound carriers and quality music
devices such as CDs which enabled many to consume music in their living rooms. This led to a sharp drop in
the numbers of those who were attending live concerts and discos. It also led to a revolution in the music
industry as a new crop of young musicians joined the market, with modern music, mostly a blend of local
and foreign genres, pushing the older varieties out of the industry or to the vernacular music arena.
Technological advances also made it easier to record music and develop beats; hence there are many more
musicians in the market today than there were in the past. The market of sound-recording media like CDs,
VCDs and DVDs has increased drastically in the recent past. The number of families owning CD players has
also increased, making music consumption easier and faster in these families’ homes. Furthermore, the
number of privately owned music-producing studios has increased in recent times. Ironically, technological
advances have come with undesirable aspects. They have made piracy easier, with musicians losing millions
of Kenya Shillings to this vice yearly. This, coupled with the lack of a clear guiding policy in the sector, has
become the single most serious threat to the development of the sector. Currently, the government, through
the Music Copyright Society of Kenya (MCSK) and the Kenya Association of Music Producers (KAMP), has
initiated efforts to regulate the sector. The sector is characterized by chaos and poor planning.
The internet has become one of the avenues of pirating music in Kenya, with many people preferring to
download music from the internet, which they consider cheaper than buying the same product from a
musician. This has drastically reduced sales and revenues due to the musicians. This form of piracy, commonly
referred to as cyber crime according to the Kenya Copyright Act 2001, is outlawed. According to this Act,
the duration of the copyright lasts through the lifetime of the originator and is valid for up to 50 years
after death. The copyright agency estimates the cost of piracy—or, rather, the loss due to piracy—to be
approximately KSHs 30 billion annually.19 The MCSK estimates that pirates earn approximately 98% of
the total music revenue, while the musicians get only 2%.20 According to a study done by the World Bank,
the economic value of the Kenyan music sector is placed at approximately KSHs 6 billion (US$ 89.6 million)
annually. It is noted that the current growth of the entertainment sector draws heavily on the music and
home-grown movies sub-sectors, which have opened up the huge network of nightspots and other
performance venues around the country. These have created a vibrant new sector that is purely youth-driven
without any real government support.21
Most foreigners posing as tourists or researchers coming to study or to buy indigenous music and instruments
end up studying the designs and probably improving on them and registering them as their own. Targeted
areas in Kenya are Nyanza and Coast provinces. In Nyanza, Nyatiti, which forms the main basis of the Luo
music, is highly sought after due to its versatility as a percussion and rhythm instrument, while in the coast
the most targeted instrument is Nzumari, a wind instrument of the Miji Kenda. These traditional musical
instruments are sought after by developed countries that are looking for new ingredients for their music and
instruments, and could be vital in creating new tonal variation for their music.22 The Kenya Industrial Property
Institute (KIPI) has thus acknowledged the urgent need to register the designs of indigenous instruments to
preserve their uniqueness as part of the Kenyan heritage and is currently working with the National Museums
of Kenya, which will hold the patents in trust for Kenya.
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6.1.2 The Book Market
The Kenyan book-publishing market has undergone some sort of a revolution that has shaped the development
of the industry. In the 1970s, most Kenyan writers developed their careers by engaging in publishing books
of various categories. While some writers delved into fiction, others delved into political satires. This latter
class of writers found themselves on the ‘wrong side’ of the law, as this was the period of high political
intolerance of one-party rule. This led to many of these writers going into forced and self-imposed exile,
dealing a blow to the local book-publishing sector. However, the few authors who remained continued to
engage in writing, thus shaping the Kenyan book-publishing market. But over the years another category
of publishers—the academic publishers—continued to publish.18
6.2 Music, Theatrical Productions and Opera
In Kenya, this sector has not been disaggregated. Based on the Kenyan ISIC, it combines the following activities:
a. Theatrical Producers and Entertainment Services.
b. Authors, Musicians and Other Artists.
c. Other Amusements and Recreational Services N.E.C.
The values in the above three economic activities are aggregated to get the contribution of the Music,
Theatrical Production and Opera sector.
6.2.1 The Music Industry
The Kenyan music industry has undergone a transformation over time. From the 1960s to the 1980s the
industry was dominated by old musicians who mostly produced vernacular songs. The production was
manual. This was the period when most people could consume music by attending live concerts organized
by both local and foreign musicians. It was also a period when people frequented dance halls and discos to
dance and enjoy themselves. However, there was not much variety of music, as very few local musicians
ventured into the music industry.
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18 Daily Nation, April 25, 2008. Book Sector. “Authors Have Little,” page 3, by Benjamin Muindi.
19 Sunday Nation April 27, 2008. Music Sector. “Internet Music Piracy,” by John Koigi.
20 Saturday Nation July 28, 2007. Music Sector. “Act Tough on Music Piracy,” page 26, by Maurine Ongwae.
21 The East African, July 23-29, 2007. Music Sector. “Show Us the Money,” page VI, by John Kariuki.
22 Saturday Nation, June 30, 2007. Music Sector. “Trafficking Local Music and Instruments,” page 31 Review, by John Kariuki.
Table 20: Readership of a number of newspapers in Kenya in 2005 (%)
Today, there are about 90 independent film and video producers in Kenya who have ensured that the
Kenyan film industry thrives. Notable among these is Riverwood—the Kenyan version of Hollywood,
Bollywood or Nollywood. Riverwood, which is a group of independent producers, has made it easier for
Kenyan comedy in local languages to penetrate the market. However, the quality of their production is still
low or in doubt due to a lack of professionalism and government support.
The unavailability of film-shooting equipment in Kenya has heralded the collapse of traditional cinema
viewing. Most of these cinema halls have been made redundant and have now been transformed into
prayer halls, due to the easy availability of video and films in the sitting rooms of most Kenyans. CD, VCD,
DVD and other modern forms of recording and carrying film have made transactions cheaper and easier,
although this has proven to be problematic for those in the film industry. The comedians and film producers
have to cope with pirates who have taken advantage of the technological breakthroughs in the sector to
download, record and sell comedians’ works without the knowledge of the comedians and producers,
resulting in huge losses of revenues.
According to the Kenya Film Commission (KFC), the local film industry regulator, if all facilitative aspects
of the industry were in place, Kenya could be making over KSHs 40 billion annually. However, with little
exploitation of the sector, Kenya raked in about KSHs 3.5 billion in the year 2007 alone from a few feature
movies. The KFC indicates that if Kenya took advantage of her excellent climatic conditions throughout
the year—the coastline with its sandy beaches, forests, fresh water, desert landscapes and snow-capped
mountains, not forgetting her wildlife—the industry could potentially be a major contributor to the country’s
economic development, as this could promote film tourism.23 Another form of exploiting the film/movie
industry in Kenya is movie rentals. Many young people have ventured into this rental business, earning them
a substantial living.24
6.4 Radio and Television
The number of independent radio and television channels in Kenya increased in the 1990s. Prior to this
time, the Kenyan radio and television sector was dominated by the government-owned station, Kenya
Broadcasting Corporation (KBC). This period witnessed rising numbers of television channels, including KTN,
Nation and Citizen. The same happened to the radio sector with many FM stations coming up; similar to the
press sector, which flourished due to the advent of multiparty politics, accompanied by the opening up of
democratic space.
In 2007, there was a high demand for broadcasting frequencies, demonstrated by a high number of
applicants. Only 20 FM frequencies, including nine low FM and four television broadcasting frequencies,
were assigned in 2007. This contrasted with 104 FM and 34 television frequencies assigned in 2006 (see
also Table 21).
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6.2.2 Theatres
Theatres have undergone a serious downturn in Kenya compared to the days when the theatre was known
to produce serious theatrical works. In the 1970s, theatrical works gained much momentum. However,
during those days of single-party rule, theatrical producers were seen by the political class to represent the
opposition. This led to most of the critical theatrical producers being exiled, while those who remained quit
the industry. Today, the Kenyan theatre sector is in disarray, with almost total state neglect. As an example
of existing apathy towards theatrical works, the 2008 International Theatre Day was not commemorated
in Kenya. Also, the Kenya National Theatre is the headquarters of the Kenyan thespians, but this facility
receives negligible state support, with most of the funds going into paying staff.
At present there are numerous artists in Kenya, most of them not operating on profit. In addition to a lack
of support from the government, this is because most Kenyans view the theatre as a social activity to which
monetary value should not be attached. However, a team of young theatre artists has recently come up,
with different groups emerging to engage in theatrical works. Additionally, this sector is now being
supported by the tourism sector, as most of the consumers of theatrical works are foreigners who are
always keen to sample Kenyan artistic works.
In summary, the drop in the attention given to theatre can be attributed to a number of factors. These
include a crackdown on theatrical producers in the 1970s and 1980s, leading to producers being exiled or
quitting art; changing lifestyles, with many Kenyans becoming interested in foreign theatrical works; and
the availability of TV sets, making it easy for people to watch the artists in their living rooms. Besides this,
the number of people who attend theatre has dropped drastically, for the same reasons. However, change
has been witnessed in the recent past. Apart from tourists, many Kenyans are now starting to attend live
concerts organized by local thespians and are buying CDs of local thespians. There is expectation that,
coupled with the rise of many young talented thespians interested in art, the sector will grow again.
6.3 Film Production and Video
In Kenya, the film production and video sector is aggregated to include:
a. Motion Picture Production.
b. Motion Picture Distribution and Projection.
In the 1970s and 1980s, the Kenyan cinema market was dominated by the existence of cinema halls where
families could go for outings to watch the latest arrivals in terms of the movie market. During this period,
there were few or no local productions shown in these cinema halls. The availability of these cinema halls
was skewed. The halls were only found in the cities; hence the rural folk had no access to the movies.
This period also saw an upsurge of local comedians whose works could only be broadcast in the then
government-sponsored Voice of Kenya (VOK) radio station, now known as the Kenya Broadcasting
Corporation (KBC). Unfortunately, those who owned television sets were few; therefore the works of the
Kenyan comedians had a very limited reach, resulting in low income accruing to them. With the advent of
liberalization of the television sector, however, many Kenyan homesteads acquired television sets, which led
to a decrease in traditional cinema screening and a fall in attendance by the general public to these cinema
halls. This, nevertheless, gave rise to Kenyan comedians whose works could now be screened on the
national television channels. But the full revolution in the Kenyan film industry took place in the late 1990s
and early 2000s with the coming of video cameras, recordable tapes and even the sprouting of individual
producers willing to produce works by local comedians, who by now were getting more fame due to the
expansion of the television market.
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23 The Financial Standard, March 11, 2008. Film Sector, page 7, by Joe Ombuor.
24 Daily Nation, May 1, 2008. Film Sector. “Money Matters”, page 4, by Justus Ondari.
Table 21: Radio and television frequencies assigned in Kenya, 2003-2007
According to the Frequency Spectrum Fee Schedule produced by the Communication Commission of Kenya
(CCK), the fee payable for broadcasting stations is charged depending on the amount of Effective Radiated
Power (ERP). The flat-rate fees for each category of ERP are specified for ERP up to 10 KW. For ERP greater
than 10 KW, a formula is used to determine the fee payable. The formula for fee payable for broadcasting
stations is commensurate with the power and the occupied bandwidth (Table 24).27
6.5 Collective Management Societies
Kenya’s Copyright Act, which came into being in December 2001, enabled the creation of the Kenya
Copyright Board (KCB), a multi-sectoral state corporation charged with the broad responsibility of
streamlining the copyright industry in Kenya. Specifically the board has been mandated to:
a. License and supervise the activities of Collective Management Organizations (CMOs).
b. Provide specialized training to various enforcement agencies on copyright matters.
c. Facilitate legislation on copyright and related rights.
d. Develop an anti-piracy security device for copyrighted audio/visual products.
e. Sensitize and educate the public to respect copyright.
f. Improve on laws and international treaties and conventions to which Kenya is a signatory.
The KCB has embraced this assignment and made progress in the overall process of protecting copyright
and ultimately making it truly a national resource as well as a tool for attracting foreign direct investment
into the national economy. Music has indeed been shown to promote businesses and stimulate economic
activities in general; studies in England and Australia have underscored the importance of music in promoting
various businesses. The same applies to Kenya, where it has been found that no business, big or small,
can operate at its peak without music being played to those within its confines.
With regard to licensing and supervising the activities of collective management societies, the board has
recognized the fact that various Kenyan artists have not fully benefited from their creative efforts in the
past. The board has therefore embarked upon a programme that has led to the creation of various CMOs.
The following are some of these organizations:
a. Music Copyright Society of Kenya (MCSK).
b. Kenya Association of Music Producers (KAMP).
c. Society of Performing Artists of Kenya (SPAK).
d. KOPIKEN.
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According to the Communication Commission of Kenya (CCK), the average viewer-ship in Kenya is as
shown in Table 22.25 The competition between two leading television broadcasters—Nation TV (NTV) and
KTN—has drastically transformed the television broadcasting sector. From the days when only state-owned
KBC enjoyed the airwaves to today, when even individual and private television stations have entered the
market, there has been a major transformation of the Kenyan television market, making Kenya a leader in
the number of television stations in operation in the region.
Most of the revenue of public and privately owned television stations comes from advertisements. This is
because of the change in style of Kenyan viewers who mostly want to get information about new products
in their sitting rooms before going out to shop.
The radio sector has enjoyed considerable growth compared to television. FM stations have emerged,
including some broadcasting in vernacular, enabling radio broadcasting to have a wider reach in Kenya than
television. This can be attributed to the entry into the Kenyan market of small pocket FM receivers and
mobile handsets with FM receivers, and generally the affordability of the FM receivers compared to
televisions. This means that those listening to radio greatly outnumber those who view television (Table 23).
Hence most companies spend much of their advertising budgets on radio due to the wider audience the
radio stations attract compared to television audiences.26
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Table 22: Television viewer-ship in Kenya in 2007 (%)
Table 23: Radio station listener-ship (% share of audience) in Kenya in 2007
25 See http://markets.nairobist.com/financial/rwx_gallery/Nation media.
26 See http://markets.nairobist.com/financial/rwx_gallery/Nation media. 27 Frequency Spectrum Fee Schedule by CCK. Press Sector.
Table 24: Fee payable according to different ERP conditions in Kenya in 2007
performing artists in music. The SPAK is affiliated to the MCSK where it represents the interest of its
members, ensuring that they receive royalties that are due to them.
KOPIKEN is a collective management organization that collects royalties for book writers and publishers. The
royalties emanate mainly from photocopying of books within the country. It also covers external areas, for
example the translation and photocopying of Kenyan books published abroad.32
6.6 Institutions set up to safeguard the interests of their members
The Kenya Publishers’ Association (KPA) represents the interests of book publishers. It ensures that publishers
do not lose their money to book piracy and illegal sale of other copyright materials. According to the KPA,
universities rank high in Kenya among those who photocopy books illegally.33 The KPA works with a special
police squad which was formed in 2007 to deal with book piracy and to crack down on illegal
photocopying of original materials.
Members of the KPA include Catholic University, Dhillon Publishers, East African Education Publishers,
Evangel Publishing House, Evans Brothers, Express Communication Ltd., Focus Publishers, Gem Counselling
Services, Geoperi Publications, Kwani Trust, Karma Publishing Company, and Kenya Literature Bureau.
Others are the Kenya National Library, Law Africa Publishers Ltd., Longhorn Kenya Ltd., Longman Kenya
Ltd., Macmillan Kenya Publishers, Moi University Publishers, Mountain Top Publishers, Mvule Africa Publishers,
Njigua Books, Oxford University Press, Phoenix Publishers, Promarc Media, Queenex Holding Ltd., and Story
Moja Publishers.34
The Third Force Association exists to collect royalties on behalf of film performers and producers. It ensures
that any illegal use is prevented, and collects royalties from TV stations and cinema halls, among others. On
the other hand, the Computer Society of Kenya (CSK) exists to protect the rights of software designers and
engineers. Apart from ensuring no illegal use of members’ inventions it also does lobbying and advocacy,
and helps members to publish their inventions. It also organizes exhibitions, conferences and Training of
Trainers (TOT) workshops, where members can share information.
The Kenya Film Corporation (KFC) was formed to facilitate the screening and filming of Kenyan film
production. It exists to support local film producers by providing them with structures necessary for film
production. It also organizes educational workshops on production, targeting local film producers to build
their capacity in film production.35
The Kenya National Library Services (KNLS) was established by an Act of Parliament, Cap 225 of the Laws of
Kenya of April 1965. It commenced activities in1967. Its main mandate is to promote, establish, equip,
manage, maintain and develop a chain of libraries in Kenya. The main aim of the KNLS is to make available
for use by present and future generations national collections at the library and the information centre. It
seeks to provide quality, equitable and accessible library and information services countrywide. Currently,
the KNLS has approximately 800,000 volumes of books in stock and about 500,000 registered members
countrywide. Over 2,000,000 people use the facilities countrywide annually.36
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a. Kenya Publishers’ Association (KPA).
b. Third Force Association.
c. Computer Society of Kenya (CSK).
d. Kenya Film Commission (KFC).
e. Kenya National Library Services (KNLS).
The Music Copyright Society of Kenya (MCSK) is the main body in Kenya representing music performing
rights. MCSK’s key function is to collect royalties on behalf of its members. It also administers the ‘non-
dramatic’ performing, transmission and broadcasting rights for the musical works of its members and the
members of affiliated societies. The MCSK does this by functioning as a collective administration society that
negotiates ‘blanket licences’ with music users who then have access to MCSK’s extensive repertoire of
copyright musical works. Thus, the MCSK administers not only the music of its Kenyan members but also
the great store of music in the repertoires of all those other societies—in other words, the music of over
1.6 million composers, lyricists and publishers in more than 150 countries. Therefore, no one may give a
performance in public of music without the prior permission of the composer because this would constitute
an infringement of the copyright. Apart from the word ‘public,’ meaning any open-air performance, it also
includes music played in hotels, supermarkets, discos, factories, banks and inside passenger transport
vehicles. In this way, the MCSK offers an essential service to the creators of music the world over and
ensures that intellectual property rights owners are remunerated for their work.
Charges by the MCSK vary widely. Public transport vehicles, popularly known as Matatus, are charged up
to KSHs 2,000 per annum for playing music to their customers.28 Hotels, cyber cafés, hair salons and other
public places are charged according to their size, location and sitting capacity. The charges range from KSHs
1,500 to KSHs 2,000 per annum. Mobile discos are charged KSHs 10,000, while road-shows are charged
KSHs 10,000 per day. Those playing music in branding companies pay KSHs 3,000 a day.29 The music users
regularly submit returns or lists of musical works performed in their establishment. This enables the MCSK
to accurately distribute the royalties which it has collected (from licence fees) to the composers whose works
have actually been performed. In 2008, members of the MCSK received a base amount of KSHs 6,000 each,
with the highest receiving KSHs 300,000.30
MCSK’s membership is based on direct membership by composers, authors, translators, arrangers and music
publishers, as well as members of affiliated societies.31 Currently, the MCSK has 1,300 members. The MCSK
is affiliated to composer societies all over the world through a system of reciprocal agreements, either
through bilateral agreements for the protection of intellectual property or through the Berne Convention for
the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. It authorizes those societies to administer the music of Kenyan
composers, lyricists and publishers in their particular countries.
Formed and registered in 2007, the Kenya Association of Music Producers (KAMP) is charged with collecting
gratitude (the equivalent of royalties) on behalf of music producers. The KAMP draws its membership from
music producers. Just like the MCSK, it is charged with receiving royalties from radio stations, public service
vehicles and all other ‘public’ use of music. The KAMP also charges a fee for the importation of blank CDs,
tapes and musical recording media. Because the KAMP has not yet fully established its infrastructure, it is
currently negotiating with the MCSK to collect royalties on its behalf while it pays the MCSK a commission
for the services. Similarly, the Society of Performing Artists (SPAK) is a society that brings together various
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28 See http://www.bellybuttonwindow.com/2008/ kenya/music_copyright_tax_kenya.html.
29 See http://www.propertykenya.com/news/517928-toothless-music-society-out-to-regain-former-glory.php.
30 See http://timeinmoments.wordpress.com/2008/04/30-the-music-copyright-society-of kenya-celebrating-first-year.
31 See http://www.bellybuttonwindow.com/2008/kenya/music_copyright_tax_kenya.html.
32 See http://www.kopiken.org/about/organization.html.
33 See http://www.kenyapublishers.org/about.html.
34 See http://www.kenyapublishers.org/members.html.
35 See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/kenya_film_commission.
36 See http://www.knls.or.ke/index.php?id=2.
database on the contribution of copyright-based industries to the national economy.
This calls for a study to estimate the revenue lost as a result of piracy, as part of the contribution of
copyright-based industries to Kenya’s economy.
Concerning foreign trade, this study shows that the copyright industries have a relatively high import
component, particularly within the interdependent category. This reduces their value-added and even gross
output. The foreign trade deficits can, however, be addressed through appropriate and favourable policies.
In spite of the apparent inadequacies of policies governing the operations of copyright-based industries in
Kenya, the economic contribution of these industries, as shown by the values of value-added, employment,
and employee incomes, is significant. Their economic contribution in Kenya compares reasonably well
with, and in a few cases is higher than, that in a number of countries in Europe, Asia and America for
which similar studies have been conducted. However, a few discrepancies were noted in this study, partly
as a result of databases in Kenya being piecemeal and scattered in different government agencies. This
presented difficulties in estimating the full contribution of the copyright-based industries to the total GDP.
Existing policies should be strengthened to streamline the operations of copyright-based industries in order
to promote the growth and development of these industries. Adequate policies will enable the government to
capture the contribution of these industries and ultimately lead to deepened recognition of their importance
in the national economy. In addition, a proactive approach is necessary to promote the copyright-based
industries given their significant contribution to the national economy, especially in terms of employment.
This study is a snapshot of what is taking place in the creative sector in Kenya; it has only focused on
the year 2007, and has therefore not captured the copyright-based industry dynamics. The study is also
the first of its kind to be completed in Africa. There is, however, a need for monitoring and evaluating
the copyright-based industries. This can only be achieved if similar assessments can be carried out
systematically and consistently. The current study can thus serve as a source of reference material for
future studies that could cover several years to include dynamic effects within the creative sector.
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7. Conclusions and Recommendations
The results of this study show that the copyright-based industries in Kenya contribute significantly to the
national economy. The contribution of 5.3% to the total value-added, about 3.8% to the national gross
output, and 3.3% to the total national workforce by copyright-based industries is an indication of their
significance to Kenya’s economy. In terms of employee productivity, copyright-based industries combined
made a higher contribution per employee than that of the total national economy. Again, this is strong
evidence of the contribution of these industries to the national economy. The contribution of the copyright-
based industries to the national economy on the basis of GDP was higher than that of the agricultural
sector, healthcare and education, and fisheries, and compared favourably with the contributions of the
other main sectors of the Kenyan economy, such as manufacturing, mining-and-quarrying, and construction.
The overall copyright-based industries exhibited impressive productivity. The productivity index of the core
copyright-based industries, calculated as a fraction of added value per employee, was even better, coming
second best among 13 major sectors contributing to the national economy. The national economy exhibited
a huge foreign trade deficit compared to the copyright industries, implying that, comparatively, the copyright
industries are doing better than the overall national economy. However, the copyright industries have a
relatively high import component, particularly within the interdependent category, which reduces their
value-added and gross output. This foreign trade imbalance can be corrected through appropriate and
operational policy frameworks.
Although the copyright-based industries in Kenya contribute significantly to the national economy, the
industry faces a number of challenges that require attention. Some of these may be unique to Kenya and
similar developing countries, while some may be common to all countries. The copyright-based industry
sector is among the fastest growing sectors in Kenya’s economy. However, the value of this sector requires
more recognition than it is currently receiving from policymakers, since it is an important tool for national
development that needs to be promoted and protected. The fast growth rate of the industry also makes
it difficult for the government to capture its activities. Most of the creative industries therefore operate
haphazardly and much of their contribution to the national revenue is not captured by the government
through taxes. This implies that the industry’s contribution to the GDP is likely underestimated.
In Kenya, databases on the contribution of creative industries are highly aggregated. This is a potential
source of inaccuracy in estimation of the contribution of copyright-based industries in the country. In order
to circumvent this problem, the Kenyan classification system of the copyright-based industries must be
harmonized with the International System of Industry Classification (ISIC). The ISIC system is more
disaggregated and enables the estimation of the contribution of decomposed sub-sectors to the national
economy. In addition, it is necessary to coordinate and standardize data collection and presentation on
copyright-based industries among major government departments such as the KNBS and KRA.
Given the fast growth rate of the copyright-based industries in Kenya, there is a need to conduct regular
studies to monitor the performance of the industries as a way of keeping track of their activities and
contribution to the national economy. Although not investigated in this study, piracy is a problem in Kenya
and forms part of the unreported contribution of copyright-based industries to the national economy.
It is particularly common in developing countries for the artists to avoid taxes and even resist exposing
themselves, mainly because they want to protect their products from piracy. Similarly, some retailers of
creative works are either operating illegally or stock pirated materials and would normally avoid disclosure.
This would naturally result in poor or no documentation, therefore leading to no, or an inadequate,
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Appendix
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